WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeated radiation exposures

  1. Eye lens radiation exposure and repeated head CT scans: A problem to keep in mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Morgane; Jacob, Sophie; Roger, Gilles; Pelosse, Béatrice; Laurier, Dominique; Le Pointe, Hubert Ducou; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The deterministic character of radiation-induced cataract is being called into question, raising the possibility of a risk in patients, especially children, exposed to ionizing radiation in case of repeated head CT-scans. This study aims to estimate the eye lens doses of a pediatric population exposed to repeated head CTs and to assess the feasibility of an epidemiological study. Methods: Children treated for a cholesteatoma, who had had at least one CT-scan of the middle ear before their tenth birthday, were included. Radiation exposure has been assessed from medical records and telephone interviews. Results: Out of the 39 subjects contacted, 32 accepted to participate. A total of 76 CT-scans were retrieved from medical records. At the time of the interview (mean age: 16 years), the mean number of CT per child was 3. Cumulative mean effective and eye lens doses were 1.7 mSv and 168 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: A relatively high lens radiation dose was observed in children exposed to repeated CT-scans. Due to that exposure and despite the difficulties met when trying to reach patients’ families, a large scale epidemiological study should be performed in order to assess the risk of radiation-induced cataracts associated with repeated head CT.

  2. Radiation dose exposure in patients affected by lymphoma undergoing repeat CT examinations: how to manage the radiation dose variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Dore, Antonio; Aringhieri, Giacomo; Caramella, Davide

    2018-03-01

    To assess the variability of radiation dose exposure in patients affected by lymphoma undergoing repeat CT (computed tomography) examinations and to evaluate the influence of different scan parameters on the overall radiation dose. A series of 34 patients (12 men and 22 women with a median age of 34.4 years) with lymphoma, after the initial staging CT underwent repeat follow-up CT examinations. For each patient and each repeat examination, age, sex, use of AEC system (Automated Exposure Control, i.e. current modulation), scan length, kV value, number of acquired scans (i.e. number of phases), abdominal size diameter and dose length product (DLP) were recorded. The radiation dose of just one venous phase was singled out from the DLP of the entire examination. All scan data were retrieved by our PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) by means of a dose monitoring software. Among the variables we considered, no significant difference of radiation dose was observed among patients of different ages nor concerning tube voltage. On the contrary the dose delivered to the patients varied depending on sex, scan length and usage of AEC. No significant difference was observed depending on the behaviour of technologists, while radiologists' choices had indirectly an impact on the radiation dose due to the different number of scans requested by each of them. Our results demonstrate that patients affected by lymphoma who undergo repeat whole body CT scanning may receive unnecessary overexposure. We quantified and analyzed the most relevant variables in order to provide a useful tool to manage properly CT dose variability, estimating the amount of additional radiation dose for every single significant variable. Additional scans, incorrect scan length and incorrect usage of AEC system are the most relevant cause of patient radiation exposure.

  3. Repeated CT scans in trauma transfers: An analysis of indications, radiation dose exposure, and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzpeter, Ricarda; Sprengel, Kai; Wanner, Guido A.; Mildenberger, Peter; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Repetition of CT in trauma patients occurs relatively often. • Repetition of CT is mainly caused by inadequate image data transfer. • Potentially preventable CT examinations add radiation dose to patients. • Repeated CT is associated with excess costs to the health care system. - Abstract: Objectives: To identify the number of CT scans repeated in acute trauma patients receiving imaging before being referred to a trauma center, to define indications, and to assess radiation doses and costs of repeated CT. Methods: This retrospective study included all adult trauma patients transferred from other hospitals to a Level-I trauma center during 2014. Indications for repeated CT scans were categorized into: inadequate CT image data transfer, poor image quality, repetition of head CT after head injury together with completion to whole-body CT (WBCT), and follow-up of injury known from previous CT. Radiation doses from repeated CT were determined; costs were calculated using a nation-wide fee schedule. Results: Within one year, 85/298 (28.5%) trauma patients were transferred from another hospital because of severe head injury (n = 45,53%) and major body trauma (n = 23;27%) not manageable in the referring hospital, repatriation from a foreign country (n = 14;16.5%), and no ICU-capacity (n = 3;3.5%). Of these 85 patients, 74 (87%) had repeated CT in our center because of inadequate CT data transfer (n = 29;39%), repetition of head CT with completion to WBCT (n = 24;32.5%), and follow-up of known injury (n = 21;28.5%). None occurred because of poor image quality. Cumulative dose length product (DLP) and annual costs of potential preventable, repeated CT (inadequate data transfer) was 631mSv (81′304mGy*cm) and 35′233€, respectively. Conclusion: A considerable number of transferred trauma patients undergo potentially preventable, repeated CT, adding radiation dose to patients and costs to the health care system.

  4. Repeated CT scans in trauma transfers: An analysis of indications, radiation dose exposure, and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzpeter, Ricarda, E-mail: Ricarda.Hinzpeter@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Raemistr. 100, Zurich CH-8091 (Switzerland); Sprengel, Kai, E-mail: Kai.Sprengel@usz.ch [Division of Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Raemistr. 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Wanner, Guido A., E-mail: Guido.Wanner@sbk-vs.de [Division of Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Raemistr. 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Department of General Surgery, Schwarzwald-Baar Klinikum, University of Freiburg, Klinikstr. 11, D-78052 Villingen-Schwenningen (Germany); Mildenberger, Peter, E-mail: peter.mildenberger@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Alkadhi, Hatem, E-mail: hatem.alkadhi@usz.ch [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Raemistr. 100, Zurich CH-8091 (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Repetition of CT in trauma patients occurs relatively often. • Repetition of CT is mainly caused by inadequate image data transfer. • Potentially preventable CT examinations add radiation dose to patients. • Repeated CT is associated with excess costs to the health care system. - Abstract: Objectives: To identify the number of CT scans repeated in acute trauma patients receiving imaging before being referred to a trauma center, to define indications, and to assess radiation doses and costs of repeated CT. Methods: This retrospective study included all adult trauma patients transferred from other hospitals to a Level-I trauma center during 2014. Indications for repeated CT scans were categorized into: inadequate CT image data transfer, poor image quality, repetition of head CT after head injury together with completion to whole-body CT (WBCT), and follow-up of injury known from previous CT. Radiation doses from repeated CT were determined; costs were calculated using a nation-wide fee schedule. Results: Within one year, 85/298 (28.5%) trauma patients were transferred from another hospital because of severe head injury (n = 45,53%) and major body trauma (n = 23;27%) not manageable in the referring hospital, repatriation from a foreign country (n = 14;16.5%), and no ICU-capacity (n = 3;3.5%). Of these 85 patients, 74 (87%) had repeated CT in our center because of inadequate CT data transfer (n = 29;39%), repetition of head CT with completion to WBCT (n = 24;32.5%), and follow-up of known injury (n = 21;28.5%). None occurred because of poor image quality. Cumulative dose length product (DLP) and annual costs of potential preventable, repeated CT (inadequate data transfer) was 631mSv (81′304mGy*cm) and 35′233€, respectively. Conclusion: A considerable number of transferred trauma patients undergo potentially preventable, repeated CT, adding radiation dose to patients and costs to the health care system.

  5. A broad-spectrum sunscreen prevents cumulative damage from repeated exposure to sub-erythemal solar ultraviolet radiation representative of temperate latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Christiaens, F; Bredoux, C; Compan, D; Zucchi, H; Lombard, D; Fourtanier, A; Young, A R

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown the detrimental effects of 19 sub-erythemal exposures to daily ultraviolet radiation (DUVR, which mimics non-extreme exposure conditions), delivered over 4 weeks to volunteers. This source had UVA (320-400 nm) to UVB (290-320 nm) irradiance ratio of 25, instead of that close to 10 that is typically the case with solar-simulated radiation (SSR) that represents summer global sunlight with a clear sky and quasi-zenith solar irradiance. Here, we report on an extension of this previous study, in which we evaluated the photoprotection afforded by a broad-spectrum daily-care product with a low-sun protection factor (SPF 8, UVA-PF 7 and 3* rated UVA protection). We assessed cellular and molecular markers of photodamage that are relevant to skin cancer and photoageing. This study shows that biological effects of repeated exposure to DUVR can be prevented by a broad-spectrum daily-care product and that the level of protection afforded varies with the studied endpoint. Efficient daily UVR protection, as provided by a broad-spectrum daily-care product, is necessary to prevent the 'silent' sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  6. Radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    The book gives accounts of some social and environmental impacts of the developing radiation industries, including the experiences of affected communities and individuals. Its structure is based on a division which has been made between nuclear and non-nuclear radiation sources, because they create distinctly different problems for environmental protection and so for public health policy. The emissions from electronic and electrical installations - the non-nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part I. Emissions from radioactive substances - the nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part II. Part III is for readers who want more detailed information about scientific basis of radiation-related biological changes and their associated health effects. 75 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs., ills

  7. The rate of repeating X-rays in the medical centers of Jenin District/Palestine and how to reduce patient exposure to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Abed Al Nasser

    2018-03-01

    Reduction of the patient's received radiation dose to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is based on recommendations of radiation protection organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and characteristics of rejected / repeated radiographic films in governmental and private centers in Jenin city. The radiological centers were chosen based on their high volume of radiographic studies. The evaluation was carried out over a period of four months. The collected data were compiled at the end of each week and entered into a computer for analysis at the end of study. Overall 5000 films (images) were performed in four months, The average repeat rate of radiographic images was 10% (500 films). Repetition rate was the same for both thoracic and abdominal images (42%). The main reason for repeating imaging was inadequate imaging quality (58.2%) and poor film processing (38%). Human error was the most likely reason necessitating the repetition of the radiographs (48 %). Infant and children groups comprised 85% of the patient population that required repetition of the radiographic studies. In conclusion, we have a higher repetition rate of imaging studies compared to the international standards (10% vs. 4-6%, respectively). This is especially noticeable in infants and children, and mainly attributed to human error in obtaining and processing images. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a national level due to the ill effects associated with excessive exposure to radiation especially in children, and to reduce cost of the care delivered.

  8. Analgesia induced by repeated exposure to low dose X-rays in mice, and involvement of the accessory olfactory system in modulation of the radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyachi, Yukihisa; Yamada, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The effects of low-dose X-rays on mouse nociceptive behavior were examined using a formalin injected test which rated the amount of time the animals spent licking the injected hind-paw. Male ICR White Swiss mice showed a marked suppression of licking behavior after repeated low-dose X-irradiation (5 cGy/day, 6 consecutive days). The most profound effect was observed on the day 30 after irradiation. The decline of licking behavior, however, was not observed at all following olfactory bulbectomy or vomeronasal tract cut. The analgesic effects could be observed in writhing animals administered acetic-acid intraperitoneally. Moreover, analgesia was totally blocked by the administration of N-nitro-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to accessory olfactory bulbs prior to the exposure. The present results indicate that the olfactory system plays an important role in modulation of radiation-induced analgesia, and a possible involvement of nitric oxide in the formation of recognition memory subjected to repeated X-rays. Relatively higher doses (5 cGy x 9 days, 5 cGy x 12 days), however, did not induce such effects, namely, the decline of nociceptive response was limited to the animals irradiated with the smaller dose. (author)

  9. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: June 2010 Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and ... radiation and pregnancy can be found on the Health Physics Society " Ask the Experts" Web site. she should ...

  10. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  11. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service

  12. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  13. Hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risks to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. There is scant data on somatic and genetic risks at environmental and occupational levels of radiation exposure. The available data on radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis are for high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Risk assessments for low level radiation are obtained using these data, assuming a linear dose-response relationship. During uranium mining the chief source of radiation hazard is inhalation of radon daughters. The correlation between radon daughter exposure and the increased incidence of lung cancer has been well documented. For radiation exposures at and below occupational limits, the associated risk of radiation induced cancers and genetic abnormalities is small and should not lead to a detectable increase over naturally occurring rates

  14. Radiation exposure records management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiter, H.P.

    1975-12-01

    Management of individual radiation exposure records begins at employment with the accumulation of data pertinent to the individual and any previous occupational radiation exposure. Appropriate radiation monitorinng badges or devices are issued and accountability established. A computer master file is initiated to include the individual's name, payroll number, social security number, birth date, assigned department, and location. From this base, a radiation exposure history is accumulated to include external ionizing radiation exposure to skin and whole body, contributing neutron exposure, contributing tritium exposure, and extremity exposure. It is used also to schedule bioassay sampling and in-vivo counts and to provide other pertinent information. The file is used as a basis for providing periodic reports to management and monthly exposure summaries to departmental line supervision to assist in planning work so that individual annual exposures are kept as low as practical. Radiation exposure records management also includes documentation of radiation surveys performed by the health physicist to establish working rates and the individual estimating and recording his estimated exposure on a day-to-day basis. Exposure information is also available to contribute to Energy Research and Development Administration statistics and to the National Transuranium Registry

  15. Radiation exposure management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure management includes administrative control, education and training, monitoring and dose assessments and planning of work and radiation protection. The information and discussion given in the paper are based on experiences in Sweden mainly from nuclear power installations. (Author)

  16. Natural radiation exposure indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Cliff, K.D.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the state of knowledge of indoor natural radiation exposure in the U.K. and the current survey work the N.R.P.B. is carrying out in this field. Discussion is limited in this instance to the improvement in estimation of population exposure and the identification of areas and circumstances in which high exposure occur, rather than the study of properties of a building and methods of building affecting exposure to radiation. (U.K.)

  17. Exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report is given of a seminar on the exposure to enhanced natural radiation and its regulatory implications held in 1985 at Maastricht, the Netherlands. The themes of the working sessions included sources of enhanced natural radiation, parameters influencing human exposure, measurement and survey programmes, technical countermeasures, risk and assessment studies, philosophies of dose limitations and national and international policies. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation exposure and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The present volume is devoted to the radiation hazards and the protective measures which can be taken. It describes the current state of knowledge on the changes which exposure to ionizing rays and other forms of physical energy can induce in organs and tissues, in the functional units and systems of the organism. Special attention is paid to general cellular radiation biology and radiation pathology and to general questions of the biological effects of densely ionizing particle radiation, in order to achieve a better all-round understanding of the effects of radiation on the living organism. Aside from the overviews dealing with the effects of radiation on the abdominal organs, urinary tract, lungs, cerebral and nervous tissue, bones, and skin, the discussion continues with the lymphatic system, the bone marrow as a bloodforming organ, and the various phases of reaction in the reproductive organs, including damage and subsequent regeneration. A special section deals with environmental radiation hazards, including exposure to natural radiation and the dangers of working with radioactive substances, and examines radiation catastrophes from the medical point of view. Not only reactor accidents are covered, but also nuclear explosions, with exhaustive discussion of possible damage and treatment. The state of knowledge on chemical protection against radiation is reviewed in detail. Finally, there is thorough treatment of the mechanism of the substances used for protection against radiation damage in man and of experience concerning this subject to date. In the final section of the book the problems of combined radiotherapy are discussed. The improvement in the efficacy of tumor radiotherapy by means of heavy particles is elucidated, and the significance of the efficacy of tumor therapy using electron-affinitive substances is explained. There is also discussion of the simultaneous use of radiation and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of tumors. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body

  20. Radiation exposure during ESWL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, D.L.; Van Swearingen, F.L.; Dyer, R.B.; Appel, B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses exposure to ionizing radiation by the ESWL patient and for health professionals. Although the patient is exposed acutely to the highest level of radiation, the lithotripter team is chronically exposed to ionizing radiation at varying levels. Attention to detail is important in reducing that exposure. The operator should follow the guidelines set forth in this chapter in order to minimize exposure to the patient, himself or herself, and to all co-workers. At the present time, investigation of an alternative modality for stone localization, ultrasound, is being investigated

  1. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  2. Radiation exposure during ureteroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, D.H.; Cubler-Goodman, A.

    1990-01-01

    Use of fluoroscopy during ureteroscopy increases the risk of radiation exposure to the urologist and patient. Radiation entrance dosages were measured at skin level in 37 patients, and at the neck, trunk and finger of the urologist, and neck and trunk of the circulating nurse. Radiation exposure time was measured in 79 patients, and was related to the purpose of the procedure and the type of ureteroscope used, whether rigid or flexible. Exposure could be minimized by decreasing the fluoroscopy time. A portable C-arm fluoroscopy unit with electronic imaging and last image hold mode should be used to minimize exposure time. Lead aprons and thyroid shields should be used by the urologist and other personnel in the endoscopy room

  3. NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  4. Doses from radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, H-G.; Harrison, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP’s 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effective dose. In preparation for the calculation of new dose coefficients, Committee 2 and its task groups have provided updated nuclear decay data (ICRP Publication 107) and adult reference computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). New dose coefficients for external exposures of workers are complete (ICRP Publication 116), and work is in progress on a series of reports on internal dose coefficients to workers from inhaled and ingested radionuclides. Reference phantoms for children will also be provided and used in the calculation of dose coefficients for public exposures. Committee 2 also has task groups on exposures to radiation in space and on the use of effective dose.

  5. Repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to aerosols of 239PuO2. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diel, J.H.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed once or semi-annually for 10 yr by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 to study the relative doses and effects of these two types of exposures. All exposures have been completed. Dogs exposed at high levels died predominantly of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Dogs exposed at lower levels, either once or repeatedly, are dying of a variety of causes including lung cancer. Dogs have survived up to 11 yr after their first exposure. Preliminary results suggest that single and repeated exposures cause similar health effects for equal accumulated radiation doses. (author)

  6. Repeated radiation injuries by fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to repeated radiation injuries during internal irradiation of theoretical and practical interest, particularly in case of the intake into organism of young products of nuclear fission (PNF). The results of experiments with dogs with repeated radioactive iodine injury the isotopes of which (131-135sub(I)) constitute a considerable part of PNF activity are discussed. The blood reaction and protein metabolism state have been studied. Observations for dogs have been continued for about 4 years. The doses for thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and liver subjected to the most intensive irradiation consituted in the first series of experiments after the first intake about 3;0.3;0.05 Gy, after the second - 5;0.5;0.08 Gy and in the second series of experiments - 3;0.3;0.05 Gy and 0.6;0.06;0.01 Gy, respectively. Hematologic factors,thyroid function, changes in exchange and immunologic reactivity have been studied. The dogs have been under observation for 5 years. It is shown in case of repeated intake of Isup(131) PNF into animals organism in quantity which does not cause during the acute period a clinically outlined sickness, substantial differences in the organism reaction as compared with the first intake of radionuclides have not been found. The presence of residual radiation injuries did not cause charging action during the acute period during PNF and repeated intake which in the author's opinion testifies to perfection of compensator mechanisms in case of intake of such quantities of radioactive products. At the remote periods blastomogenic action manifested which is estimated as a result of general biological action of radionuclides administered to the organism. The necessity in subsequent investigations for obtaining the data on organism reactivity, clinic and pathogenesis with the aim of prophylaxis and treatment of such injuries is indicated

  7. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  8. Repeated exposure of human fibroblasts to ionizing radiation reveals an adaptive response that is not mediated by interleukin-6 or TGF-β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieriks, Birger; De Vos, Winnok; Baatout, Sarah; Van Oostveldt, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Exposing cells to a low dose can protect them against a subsequent higher exposure. This phenomenon is known as adaptive response and is frequently observed in a variety of cells. Even though similarities are suspected with other non-targeted effects, such as bystander effects, the exact mechanism behind adaptive response is not fully clarified. In this study human primary fibroblasts were tested for their response to ionizing radiation (IR) after administrating a low priming dose (0.1-0.5 Gy). Both the abundance of γH2AX as a marker for double-stranded breaks and the levels of cytokines, secreted in the medium, were monitored in time. Upon challenge, IR-primed cells showed modified γH2AX spot size distributions and altered repair kinetics, consistent with an adaptive response. In addition, 24 h after priming with IR, four cytokines were significantly upregulated in the medium - GM-CSF (1.33x); IL6 (4.24x); IL8 (1.33x); TGF-β (1.46x). In order to mimick the protective effect of IR priming, we primed the cells with either IL6 or TGF-β. This did not elicit an altered γH2AX response as observed in IR-primed cells, indicating that the adaptive response in these primary fibroblasts is regulated in an IL-6 and TGF-β independent manner.

  9. Radiation exposure by using unsealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preitfellner, J.

    1999-05-01

    Investigations on patients using radioactive substances are performed on a routinely basis in nuclear medicine facilities at many hospitals in our days. These investigations are performed by administering a radiopharmacon to the patient which, depending on several parameters, remains in the body of the patient for various periods of time. All these investigations have in common a g-ray exposure of the environment by the radioactive substance in the body of the patient. Among others, doctors, technical personnel, cleaning personnel, and accompanying persons of patients are exposed to g-rays. Based on these facts, the degree of danger for persons who get into contact with these patients is repeatedly questioned. An additional problem is the health risk of persons employed at a nuclear medicine facility. To answer the first question, the local dose rate in the environment of 102 patients was evaluated immediately after application of the radioactive substance, in intervals from 30 minutes up to several hours, over a period of up to 2 weeks. Depending on the nature of the investigation, the patients were subdivided into 6 groups of 16-20 persons. From the data measured, the effective and the biological half life as well as the local dose were computed. With the aid of concrete case examples, the possible radiation exposure for contact persons was estimated. Postulating unfavorable local and temporal factors in our estimations, the actual radiation exposure is to be estimated about 10-30 % lower. As a reference value for the danger of persons, the maximum permissible boundary values from the Austrian Regulations for Protection against Radiation were used. Referring to these boundary values, for none of the six nuclear medicine investigation methods a danger for contact persons could be derived, indicating that available security measures offer a sufficient protection for affected contact persons. To answer the question about the risk for persons employed at a nuclear

  10. Toxicological characteristics of petroleum products repeated exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Rubin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The ability of petroleum products to initiate cumulative effects was assessed in experimental intragastric admission to male albino rats for one month. The analysis of skin-resorptive effects was performed using "test-tube" method on the skin of rats’ tails. It has been established that petroleum products can penetrate the intact skin and, with repeated admission, cause a general toxic effect. There were reductions bodyweights, the negative effect on the function of the kidneys and liver, changes of hematological parameters, as well as activation of the antioksidatnoy system. Repeated intragastric administration does not lead to the death of the animals testifying to the lack of accumulation capacity for petroleum products at the level of functional mortal effects, the cumulation coefficient being > 5.1. Negative impact on urinary function and hepatobiliary system, changes in hematological parameters and activation of the «lipid peroxidation – antioksidant defense» were observed.

  11. Staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimova, N.U.; Malisheva, E.Yu.; Shosafarova, Sh.G.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics. Data on staff radiation exposure obtained during 2005-2008 years was analyzed. It was found that average individual doses of staff of various occupations in Dushanbe city for 2008 year are at 0.29-2.16 mSv range. They are higher than the average health indicators but lower than maximum permissible dose. It was defined that paramedical personnel receives the highest doses among the various categories of staff.

  12. Pregnancy and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.H.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Neuherberg

    1978-01-01

    In confirmed or presumptive pregnancy it is especially critical to determine the indications for X-ray examination. This assumes that every young woman, before an examination in the pelvic region, be asked explicity when her last normal period was. Examinations of the pelvis which are not acutely necessary should be postponed until the first 10 days after menstruation. If radiologic examination of the true pelvis must be carried out despite pregnancy or is inadvertently done because pregnancy was not recognized, the radiation exposure of the embryo is so small in most cases because of modern dose-sparing equipment, that an interruption of pregnancy is not justified. A dose of less than 1 rad is, as a rule, justifiable, but it is less justifiable that alarmed, uninformed physicians instill a deep-seated fear of giving brith to a freak in a woman through false information. (orig.) [de

  13. Repeated exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation in successive generations increases developmental instability (leaf fluctuating asymmetry) in a desert annual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgley, G.F.; Wand, S.J.E.; Musil, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Populations of the desert annual Dimorphotheca sinuata, derived from a common seed stock, were exposed concurrently over four successive generations to either ambient (representing no stratospheric ozone depletion) or elevated (representing 20% stratospheric ozone depletion) UV-B levels during their complete life cycle. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was measured in populations of plants grown from seeds of selected generations which had experienced different UV-B exposure histories, and from seeds collected from a wild population of this species which grows in a naturally enhanced UV-B environment. These measured plants had been grown in a greenhouse under essentially UV-B-free conditions. Leaf FA was significantly increased by greater numbers of enhanced UV-B exposures in the parentage of the seed. There was a linear to exponential dose–response relationship between number of UV-B exposure iterations in seed parentage and leaf FA, suggesting that damage to DNA caused by UV-B exposure during plant development may not be fully repaired, and thus be inherited by offspring and accumulated over successive generations in this species. Leaf FA of plants grown from seed from the wild population was not significantly greater than that of control plants whose parentage experienced only ambient UV-B exposures, although this negative result may have been due to low sampling intensity and measurement resolution, and the relatively low UV-B enhancement experienced by the wild population. We conclude that leaf FA may constitute a relatively sensitive yet inexpensive means of quantifying UV-B damage to plants. (author)

  14. Environmental radiation and exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Compared to 1977 the exposure to radiation of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany from both natural and artificial radiation sources has not greatly charged. The amin part of exposure to natural radiation is caused by environmental radiation and by the absorption of naturally radioactive substances into the body. Artificial exposure to radiation of the population is essentially caused by the use of ionizing rays and radioactive substances in medicine. When radioactive materials are released from nuclear facilities the exposure to radiation of the population is only very slightly increased. The real exposure to radiation of individual people can even in the worst affected places, have been at most fractions of a millirem. The exposure to radiation in the worst afected places in the area of a hard-coal power station is higher than that coming from a nuclear power station of the same capacity. The summation of all contributions to the exposure of radiation by nuclear facilities to the population led in 1978 in the Federal Republic of Germany to a genetically significant dose of clearly less than 1 millerem per year. The medium-ranged exposure to radiation by external radiation effects through professional work was in 1978 at 80 millirems. No difference to 1977. The contribution of radionuclide from the fallout coming from nuclear-weapon tests and which has been deposited in the soil, to the whole-body dose for 1978 applies the same as the genetically significant dose of the population with less than 1 millirem. (orig./HP) [de

  15. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  16. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  17. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiation exposure from incorporated isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleznay, F [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations for the limitation of the burden of the human body from radiation exposure were developed to avoid direct radiation health damage such that the occurrence of stochastic damage can be held below a resonable risk level. The recommendations, published under ICRP 26 and ICRP 30, contain several guidelines and concepts which are discussed here. They include the primary internal dose exposure limits, secondary and implied limits for the monitoring of internal radiation exposure (Annual Limit of Intake, Derived Air Concentrations). Methods are presented for inspection and monitoring of internal exposure in medical laboratories, inspection of incorporation of sup(131)I and sup(99m)Tc.

  19. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  20. The sources of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation protection of workers and of members of the public requires an assessment of the various sources of exposure, their variations in time or under specific conditions or circumstances, and the possibilities for control or limitation. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has evaluated the various components of natural and man-made sources in some detail. Natural exposures form the largest component of radiation exposure of man. Variability in exposures depends on elevation, the concentrations of radionuclides in soil, food and water, the composition of building materials and the susceptibility of indoor spaces to radon build-up. Man-made sources have included exposures to fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing and discharged from nuclear fuel cycle installations in routine operations or in accidents. The other main source of radiation exposures of individuals is in medical diagnostic examinations and therapeutic treatments. (author)

  1. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of occupational exposure is presented. Concepts and quantities used for radiation protection are explained as well as the ICRP system of dose limitation. The risks correlated to the limits are discussed. However, the actual exposure are often much lower than the limits and the average risk in radiation work is comparable with the average risk in other safe occupations. Actual exposures in various occupations are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Calculating radiation exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods and procedures used to calculate the radiation exposures and radiation doses to designated employees of the Olympic Dam Project. Each of the three major exposure pathways are examined. These are: gamma irradiation, radon daughter inhalation and radioactive dust inhalation. A further section presents ICRP methodology for combining individual pathway exposures to give a total dose figure. Computer programs used for calculations and data storage are also presented briefly

  3. Worldwide exposures to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    All of mankind is exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources, from human practices that release natural and artificial radionuclides to the environment, and from medical radiation procedures. This paper reviews the assessment in the UNSCEAR 1993 Report of the exposures of human populations worldwide to the various sources of ionizing radiation

  4. Radiation exposures: risks and realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, G.

    2010-01-01

    Discovery of radioactivity in 1869 by Henry Becquerel and artificial radioactivity by Irene Curie in 1934 led to the development of nuclear field and nuclear materials in 20th century. They are widely used for man-kind across the globe in electricity production, carbon dating, treatment and diagnosis of diseases etc. While deriving benefits and utilizing nuclear resources for the benefit of man-kind, it is inevitable that exposure to radiation can not be avoided. Radiation exists all around us either natural or man-made which can not be totally eliminated or avoided. Radiation exposures from natural background contribute 2.4 to 3.6 mSv in a year. Radiation exposures incurred by a member of public due to nuclear industries constitute less than one hundredth of annual dose due to natural background. Hence it is important to understand the risk posed by radiation and comparison of radiation risk with various risks arising due to other sources. Studies have indicated that risks due to environmental pollution, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, heart diseases are far higher in magnitude compared to radiation risks from man made sources. This paper brings about the details and awareness regarding radiation exposures, radiation risk, various risks associated with other industries and benefits of radiation exposures. (author)

  5. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  6. Evaluation of environmental radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kazuhiko

    1974-01-01

    The environmental radiation exposure due to radioactive rare gases is most important both at the time of reactor accidents and also in the long-term normal operation of reactor plants. The exposure dose is usually calculated by means of computers. The procedure of the calculation on environmental exposure dose is divided in several consecutive steps. The calculational formulae frequently used and those proposed recently are given with the explanation on released radionuclides, release to the atmosphere, concentration in the atmosphere, β-ray exposure, γ-ray exposure, and calculation of long-term exposure dose. (Mori, K.)

  7. Control of external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  8. Intentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivisakk, E.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure to UV radiation can cause a number of detrimental effects to human health. Some of these are particularly grave, as for instance the induction of skin cancer. Nevertheless, intentional exposure to UV radiation is commonly practiced for many purposes, ranging from medical treatment to merely a simple form of pastime. From the radiation point of view, the risks associated with exposure to UV radiation in any particular application should be carefully considered, and only accepted if they are obviously compensated by the benefits of the irradiation. This is not always the case today, to some extent due to shortage of information about the effect of UV radiation - especially on a long term basis

  9. Radiation exposure and infant cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watari, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1974-12-01

    Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned.

  10. Increasing Positive Perceptions of Counseling: The Importance of Repeated Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Scott A.; Vogel, David L.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of repeated exposures to a video intervention based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model. The video was designed to increase help-seeking attitudes and perceptions of peer norms and to decrease the stigma associated with seeking counseling. Participants were 290 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to a…

  11. Malignant mesothelioma following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antman, K.H.; Corson, J.M.; Li, F.P.; Greenberger, J.; Sytkowski, A.; Henson, D.E.; Weinstein, L.

    1983-01-01

    Mesothelioma developed in proximity to the field of therapeutic radiation administered 10-31 years previously in four patients. In three, mesothelioma arose within the site of prior therapeutic radiation for another cancer. Mesothelioma in the fourth patient developed adjacent to the site of cosmetic radiation to a thyroidectomy scar. None of these four patients recalled an asbestos exposure or had evidence of asbestosis on chest roentgenogram. Lung tissue in one patient was negative for ferruginous bodies, a finding considered to indicate no significant asbestos exposure. Five other patients with radiation-associated mesothelioma have been reported previously, suggesting that radiation is an uncommon cause of human mesothelioma. Problems in the diagnosis of radiation-associated mesotheliomas are considered

  12. Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: January 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures Ionizing radiation is used daily in hospitals and clinics ...

  13. Radiation Exposure - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rays) - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) PDF California Dental Association Nuclear or Radiation Emergencies - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...

  14. Radiation protection: occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The basis of the occupational exposure limit of 50 mSv recommended by the ICRP is questioned. New dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the fact that the dose-response curve may be non-linear and that the relative risk model may be applicable, are some of the arguments advanced to support a reduction in the occupational exposure dose limits. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  16. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  17. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-Din, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; Sallah, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  18. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany was almost as high in 1976 as in 1975. It only increased temporarily in autumn 1976 as a result of the above-ground nuclear weapons test of the People's Republic of China on September 29th 1976 and then returned to its previous level. The radioactivity in food had a slight decreasing trend in 1976, apart from a temporary increase in the radioactivity in milk also caused by the nuclear weapons test mentioned. The population exposure remains basically unchanged in 1976 compared with 1975. The artificial radiation exposure is about half as high as the natural radiation exposure to which man has always been exposed. The former is based to 83% on using X-rays in medicine, particularly for X-ray diagnostic purposes. The population exposure due to nuclear power plants and other nuclear plants is still well below 1% of the natural radiation exposure although in 1976 three new nuclear power plants were put into operation. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within an area of 3 km around the nuclear plant. (orig.) [de

  19. Absence of bacterial resistance following repeat exposure to photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Lisa A.; Gibbs, Aaron J.; Scott, Robert J.; Street, Cale N.

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria necessitates exploration of alternative approaches to treat hospital and community acquired infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial pathogens develop resistance to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) during repeated sub-lethal challenge. Antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus and antibiotic sensitive E. coli were subjected to repeat PDT treatments using a methylene blue photosensitizer formulation and 670 nm illumination from a non-thermal diode laser. Parameters were adjusted such that kills were antibiotic resistance strains. Furthermore, repeated sub-lethal exposure does not induce resistance to subsequent PDT treatments. The absence of resistance formation represents a significant advantage of PDT over traditional antibiotics.

  20. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects......We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... controlled. Patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into a 10-p.p.m. nickel concentration in water for the first week, and during the second week into a 100-p.p.m. nickel concentration. This regimen significantly increased (P = 0.05) local vesicle formation and blood flow (P = 0.03) as compared...

  1. Radiation exposure in manned spaceflight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecker, H. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Horneck, G. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Facius, R. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Reitz, G. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Space missions exposure humans to a radiation environment of a particulate composition and intensity not encountered within our biosphere. The natural radiation environment encountered in Earth orbit is a complex mixture of charged particles of galactic and solar origin and of those trapped by the geomagnetic field. In addition, secondaries are produced by interaction of cosmic ray primaries with the spacecraft shielding material. Among this large variety of radiation components in space, it is likely that the heavy ions are the significant species as far as radiobiological effects are concerned. In addition, a synergistic interaction of microgravity and radiation on living systems has been reported in some instances. Based on an admissible risk of 3% mortality due to cancers induced during a working career, radiation protection guidelines have been developed for this radiation environment. (orig.)

  2. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  3. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  4. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  5. Radiation exposure of the dentist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regulla, D F; Wachsmann, F

    1975-08-01

    The radiation doses per person undergoing dental treatment measured at the trunk is rather considerable, though not alarming. However, the number of people whose hands had been exposed to radiation as well as the individual extent of exposure were unexpectedly high. The radiation doses measured at the hands was about 100 times bigger than the radiation doses determined at the trunk for the whole body. Although these results may be very impressive, it should be borne in mind that the data on which the investigation was based date from 1967/68 and may no longer be fully applicable to the present situation. Whether and to what extent this assumption is justified ought to be found out by control studies regarding radiation doses per person and Roepak programs which are presently being started and whose results will be discussed in this journal.

  6. Behavioral sensitization after repeated formaldehyde exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, B A; Hochstatter, T

    1999-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a phenomenon whereby individuals report increased sensitivity to chemicals in the environment, and attribute their sensitivities to prior exposure to the same or often structurally unrelated chemicals. A leading hypothesis suggests that MCS is akin to behavioral sensitization observed in rodents after repeated exposure to drugs of abuse or environmental stressors. Sensitization occurring within limbic circuitry of the central nervous system (CNS) may explain the multisymptom complaints in individuals with MCS. The present studies represent the continuing development of an animal model for MCS, the basis of which is the CNS sensitization hypothesis. Three behaviors were assessed in rats repeatedly exposed to formaldehyde (Form) inhalation. In the first series of experiments, rats were given high-dose Form exposure (11 parts per million [ppm]; 1 h/day x 7 days) or low-dose Form exposure (1 ppm; either 1 h/day x 7 days or 1 h/day x 5 days/week x 4 weeks). Within a few days after discontinuing daily Form, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was elevated after high-dose Form or 20 days of low-dose Form inhalation. Approximately 1 month later, cocaine-induced locomotor activity remained significantly elevated in the 20-day Form-exposed rats. The second experiment assessed whether prior exposure to Form (20 days, as above) would alter the ability to condition to an odor (orange oil) paired with footshock. The results suggested a tendency to increase the conditioned fear response to the odor but not the context of the footshock box, and a decreased tendency to extinguish the conditioned fear response to odor. The third experiment examined whether CNS sensitization to daily cocaine or stress would alter subsequent avoidance responding to odor (Form). Daily cocaine significantly elevated approach responses to Form, while daily stress pretreatment produced a trend in the opposite direction, producing greater avoidance of Form. Preliminary

  7. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  8. Occupational radiation exposure in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.; Cabanekova, H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently are 2 nuclear power plants in operation in the Slovak republic. Apart from nuclear facilities there are 450 licensed undertakings with monitored workers. The majority of the licensed undertakings are active in health care. In Slovak republic are five dosimetry services performing assessments on personal doses due to external exposure and two dosimetry services are approved to carry out monitoring of internal exposure. Dosemeters used for the monitoring of external individual exposure include: personal whole-body film dosemeters, thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSL) for measurements of beta and gamma radiation; TLD for measurements of neutron radiation and TLD for extremities. The measured operational dose quantities are Hp(10), Hp(3) and Hp(0.07). Approved dosimetry service reports the measured dose data to the employers and to the Central register of occupational doses (CROD). Annually are monitored about 12500 - 16200 active workers. Average effective doses per one monitored worker are presented. (author)

  9. Radiation exposure during equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, N.; Spencer, C.P.; Hager, D.A.; Poulos, P.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    All personnel present in the X-ray examination room during equine radiography were monitored using low energy direct reading ionization chambers (pockets dosimeters) worn outside the lead apron at neck level. The individuals' task and dosimeter readings were recorded after each examination. Average doses ranged from 0 to 6 mrad per study. The greatest exposures were associated with radiography of the shoulder and averaged less than 4 mrad. The individual extending the horse's limb was at greatest risk although the individual holding the horse's halter and the one making the X-ray exposure received similar exposures. A survey of the overhead tube assembly used for some of the X-ray examinations also was performed. Meter readings obtained indicated an asymetric dose distribution around the tube assembly, with the highest dose occurring on the side to which the exposure cord was attached. Although the exposures observed were within acceptable limits for occupational workers, we have altered our protocol and no longer radiograph the equine shoulder unless the horse is anesthetized. Continued use of the pocket dosimeters and maintenance of a case record of radiation exposure appears to make the technologists more aware of radiation hazards

  10. Firefighting and mental health: Experiences of repeated exposure to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S Carlos; Haddock, Christopher K; Murphy, Beth

    2016-02-15

    Firefighters must be ready to respond to a broad range of emergencies every duty day. In the course of many of these emergencies, firefighters witness events which have the potential to induce emotional trauma, such as badly injured people, deceased children, and individuals who are highly distraught. Previous research suggests that repeated exposure to these traumas (RET) may have negative impacts on the emotional and mental health of fire service personnel. Research on the mental health of firefighters has been limited to small surveys reporting the prevalence of specific mental health problems such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among firefighters. Despite the likelihood that RET leads to negative outcomes in firefighters, data is lacking on how exposure impacts fire service personnel. The current study examines the experiences of firefighters related to RET. Using formative research methods, we examined the beliefs and experiences of firefighters and administrators from across the United States regarding the impact of RET on firefighter health. Study findings highlight the cumulative psychological toll of repeated exposure to traumatic events including desensitization, flashbacks, and irritability. Results of the current study suggest that RET is a significant concern for emergency responders that warrants additional research and attention. It is likely that the long term consequences of RET are closely intertwined with other mental health outcomes and general well-being of this important occupational group.

  11. Biological effects of repeated exposure of beagle dogs to relatively insoluble aerosols of 144Ce. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Hanika-Rebar, C.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    This experiment is being conducted to study the behavior and long-term biological effects in Beagle dogs of 144 Ce inhaled in fused aluminosilicate particles in repeated inhalation exposures for comparison with similar data from dogs that were exposed only once to a similar aerosol. Four groups of nine dogs each were exposed once every eight weeks for two years (13 exposures) to achieve specified exposure goals. The 144 Ce-exposed dogs received increasing or relatively constant beta radiation dose rates in contrast to the steadily decreasing dose rate seen after a single inhalation exposure. Exposures in the first and second groups were planned to yield a cumulative absorbed dose to lung of approximately equal to 35,000 rads and those in the third group approximately equal to 17,000 rads within two years after the first exposure. Singly exposed dogs that had died with pulmonary tumors when this experiment was initiated had cumulative doses to death of 29,000 to 61,000 rads. All 13 exposures have been completed. One dog in the 4.5-μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight group died at 771 days after first exposure with emaciation, adrenal cortical degeneration and bone marrow aplasia. One control dog died accidentally during anesthesia. During the past year, two additional dogs have died. One dog in the repeated 2.5-μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight group died at 1256 days after the first exposure with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis and a control dog died at 1052 days with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The remaining 32 dogs appear to be in good physical condition except for a persistent lymphopenia at approximately equal to 4 years after the first exposure. They are being maintained for life span observations

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology were studied as possible contaminants in the evaluations of A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study for radiation effects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki subjects received X-ray examinations elsewhere within three months of their ABCC visits at rates of 23 and 12%, respectively. Medical X-ray examinations were more frequent among survivors than comparison subjects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiologic practice steadily increased since 1948, and differed markedly by city. From 1946-70 the Hiroshima and Nagasaki X-ray bone marrow doses were 2,300 and 1,000 g-rads, respectively. By 1970, cumulated medical X-ray doses approximated A-bomb doses at distances from the hypocenters of 2,000 m in Hiroshima and 2,800 m in Nagasaki. ABCC X-ray examination doses per subject are routinely updated for comparison with A-bomb doses. Each subject's reported fluoroscopy, photofluorography and radiation therapy exposure elsewhere are for future reference. Dental radiography, though increasing, was not currently an important contributor to survivors' overall exposure. Radiation therapy exposures of 137 subjects were confirmed, and doses estimated for most. Two-thirds the treatments were for malignancies; therapy differed markedly by city; and five cancers possibly arose from earlier radiation therapy. This underscores the importance of considering diagnostic and therapeutic radiology when attributing diseases to the atomic bombs.

  13. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks.

  14. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks

  15. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P.; Roeser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  16. Radiation exposure in diagnostic medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, S.; Michalczak, H.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1995-01-01

    This volume includes the manuscripts of the papers read at the conference as well as a summary and assessment of its results. The scientific discussions were centred upon the following issues: - International surveys and comparisons of rdiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, frequency of the individual diagnostic procedures and age distribution of patients examined; - policies and regulations for the radiation protection of patients, charcteristic dosimetric values and practical usefulness of the effective dose concept during medical examinations; - assessments of the relative benefits and risks and measures to reduce the radiation exposure in the light of quality assurance aspects. The main objective of this conference not only was to evaluate the risks from diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine but also to encourgage a critical analysis and adjustment of examination routines followed in everyday practice. Among the measures recommended were quality assurance, maintenace of international standards, development of guidelines, introduction of standard doses, improved training and professional education of personnel as well as surveys and analyses of certain examination procedures associated with substantial radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Radiation exposure in monazite industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A C [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.

    1979-04-01

    The monazite present in the beach sands of Kerala and Tamil Nadu (India) is separated in the mineral separation plants at Manavalakurichi and Chavara, operated by M/s Indian Rare Earths Ltd. The physical and chemical processing of the sand involves radiation hazards due to the presence of thorium, uranium and their daughter products in monazite. The paper reviews present status in the light of past experiences and analyses the dose apportionment in different work catagories. The problem of internal contamination and environmental radiation levels are also discussed with the help of the recently available data. Radiation fields in the physical processing of monazite at different stages are presented. Apportionment of doses at different stages of the chemical operation involving 10 tonne lots of monazite is presented in a tabular form. The changing trend in external exposure reflected in the man-rem/t of monazite over the years is illustrated in a graph.

  18. Techniques for controlling radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocken, H.; Wood, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The US nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposure over the past 10 years. There has been more than a fourfold reduction in person-rem per MW-year of electric power generated: from 1.8 person-rems in 1980 to only 0.4 person-rems in 1991. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in the 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60, and there will be more requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the 1995 industry goals for unit median collective exposure. No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this compendium will help utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: Outages are shorter, staffing requirements are reduced, and work quality is improved. Despite up-front costs, the benefits over the following one to three years typically outweigh the expenses

  19. Radiation exposure and chromosome damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome damage is discussed as a means of biologically measuring radiation exposure to the body. Human lymphocytes are commonly used for this test since the extent of chromosome damage induced is related to the exposure dose. Several hundred lymphocytes are analysed in metaphase for chromosome damage, particularly dicentrics. The dose estimate is made by comparing the observed dicentric yield against calibration curves, previously produced by in vitro irradiation of blood samples to known doses of different types of radiation. This test is useful when there is doubt that the film badge has recorded a reasonable whole body dose and also when there is an absence of any physical data. A case of deliberate exposure is described where the chromosome damage test estimated an exposure of 152 rads. The life span of cell aberrations is also considered. Regular checks on radiotherapy patients and some accidental overdose cases have shown little reduction in the aberration levels over the first six weeks after which the damage disappears slowly with a half-life of about three years. In conclusion, chromosome studies have been shown to be of value in resolving practical problems in radiological protection. (U.K.)

  20. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Young; Park, Hoon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  1. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  2. Radiation exposure and radiation hazards of human population. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present Part I provides a survey on the various sources of natural and artificial radiation exposure of human population. Furthermore, biological radiation effects and radiation damages are surveyed. In an appendix, radiation types, radiation doses, and radiation dose units are explained. (orig./GSCH) [de

  3. Occupational radiation exposures in Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplanis, Prodromos A; Christofides, Stelios [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital, 1450 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1999-12-31

    For the first time ever the occupational radiation exposure data of all the radiation workers of Cyprus, as obtained by the personnel monitoring service of the Dosimetry Laboratory of the Medical Physics Department of the Ministry of Health, is published and compared with that of other countries. The presented data shows a systematic trend of improvement both with regards to the methodology of monitoring and data recording. The efforts of the past few years in educating and training the users of ionising radiation with regards to the importance of the personnel monitoring service and the hazards of ionising radiation, has paid off and this is evident from the doses recorded in the past three years which are compared favourably with those of other countries, as given by the UNSCEAR 1993 report. The introduction of extremity monitoring, promises even better improvement in the methodology of monitoring the doses received by personnel working in Interventional Radiology, as well as other groups whose hands, unavoidably, come close to radiation sources. (authors) 3 refs., 12 tabs.

  4. Unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliney, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the risks from unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and to consider hazard control regulation, one must face first the problem of their state of scientific knowledge and the public's perception of UVR. Few people in the general public would question the health benefits of sunlight. Many flock to the beaches each summer to develop a healthy tan. Since the 1920's scientists have recognized that most of the benefits--and risks--of sunlight exposure result from the UVR present in sunlight. Dermatologists warn sunbathers to avoid exposure or protect themselves against the intense midday UVR or risk skin cancer. A growing number of scientists warn of hazards to the eye if UVR--perhaps even shorter visible wavelengths--are not filtered by lenses. In addition to any intentional exposure for health or cosmetic purposes, many people are also exposed to UVR without being aware of it or without their intent to be exposed. Outdoor workers are exposed to sunlight, many industrial workers (e.g., welders) are exposed to UVR from arc sources, some UVR penetrates clothing, and people indoors are exposed to UVR from artificial lighting

  5. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  6. Exposure to non ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanella, L.; Dragone, R.; Pastorelli, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the last years the exposure levels to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields of workers and citizens have dramatically increased due to the technological development as in the exemplar case of cellular phones. The object of this research concerns the biological evaluation of the risk from exposure to non ionizing radiations (NIR) by an opportunely designed biosensor based on immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and by an amperometric transducer (Clark oxygen electrode). The results have been obtained by comparing the respiratory activities of exposed and not exposed yeast cells to NIR (at 900 MHz, frequency of the first generation cellular phones). The measurements have been performed by irradiation of the cells in a G-TEM chamber. The obtained results clearly show a decrease of the respiration activity of the irradiation cells in comparison with blank. This variation results to be proportional to the exposure time. Concerning reversibility of the damage it seems that the recovery of the initial conditions begins after 4 hours since the end of exposition and is complete within the following 48 hrs [it

  7. Troubles in vacuum system and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Osamu

    1978-01-01

    It is about eleven years since the LINAC of 300 MeV in Tohoku University has first accelerated electrons. The maintenance and improvement of the accelerator used more than 10 years now give the related personnel an important problem of radiation exposure. 40 days were required for the maintenance and checking-up in 1977, and other 26 days were used for other construction works. The troubles in the vacuum system occurred 81 times in total. The vacuum system is divided into two subsystems, each being provided with a leak detector. Either of them enables to detect and locate the leak. Silver-alloy brazing of a duct with a cooling water tube has deteriorated in the strength because of repeated baking temperature and/or the copper tubes for cooling have been eroded due to the large local cell action by purified water. The similar phenomena have occurred in RF windows, outside of which is cooled with water. Carbonaceous matter has stuck to the element of the ion pump, but successfully been cleaned. Though the energy compression system was installed for the efficient use of electrons, the troubles due to overheating of the current monitor have increased because of its limited space, and the change of location was made. Considerable surface residual radiation dose was found at some parts of transport system, and a few personnel have been exposed to radiation over 1000 mrem/year as a result of the troubles in vacuum system. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. The effects of repeated low-dose sarin exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.-M.; Hulet, S.W.; McDonough, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This project assessed the effects of repeated low-dose exposure of guinea pigs to the organophosphorus nerve agent sarin. Animals were injected once a day, 5 days per week (Monday-Friday), for 2 weeks with fractions (0.3x, 0.4x, 0.5x, or 0.6x) of the established LD 5 dose of sarin (42 μg/kg, s.c.). The animals were assessed for changes in body weight, red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels, neurobehavioral reactions to a functional observational battery (FOB), cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum, and intrinsic acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter (NT) regulation over the 2 weeks of sarin exposure and for up to 12 days postinjection. No guinea pig receiving 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 x LD 5 of sarin showed signs of cortical EEG seizures despite decreases in RBC AChE levels to as low as 10% of baseline, while seizures were evident in animals receiving 0.6 x LD 5 of sarin as early as the second day; subsequent injections led to incapacitation and death. Animals receiving 0.5 x LD 5 sarin showed obvious signs of cholinergic toxicity; overall, 2 of 13 animals receiving 0.5 x LD 5 sarin died before all 10 injections were given, and there was a significant increase in the angle of gait in the animals that lived. By the 10th day of injection, the animals receiving saline were significantly easier to remove from their cages and handle and significantly less responsive to an approaching pencil and touch on the rump in comparison with the first day of testing. In contrast, the animals receiving 0.4 x LD 5 sarin failed to show any significant reductions in their responses to an approaching pencil and a touch on the rump as compared with the first day. The 0.5 x LD 5 sarin animals also failed to show any significant changes to the approach and touch responses and did not adjust to handling or removal from the cage from the first day of injections to the last day of handling. Thus, the guinea pigs receiving the 0.4 and 0.5 x LD 5 doses of sarin failed to

  9. Radiation exposure of airplane crews. Exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergau, L.

    1995-01-01

    Even at normal height levels of modern jet airplanes, the flying crew is exposed to a radiation level which is higher by several factors than the terrestrial radiation. There are several ways in which this can be hazardous; the most important of these is the induction of malignant growths, i.e. tumours. (orig./MG) [de

  10. A new radiation exposure record system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Berndt, V.L.; Trevino, G.W.; Oakley, B.M.

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Radiological Records Program (HRRP) serves all Hanford contractors as the single repository for radiological exposure for all Hanford employees, subcontractors, and visitors. The program administers and preserves all Hanford radiation exposure records. The program also maintains a Radiation Protection Historical File which is a historical file of Hanford radiation protection and dosimetry procedures and practices. Several years ago DOE declared the existing UNIVAC mainframe computer obsolete and the existing Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) system was slated to be redeveloped. The new system named the Radiological Exposure (REX) System is described in this document

  11. Global environment and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1991-01-01

    The present status of investigation of acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse effect and their relations to radiation exposure are reported. Soil acidification increases transfer rates of radioactivities to plants which increases the population dose. There are two types of ozone depletion, conventional type and ozone hole type and the latter is much more serious than the former. In the greenhouse effect, although there are large uncertainties both in theoretical and observational sides, present predictions about the global warming will not be very far from reality. Environmental effects are wide-ranging and serious. Radon and thoron exhalation rates are affected by the global warming. The influence of the greenhouse effect on ozone depletion is to suppress depletion for conventional type and enhance depletion for ozone hole type. (author) 65 refs

  12. Occupational standard for exposure to ultraviolet radiation (1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The exposure limit (EL) values in this standard refer to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the spectral region between 180 and 400 nm and represents conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect. The EL values for exposure of the eye or the skin may be used to evaluate potentially hazardous exposure from UVR. The limits do not apply to ultraviolet lasers. The values should be used as guides in the control of exposure to both pulsed and continuous sources of UVR where the exposure duration is not less than 0.1 μsec. The ELs are below levels used for UV exposures of patients as a part of medical treatment or for elective cosmetic purposes. They are intended as upper limits for non therapeutic and non cosmetic exposure. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Micronucleus induction by repeated exposure of diagnostic X-ray on oral buccal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohith Tejashvi, K.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Radiography is the important diagnostic tools essential for diagnosis and planning of orthodontic treatment. X-ray is ionizing radiation which showed various effects include breaking the bond of biological molecules, inducing loss of ability of cell death, increases nuclear alterations. Micronuclei - x000D - (MN) are small chromatin bodies that appear in the cytoplasm by the - x000D - condensation of acrocentric chromosomal fragments or by whole chromosomes. This - x000D - is a sensitive indicator of genetic damage. - x000D - x000D - . To evaluate micronucleus induction by repeated exposure of diagnostic X-ray on human buccal cell. Methods: 25 patients who visiting to ABSMIDS, Department of Oral medicine and Radiology for dental checkup exposed to diagnostic X-ray more than 4 times have been selected for this study. The buccal cell for analysis was collected from the cheek mucosa by means of gentle scraping of epithelial using ice-cream sticks and placed in Buffer saline. This sample was smeared on glass slide and then fixed in methanol:glacial acetic acid (3:1). Air dried and stained with Giemsa for 15-25 minutes. Then 250 cells in each slides were analyzed under microscope and frequency of micronucleus was scored (n=4). Repeated X-ray exposed cells showed micronucleus (1.25%) and nuclear alteration (2.3%) compare to the control. Repeated X-ray exposure leads to induces detectable number of micronucleus and nuclear alterations. (author)

  14. Radiation hormesis at occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharieva, E.; Georgieva, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of our work was to find appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals to prove radiation hormesis. Blood samples were taken from a group of irradiated persons, and from a control group. For each worker we estimated a parameter arbitrarily called by us 'mean annual dose' as a quotient of cumulated dose and length of service. DNA repair synthesis in leucocytes before and after in vitro exposure to a challenge dose of 2.0 Gy gamma rays was determined by the level of incorporation of radioactively labeled nucleotides, level of DNA damage in lymphocytes was analyzed by single cell gel electrophoresis and level of lipid peroxidation processes was evaluated by malonedialdehyde concentration in blood plasma. A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage in persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/y was found, compared to the control group. The highest repair capacity after a challenging dose of 2.0 Gy gamma rays as well as a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress determined in the blood plasma was evaluated for persons from the same group. The present investigation of occupationally exposed workers showed that annual doses no higher than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase cellular resistance and decrease oxidative stress

  15. PET radiation exposure control for nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yumiko; Kikuta, Daisuke; Anzai, Taku

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the number of clinical PET centers is increasing all over Japan. For this reason, the monitoring and control of radiation exposure of employees, especially nurses, in PET-dedicated clinics and institutions are becoming very important issues for their health. We measured the radiation exposure doses of the nurses working at Nishidai Diagnostic Imaging Center, and analyzed the exposure data obtained from them. The exposure doses of the nurses were found to be 4.8 to 7.1 mSv between April 2003 and March 2004. We found that the nurses were mostly exposed to radiation when they had to have contact with patients received an FDG injection or they had trouble with the FDG automatic injection system. To keep radiation exposure of nurses to a minimum we reconfirmed that a proper application of the three principles of protection against radiation exposure was vital. (author)

  16. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-05-01

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  17. Medical exposure and the effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Chio

    2011-01-01

    Radiation gives cracks to genes. The influence is divided into deterministic effect with a threshold value, and the stochastic effect (tumor and genetic effect) which increases according to the exposure amount. Although we are put to various non-artificial radiations, which we cannot be avoided, on the earth, the contamination by artificial radiation can be defended. Artificial radioactive exposure includes medical exposure and non-medical exposure for example by nuclear power plant. As to medical examinations using radiation, the inquiry about the radiation exposure is increasing after the occurrence of the first nuclear power plant disaster of Fukushima. While concern about non-medical radioactive exposure increases, the uneasiness to medical irradiation is also increasing. The dose limit by artificial radioactive exposure other than medical exposure is set up in order to prevent the influence on the health. While the dose limit of the public exposure is set to the lower value than the total dose of non-artificial exposure concerning of a safety margin for all people, the dose limit of medical exposure is not defined, since it is thought that medical irradiation has a benefit for those who receive irradiation. Making an effort to decrease the radiation dose in performing the best medical treatment is the responsibility with which we are burdened. (author)

  18. Application of maximum radiation exposure values and monitoring of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The guide presents the principles to be applied in calculating the equivalent dose and the effective dose, instructions on application of the maximum values for radiation exposure, and instruction on monitoring of radiation exposure. In addition, the measurable quantities to be used in monitoring the radiation exposure are presented. (2 refs.)

  19. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, EPS 7044, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  20. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.

    2006-01-01

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  1. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  2. The effects of multiple UV exposures on HIV-LTR (long terminal repeat) expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, S.; Milton, J.; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.; Woloschak, G.E.; Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that cellular stress agents such as UV radiation induce transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Using HeLa cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR sequence, which transcriptionally drives the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene, we examined the effects of multiple exposures to UVC (254 nm) on HIV-LTR-CAT expression. Low doses (≤ 5 J m -2 ) had no effect on CAT expression, but up to 29-fold induction was observed with 10 J m -2 when cells were harvested 48 h after completion of the exposure. Little difference was noted in induction levels when cells were exposed to one 25 J m -2 dose, viable cells were harvested at 24 h, 48 h or 72 h, and cell lysates were assayed for CAT expression. Two sequential 12.5 J m -2 exposures, given 24 h apart, resulted in an additive effect on CAT expression; these two exposures produced CAT activity equivalent to that induced following a single 25 J m -2 dose. Our data suggest that HIV-LTR requires a specific threshold UV dose in order to elicit induction; a maximal induction dose is also evident; exposures higher than this maximal dose contribute no more to HIV-LTR induction in viable cells. (author)

  3. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  4. Ionizing radiation exposure of LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. V. (Editor); Heinrich, W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was launched into orbit by the Space Shuttle 'Challenger' mission 41C on 6 April 1984 and was deployed on 8 April 1984. The original altitude of the circular orbit was 258.5 nautical miles (479 km) with the orbital inclination being 28.5 degrees. The 21,500 lb NASA Langley Research Center satellite, having dimensions of some 30x14 ft was one of the largest payloads ever deployed by the Space Shuttle. LDEF carried 57 major experiments and remained in orbit five years and nine months (completing 32,422 orbits). It was retrieved by the Shuttle 'Columbia' on January 11, 1990. By that time, the LDEF orbit had decayed to the altitude of 175 nm (324 km). The experiments were mounted around the periphery of the LDEF on 86 trays and involved the representation of more than 200 investigators, 33 private companies, 21 universities, seven NASA centers, nine Department of Defense laboratories and eight foreign countries. The experiments covered a wide range of disciplines including basic science, electronics, optics, materials, structures, power and propulsion. The data contained in the LDEF mission represents an invaluable asset and one which is not likely to be duplicated in the foreseeable future. The data and the subsequent knowledge which will evolve from the analysis of the LDEF experiments will have a very important bearing on the design and construction of the Space Station Freedom and indeed on other long-term, near-earth orbital space missions. A list of the LDEF experiments according to experiment category and sponsor is given, as well as a list of experiments containing radiation detectors on LDEF including the LDEF experiment number, the title of the experiment, the principal investigator, and the type of radiation detectors carried by the specific experiment.

  5. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the develo...

  6. Sources of radiation exposure - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sources of radiation exposure are reviewed from the perspective of mining and milling of radioactive ores in Australia. The major sources of occupational and public exposure are identified and described, and exposures from mining and milling operations are discussed in the context of natural radiation sources and other sources arising from human activities. Most radiation exposure of humans comes from natural sources. About 80% of the world average of the effective dose equivalents received by individual people arises from natural radiation, with a further 15-20% coming from medical exposures*. Exposures results from human activities, such as mining and milling of radioactive ores, nuclear power generation, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and non-medical use of radioisotopes and X-rays, add less than 1% to the total. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  7. The analysis of radiation exposure of hospital radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Tae Sik; Shin, Byung Chul; Moon, Chang Woo; Cho, Yeong Duk; Lee, Yong Hwan; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    This investigation was performed in order to improve the health care of radiation workers, to predict a risk, to minimize the radiation exposure hazard to them and for them to realize radiation exposure danger when they work in radiation area in hospital. The documentations checked regularly for personal radiation exposure in four university hospitals in Pusan city in Korea between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1997 were analyz ed. There were 458 persons in this documented but 111 persons who worked less then one year were excluded and only 347 persons were included in this study. The average of yearly radiation exposure of 347 persons was 1.52±1.35 mSv. Though it was less than 5OmSv, the limitaion of radiation in law but 125 (36%) people received higher radiation exposure than non-radiation workers. Radiation workers under 30 year old have received radiation exposure of mean 1.87±1.01 mSv/year, mean 1.22±0.69 mSv between 31 and 40 year old and mean 0.97±0.43 mSv/year over, 41year old (p<0.001). Men received mean 1.67±1.54 mSv/year were higher than women who received mean 1.13±0.61 mSv/year (p<0.01). Radiation exposure in the department of nuclear medicine department in spite of low energy sources is higher than other departments that use radiations in hospital (p<0.05). And the workers who received mean 3.69±1.81 mSv/year in parts of management of radiation sources and injection of sources to patient receive high radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department (0<0.01). In department of diagnostic radiology high radiation exposure is in barium enema rooms where workers received mean 3.74±1.74 mSv/year and other parts where they all use fluoroscopy such as angiography room of mean 1.17±0.35 mSv/year and upper gastrointestinal room of mean 1.74±1.34 mSv/year represented higher radiation exposure than average radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology (p<0.01). Doctors and radiation technologists received higher radiation exposure of each mean 1.75±1

  8. Application of maximum radiation exposure values and monitoring of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 32 of the Radiation Act (592/91) the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety gives instructions concerning the monitoring of the radiation exposure and the application of the dose limits in Finland. The principles to be applied to calculating the equivalent and the effective doses are presented in the guide. Also the detailed instructions on the application of the maximum exposure values for the radiation work and for the natural radiation as well as the instructions on the monitoring of the exposures are given. Quantities and units for assessing radiation exposure are presented in the appendix of the guide

  9. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care.

  10. Radiation exposure of uranium mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Giridhar; Saha, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The uranium mill workers at Jaduguda were covered by a regular film badge service from 1969 onwards. Since the log normal plot is useful in interpreting occupational exposure, a statistical analysis of the radiation exposure data was attempted. Exposure data for each year has been plotted as cumulative percentage and worker's population with exposure levels in different class intervals. The plot for each of the year under investigation shows an occupational exposure distribution more or less consistent with the log normal distribution function. The analysis shows that more than 98% of radiation workers received less than 200 mrem (2 mSv). (author)

  11. Medical radiation exposure and its impact on occupational practices in Korean radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seul Ki; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    The use of radiology examinations in medicine has been growing worldwide. Annually an estimated 3.1 billion radiologic exams are performed. According to this expansion of medical radiation exposure, it has been hard to pay no attention to the effects of medical radiation exposures in the exposure from different types of radiation source. This study, therefore, was aimed to assess the association of medical and occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiologic technologists and evaluate necessity for its consideration in occupational studies. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure.

  12. Medical radiation exposure and its impact on occupational practices in Korean radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seul Ki; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The use of radiology examinations in medicine has been growing worldwide. Annually an estimated 3.1 billion radiologic exams are performed. According to this expansion of medical radiation exposure, it has been hard to pay no attention to the effects of medical radiation exposures in the exposure from different types of radiation source. This study, therefore, was aimed to assess the association of medical and occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiologic technologists and evaluate necessity for its consideration in occupational studies. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure. This study did not show the strong association between medical radiation exposure and occupational radiation exposure except several modalities with specific frequency. These results are preliminary but certainly meaningful for interpretation of epidemiologic finding, therefore, we need further evaluation specially for the repeatedly exposed imaging tests and high dose procedures that presented somewhat weak relationship in this study linked with health outcomes of radiation exposure.

  13. The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Bos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on

  14. The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Colin, Bos,

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on

  15. Dealing with consumer differences in liking during repeated exposure to food; typical dynamics in rating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, ter G.J.; Renken, R.; Nanneti, L.; Dalenberg, J.R.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in

  16. Dealing with Consumer Differences in Liking during Repeated Exposure to Food; Typical Dynamics in Rating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Nanetti, Luca; Renken, Remco J.; de Wijk, Rene A.; ter Horst, Gert J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in

  17. External radiation exposure of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1977-01-01

    Results of several ten thousand measurements on external radiation (outside buildings, in living rooms) are used for illustrating by isodose charts covering the total area of the Federal Republic of Germany the exposure of the public from external radiation originating from natural radiation of the environment. Results of calculations on external radiation exposure of the public due to releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear installations are used for illustrating by coloured isodose charts the exposure of the public in the plant site vicinity. From comparison of the exposure levels it becomes obvious that if exposure levels of several 10 mrem per year are considered to be of real concern to public health, control of natural radoactivity in the environment of man would require more attention than present and foreseeable releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear inst

  18. On the radiation mechanism of repeating fast radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2018-06-01

    Recent observations show that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are energetic but probably non-catastrophic events occurring at cosmological distances. The properties of their progenitors are largely unknown in spite of many attempts to determine them using the event rate, duration, and energetics. Understanding the radiation mechanism for FRBs should provide the missing insights regarding their progenitors, which is investigated in this paper. The high brightness temperatures (≳1035 K) of FRBs mean that the emission process must be coherent. Two general classes of coherent radiation mechanisms are considered - maser and the antenna mechanism. We use the observed properties of the repeater FRB 121102 to constrain the plasma conditions needed for these two mechanisms. We have looked into a wide variety of maser mechanisms operating in either vacuum or plasma and find that none of them can explain the high luminosity of FRBs without invoking unrealistic or fine-tuned plasma conditions. The most favourable mechanism is antenna curvature emission by coherent charge bunches where the burst is powered by magnetic reconnection near the surface of a magnetar (B ≳ 1014 G). We show that the plasma in the twisted magnetosphere of a magnetar may be clumpy due to two-stream instability. When magnetic reconnection occurs, the pre-existing density clumps may provide charge bunches for the antenna mechanism to operate. This model should be applicable to all FRBs that have multiple outbursts like FRB 121102.

  19. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  20. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, J.B.C.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  1. Attenuated response to repeated daily ozone exposures in asthmatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, H. Jr.; Linn, W.S. [Rancho Low Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA (United States); McManus, M.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The development of attenuated response ({open_quotes}tolerance{close_quotes}) to daily ozone (O{sub 3}) exposures in the laboratory is well established in healthy adult volunteers. However, the capability of asthmatics to develop tolerance during multiday ozone exposures in unclear. We exposed 10 adult volunteers with mild asthma to 0.4 ppm O{sub 3} in filtered air for 3 h/d on 5 consecutive d. Two similar filtered-air exposures during the preceding week served as controls. Follow-up O{sub 3} exposures were performed 4 and 7 d after the most recent consecutive exposure. All exposures were performed in an environmental chamber at 31 {degrees}C and 35% relative humidity. The subjects performed moderate exercise (mean ventilation rate of 32 l/min) for 15 min of each half-hour. Responses were measured with spirometry and symptom evaluations before and after each exposure, and a bronchial reactivity test (methacholine challenge) was conducted after each exposure. All response measurements showed clinically and statistically significant day-to-day variation. Symptom and forced-expiratory-volume-in-1-s responses were similarly large on the 1st and 2nd O{sub 3} exposure days, after which they diminished progressively, approaching filtered air response levels by the 5th consecutive O{sub 3} day. This tolerance was partially lost 4 and 7 d later. Bronchial reactivity peaked after the first O{sub 3} exposure and remained somewhat elevated after all subsequent O{sub 3} exposures, relative to its control level following filtered-air exposures. Individual responses varied widely; more severe initial responses to O{sub 3} predicted less rapid attenuation. We concluded that asthmatics can develop tolerance to frequent high-level O{sub 3} exposures in much the same manner as normal subjects, although the process may be slower and less fully effective in asthmatics. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Radiation exposure and protection during angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biazzi, L; Garbagna, P [Pavia Univ. (Italy)

    1979-05-01

    The authors describe the radiological techniques during angiography examinations in their hospital. For every technique they measured the radiation exposure and dose to the staff of doctors, assistants and nurses in their standard positions in the room and the radiation dose at various points on their bodies. The results are critically discussed and alternative protection devices are analysed, since there are many difficulties concerning the employ of usual radiation protection systems. Cardiologists, above all, are given some recommendations to reduce radiation exposure without prejudicing the exam results.

  3. Radiation exposure and protection during angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazzi, L.; Garbagna, P.

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe the radiological techniques during angiography examinations in their hospital. For every technique they measured the radiation exposure and dose to the staff of doctors, assistants and nurses in their standard positions in the room and the radiation dose at various points on their bodies. The results are critically discussed and alternative protection devices are analysed, since there are many difficulties concerning the employ of usual radiation protection systems. Cardiologists, above all, are given some recomandations to reduce radiation exposure without prejudicing the exam results [fr

  4. Radiation exposure of children during cardiac catheterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, W.

    1979-01-01

    It is well known that in adults, cardiac catheterisation involves the highest possible radiation exposure for a single examination. The paper now investigates the radiation exposure in paediatric cardiac cathetrisations. Dosimeters attached to the children during the examination were used as well as phantom measurements under the conditions of cardiac catheterisation. With the aid of the phantom, also the total energy absorption during an examination procedure was determined. This value was estimated to be 80 mJ. In spite of the high individual exposure, the contribution to the population exposure is low due to the small number of cardiac catheterisations. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  5. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be {approx}1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m{sup -3} in Queensland to 16 Bq m{sup -3} in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be ∼1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m -3 in Queensland to 16 Bq m -3 in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year

  7. Exposures to natural radiation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murith, Ch.; Gurtner, A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionising radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. There are two main sources that contribute to this exposure: high-energy cosmic-ray particles incident to the earth's atmosphere and radioactive nuclides that originated in the earth's crust and are present everywhere in the environment, including human body itself. Both external and internal exposures to humans arise from these sources. Exposures to natural radiation sources in Switzerland and some of their variations are here summarised and the resulting effective doses are compared to those from man-made sources exposures. It results that the natural background exposures are more significant for the population than most exposures to man-made sources. (authors)

  8. Health consequences of ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalci, D.; Dorter, G.; Guclu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiations all over the world induces an ever increasing interest of the professionals as well as of the whole society in health protection and the risk due to these practices. Shortly after its discovery, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can have adverse health effects and knowledge of its detrimental effects has accumulated. The fact that ionizing radiation produces biological damage has been known for many years. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection considerations are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain 'threshold' an appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Syndromes, ARS) that occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. ARS is a complex of acute injury manifestations that occur after a sufficiently large portion of a person's body is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Such irradiation initially injures all organs to some extent, but the timing and extent of the injury manifestations depend upon the type, rate, and dose of radiation received. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels (includes radioactive pollution). Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. In this

  9. Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    83

    Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial. 1 ... decrease in levels of acetylcholine, and increase in activity of acetyl ...... neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disturbances in sevoflurane or propofol ...

  10. Control of radiation exposure (principles and methods)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agwimah, R. I.

    1999-01-01

    Biological risks are directly related to the tissue radiation dose, so it is very important to maintain personnel doses as low as realistically possible. This goal can be achieved by minimizing internal contamination and external exposure to radioactive sources

  11. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloebel, B.; Muth, H.; Keller, K.D.; Hector, G.; Lehnen, H.

    1982-01-01

    In a large hospital (University Hospital, Homburg/Saar, 2000 beds) the use of radionuclides was determined with the aim of a balance of the radionuclide flow through the clinic and the resulting radiation exposure for the persons involved. (author)

  12. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  13. The effect of single and repeated UVB radiation on rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fris, Miroslav; Tessem, May-Britt; Cejková, Jitka; Midelfart, Anna

    2006-12-01

    Cumulative effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important aspect of UV corneal damage. The purpose of this study was to apply high resolution magic angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS 1H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of single and repeated UV radiation exposure of the same overall dose on the rabbit cornea. Corneal surfaces of 24 normal rabbit eyes were examined for the effects of UVB exposure (312 nm). In the first group (UVB1), animals were irradiated with a single dose (3.12 J/cm2; 21 min) of UVB radiation. The animals in the second group (UVB2) were irradiated three times for 7 min every other day (dose of 1.04 J/cm2; days 1, 3, 5) to give the same overall dose (3.12 J/cm2). The third group served as an untreated control group. One day after the last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed, and the corneas were removed and frozen. HR-MAS 1H NMR spectra from intact corneas were obtained. Special grouping patterns among the tissue samples and the relative percentage changes in particular metabolite concentrations were evaluated using modern statistical methods (multivariate analysis, one-way ANOVA). The metabolic profile of both groups of UVB-irradiated samples was significantly different from the control corneas. Substantial decreases in taurine, hypo-taurine and choline-derivatives concentrations and substantial elevation in glucose and betaine levels were observed following the UVR exposure. There was no significant difference between the effect of a single and repeated UVB irradiation of the same overall dose. For the first time, the effects of single and repeated UVR doses on the metabolic profile of the rabbit cornea were analysed and compared. The combination of HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy and modern statistical methods (multivariate analysis, one-way ANOVA) proved suitable to assess the overall view of the metabolic alterations in the rabbit corneal tissue following UVB radiation exposure.

  14. Radiation exposure and management of medical employes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Chiaki

    1981-01-01

    Medical employes handling medical radiation are increasing in recent years. In connection with the radiation exposure management, it was surveyed how much their cumulative exposure doses are and how many employes distribute in respective exposure levels. The medical employes surveyed are physicians, radiation technicians and nurses, working in the hospitals of educational institutions. The period of survey is every three years, from 1962 to 1977. For X-ray and ν-ray, respectively, the yearly cumulative exposure doses were measured by film badges, stepwise starting from below 500 mrem upward to over 5000 mrem; for the respective groups of employes, the percentage in each dose level was shown. The percentage in the level below 500 mrem was the largest in all groups, and in both X-ray and ν-ray, the percentages in higher levels decreased sharply to less than 7%. The exposure management has been improved in recent years. (J.P.N.)

  15. Radiation exposure and management of medical employes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, C [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1981-11-01

    Medical employes handling medical radiation are increasing in recent years. In connection with the radiation exposure management, it was surveyed how much their cumulative exposure doses are and how many employes distribute in respective exposure levels. The medical employes surveyed are physicians, radiation technicians and nurses, working in the hospitals of educational institutions. The period of survey is every three years, from 1962 to 1977. For X-ray and ..gamma..-ray, respectively, the yearly cumulative exposure doses were measured by film badges, stepwise starting from below 500 mrem upward to over 5000 mrem; for the respective groups of employes, the percentage in each dose level was shown. The percentage in the level below 500 mrem was the largest in all groups, and in both X-ray and ..gamma..-ray, the percentages in higher levels decreased sharply to less than 7%. The exposure management has been improved in recent years.

  16. Exposure of the orthopaedic surgeon to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Kiyonobu; Koga, Takamasa; Matsuzaki, Akio; Kido, Masaki; Satoh, Tetsunori [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). Chikushi Hospital

    1995-09-01

    We monitored the amount of radiation received by surgeons and assistants during surgery carried out with fluoroscopic assistance. The radiation was monitored with the use of MYDOSE MINIX PDM107 made by Aloka Co. Over a one year period from Aug 20, 1992 to Aug 19, 1993, a study was undertaken to evaluate exposure of the groin level to radiation with or without use of the lead apron during 106 operation (Group-1). In another group, radiation was monitored at the breast and groin level outside of the lead apron during 39 operations (Group-2). In Group-1, the average exposure per person during one year was 46.0 {mu}SV and the average exposure for each procedure was 1.68 {mu}SV. The use of the lead apron affirmed its protective value; the average radiation dose at the groin level out-side of the apron was 9.11 {mu}SV, the measured dose beneath the apron 0.61 {mu}SV. The average dose of exposure to the head, breast at groin level outside of the lead apron, were 7.68 {mu}SV, 16.24 {mu}SV, 32.04 {mu}SV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the total amount of radiation exposure during surgery done with fluoroscopic control remains well within maximum exposure limits. (author).

  17. Exposure of the orthopaedic surgeon to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kiyonobu; Koga, Takamasa; Matsuzaki, Akio; Kido, Masaki; Satoh, Tetsunori

    1995-01-01

    We monitored the amount of radiation received by surgeons and assistants during surgery carried out with fluoroscopic assistance. The radiation was monitored with the use of MYDOSE MINIX PDM107 made by Aloka Co. Over a one year period from Aug 20, 1992 to Aug 19, 1993, a study was undertaken to evaluate exposure of the groin level to radiation with or without use of the lead apron during 106 operation (Group-1). In another group, radiation was monitored at the breast and groin level outside of the lead apron during 39 operations (Group-2). In Group-1, the average exposure per person during one year was 46.0 μSV and the average exposure for each procedure was 1.68 μSV. The use of the lead apron affirmed its protective value; the average radiation dose at the groin level out-side of the apron was 9.11 μSV, the measured dose beneath the apron 0.61 μSV. The average dose of exposure to the head, breast at groin level outside of the lead apron, were 7.68 μSV, 16.24 μSV, 32.04 μSV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the total amount of radiation exposure during surgery done with fluoroscopic control remains well within maximum exposure limits. (author)

  18. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given

  19. Natural background radiation exposures world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The average radiation dose to the world's population from natural radiation sources has been assessed by UNSCEAR to be 2.4 mSv per year. The components of this exposure, methods of evaluation and, in particular, the variations in the natural background levels are presented in this paper. Exposures to cosmic radiation range from 0.26 mSv per year at sea level to 20 times more at an altitude of 6000 m. Exposures to cosmogenic radionuclides ( 3 H, 14 C) are relatively insignificant and little variable. The terrestrial radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, and 232 Th and the decay products of the latter two constitute the remainder of the natural radiation exposure. Wide variations in exposure occur for these components, particularly for radon and its decay products, which can accumulate to relatively high levels indoors. Unusually high exposures to uranium and thorium series radionuclides characterize the high natural background areas which occur in several localized regions in the world. Extreme values in natural radiation exposures have been estimated to range up to 100 times the average values. (author). 15 refs, 3 tabs

  20. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  1. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  2. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimised. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. The degree of safety which should be regarded as appropriate in different circumstances remains a matter for review, but suggestions are made as to levels which would be advocated by informed opinion, and the exposure limits which would correspond to these. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. Increasing epidemiological evidence is available on the relative sensitivity to radiation induction of malignancies in a number of organs, and to the apparently much lower sensitivity of other organs; and experimental evidence in animals allows a comparable

  3. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besar, Idris [PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings.

  4. Valuing the radiation detriment of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, J.D.; Crick, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The implications of changes in the radiation risk estimates on the valuation of radiation detriment for use in cost-benefit analysis are being considered at the National Radiological Protection Board. This paper discusses the pertinent factors that are currently being considered for further investigation. An example of relevance to occupational exposure is detailed. (author)

  5. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings. (author)

  6. Non-occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of non-occupational exposure is presented. The special problems in connection with assessments of collective doses (time, geographical extension, cut-off, uncertainties) are discussed. Examples of methods and principles for monitoring and dose assessments used for various sources of radiation are given and data on public exposure are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  8. Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility

  9. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded

  10. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    1981-08-01

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  11. Eighth annual occupational radiation exposure report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1976-10-01

    This is a report by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the operation of the Commission's centralized repository of personnel occupational radiation exposure information. Annual reports were received from 387 covered licensees indicating that some 78,713 individuals, having an average exposure of 0.36 rems, were monitored for exposure to radiation during 1975 and that 21,601 individuals terminated their employment or work assignment with covered licensees in 1975. The number of personnel overexposures reported in 1975 decreased from previous years. The most significant overexposures which occurred in 1975 are summarized

  12. Integrated occupational radiation exposure information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    The integrated (Occupational Radiation Exposure) data base information system has many advantages. Radiation exposure information is available to operating management in a more timely manner and in a more flexible mode. The ORE system has permitted the integration of scattered files and data to be stored in a more cost-effective method that permits easy and simultaneous access by a variety of users with different data needs. The external storage needs of the radiation exposure source documents are several orders of magnitude less through the use of the computer assisted retrieval techniques employed in the ORE system. Groundwork is being layed to automate the historical files, which are maintained to help describe the radiation protection programs and policies at any one point in time. The file unit will be microfilmed for topical indexing on the ORE data base

  13. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  14. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  15. Routine medicare and radiation exposure. Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki; Saito, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    As an introduction of the title series, outlines of radiation in physics, chemistry, biochemistry, biological effect and protection are explained from the clinical doctors' aspect of routine medicare, and of radiation exposure in which people's interest is raised after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 2011. For physics, ionizing effects of radiation are described in relation to its quantum energy transfer and its medical utilization like imaging and radiotherapy. Then mentioned in brief is the radiation from elements consisting of human body, cosmic ray and background radiation from the earth, with reference to natural and standardized limits of exposure doses. Radiations from 226 Rn and 40 K are explained as an instance of environmental natural sources together with the concepts of radioactive decay series/scheme, of internal exposure, of hazard like double strand break (DSB) and of medical use such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). For an artifact radiation source, shown are fission products of 235 U by neutron, first yielded in 1945. Evidence of evolution in biochemical repair mechanisms of DSB is explained with a comparison of irradiated drosophila mutation where linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis is proposed, and human non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Historical process of occupational, medical, public exposures and their protection is finally described from the discovery of X-ray in 1895 to the first ICRP publication in 1958 via the A-bomb explosion in 1945. (T.T.)

  16. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms.

  17. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  18. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimized. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. The ''weighting'' factors appropriate to irradiation of particular tissues from internal emitters can thus be defined in terms of their likely individual contributions to the harm of whole-body irradiation. In this way the limits for different modes of exposure by external or internal radiation can be related so as to ensure that protection should be equally effective for different distributions of absorbed dose in the body. In particular, the over-simplified concept of a single critical organ determining the

  19. Neonates' responses to repeated exposure to a still face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Watt, Rachel; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of the study were to examine whether human neonates' responses to communication disturbance modelled by the still-face paradigm were stable and whether their responses were affected by their previous experience with the still-face paradigm. The still face procedure, as a laboratory model of interpersonal stress, was administered repeatedly, twice, to 84 neonates (0 to 4 day olds), with a delay of an average of 1.25 day. Frame-by-frame analysis of the frequency and duration of gaze, distressed face, crying, sleeping and sucking behaviours showed that the procedure was stressful to them both times, that is, the still face effect was stable after repeated administration and newborns consistently responded to such nonverbal violation of communication. They averted their gaze, showed distress and cried more during the still-face phase in both the first and the second administration. They also showed a carry-over effect in that they continued to avert their gaze and displayed increased distress and crying in the first reunion period, but their gaze behaviour changed with experience, in the second administration. While in the first administration the babies continued averting their gaze even after the stressful still-face phase was over, this carry-over effect disappeared in the second administration, and the babies significantly increased their gaze following the still-face phase. After excluding explanations of fatigue, habituation and random effects, a self-other regulatory model is discussed as a possible explanation for this pattern.

  20. Indoor exposure to natural radiation in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbak, K.; Stenum, B.; Soerensen, A.; Majborn, B.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Assessment of the exposures to the Danish population from different natural radiation sources including building materials, drinking water, fly ash etc. has been performed from 1975 and up till now. In 1987 a comprehensive nationwide investigation of the gamma exposures and radon levels in 500 randomly selected Danish dwellings will be concluded by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. At the same time the Danish authorities will publish a control strategy for limiting the exposure of the Danish population from natural sources, especially from radon daughter exposure in dwellings. The presentation will outline the main results of the nationwide survey in Danish dwellings together with the main principles behind and the consequences of the initiated control strategy for limiting the exposures from natural radioactive sources

  1. Advances in ''radiation processing''. Repeat of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1984-01-01

    A symposium entitled ''International Meeting on Radiation Processing'' was held in Dubrovnik from 4th to 8th October, 1982. The current status of and the most recent developments in the field of radiation chemistry were presented. In the report presented here the reader is given a critical review of papers presented at the meeting, the following aspects being treated: Radiation measurements and quality control; radiation source technology; environmental application of radiation technology; radiation chemistry as related to nuclear technology; developments in applied polymer chemistry; radiation sterilization; radiation technological aspects in the food industry; low energy electron radiation applications; applied radiation chemistry and physics; bio-compatible materials, radiation plants; engineering economics and process optimization. (orig./RB) [de

  2. Human exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, J.H.; Matthes, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum located between the softest ionizing radiation and visible radiation. The lower limit of 100 nm is equivalent to photon energies of 12.4 eV, which corresponds approximately to the limit for the production of ionization in biologically important materials. A historical subdividing of the UV-region takes some of the biological effects into account. In this arrangement the range 400-315 nm, the so-called black light region, is called UV-A. In this wavelength region, fluorescence can be induced in many substances. UV-B covers the range 315-280 nm (the skin erythemal region). Most of the biologically active and potentially harmful UV from the sun reaching the surface of the earth is part of this spectral region. UV-C includes the radiation of wavelengths less than 280 nm (the germicidal region). It should be noted that this classification is somewhat arbitrary, and today it is more usual to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the whole UV-range from 200 to 400 nm

  3. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargbo, A.A

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  4. Photoprotection due to pigmentation and epidermal thickness after repeated exposure to ultraviolet light and psoralen plus ultraviolet A therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech-Thomsen, N.; Wulf, H.C. [Rigshospitalet, The National Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Dermatology, Lab. of Photobiology, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1995-10-01

    Tanning and thickening of the epidermis are cardinal defensive responses of human skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation that lead to increased photoprotection. Earlier studies have shown that skin pigmentation can be used to predict minimal erythema dose and minimal phototoxic dose. In this study it was calculated how much of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of repeated exposure to suberythemogenic doses of either UVA or UVB radiation sources or psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) therapy that was attributable to melanogenesis. The backs of 12 volunteers were exposed to 6 different UVA and UVB radiation sources 9 times during 4 weeks. Skin pigmentation was assessed by skin reflectance measuring. Photoprotection was determined from the minimal erythema dose. Melanogenesis accounted for 63-95% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation. Exposure to two UVB sources induced a significant increase in photoprotection but not in pigmentation. Melanogenesis accounted only for 6-11% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of UVB exposure. The pigmentary and photoprotective responses to PUVA therapy were followed in 14 patients. After 2 weeks of exposure, the increase in photoprotection was significantly higher than predicted form the increase in skin pigmentation. After 4 weeks, melanogenesis accounted for only 36% of the increase in photoprotection. This study shows that melanogenesis accounts for the increased photoprotection after 2 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation, but after 4 weeks other protective mechanisms occur during suberythemal UVB exposure and during PUVA therapy the importance of skin pigmentation in the overall photoprotection gradually decreases during a 4-week irradiation period. (au) 17 refs.

  5. Photoprotection due to pigmentation and epidermal thickness after repeated exposure to ultraviolet light and psoralen plus ultraviolet A therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech-Thomsen, N.; Wulf, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    Tanning and thickening of the epidermis are cardinal defensive responses of human skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation that lead to increased photoprotection. Earlier studies have shown that skin pigmentation can be used to predict minimal erythema dose and minimal phototoxic dose. In this study it was calculated how much of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of repeated exposure to suberythemogenic doses of either UVA or UVB radiation sources or psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) therapy that was attributable to melanogenesis. The backs of 12 volunteers were exposed to 6 different UVA and UVB radiation sources 9 times during 4 weeks. Skin pigmentation was assessed by skin reflectance measuring. Photoprotection was determined from the minimal erythema dose. Melanogenesis accounted for 63-95% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation. Exposure to two UVB sources induced a significant increase in photoprotection but not in pigmentation. Melanogenesis accounted only for 6-11% of the increase in photoprotection after 4 weeks of UVB exposure. The pigmentary and photoprotective responses to PUVA therapy were followed in 14 patients. After 2 weeks of exposure, the increase in photoprotection was significantly higher than predicted form the increase in skin pigmentation. After 4 weeks, melanogenesis accounted for only 36% of the increase in photoprotection. This study shows that melanogenesis accounts for the increased photoprotection after 2 weeks of exposure to UVA radiation, but after 4 weeks other protective mechanisms occur during suberythemal UVB exposure and during PUVA therapy the importance of skin pigmentation in the overall photoprotection gradually decreases during a 4-week irradiation period. (au) 17 refs

  6. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Solomon, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 10 6 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10 -6 PYR -1 WLM -1 ). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  7. Neonates’ responses to repeated exposure to a still face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Karen; Watt, Rachel; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2017-01-01

    Aim The main aims of the study were to examine whether human neonates’ responses to communication disturbance modelled by the still-face paradigm were stable and whether their responses were affected by their previous experience with the still-face paradigm. Methods The still face procedure, as a laboratory model of interpersonal stress, was administered repeatedly, twice, to 84 neonates (0 to 4 day olds), with a delay of an average of 1.25 day. Results Frame-by-frame analysis of the frequency and duration of gaze, distressed face, crying, sleeping and sucking behaviours showed that the procedure was stressful to them both times, that is, the still face effect was stable after repeated administration and newborns consistently responded to such nonverbal violation of communication. They averted their gaze, showed distress and cried more during the still-face phase in both the first and the second administration. They also showed a carry-over effect in that they continued to avert their gaze and displayed increased distress and crying in the first reunion period, but their gaze behaviour changed with experience, in the second administration. While in the first administration the babies continued averting their gaze even after the stressful still-face phase was over, this carry-over effect disappeared in the second administration, and the babies significantly increased their gaze following the still-face phase. Conclusion After excluding explanations of fatigue, habituation and random effects, a self-other regulatory model is discussed as a possible explanation for this pattern. PMID:28771555

  8. Tumorigenic responses from single or repeated inhalation exposures to relatively insoluble aerosols of Ce-144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    Human occupational or environmental inhalation exposures may involve repeated or chronic exposures, but most laboratory studies of inhaled radionuclides have involved single exposures. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of repeated inhalation exposures of dogs to a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce with existing data for singly-exposed dogs that had the same cumulative dose to the lungs two years after exposure. To date, the biological effects observed in these repeatedly-exposed dogs have been substantially different from those seen in singly-exposed dogs, particularly during the first 5 years after the initial exposure. Although pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the prominent biological effect seen in singly-exposed dogs between 2 and 4 years after exposure, no lung tumors were seen during the 5 years after the first of the repeated exposures. This response plus other clinical observations are discussed in relation to the patterns of dose rate and cumulative dose for the different exposure conditions. (H.K.)

  9. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP) [de

  10. The Effects of Repeated Low-Dose Sarin Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    support the idea that there is a triphasic NT model for onset and progression of seizures and subsequent brain damage upon acute exposure to OP ChE...An ACh microbore column (1x530 mm ID, 10 µm UniJet, BAS #MF-8904) coupled with AChE/choline oxidase immobilized enzyme reactor (BAS # MF-8903) was...peroxidase to the electrode for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide that was generated from the immobilized enzyme reactor . The detector was set at (-)1.0

  11. Proposal of radiation exposure index, REXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    2002-01-01

    As a measure of harmful effect of radiation, radiation exposure index (REXI) is proposed. It is an integer expression of logarithmic ratio of radiation dose to a standard value. REXI is a dimensionless quantity and is free from the requirement of additivity, in contrast with dose. Not a few kinds of doses are used in the field of radiation protection and among them the effective dose plays main role, since the main target of radiation control is of the so-called stochastic effect and the effective dose is used as the controlling quantity. Effective dose is a radiation dose, namely, a quantity of caused to describe the effect, but it cannot be a representation of the effect itself. It is nothing but a measure of possibility of the effect. In addition, the LNT (linearity and non threshold) Postulation adopted by ICRP makes it difficult to understand the foreseen associated effect quantitatively. (author)

  12. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Beckers, T.; Hermans, D.; Baeyens, F.; Van den Bergh, O.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n ¼ 40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days.

  13. Occupational radiation exposures in canada-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1984-08-01

    This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. The format has been changed to provide more detailed information regarding the various occupations. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  14. Radiation exposure in nucleomedical examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Hach, A.; Reber, H.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of radiation exposure must be subjected to particularly careful scrutiny in nuclear diagnostic procedures in children. The contribution provides a survey of factors influencing the radiation exposure of children in the diagnostic use of radionuclides. These include the age of the child examined, the type of radiopharmaceutical used, the dose of the radiopharmaceutical and the procedure followed. Any state-of-the-art renal function study or skeletal examination using radionuclides requires previous measures to ensure that the child is sufficiently hydrated. The tables in the appendix provide estimations of the doses from the individual nucleomedical procedures used in paediatrics. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Radiation exposure from radium-226 ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, D.H.; Fenyves, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of radium to total radiation exposure resulting from the consumption of natural levels of 226 Ra in several public water supplies in an Oklahoma county was determined. A pilot-level study of total dietary intake indicated that the culinary use of water anomalously high in radium and the consumption of water-based beverages contributed significantly to radiation exposure. The mean dietary intake of 226 Ra was 20.6 pCi/day in one community and resulted in an estimated bone dose of 310 mrem/year

  16. Haematological and immunological indicators for radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehos, A.

    1990-01-01

    It is examined if haematological and immunological parameters can be used as biological indicators for radiation exposure. Additional criteria for biological indicators, apart from the dose dependence of the effect, are listed here. The state of the art concerning the development of haematological and immunological indicators is discussed. Several haematological indicators are currently used in diagnosis when excess radiation exposure has occurred (e.g., after the Chernobyl accident). However, further research work has to be done in the field of immunological indicators. (orig.) [de

  17. Basic units and concepts in radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlekodaj, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the most common units, concepts and models in use today in dealing with radiation exposures and the associated risks are presented. Discussions toward a better understanding of some of the basic difficulties in quantifying risks associated with low levels of radiation are presented. The main thrust of this talk is to lay a foundation for better understanding and appreciation of the talks to follow in this symposium

  18. Radiation hormesis at occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Zaharieva, E.; Acheva, A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: The idea in favour of the auspicious effect of low dose ionizing radiation in biological systems exists for years and serves as basis of the radiation hormesis hypothesis. The results in support of this phenomenon are not accepted as reliable by ICRP. The available epidemiological data could only suppose the presence of hormetic effect because of statistics limitations and relatively high spontaneous rate of the examined effects. The present work was aimed at finding appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals and/or population to prove radiation hormesis. Methods: Blood samples were taken from more than 400 NPP workers, divided in two groups: from the 'strict regimen' area (exposed) and from the administration staff (control). Two levels of evaluation were used: 1) molecular - spontaneous and induced DNA repair by UDS, protein synthesis evaluated radio-metrically, DNA damage by SCGE - all of them in white blood cells, concentration of malonedialdehyde in blood serum; and 2) cellular - the Ly-subsets by flow cytometry, using a FacScan analyzer and immunofluorescent stained mouse monoclonal antibodies. Results: A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage was found in persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/a, compared to the control group. The highest repair capacity after a challenging dose of 2,0 Gy gamma rays as well as a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress was evaluated for persons from the same group. At doses below 200 mSv statistically different decrease of the index of CD3+4+, CD4+25+, CD4+62L+ lymphocyte populations and CD4/CD8 cell ratio was established, and increased levels of NK cells, CD57+8+ , CD8+28+ and CD8+38 were recorded. Conclusion: The present investigation showed that annual doses lower than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase

  19. Case of child abuse by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, V.P.; Gaulden, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    On 2 May 1974, a father was convicted of castrating his 13-year-old son by exposing him to a 1-curie source of 137 Cs to be used for oil gas well logging. The child was subjected to perhaps eight exposures or attempted exposures over a six-month period. A brief discussion of the medical descriptions of the radiation effects upon the skin and testes and the chromosomal system is included

  20. Natural radiation exposure modified by human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1995-01-01

    We are now living in the radiation environment modified by our technology. It is usually called 'Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation' and have been discussed in the UNSCEAR Reports as an important source of exposure. The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations as well as the intensity of cosmic rays are considered to have been constant after our ancestors came down from trees and started walking on their two feet. However, we have been changing our environment to be more comfortable for our life and consequently ambient radiation levels are nomore what used to be. In this paper exposures due to natural radiation modified by our following activities are discussed: housing, balneology, cave excursion, mountain climbing, skiing, swimming, smoking and usage of mineral water, well water, coal, natural gas, phosphate rocks and minerals. In the ICRP Publication No. 39, it is clearly mentioned that even natural radiation should be controlled as far as it is controllable. We have to pay more attention to our activities not to enhance the exposure due to unnecessary, avoidable radiation. (author)

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ''As Low As Reasonably Achievable'' (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources

  3. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n=40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days. Control participants (n=18) received two exposures at the start and end of each session. Chocolate craving was measured (alternately) through subjective report and the amount of saliva secretion to cho...

  4. Realtime radiation exposure monitor and control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to an apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. An exposure measuring apparatus is disclosed which comprises a multilayered detector structure having an external circuit connected to a transparent insulating layer and to a conductive plate a radiation source adapted to irradiate the detector structure with radiation capable of producing electron-hole pairs in a photoconductive layer of the detector wherein the flow of current within the external circuit is measured when the detector is irradiated by the radiation source. (author)

  5. BWR radiation exposure--experience and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, C.F.; Wilkinson, C.D.; Hollander, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The BWR/6 Mark III radiation exposures are projected to be about half of those of current average operating experience of 725 man-rem. These projections are said to be realistic and based on current achievements and not on promises of future development. The several BWRs operating with low primary system radiation levels are positive evidence that radiation sources can be reduced. Improvements have been made in reducing the maintenance times for the BWR/6, and further improvements can be made by further attention to cost-effective plant arrangement and layout during detail design to improve accessibility and maintainability of each system and component

  6. Aircrew radiation exposure assessment for Yugoslav airlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antic, Dragoljub [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Petrovic, Zika [Yugoslav Airlines, JAT, Bulevar umetnosti 16, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    The presented study shows that the crews of the intercontinental flights can receive significant annual effective doses (1.5-2.0 mSv). The exposure of the crews is comparable with natural radiation level on the ground level (it can be up to 5 times higher for some air crew members in the intercontinental flights), but smaller than maximum permissible dose for general population. The annual exposures of the passengers are generally smaller than the exposures of tile air crews. because the passengers have a limited number of flights per year compared with the members of the air-crews. (author).

  7. Verification of radiation exposure using lead shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenyu; Azuma, Masami

    2016-01-01

    A long time use of radiation during IVR (intervention radiology) treatment leads up to an increased exposure on IVR operator. In order to prepare good environment for the operator to work without worry about exposure, the authors examined exposure reduction with the shields attached to the angiography instrument, i. e. lead curtain and lead glass. In this study, the lumber spine phantom was radiated using the instrument and the radiation leaked outside with and without shields was measured by the ionization chamber type survey meter. The meter was placed at the position which was considered to be that for IVR operator, and changed vertically 20-100 cm above X-ray focus by 10 cm interval. The radiation at the position of 80 cm above X-ray focus was maximum without shield and was hardly reduced with lead curtain. However, it was reduced with lead curtain plus lead glass. Similar reduction effects were observed at the position of 90-100 cm above X-ray focus. On the other hand, the radiation at the position of 70 cm above X-ray focus was not reduced with either shield, because that position corresponded to the gap between lead curtain and lead glass. The radiation at the position of 20-60 cm above X-ray focus was reduced with lead curtain, even if without lead glass. These results show that lead curtain and lead glass attached to the instrument can reduce the radiation exposure on IVR operator. Using these shields is considered to be one of good means for IVR operator to work safely. (author)

  8. The Role of Repeated Exposure to Multimodal Input in Incidental Acquisition of Foreign Language Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has reported incidental vocabulary acquisition with complete beginners in a foreign language (FL), within 8 exposures to auditory and written FL word forms presented with a picture depicting their meaning. However, important questions remain about whether acquisition occurs with fewer exposures to FL words in a multimodal situation and whether there is a repeated exposure effect. Here we report a study where the number of exposures to FL words in an incidental learning phase varied between 2, 4, 6, and 8 exposures. Following the incidental learning phase, participants completed an explicit learning task where they learned to recognize written translation equivalents of auditory FL word forms, half of which had occurred in the incidental learning phase. The results showed that participants performed better on the words they had previously been exposed to, and that this incidental learning effect occurred from as little as 2 exposures to the multimodal stimuli. In addition, repeated exposure to the stimuli was found to have a larger impact on learning during the first few exposures and decrease thereafter, suggesting that the effects of repeated exposure on vocabulary acquisition are not necessarily constant.

  9. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  10. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Joseph; Dressman, Holly K; Suchindran, Sunil; Nakamura, Mai; Chao, Nelson J; Himburg, Heather; Minor, Kerry; Phillips, Gary; Ross, Joel; Abedi, Majid; Terbrueggen, Robert; Chute, John P

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI). Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA) which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  11. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lucas

    Full Text Available Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI. Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  12. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  13. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Vlahovich, S.; Cornett, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  14. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrack, Anthony Kiti

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This project is based on studies of radiation doses received by radiation workers from sample of radiation facilities in Nairobi, Kenya, using TLD badges. Radiation doses received by workers during performance of a few types of radiological exposures and application of sealed and unsealed radionuclides have been measured at a number of x ray departments (diagnostic radiology), radiotherapy and nuclear medicine and training and research. Radiation dose measurements were based on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) techniques, using the laboratory facilities of the National Radiation Protection Laboratory (NRPL) at KNH, in Nairobi, Kenya. Evaluation of doses from TLD badges exposed to X-rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Nuclear medicine recorded the highest dose as compared to Radiotherapy, Training and research and Diagnostic radiology. Age and gender have no relation with dose absorption. Yearly average dose seems to have been reducing from 2002 to 2005, representing an improvement in radiation protection. Overall, the results show that radiation workers in Kenya are working under safe environments since the doses received are within acceptable limits of radiation protection. The data presented in this research provides a database, which should serve as a useful reference for comparison with similar studies in the future. (author)

  15. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  16. Control of radiation exposures by decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation exposures of workers at light water and heavy water cooled reactors can be reduced by dilute chemical decontamination as exemplified by the CAN-DECON process. The cost effectiveness of the CAN-DECON process is illustrated by actual service experience and by hypothetical cases

  17. Radiation exposure mitigation through food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Yukawa, Masae; Watanabe, Yoshito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Shigeo; Watabe, Teruhisa; Miyazaki, Taeko

    2001-01-01

    137 CsCl 2 was incorporated into plants (tomyao and broccoli) and these homogenized solutions were administered to rats. The whole-body retention was determined with an Armac counter. The whole body retention patterns of 137 Cs incorporated into the plants were not significantly different from that of the 137 CsCl 2 solution. Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radio-iron and -zinc in food. Chitosan inhibits dietary iron absorption only when rats eat on iron-deficient diet. The effectiveness of phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate) and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on the concentration of phytate and chitosan. Recently, the share of imported foods increased ca. 40% of Japanese total food consumption. Radioactivities in imported foods must be checked from the viewpoints of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentrations of 232 Th and 238 U in some imported mineral waters were higher than domestic waters. However, internal doses of portable waters are negligible. Individual foodstuffs in major food groups (fish and shellfish, meats, mushrooms, root vegetables and so on), which contributed to some radionuclide intakes in Japanese, were also analyzed to clarify the critical pathway in Japanese subjects. (author)

  18. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vipan K.; Allen, Barrett D.; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K.; Chmielewski, Nicole N.; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M.; Britten, Richard A.; Baulch, Janet E.; Limoli, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain. PMID:27721383

  19. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Kloeckner@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Kara, Levent [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, Freiburgstraße 18, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels.

  20. Radiation exposure reduction in APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, C. J.; Hwang, H. R.; Matteson, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    The primary contributors to the total occupational radiation exposure in operating nuclear power plants are operation and maintenance activities during refueling outages. The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) includes a number of design improvements and plans to utilize advanced maintenance methods and robotics to minimize the annual collective dose. The major radiation exposure reduction features implemented in APR1400 are a permanent refueling pool seal, quick opening transfer tube blind flange, improved hydrogen peroxide injection at shutdown, improved permanent steam generator work platforms, and more effective temporary shielding. The estimated average annual occupational radiation exposure for APR1400 based on the reference plant experience and an engineering judgment is determined to be in the order of 0.4 man-Sv, which is well within the design goal of 1 man-Sv. The basis of this average annual occupational radiation exposure estimation is an eighteen (18) month fuel cycle with maintenance performed to steam generators and reactor coolant pumps during refueling outage. The outage duration is assumed to be 28 days. The outage work is to be performed on a 24 hour per day basis, seven (7) days a week with overlapping twelve (12) hour work shifts. The occupational radiation exposure for APR1400 is also determined by an alternate method which consists of estimating radiation exposures expected for the major activities during the refueling outage. The major outage activities that cause the majority of the total radiation exposure during refueling outage such as fuel handling, reactor coolant pump maintenance, steam generator inspection and maintenance, reactor vessel head area maintenance, decontamination, and ICI and instrumentation maintenance activities are evaluated at a task level. The calculated value using this method is in close agreement with the value of 0.4 man-Sv, that has been determined based on the experience and engineering judgement

  1. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, S; Yamada, N; Sakurai, K [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed.

  2. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Shoji; Yamada, Norimasa; Sakurai, Koh

    1975-01-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed. (author)

  3. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes those records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to have resumed after an interruption during 1979 to 1980. A brief summary of extremity dose data is also included

  4. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    1980-12-01

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  10. Radiation exposure mitigation through food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Yukawa, Masae; Watanabe, Yoshito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Shigeo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Watabe, Teruhisa; Miyazaki, Taeko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology

    2001-12-01

    {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} was incorporated into plants (tomyao and broccoli) and these homogenized solutions were administered to rats. The whole-body retention was determined with an Armac counter. The whole body retention patterns of {sup 137}Cs incorporated into the plants were not significantly different from that of the {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} solution. Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radio-iron and -zinc in food. Chitosan inhibits dietary iron absorption only when rats eat on iron-deficient diet. The effectiveness of phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate) and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on the concentration of phytate and chitosan. Recently, the share of imported foods increased ca. 40% of Japanese total food consumption. Radioactivities in imported foods must be checked from the viewpoints of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentrations of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in some imported mineral waters were higher than domestic waters. However, internal doses of portable waters are negligible. Individual foodstuffs in major food groups (fish and shellfish, meats, mushrooms, root vegetables and so on), which contributed to some radionuclide intakes in Japanese, were also analyzed to clarify the critical pathway in Japanese subjects. (author)

  11. Dosimetry for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; McAulay, I.R.; Schrewe, U.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, aircraft structure, etc. This has been recognised for some time and estimates of the exposure of aircraft crew have been made previously and included in, for example, UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) publications. The recent increased interest has been brought about by several factors - the consideration that the relative biological effectiveness of the neutron component was being underestimated; the trend towards higher cruising altitudes for subsonic commercial aircraft and business jet aircraft; and most importantly, the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 60, and the revision of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS). In 1992, the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) established a Working Group to consider the exposure to cosmic radiation of aircraft crew, and the scientific and technical problems associated with radiation protection dosimetry for this occupational group. The Working Group was composed of fifteen scientists (plus a corresponding member) involved in this field of study and with knowledge of radiation measurement at aviation altitudes. This paper is based on the findings of this Working Group. (author)

  12. Analysis of real-time mixture cytotoxicity data following repeated exposure using BK/TD models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, S.; Tebby, C.; Barcellini-Couget, S.; De Sousa, G.; Brochot, C.; Rahmani, R.; Pery, A.R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products generally consist of multiple ingredients. Thus, cosmetic risk assessment has to deal with mixture toxicity on a long-term scale which means it has to be assessed in the context of repeated exposure. Given that animal testing has been banned for cosmetics risk assessment, in vitro assays allowing long-term repeated exposure and adapted for in vitro – in vivo extrapolation need to be developed. However, most in vitro tests only assess short-term effects and consider static endpoints which hinder extrapolation to realistic human exposure scenarios where concentration in target organs is varies over time. Thanks to impedance metrics, real-time cell viability monitoring for repeated exposure has become possible. We recently constructed biokinetic/toxicodynamic models (BK/TD) to analyze such data (Teng et al., 2015) for three hepatotoxic cosmetic ingredients: coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2. In the present study, we aim to apply these models to analyze the dynamics of mixture impedance data using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. Metabolic interactions between the mixture components were investigated, characterized and implemented in the models, as they impacted the actual cellular exposure. Indeed, cellular metabolism following mixture exposure induced a quick disappearance of the compounds from the exposure system. We showed that isoeugenol substantially decreased the metabolism of benzophenone-2, reducing the disappearance of this compound and enhancing its in vitro toxicity. Apart from this metabolic interaction, no mixtures showed any interaction, and all binary mixtures were successfully modeled by at least one model based on exposure to the individual compounds. - Highlights: • We could predict cell response over repeated exposure to mixtures of cosmetics. • Compounds acted independently on the cells. • Metabolic interactions impacted exposure concentrations to the compounds.

  13. Analysis of real-time mixture cytotoxicity data following repeated exposure using BK/TD models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, S.; Tebby, C. [Models for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Unit, INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Barcellini-Couget, S. [ODESIA Neosciences, Sophia Antipolis, 400 route des chappes, 06903 Sophia Antipolis (France); De Sousa, G. [INRA, ToxAlim, 400 route des Chappes, BP, 167 06903 Sophia Antipolis, Cedex (France); Brochot, C. [Models for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology Unit, INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Rahmani, R. [INRA, ToxAlim, 400 route des Chappes, BP, 167 06903 Sophia Antipolis, Cedex (France); Pery, A.R.R., E-mail: alexandre.pery@agroparistech.fr [AgroParisTech, UMR 1402 INRA-AgroParisTech Ecosys, 78850 Thiverval Grignon (France); INRA, UMR 1402 INRA-AgroParisTech Ecosys, 78850 Thiverval Grignon (France)

    2016-08-15

    Cosmetic products generally consist of multiple ingredients. Thus, cosmetic risk assessment has to deal with mixture toxicity on a long-term scale which means it has to be assessed in the context of repeated exposure. Given that animal testing has been banned for cosmetics risk assessment, in vitro assays allowing long-term repeated exposure and adapted for in vitro – in vivo extrapolation need to be developed. However, most in vitro tests only assess short-term effects and consider static endpoints which hinder extrapolation to realistic human exposure scenarios where concentration in target organs is varies over time. Thanks to impedance metrics, real-time cell viability monitoring for repeated exposure has become possible. We recently constructed biokinetic/toxicodynamic models (BK/TD) to analyze such data (Teng et al., 2015) for three hepatotoxic cosmetic ingredients: coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2. In the present study, we aim to apply these models to analyze the dynamics of mixture impedance data using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. Metabolic interactions between the mixture components were investigated, characterized and implemented in the models, as they impacted the actual cellular exposure. Indeed, cellular metabolism following mixture exposure induced a quick disappearance of the compounds from the exposure system. We showed that isoeugenol substantially decreased the metabolism of benzophenone-2, reducing the disappearance of this compound and enhancing its in vitro toxicity. Apart from this metabolic interaction, no mixtures showed any interaction, and all binary mixtures were successfully modeled by at least one model based on exposure to the individual compounds. - Highlights: • We could predict cell response over repeated exposure to mixtures of cosmetics. • Compounds acted independently on the cells. • Metabolic interactions impacted exposure concentrations to the compounds.

  14. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities

  15. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

  16. Diagnostic radiation exposure in pediatric trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Marissa A; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Nabaweesi, Rosemary; Locke, Paul; Ziegfeld, Susan; Brown, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The amount of imaging studies performed for disease diagnosis has been rapidly increasing. We examined the amount of radiation exposure that pediatric trauma patients receive because they are an at-risk population. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trauma patients are exposed to high levels of radiation during a single hospital visit. Retrospective review of children who presented to Johns Hopkins Pediatric Trauma Center from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. Radiographic studies were recorded for each patient and doses were calculated to give a total effective dose of radiation. All radiographic studies that each child received during evaluation, including any associated hospital admission, were included. A total of 945 children were evaluated during the study year. A total of 719 children were included in the analysis. Mean age was 7.8 (±4.6) years. Four thousand six hundred three radiographic studies were performed; 1,457 were computed tomography (CT) studies (31.7%). Average radiation dose was 12.8 (±12) mSv. We found that while CT accounted for only 31.7% of the radiologic studies performed, it accounted for 91% of the total radiation dose. Mean dose for admitted children was 17.9 (±13.8) mSv. Mean dose for discharged children was 8.4 (±7.8) mSv (pcumulative radiation exposure can be high. In young children with relatively long life spans, the benefit of each imaging study and the cumulative radiation dose should be weighed against the long-term risks of increased exposure.

  17. Predicted Radiation Exposure from Mining at Kvanefjeld

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Roos, Per; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    Baseline surveys of gamma radiation and environmental radioactivity have been carried out by Greenland Minerals and Energy Ltd (GMEL) to show existing levels in the town of Narsaq and in the Kvanefjeld project area. Radiation levels in Narsaq are low but elevated in the project area due the prese......Baseline surveys of gamma radiation and environmental radioactivity have been carried out by Greenland Minerals and Energy Ltd (GMEL) to show existing levels in the town of Narsaq and in the Kvanefjeld project area. Radiation levels in Narsaq are low but elevated in the project area due...... the presence of large uranium and thorium deposits in Kvanefjeld. These deposits are also the reason that radon in outdoor air show elevated concentrations in Narsaq and in the project area. It is recommended that future monitoring of external exposure and radon should be based on measurement techniques using...

  18. Radiation exposure and radiation risk of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.; Paretzke, H.G.; Ehling, U.H.

    1981-02-01

    The major scientifically founded results concerning the assessment of the radiation exposure and the analysis and evaluation of the radiationhazards for the population, particularly in the range of low doses, are presented. As to the risk analysis special attention is paid to the rays with low ionization density (X-, γ-, β- and electronrays). Contents: 1) Detailed survey of the results and conclusions; 2) Data on the radiation load of the population; 3) Results to epidemiological questioning on the risk of cancer; 4) Genetical radiation hazards of the population. For quantification purposes of the risk of cancer by γ-radiation the observations with the a-bomb survivors in Japan are taken as a basis, as the available dosimetrical data have to be revised. Appendices: 1) German translation of the UNSCEAR-Report (1977); 2) BEIR-Report (1980); 3) Comments from the SSK on the comparability of the risks of natural-artificial radiation exposure; 4) Comments from the SSK on the importance of synergistical influences for the radiation protection (23.9.1977). (HP) [de

  19. Effects of repeated exposure to white noise on central cholinergic activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H

    1988-03-01

    Acute (45 min) exposure to noise has been shown to decrease sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. In the present experiment, the effects of repeated noise exposure on choline uptake in these two brain regions were studied. Rats were exposed to 100-dB white noise in ten 45-min sessions. Tolerance developed to the effects of noise on choline uptake. In addition, the effects were found to be classically conditionable to cues in the exposure environment. These data may have important implications in understanding the health hazard of noise exposure in both the public and occupational environments.

  20. Radiation exposure of the UK population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.E.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1978-11-01

    Man is continuously exposed to radiation from many sources, both natural and man-made. The man-made sources include medical irradiation, exposure from radioactive waste disposal, fallout from nuclear weapons tests and various 'miscellaneous sources' which include consumer products. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) keeps these contributions to the radiation exposure of the population under continuous review and publishes reports on the subject periodically. This is the second such report and contains considerably more information than the first published in 1974. The balance of the report reflects the availability of data and the advice given in the sixth report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. The conclusions are: (a) that the major contribution to the dose to the population is from natural background radiation; (b) that the largest man-made contribution is from medical uses of radiation; (c) that the largest contribution from environmental contamination is still from the residual effects of fallout from nuclear weapons testing; (d) that occupational exposure and irradiation from miscellaneous sources, considered as contributions to the per caput dose to the population, are the next largest components; (e) that radioactive waste disposal is the smallest contributor to the per caput dose to the population. It was also felt useful to review the past trends in the doses resulting from the various sources and the authors have attempted to make some tentative predictions of doses up to the year 2000. (author)

  1. A review of child medical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    During their first year, children may undergo a lot of X-ray exams: of hips at the age of 4 months to detect any deformities, of lungs to detect bronchiolitis, of bones to detect breaks, of jaw (dental panoramic) to prepare for possible medical care in orthodontics. A survey shows that the medical radiation dose received by children is less than 0.35 mSv a year while the average dose for an adult is 4.5 mSv. This figure is reassuring but children exposure needs to be carefully monitored as children are more sensitive to radiation because they are growing. The control of radiation exposure is made through a compulsory survey: every year radiologists must send to the IRSN (Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety) the radiation doses received by 30 patients for the most common radiological examinations and the IRSN will then define reference doses based on these figures. The feedback over the 2013-2015 period for children exposure is very low. A new methodology must be defined to compensate this lack of data. The strategy is to reduce the global dose by performing only fully justified examinations and to adapt the dose to the real size and weight of the child. (A.C.)

  2. Primary blast survival and injury risk assessment for repeated blast exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Matthew B; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Rafaels, Karin A; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce P

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of explosives by modern insurgents and terrorists has increased the potential frequency of blast exposure in soldiers and civilians. This growing threat highlights the importance of understanding and evaluating blast injury risk and the increase of injury risk from exposure to repeated blast effects. Data from more than 3,250 large animal experiments were collected from studies focusing on the effects of blast exposure. The current study uses 2,349 experiments from the data collection for analysis of the primary blast injury and survival risk for both long- and short-duration blasts, including the effects from repeated exposures. A piecewise linear logistic regression was performed on the data to develop survival and injury risk assessment curves. New injury risk assessment curves uniting long- and short-duration blasts were developed for incident and reflected pressure measures and were used to evaluate the risk of injury based on blast over pressure, positive-phase duration, and the number of repeated exposures. The risk assessments were derived for three levels of injury severity: nonauditory, pulmonary, and fatality. The analysis showed a marked initial decrease in injury tolerance with each subsequent blast exposure. This effect decreases with increasing number of blast exposures. The new injury risk functions showed good agreement with the existing experimental data and provided a simplified model for primary blast injury risk. This model can be used to predict blast injury or fatality risk for single exposure and repeated exposure cases and has application in modern combat scenarios or in setting occupational health limits. .Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  3. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  4. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  5. Reducing occupational radiation exposures at LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattanzi, D.; Neri, C.; Papa, C.; Paribelli, S.

    1980-01-01

    The occupational radiation doses received by nuclear power plant personnel during a period of several years of operation are briefly reviewed. Comparisons are made between the data for BWRs and PWRs in order to identify the more ''critical'' reactor type, from a radiological poin; of view. Attention is also devoted to GCRs. Furthermore the areas which contribute most to personnel doses are considered and briefly reviewed. The main steps to be taken in order to reduce occupational radiation exposures at LWRs are discussed. (H.K.)

  6. Distribution of Radiation Exposure from Natural Radiation in Big Cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udiyani, P.M.; Ahmad, Yus R.

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of radiation exposure from the natural radiation in the big city in Java such as Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Yogyakarta, and Surabaya have be done. Based on radiation dose and population at the sample location, the dose collective and risk probability will be know. The maximal exposure at Yogyakarta is 0.291 mSv/year and the minimal exposure at Surabaya is 0.216 mSv/year. Collective dose at Jakarta is 1.649.526 men mSv/year; Bandung 124.844 men mSv/year; Semarang : 64.558 men mSv/year; Yogyakarta 136.188 men mSv/year; and Surabaya 145.152 men mSv/year. The person probability of radiation disease at jakarta is 16.49 person/year, Bandung is 1.24 person/year, Semarang 1.64 person/year, Yogyakarta is 1.36 person/year, and Surabaya is 1.45 person/year

  7. Radiation exposure during air and ground transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.; Weng, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a one year study program of radiation exposure experienced on both domestic and international flights of the China Airline and the Far East Airline in the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Taiwan areas and on trains and buses on Taiwan island are reported. CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. It has been shown that transit exposures may amount to 10 times that on the ground with an altitude varying from 3,050 to 12,200 m. (U.K.)

  8. Personnel radiation exposure in HTGR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Engholm, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants were assessed. The expected rate of dose accumulations for a large HTGR steam cycle unit is 0.07 man-rem/MW(e)y, while the design basis is 0.17 man-rem/MW(e)y. The comparable figure for actual light water reactor experience is 1.3 man-rem/MW(e)y. The favorable HTGR occupational exposure is supported by results from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 HTGR and Fort St. Vrain HTGR plants and by operating experience at British gas-cooled reactor stations

  9. Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A Concern for Public ... as well as safety guidelines relating to exposure of non-ionizing radiation. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators claimed that their ...

  10. Radically Reducing Radiation Exposure during Routine Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to radiation from medical imaging in the United States has increased dramatically. NCI and several partner organizations sponsored a 2011 summit to promote efforts to reduce radiation exposure from medical imaging.

  11. Biological effects of radiation and health risks from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotian, Rahul P.; Kotian, Sahana Rahul; Sukumar, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The very fact that ionizing radiation produces biological effects is known from many years. The first case of injury reported by Sir Roentgen was reported just after a few months after discovery of X-rays in 1895. As early as 1902, the first case of X-ray induced cancer was reported in the literature. Early human evidence of harmful effects as a result of exposure to radiation in large amounts existed in the 1920s and 1930s, based upon the experience of early radiologists, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity underground, persons working in the radium industry, and other special occupational groups. The long-term biological significance of smaller, repeated doses of radiation, however, was not widely appreciated until relatively recently, and most of our knowledge of the biological effects of radiation has been accumulated since World War II. The mechanisms that lead to adverse health effects after exposure to ionizing radiation are still not fully understood. Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to change the structure of molecules, including DNA, within the cells of the body. Some of these molecular changes are so complex that it may be difficult for the body's repair mechanisms to mend them correctly. However, the evidence is that only a small fraction of such changes would be expected to result in cancer or other health effects. The most thoroughly studied individuals for the evaluation of health effects of ionizing radiation are the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings, a large population that includes all ages and both sexes.The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan has conducted followup studies on these survivors for more than 50 years. An important finding from these studies is that the occurrence of solid cancers increases in proportion to radiation dose. More than 60% of exposed survivors received a dose of radiation of less than 100 mSv (the definition of low dose used by the BEIR VII report). (author)

  12. Radiation protection programme for existing exposure situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhani, Hilali Hussein

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop the Radiation protection Programme (RPP) to ensure that measures are in place for protection of individuals from the existing source of exposure. The study established a number of protective and remedial actions to be considered by the responsible regulatory Authority, licensee for existing exposure in workplace and dwellings. Tanzania is endowed with a number NORMs processing industries with an experience of uncontrolled exploration and extraction of minerals and the use of unsafe mining methods leading to severe environmental damage and appalling living conditions in the mining communities. Some of NORMs industries have been abandoned due to lack of an effect management infrastructure. The residual radioactive materials have been found to be the most import source of existing exposure resulted from NORMs industries. The Radon gas and its progeny have also been found to be a source of existing exposure from natural source as well as the major source of risk and health effects associated with existing exposure situation. The following measures have been discovered to play a pivotal role in avoiding or reducing the source of exposure to individuals such as restriction of the use of the construction materials, restriction on the consumption of foodstuffs and restriction on the access to the land and buildings, the removal of the magnitude of the source in terms of activity concentration as well as improvement of ventilation in dwellings. Therefore, the regulatory body (Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission) should examine the major areas outlined in the established RRP for existing exposure situation resulted from the NORMs industries and natural sources so as to develop strategies that will ensure the adequate protection of members of the public and the environment as well as guiding operating organizations to develop radiation protection and safety measures for workers. (au)

  13. Radiation protection of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.; Pinter, I.; Liskova, A.

    2008-01-01

    For determination of radiation dose of aviation personnel we used the software EPCARD (European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) developed by National Research Center for Environmental Health - Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany) and the software CARI 6, developed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (USA). Both codes are accomplished by the Joint Aviation Authorities. Experimental measurement and estimation of radiation doses of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation were realised in the period of lowered solar activity. All-year effective dose of pilots, which worked off at least 11 months exceeds the value 1 mSv in 2007. The mean all-year effective dose of member of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation is 2.5 mSv and maximal all-year effective dose, which we measured in 2007 was 4 mSv. We assumed that in the period of increased solar activity the all-year effective doses may by higher

  14. Population exposure to ionising radiation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.K.; Krishnan, D.; Subba Ramu, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Estimates of exposure from various radiation sources to Indian population are given. The per caput dose from all the identifiable sources, both natural and man-made is estimated to be 2490 μSv per year to the present population of India. 97.9% of this dose is contributed by natural sources which include cosmic and terrestrial radiations, 1.93% by medical sources used for diagnostic and treatment purpose, 0.3% by exposures due to activities related nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear tests and nuclear accidents, and 0.07% by miscellaneous sources such as industrial applications, consumer products, research activities, air travel etc. The monograph is written for the use of the common man. (M.G.B.). 25 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  15. European studies on occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, K.; Frasch, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ESOREX project was initiated by the European Commission in 1997. The objectives of this European study are: to provide the European Commission and the national competent radiation protection authorities with reliable information on how personal radiation monitoring, reporting and recording of dosimetric results is organized in European countries; to collect reliable and directly comparable data on individual and collective radiation exposure in all occupational sectors where radiation workers are employed. The information about the monitoring of occupational radiation exposure, the levels of individual personal doses of workers in the different work sectors, the changes and trends of these doses over a period of several years and the international comparison of these data are useful information for many stakeholders. The survey consists of two parts. Part I surveys how radiation protection monitoring, recording and reporting is arranged within each of the 30 European countries. Part II collects doses from occupational exposure of classified workers in the participating countries. For each country, information is provided on the number of workers in defined work categories and how annual individual personal doses are distributed. The summary and the conclusions provide tentative recommendations for harmonizing modifications of some of the national monitoring, reporting and recording arrangements. In all ESOREX studies a beneficial, effective and extensive information base about thirty European states has been created. The studies resulted in country reports describing the legislative, administrative, organizational and technical aspects of the national dose monitoring and recording systems for occupationally radiation exposed workers. These reports are standardized, i.e. they have as far as possible an internationally comparable structure. The dose distributions of the radiation workers and the annual average and collective doses in the various work

  16. Controlling occupational radiation exposure. Alternatives to regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, L.A.; Squitieri, R.; Wildman, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    The principal strategy adopted for the control of occupational radiation exposure has been the establishment of standards expressed as maximum permissible exposures. The use of such standards is subject to a number of defects, among which is the neglect of the economic impact of imposing such standards. Furthermore, such standards carry the implication of a threshold for radiation effects, a concept now widely challenged. Lastly, the use of standards makes it impossible to evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory agency or to compare its performance with other similar agencies. An alternative to the use of standards, i.e. cost-benefit analysis, is discussed. The advantages of this technique meet many of the objections to the use of standards alone and allow health and safety resources to be allocated in a manner most likely to save the most lives. The greatest disadvantage of cost-benefit analysis has been the difficulty in evaluating the benefit side of the equation. Although the risks of radiation exposure are not known with precision, they are nevertheless well understood. Therefore, the application of cost-benefit analysis to occupational radiation exposure is rational. There are a number of barriers to reform in the use of standards and the adoption of cost-benefit analysis. These attitudinal and institutional constraints are discussed. The nature of private or market systems of control are discussed, i.e. the use of liability and insurance mechanisms. These also have shortcomings that require further development but are seen as potentially more efficient for both employer and employee than is the use of regulatory standards. (author)

  17. Microwave radiation - Biological effects and exposure standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    The thermal and nonthermal effects of exposure to microwave radiation are discussed and current standards for microwave exposure are examined in light of the proposed use of microwave power transmission from solar power satellites. Effects considered include cataractogenesis at levels above 100 mW/sq cm, and possible reversible disturbances such as headaches, sleeplessness, irritability, fatigue, memory loss, cardiovascular changes and circadian rhythm disturbances at levels less than 10 mW/sq cm. It is pointed out that while the United States and western Europe have adopted exposure standards of 10 mW/sq cm, those adopted in other countries are up to three orders of magnitude more restrictive, as they are based on different principles applied in determining safe limits. Various aspects of the biological effects of microwave transmissions from space are considered in the areas of the protection of personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, interactions of the transmitted radiation with cardiac pacemakers, and effects on birds. It is concluded that thresholds for biological effects from short-term microwave radiation are well above the maximal power density of 1 mW/sq cm projected at or beyond the area of exclusion of a rectenna.

  18. Radiation exposures due to fossil fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L.

    The current consensus regarding the potential radiation exposures resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels is examined. Sources, releases and potential doses to humans are discussed, both for power plants and waste materials. It is concluded that the radiation exposure to most individuals from any pathway is probably insignificant, i.e. only a tiny fraction of the dose received from natural sources in soil and building materials. Any small dose that may result from power-plant emissions will most likely be from inhalation of the small insoluble ash particles from the more poorly controlled plants burning higher than average activity fuel, rather than from direct or indirect ingestion of food grown on contaminated soil. One potentially significant pathway for exposure to humans that requires further evaluation is the effect on indoor external γ-radiation levels resulting from the use of flyash in building materials. The combustion of natural gas in private dwellings is also discussed, and the radiological consequences are concluded to be generally insignificant, except under certain extraordinary circumstances.

  19. A re-examination of the mere exposure effect: The influence of repeated exposure on recognition, familiarity, and liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Horton, Robert S; Vevea, Jack L; Citkowicz, Martyna; Lauber, Elissa A

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the veracity of models of the mere exposure effect and to understand the processes that moderate the effect, we conducted a meta-analysis of the influence of repeated exposure on liking, familiarity, recognition, among other evaluations. We estimated parameters from 268 curve estimates drawn from 81 articles and revealed that the mere exposure effect was characterized by a positive slope and negative quadratic effect consistent with an inverted-U shaped curve. In fact, such curves were associated with (a) all visual, but not auditory stimuli; (b) exposure durations shorter than 10 s and longer than 1 min; (c) both homogeneous and heterogeneous presentation types; and (d) ratings that were taken after all stimuli were presented. We conclude that existing models for the mere exposure effect do not adequately account for the findings, and we provide a framework to help guide future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' foods over rapidly repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Köster, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the liking for salt reduced products was tested in a rapidly repeated exposure study using soup and bread (with ham). Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. First, 44 consumers performed 5 two-alternative forced choice tests to establish the exchange rate (ER) at

  1. Developmental differences in stress responding after repeated underwater trauma exposures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel E; Simmons, Laurence P; Vuong, Chau T; Taylor, Rachel M; Sousa, Jason C; Marcsisin, Sean R; Zottig, Victor E; Moore, Nicole L T

    2018-05-01

    Adolescence is a distinct developmental period characterized by behavioral and physiological maturation. Rapid ongoing changes during neurodevelopment in particular present potential opportunities for stress to have lasting effects on longitudinal outcomes of behavioral and neuroendocrine function. While adult stress effects on outcomes during adulthood have been characterized, little is known about the lasting effects of adolescent repeated stressor exposure on outcomes during adolescence. We have previously reported different stress responses in adolescent rats relative to adult rats, including a blunted fear response outcome in adulthood in rats stressed during adolescence. The present study characterized the ontogeny of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to eight underwater trauma (UWT) exposures in rats over a two week poststress time period during adolescence (P34) or adulthood (P83) relative to age-matched control groups that underwent eight swimming episodes without UWT. Repeated UWT exposures starting in adolescence, but not adulthood, resulted in adverse behavioral responses on the elevated plus maze 1 day post-stress. Corticosterone responses did not differ between UWT-exposed and controls for either age group at 1 day or at 7 days poststress, although there was an effect of age on corticosterone levels. We conclude that repeated UWT stress events have a lasting, negative behavioral effect on adolescent rats that is not observed in adult rats after the two-week exposure window. These results suggest that neurophysiological mechanisms underlying recovery from a repeated stressor are immature in adolescence relative to adulthood in rats.

  2. College in the Media: The Relationship between Repeated Exposure and College Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Media consumption can influence viewer perceptions and attitudes. Recent research on media's effect on college students has failed to address gender differences. Using Mere Repeated Exposure Theory (traditionally used in marketing research), this study aims to answer three research questions regarding college media consumption and college…

  3. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults

  4. Information technology-based approaches to reducing repeat drug exposure in patients with known drug allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin M; Sheikh, Aziz

    2008-05-01

    There is increasing interest internationally in ways of reducing the high disease burden resulting from errors in medicine management. Repeat exposure to drugs to which patients have a known allergy has been a repeatedly identified error, often with disastrous consequences. Drug allergies are immunologically mediated reactions that are characterized by specificity and recurrence on reexposure. These repeat reactions should therefore be preventable. We argue that there is insufficient attention being paid to studying and implementing system-based approaches to reducing the risk of such accidental reexposure. Drawing on recent and ongoing research, we discuss a number of information technology-based interventions that can be used to reduce the risk of recurrent exposure. Proven to be effective in this respect are interventions that provide real-time clinical decision support; also promising are interventions aiming to enhance patient recognition, such as bar coding, radiofrequency identification, and biometric technologies.

  5. The global assessment of medical radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannoun, F.

    2010-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) is the United Nations specialized agency which acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. It was established in 1948. It has 147 Country Offices, 6 Regional Offices and 193 Member States Ministries of Health Its headquarters is in Geneva. The World Health Assembly (WHA) requested WHO to s tudy the optimum use of ionizing radiation in medicine and the risks to health of excessive or improper use . (WHA, 1971) International Basic Safety Standards BSS) The (BSS) mark the culmination of efforts towards global harmonization of radiation safety requirements. However, the involvement of the health sector in the BSS implementation is still weak and scant. There is a need to mobilize the health sector towards safer and effective use of radiation in medicine. Radiation in Health Care The use of radiation in health care is by far the largest contributor to the exposure of the general population from artificial sources. Annually worldwide there are 3,600 million X-ray exams (> 300 million in children), 37 million nuclear medicine procedures and 7.5 million radiation oncology treatments [UNSCEAR Report 2008]. WHO Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Health Care Settings Was launched in December 2008 It involved the following:- There was involvement of international organizations and professionals bodies, national health and radiation protection authorities, etc. Its aim is to improve the protection of patients and health care workers through better implementation of the BSS. It complements the International Action Plan for Radiological Protection of Patients established by the IAEA 7 UNSCEAR's medical exposure survey Objectives of UNSCEAR's survey were to facilitate evaluation of: - Global estimates of frequency and levels of exposures, with break-downs by medical procedure, age, sex, health care level, and country; - Trends in practice (including those relatively fast-changing); with supporting contextual

  6. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    This 1978 report is the first in a series of annual reports on occupational radiation exposures in Canada. The data are derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of overexposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1978 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may have changed. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increasd over the corresponding values for 1977

  7. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  8. Unjustified prenatal radiation exposure in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Garcia Lima, O.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Freixas, V.; Lopez Bejerano, G.; Sanchez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exposure to the radiation ionising of pregnant women, frequently constitutes motive of preoccupation for the expectant mother and the medical professionals taken the responsibility with its attention. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the ionising radiation is of singular importance due to its special vulnerability to this agent. On the other hand the diagnosis or treatment with radiations ionising beneficial for the expectant mother, are only indirectly for the embryo-fetus that is exposed to a hazard without perceiving anything. The present paper presents the experience obtained in the clinical and dosimetric evaluation from twenty-one pregnant patients subjected to diverse radiodiagnostic procedures or nuclear medicine during the years 1999-2000. The obtained results evidence that 24% of the patients was subjected to procedures of nuclear medicine with diagnostic purposes. While the period of pregnancy of the patients ranged between 4 and 12 weeks, it could be concluded that in all the cases the doses received by the patients in the whole body did not exceed 2 mSv. When conjugating the period of pregnancy of the patients with the doses received, there is no evidence of significant risk for the embryo-fetus. Paradoxically the physicians of assistance suggested to their patients in all the cases to carry out the interruption of the pregnancy, demonstrating with this decision ignorance on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations during the prenatal exposures. (author)

  9. Occupational radiation exposure. Twelfth annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.; McDonald, S.; Richardson, E.

    1982-08-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that is maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Radiation Exposure Information and Reports System (REIRS). This report is usually published on an annual basis and is available at all NRC public document rooms. The bulk of the information contained in the report was extracted from annual statistical reports submitted by all NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.407. Four categories of licensees - operating nuclear power reactors, fuel fabricators and reprocessors, industrial radiographers, and manufacturers and distributors of specified quantities of byproduct materials - also submit personal identification and exposure information for terminating employees pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408, and some analysis of this data is also presented in this report

  10. The natural sources of ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.

    1982-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiation include external sources (cosmic rays, natural radionuclides present in the crust of the earth and in building materials) and internal sources (naturally occuring radionuclides in the human body, especially the potassium 40 and radon short lived decay products). The principal ways of human exposure to theses different components in ''normal'' areas are reviewed; some examples of the variability of exposure with respect to different regions of the world or the habits of life are given. Actual estimations of the doses delivered to the organs are presented; for the main contributors to population exposure, the conversion into effective dose equivalent has been made for allowing a better evaluation of their respective importance [fr

  11. Monitoring and control of occupational radiation exposure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure is the most prominent example for the prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation characterized by low doses and dose rates. In this paper the occupational exposure in Switzerland is presented and the regulatory control of this exposure in the framework of the new radiation protection regulations is discussed. (author)

  12. The radiation exposure regulation for XXI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of the people radiation exposure by the ICRP and IAEA is subject to well-founded criticism for the excessive severity and complexity. In Russia these shortcomings adversely affected at the removal of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The future regulation system must be better coordinated with the other sources of human life risks. In the advanced countries the death probability from the all reasons is equal 1-2·10 -2 year -1 with the age variation from 5·10 -4 to 2·10 -1 . Therefore it is reasonable to consider that death risk from radiation less than 1·10 -5 - 1·10 -3 depending on age, as an insignificant, but not 1·10 -6 as it is accepted now. Whatever heritable effects of human irradiation are not revealed by the observation during a half on century. Therefore, there is no any reason to account them. As concern the dose dependence of the stochastic effects of radiation the new information is already demonstrating that more than an a half of the whole human's radiation cancers are submitted to dependence with the threshold from 0.3 to tens of sievert at the low dose rate. Therefore, the linear nonthreshold dependence is not true. This fact is undermining the modern system of irradiation regulation institution. One can't use the effective dose. One hasn't to fear of the radiation exposure in small doses. There isn't the necessity in optimization of such exposure all the more the balance detriment-benefit depends on not only dose but even not so much on dose. It is reasonable to base the future system regulation of radiation exposure with the only one principle: one mustn't exceed the limit of the personal life-span dose, which must be set at the level 2.5 Sv for the staff. The limit equal to 0.5 Sv during every 10 consecutive years will ensure that. For the population, the limit as 50-70 mSv during every 10 consecutive years will ensure the level 0.35-05 Sv for life-span. Equally, with the half century dose it is necessary to regulate

  13. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The report on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013 covers the natural radiation exposure due to radon, food, cosmic and terrestric radiation and the radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine nuclear facilities, mining, industry household and fallout. Special issues are the occupational radiation exposure the medical radiation exposure and the exposure to non-ionizing radiation.

  14. Analysis of real-time mixture cytotoxicity data following repeated exposure using BK/TD models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, S; Tebby, C; Barcellini-Couget, S; De Sousa, G; Brochot, C; Rahmani, R; Pery, A R R

    2016-08-15

    Cosmetic products generally consist of multiple ingredients. Thus, cosmetic risk assessment has to deal with mixture toxicity on a long-term scale which means it has to be assessed in the context of repeated exposure. Given that animal testing has been banned for cosmetics risk assessment, in vitro assays allowing long-term repeated exposure and adapted for in vitro - in vivo extrapolation need to be developed. However, most in vitro tests only assess short-term effects and consider static endpoints which hinder extrapolation to realistic human exposure scenarios where concentration in target organs is varies over time. Thanks to impedance metrics, real-time cell viability monitoring for repeated exposure has become possible. We recently constructed biokinetic/toxicodynamic models (BK/TD) to analyze such data (Teng et al., 2015) for three hepatotoxic cosmetic ingredients: coumarin, isoeugenol and benzophenone-2. In the present study, we aim to apply these models to analyze the dynamics of mixture impedance data using the concepts of concentration addition and independent action. Metabolic interactions between the mixture components were investigated, characterized and implemented in the models, as they impacted the actual cellular exposure. Indeed, cellular metabolism following mixture exposure induced a quick disappearance of the compounds from the exposure system. We showed that isoeugenol substantially decreased the metabolism of benzophenone-2, reducing the disappearance of this compound and enhancing its in vitro toxicity. Apart from this metabolic interaction, no mixtures showed any interaction, and all binary mixtures were successfully modeled by at least one model based on exposure to the individual compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podonsky, Glenn S. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  16. Occupational radiation exposure in Korea: 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Je Ho; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Lee, Jai Ki

    2005-01-01

    Dose distribution of Korean radiation workers classified by occupational categories was analyzed. Statistics of the Occupational Radiation Exposure(ORE) in 2002 of the radiation workers in diagnostic and dental radiology were obtained from the Korea Food and Drug Agency(KFDA) who maintains the database for individual radiation dose records. Corresponding statistics for the rest of radiation workers were obtained by processing the individual annual doses provided by the Korea RadioIsotope Association(KRIA) after deletion of individual information. The ORE distribution was classified in term of 28 occupational categories, annual individual dose levels, age groups and gender of 52733 radiation workers as of the year of 2002. The total collective dose was 66.4 man-Sv and resulting average individual ORE was 1.26 mSv. Around 80% of the workers were exposed to minimal doses less than 1.2 mSv. However, it appeared that the recorded doses exceeded 20 mSv for 43 workers in the industrial radiography and for 147 workers in the field of radiology. Particularly, recorded doses of 23 workers in radiology exceeded the annual dose limits of 50 mSv, which is extraordinary when the working environment is considered. It is uncertain whether those doses are real or caused by careless placing of dosimeters in the imaging rooms while the X-ray units are in operation. No one in the workforce of 16 operating nuclear power plant units was exposed over 20 mSv in 2002. Number of workers was the largest in their 30's of age and the mean individual dose was the highest in their 20's. Women were around 20% of the radiation workers and their average dose was around one half of that of man workers

  17. Repeated nicotine exposure enhances reward-related learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, Peter; Jentsch, J David; Taylor, Jane R

    2003-07-01

    Repeated exposure to addictive drugs causes neuroadaptive changes in cortico-limbic-striatal circuits that may underlie alterations in incentive-motivational processes and reward-related learning. Such drug-induced alterations may be relevant to drug addiction because enhanced incentive motivation and increased control over behavior by drug-associated stimuli may contribute to aspects of compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study investigated the consequences of repeated nicotine treatment on the acquisition and performance of Pavlovian discriminative approach behavior, a measure of reward-related learning, in male rats. Water-restricted rats were trained to associate a compound conditioned stimulus (tone+light) with the availability of water (the unconditioned stimulus) in 15 consecutive daily sessions. In separate experiments, rats were repeatedly treated with nicotine (0.35 mg/kg, s.c.) either (1) prior to the onset of training, (2) after each daily training session was completed (ie postsession injections), or (3) received nicotine both before the onset of training as well as after each daily training session. In this study, all nicotine treatment schedules increased Pavlovian discriminative approach behavior and, thus, prior repeated exposure to nicotine, repeated postsession nicotine injections, or both, facilitated reward-related learning.

  18. Report on emergency exposure to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W.M.

    1960-01-01

    The Medical Research Council has continued a study of the effects on the health of persons in the neighbourhood of atomic energy installations should there be a release of radioactive material as a result of fires or other incidents. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations has already reported (Medical Research Council, 1959) on the maximum permissible dietary contamination for iodine 131, strontium 89, strontium 90 and caesium. 137, since it was considered that for the members of the public normally resident in the area affected ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident and that intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances The present report deals with the problem of exposure from the exterior, namely, from external sources of beta and gamma radiation. This exposure might be derived from two sources, one of relatively short duration from the passage of a cloud of radioactive material, the other of longer duration from deposited material

  19. Patient radiation exposure in computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, V [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1980-01-01

    Radiation exposure to patients undergoing axial computerized tomography as a tool of neurological X-ray diagnostics was studied. Doses thereby delivered were compared with those from routine head films at X-ray tube parameters 200 W, 70 kV, and 70 cm target-to-patient distance. Radiation exposures were analyzed with a view to improving shielding and procedural techniques. Comparisons were made using LiF TLD measurements with an Alderson phantom (standard for axial computer tomography). Skin and intracranial space doses were compared using two computers, Siretom I and Siretom 2000, for various positionings: frontal, fronto-lateral, temporal, temporo-occipital, and occipital. In addition, patient body doses with or without shielding and doses to subjects attending sick children or restless adults were examined. Achievable protection was estimated for lead shields of 0.5 mm lead equivalent. It was concluded that radiation doses delivered to neurologic patients undergoing axial computer tomography are smaller than those resulting from conventional X-ray examinations.

  20. Report on emergency exposure to external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochin, E E; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W M [Medical Research Council, Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1960-12-01

    The Medical Research Council has continued a study of the effects on the health of persons in the neighbourhood of atomic energy installations should there be a release of radioactive material as a result of fires or other incidents. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations has already reported (Medical Research Council, 1959) on the maximum permissible dietary contamination for iodine 131, strontium 89, strontium 90 and caesium. 137, since it was considered that for the members of the public normally resident in the area affected ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident and that intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances The present report deals with the problem of exposure from the exterior, namely, from external sources of beta and gamma radiation. This exposure might be derived from two sources, one of relatively short duration from the passage of a cloud of radioactive material, the other of longer duration from deposited material.

  1. Radiation protection programme for emergency exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoah, Peter Atta

    2016-04-01

    An assessment of the Radiation Protection of Emergency Exposure Situations in Ghana was carried out in relation to documents provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As realized in the document of the “Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency” of the IAEA, the National Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Plan (NNRERP) of Ghana also discusses the Infrastructural and Functional Requirements necessary for the intervention of a nuclear or radiological emergency. The NNRERP describes the concept of operations for a response designed to facilitate the delivery of coordinated assistance to government authorities such as the National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO), the Radiation Protection Board (RPB) and other participating organizations. From the NNRERP, practices in Ghana, fall into emergency planning category III and IV. As part of the planning measures, one of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission’s primary functions is to provide technical support with a mechanism for timely, interagency coordination of advice and recommendations to NADMO concerning protective actions, environmental concerns, health matters and other related matters. It has been realized from this assessment that there is an urgent need to upgrade infrastructure with logistics for training, exercises and drills to achieve its optimum expectations which will eventually lead to high level of confidence in meeting the standard of a Radiation Protection Programme in Emergency Exposure Situations. (au)

  2. Radiation Exposure to Concrete in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Kovler, K.; Yungrais, G. Z.; Lavi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Most building materials of terrestrial origin contain small amounts of radionuclides of natural origin, mainly from the Uranium (238U) and Thorium (232Th) decay chains and the radioactive isotope of potassium, 40K. The external radiation exposure is caused by gamma emitting radionuclides, which in the uranium series mainly belong to the decay chain segment starting with Radium (226Ra). The internal (by inhalation) radiation exposure is due to Radon (222Rn), and its short lived decay products, exhaled from building materials into the room air. Due to economical and environmental reasons there is an increased tendency to use industrial by-products containing relatively high concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin in the building material industry. Fly ash (FA), produced as by-product in the combustion of coal, is extensively used in Israel since mid eighties of the last century in concrete and as an additive to cement . The increase of 226Ra activity concentration, the mineralogical characteristics of the FA and of the concrete may influence on the radon exhalation rate and consequently on the radon exposure of the public. The recently published Israeli Standard 5098 (IS 5098) 'Content of natural radioactive elements in building products' limits the content of natural radionuclides as well as the radon emanation from concrete. This paper presents a compilation of three studies conducted at Soreq Nuclear Research Centre (SNRC), Technion, NRG and Environmental Lab BGU (ELBGU) to investigate and quantify the influence of FA addition in concrete

  3. Radiation exposure in medicare-occupational and medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozumi, Kunihiko

    2012-01-01

    Recent cases of the occupational and medical exposures are discussed in relation to the justification of practice, optimization of protection and effort to reduce the dose. Instances of the occupational exposure in doctors and nurses like 26.5 mSv/15 mo and 53.9 mSv/y, and of skin cancer were reported in newspapers of 1999-2004, which might have had been prevented by their self evaluation of daily and monthly exposed dose. For reasonably lowering the occupational dose and number of exposed stuff in the present law, the prior radiation protection measures are to be taken in consideration of social/economical factors to conduct beneficial radiation medicare without restriction of practice under safest conditions, protecting personal determinative hazard and preventing stochastic effect. Medical stuff must be equipped with personal dosimeter. Further, recent media also commented such cases as unwished abortions after careless X-CT of pregnant women, and risk of increased cancer prevalence (3.2% in Japan) due to medical exposure, etc (200-2010). The prevalence is calculated on the linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis and is probably overestimated, possibly causing patient's fear. There has been a history of proposal by IAEA (1996) of the guidance levels of the ordinary roentgenography and in vivo nuclear medical test, and introduction of the concept of dose constraint by ICRP (Pub. 60). The incident dose rate to the patient under fluoroscopy defined by Japan Medical Service Law (2001) is, as an air-kerma rate, 15,600 residents for their contamination as well as remains, and measured the ambient dose rate of cities nearby. (T.T.)

  4. Repeated isoflurane exposure and neuroapoptosis in the midgestation fetal sheep brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, Olutoyin A; Sheikh, Fariha; Zamora, Irving J; Yu, Ling; Akinkuotu, Adesola C; Adesina, Adekunle M; Olutoye, Oluyinka O

    2016-04-01

    Advances in surgery and technology have resulted in increased in-utero procedures. However, the effect of anesthesia on the fetal brain is not fully known. The inhalational anesthetic agent, isoflurane, other gamma amino butyric acid agonists (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, propofol, other inhalation anesthetics), and N-methyl D aspartate antagonists, eg, ketamine, have been shown to induce neuroapoptosis. The ovine model has been used extensively to study maternal-fetal physiologic interactions and to investigate different surgical interventions on the fetus. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of different doses and duration of isoflurane on neuroapoptosis in midgestation fetal sheep. We hypothesized that repeated anesthetic exposure and high concentrations of isoflurane would result in increased neuroapoptosis. Time-dated, pregnant sheep at 70 days gestation (term 145 days) received either isoflurane 2% × 1 hour, 4% × 3 hours, or 2% × 1 hour every other day for 3 exposures (repeated exposure group). Euthanasia occurred following anesthetic exposure and fetal brains were processed. Neuroapoptosis was detected by immunohistochemistry using anticaspase-3 antibodies. Fetuses unexposed to anesthesia served as controls. Another midgestation group with repeated 2% isoflurane exposure was examined at day 130 (long-term group) and neuronal cell density compared to age-matched controls. Representative sections of the brain were analyzed using Aperio Digital imaging (Leica Microsystems Inc, Buffalo Grove, IL). Data, reported by number of neurons per cubic millimeter of brain tissue are presented as means and SEM. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests as appropriate. A total of 34 fetuses were studied. There was no significant difference in neuroapoptosis observed in fetuses exposed to 2% isoflurane for 1 hour or 4% isoflurane for 3 hours. Increased neuroapoptosis was observed in the frontal cortex following repeated 2

  5. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  6. Radiation exposure to skin following radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, H.; Beyermann, M.; Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of skin contamination intensive decontamination measures should not be carried out until the potential radiation exposure to the basal cell layer of the epidermis was assessed. Dose equivalent rates from alpha-, beta- or photon-emitting contaminants were calculated with reference to the surface activity for different skin regions as a function of radiation energy on the condition that the skin was healthy and uninjured and the penetration of contaminants through the epidermis negligible. The results have been presented in the form of figures and tables. In the assessment of potential skin doses, both radioactive decay and practical experience as to the decrease in the level of surface contamination by natural desquamation of the stratum corneum were taken into account. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 46 refs. (author)

  7. Scatter radiation exposure during knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light, M.C.; Molloi, S.Y.; Yandow, D.R.; Ranallo, F.N.

    1987-01-01

    Knee arthrography, as performed at the authors' institution, was simulated and scattered radiation exposure to a radiologist's gonads, thyroid, and eye lens was measured with a sensitive ionization chamber. Results show that radiologists who regularly conduct knee arthrography examinations can incur doses to the gonads that are less than 6% of the U.S. limits, and to the thyroid and eye that are approximately 10% of the U.S. limits. Since the scatter radiation from overhead imaging of stress views constituted most (greater than or equal to 60%) of the dose to the lens of the eye and the thyroid, spot imaging was evaluated as a substitute for overhead imaging in the assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament. This substitution resulted in no loss of clinical information and has now completely replaced overhead imaging of stress views at this institution

  8. Radiation exposure during cardiac catheterization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicken, P.J.H.; Huyskens, C.J.; Michels, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    For some time there has been an increased interest in more information about radiation exposure during cardiac catheterization because of: relatively high doses to workers and patient; rapid increase of numbers of examinations; introduction of new procedure-types (e.g. Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angiography, PTCA) and introduction of new techniques (e.g. Digital Subtraction Angiography, DSA). This paper reports about a study on the exposure to medical personnel and patient in two major hospitals in the Netherlands. The Total number of cardiac catheterization procedures in both hospitals amounts to circa 3000 per year (approximately 10% of all cardiac procedures c.q. 20% of all PTCA procedures in the Netherlands). This study is related to 1300 cardiac examinations

  9. New radiation limits and air crew exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial aircraft have optimum cruising speed of 800 - 900 km/h and the cruising altitude near 13 km.The flight paths are assigned according to airway corridors and safety requirements.The relatively high dose-equivalent rates at cruising altitudes near 13 km (about 0.5-2 mSv/h, and the shielding effect of the atmosphere corresponds to about 2 M of water) can cause exposures greater than 5 mSv/y, for a crew with full-time flight (500-600 h/y).The radiation exposure of the crew in commercial air traffic has been studied for the associations of the crews and airline management and published, and regulatory authorities are slowly accepting the fact that there indeed is a problem which needs investigations and protective regulation

  10. Monitoring of radiation exposure. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, E.

    2001-03-01

    At the end of 2000, there were 1,779 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,038 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 13,754 radiation sources and 270 radionuclide laboratories. In the year 2000 360 inspections were made concerning the safety licences and 53 concerning dental x-ray diagnostics. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 175,836 GBq and export to 74,420 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 55,527 GBq. In the year 2000 there were 10,846 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,171 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry(sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.5 Sv in 2000

  11. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  12. A radiopharmacological study without human radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, D.; Graul, E.H.; Kunkel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The development, study and control of new drugs today is hardly conceivable without nuclear medicine studies. Nuclear physicians on ethical commissions bear great responsibility in the planning and execution of such studies. In order to protect subjects and patients those nuclear techniques are therefore to be welcome which do not include exposure to radiation. Nuclear techniques used in in-vitro diagnostics (RIA) and the determination of naturally occurring nuclides incorporated in the human body belong to this category. With the aid of a clinico-pharmacological study of a new combination of diuretics it is shown that both methods supply valuable pharmacodynamic evidence. (orig.) [de

  13. Radiation exposure monitoring: a new IHE profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A method is described for gathering and distributing radiation exposure data from X-ray-based imaging procedures such as CT, angiography, fluoroscopy, mammography and digital X-ray systems with integrated generators. The data are recorded in a standard format as a DICOM dose object and are managed in a similar fashion to the DICOM images produced by the procedure. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) process for standardizing such methods is presented and applications of such data for activities, such as dose QA and national dose repositories, are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial

  15. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  16. Impact of repeated exposure on toxicity of perchloroethylene in Swiss Webster mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, Binu K.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to study the subchronic toxicity of perchloroethylene (Perc) by measuring injury and repair in liver and kidney in relation to disposition of Perc and its major metabolites. Male SW mice (25-29 g) were given three dose levels of Perc (150, 500, and 1000 mg/kg day) via aqueous gavage for 30 days. Tissue injury was measured during the dosing regimen (0, 1, 7, 14, and 30 days) and over a time course of 24-96 h after the last dose (30 days). Perc produced significant liver injury (ALT) after single day exposure to all three doses. Liver injury was mild to moderate and regressed following repeated exposure for 30 days. Subchronic Perc exposure induced neither kidney injury nor dysfunction during the entire time course as evidenced by normal renal histology and BUN. TCA was the major metabolite detected in blood, liver, and kidney. Traces of DCA were also detected in blood at initial time points after single day exposure. With single day exposure, metabolism of Perc to TCA was saturated with all three doses. AUC/dose ratio for TCA was significantly decreased with a concomitant increase in AUC/dose of Perc levels in liver and kidney after 30 days as compared to 1 day exposures, indicating inhibition of metabolism upon repeated exposure to Perc. Hepatic CYP2E1 expression and activity were unchanged indicating that CYP2E1 is not the critical enzyme inhibited. Hepatic CYP4A expression, measured as a marker of peroxisome proliferation was increased transiently only on day 7 with the high dose, but was unchanged at later time points. Liver tissue repair peaked at 7 days, with all three doses and was sustained after medium and high dose exposure for 14 days. These data indicate that subchronic Perc exposure via aqueous gavage does not induce nephrotoxicity and sustained hepatotoxicity suggesting adaptive hepatic repair mechanisms. Enzymes other than CYP2E1, involved in the metabolism of Perc may play a critical role in the metabolism of Perc upon subchronic exposure

  17. Effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance at the beginning of weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, C.; Vries, de J.; Mojet, J.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on an infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance during the first 18 days of weaning. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to a type of vegetable or fruit, would increase its intake. Furthermore, we expected that

  18. Radiation exposure levels in phosphate mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Hushari, M.; Raja, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radon, radon daughter concentration and gamma ray exposure rate were measured at different places in the phosphate mining areas of Syria. The grab sampling method was used. For radon measurements, discrete air samples without progeny were collected over short periods of time, whereas daughters were collected on filter paper. A three-count procedure was used for the measurement of radon daughter concentrations to improve accuracy. The measurements were carried out at 37 locations selected in the mines, factories, offices and homes in the mining area. The sampling was repeated monthly for a full calendar year. Workers and their families were classified in different categories according to the nature of their jobs. The doses were estimated using proper occupancy factors. The dose equivalent from radon daughters varies from 1 mSv.y -1 to a maximum of 10 mSv.y -1 . Radon concentrations vary from 100 Bq.m -3 to several hundreds. (author)

  19. Mortality of rats under repeated +Gz acceleration in the course of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki, T.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of repeated +10G z acceleration on the mortality of rats after acute total-body irradiation was studied. No conclusive evidence was found to the effect that daily repeated exposures to 5 or 7.5 min of +10G z inertial forces essentially influence the mortality of rats after acute irradiation in the dose range 0.206-0.309 C/kg. 7 refs. (author)

  20. Global levels of radiation exposure: Latest international findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The radiation exposure of the world's population has recently been reviewed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR has reconfirmed that the normal operation of all peaceful nuclear installations contributes insignificantly to the global exposure to radiation. Even taking into account all the nuclear accidents to date (including Chernobyl), the additional exposure would be equivalent to only about 20 days of natural exposure. Military uses of nuclear energy have committed the world to most of the radiation exposure caused by human activities

  1. A model of human nasal epithelial cells adapted for direct and repeated exposure to airborne pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Gaëlle; Achard, Sophie; Loret, Thomas; Desauziers, Valérie; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie

    2014-08-17

    Airway epithelium lining the nasal cavity plays a pivotal role in respiratory tract defense and protection mechanisms. Air pollution induces alterations linked to airway diseases such as asthma. Only very few in vitro studies to date have succeeded in reproducing physiological conditions relevant to cellular type and chronic atmospheric pollution exposure. We therefore, set up an in vitro model of human Airway Epithelial Cells of Nasal origin (hAECN) close to real human cell functionality, specifically adapted to study the biological effects of exposure to indoor gaseous pollution at the environmental level. hAECN were exposed under air-liquid interface, one, two, or three-times at 24 h intervals for 1 h, to air or formaldehyde (200 μg/m(3)), an indoor air gaseous pollutant. All experiments were ended at day 4, when both cellular viability and cytokine production were assessed. Optimal adherence and confluence of cells were obtained 96 h after cell seeding onto collagen IV-precoated insert. Direct and repeated exposure to formaldehyde did not produce any cellular damage or IL-6 production change, although weak lower IL-8 production was observed only after the third exposure. Our model is significantly better than previous ones due to cell type and the repeated exposure protocol. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Perturbations in different forms of cost/benefit decision making induced by repeated amphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floresco, Stan B; Whelan, Jennifer M

    2009-08-01

    Psychostimulant abuse has been linked to impairments in cost-benefit decision making. We assessed the effects of repeated amphetamine (AMPH) treatment in rodents on two distinct forms of decision making. Separate groups of rats were trained for 26 days on either a probabilistic (risk) or effort-discounting task, each consisting of four discrete blocks of ten choice trials. One lever always delivered a smaller reward (one or two pellets), whereas another lever delivered a four-pellet reward. For risk-discounting, the probability of receiving the larger reward decreased across trial blocks (100-12.5%), whereas on the effort task, four pellets could be obtained after a ratio of presses that increased across blocks (2-20). After training, rats received 15 saline or AMPH injections (escalating from 1 to 5 mg/kg) and were then retested during acute and long-term withdrawal. Repeated AMPH administration increased risky choice 2-3 weeks after drug exposure, whereas these treatments did not alter effort-based decision making in a separate group of animals. However, prior AMPH exposure sensitized the effects of acute AMPH on both forms of decision making, whereby lower doses were effective at inducing "risky" and "lazy" patterns of choice. Repeated AMPH exposure leads to relatively long-lasting increases in risky choice, as well as sensitization to the effects of acute AMPH on different forms of cost/benefit decision making. These findings suggest that maladaptive decision-making processes exhibited by psychostimulant abusers may be caused in part by repeated drug exposure.

  3. Breast cancer induced by protracted radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The experience at Hiroshima/Nagasaki demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by single doses of ionizing radiation following latencies of 10-40 years. Several epidemiological studies, usually involving ancillary low-LET radiation to the breast, have demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by protracted exposures, with similar latencies, and with similar dependencies on dose. Radiobiologically these results suggest that the target cells involved were deficient in repair of low-LET damage even when the protraction was over months to years. Since three-quarters of breast tumors originate in the ducts where their proliferation is controlled by menstrual-cycle timed estrogen/progesterone secretions, these cells periodically were in cycle. Thus, the two main elements of a conceptual model for radon-induced lung cancer -- kinetics and deficient repair -- are satisfied. The model indicates that breast cancer could be the cumulative effect of protracted small exposures, the risk from any one of which ordinarily would be quite small. (author)

  4. Human population exposure to cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouville, A.; Lowder, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Critical evaluations of existing data on cosmic radiation in the atmosphere and in interplanetary space have been carried out in order to estimate the exposure of the world's population to this important component of natural background radiation. Data on population distribution and mean terrain heights on a 1 x 1 degree grid have been folded in to estimate regional and global dose distributions. The per caput annual dose equivalent at ground altitudes is estimated to be 270 μSv from charged particles and 50 μSv from neutrons. More than 100 million people receive more than 1 mSv in a year, and two million in excess of 5 mSv. Aircraft flight crews and frequent flyers receive an additional annual dose equivalent in the order of 1 mSv, though the global per caput annual dose equivalent from airplane flights is only about 1 μSv. Future space travellers on extended missions are likely to receive dose equivalents in the range 0.11 Sv, with the possibility of higher doses at relatively high dose rates from unusually large solar flares. These results indicate a critical need for a better understanding of the biological significance of chronic neutron and heavy charged particle exposure. (author)

  5. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits. 1... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1310 Radiofrequency radiation... exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation as specified in § 1.1307(b), except in the case of portable...

  6. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Wenzler

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury.

  7. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This report is one of series of annual reports provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year, as well as identification of trends in exposures being experienced over the years. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  8. Radiation exposure of nursing personnel to brachytherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, P.D.; Kase, K.R.; Bjaerngard, B.E.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation exposure of nursing personnel to brachytherapy patients has been analyzed from data collected during the years 1973-1976, at four different hospitals. The average annual dose per exposed nurse ranged between 25 and 150 mrem. The radiation exposure per nurse was found to be proportional to the total potential exposure and was uncorrelated with the size of the nursing staff. (author)

  9. Effects of single and repeated exposure to biocidal active substances on the barrier function of the skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Harrie E; van de Sandt, Johannes J M; van Burgsteden, Johan A; de Heer, Cees

    2005-10-01

    The dermal route of exposure is important in worker exposure to biocidal products. Many biocidal active substances which are used on a daily basis may decrease the barrier function of the skin to a larger extent than current risk assessment practice addresses, due to possible skin effects of repeated exposure. The influence of repeated and single exposure to representative biocidal active substances on the skin barrier was investigated in vitro. The biocidal active substances selected were alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC), boric acid, deltamethrin, dimethyldidecylammonium chloride (DDAC), formaldehyde, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, sodium bromide, and tebuconazole. Of these nine compounds, only the quaternary ammonium chlorides ADBAC and DDAC had a clear and consistent influence on skin permeability of the marker compounds tritiated water and [(14)C]propoxur. For these compounds, repeated exposure increased skin permeability more than single exposure. At high concentrations the difference between single and repeated exposure was quantitatively significant: repeated exposure to 300 mg/L ADBAC increased skin permeability two to threefold in comparison to single exposure. Therefore, single and repeated exposure to specific biocidal products may significantly increase skin permeability, especially when used undiluted.

  10. Ocular ultraviolet radiation exposure of welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkate, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    I read with interest a recent paper in your journal by Slagor et al on the risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding (1). The authors highlight that even though welders are exposed to substantial levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), "no studies have reported data on how much UVR welders' eyes are exposed to during a working day. Thus, we do not know whether welders are more or less exposed to UVR than outdoor workers" (1, p451). Undertaking accurate exposure assessment of UVR from welding arcs is difficult, however, two studies have reported ocular/facial UVR levels underneath welding helmets (2, 3). In the first paper, UVR levels were measured using polysulphone film dosimeters applied to the cheeks of a patient who suffered from severe facial dermatitis (2). UVR levels of four times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (4) were measured on the workers left cheek and nine times the MPE on the right cheek. The authors concluded that the workers dermatitis was likely to have been due to the UVR exposure received during welding. In the other paper, a comprehensive exposure assessment of personal UVR exposure of workers in a welding environment was reported (3). The study was conducted at a metal fabrication workshop with participants being welders, boilermakers and non-welders (eg, supervisors, fitters, machinists). Polysulphone film dosimeters were again used to measure UVR exposure of the workers, with badges worn on the clothing of workers (in the chest area), on the exterior of welding helmets, attached to 11 locations on the inside of welding helmets, and on the bridge and side-shields of safety spectacles. Dosimeters were also attached to surfaces throughout the workshop to measure ambient UVR levels. For welding subjects, mean 8-hour UVR doses within the welding helmets ranged from around 9 mJ/cm 2 (3×MPE) on the inside of the helmets to around 15 mJ/cm 2 (5×MPE) on the headband (a

  11. GPU Nuclear Corporation's radiation exposure management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodien, M.J.; Bovino, A.A.; Perry, O.R.; Hildebrand, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    GPU Nuclear Corporation has developed a central main frame (IBM 3081) based radiation exposure management system which provides real time and batch transactions for three separate reactor facilities. The structure and function of the data base are discussed. The system's main features include real time on-line radiation work permit generation and personnel exposure tracking; dose accountability as a function of system and component, job type, worker classification, and work location; and personnel dosemeter (TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeters) data processing. The system also carries the qualifications of all radiation workers including RWP training, respiratory protection training, results of respirator fit tests and medical exams. A warning system is used to prevent non-qualified persons from entering controlled areas. The main frame system is interfaced with a variety of mini and micro computer systems for dosemetry, statistical and graphics applications. These are discussed. Some unique dosemetry features which are discussed include assessment of dose for up to 140 parts of the body with dose evaluations at 7,300 and 1000 mg/cm 2 for each part, tracking of MPC hours on a 7 day rolling schedule; automatic pairing of TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeter values, creation and updating of NRC Forms 4 and 5, generation of NRC required 20.407 and Reg Guide 1.16 reports. As of July 1983, over 20 remote on-line stations were in use with plans to add 20-30 more by May 1984. The system provides response times for on-line activities of 2-7 seconds and 23 1/2 hours per day ''up time''. Examples of the various on-line and batch transactions are described

  12. External exposure due to natural radiation (KINKI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A field survey of exposure rates due to natural radiation has been conducted throughout the Kinki district of Japan during both September and October 1973. In each location, measurements of exposures at one to fifteen sites, one of where contained 5 stations at least, were made. A total of 143 sites were measured. Observations were made using a spherical ionization chamber and several scintillation surveymeters. The spherical plastic ionization chamber of which inner diameter and wall thickness are 200 mm and 3 mm (acrylate) respectively has adequate sensitivity for field survey. The chamber was used as a standard of apparatus, but it is difficult to use the apparatus in all locations only by the apparatus, so that a surveymeter with a NaI(Tl) 1''phi x 1'' scintillator was used for regular measurements. Two types of surveymeters, the one with a 2''phi x 2'' NaI(Tl) scintillator and the other with a 3''phi x 3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator, were used as auxiliary devices. Both the chamber and the surveymeter were used in 20 sites and their readings were compared for drawing a relationship between them. Practically the direct reading of the surveymeter were reduced into the corresponding value of the plastic chamber through the relationship of linear proportion. Systematic error at calibration ( 60 Co) and reading error (rodoh) of the plastic chamber were within +-6% (maximum over all error) and within +-3.5% (standard error for 6μ R/hr) respectively. Reading error of the surveymeter is about +-3% (standard error for 6μ R/hr). Measurements in open bare field were made at one meter above the ground and outdoor gamma-rays exposure rates (μ R/hr) were due to cosmic rays as well as terrestrial radiation, as it may be considered that the contribution of fallout due to artificial origin was very small. (J.P.N.)

  13. The report of medical exposures in diagnostic radiology. Pt. 1. The questionnaire of medical exposure and standard radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Yoshitaka; Iwasaki, Takanobu; Segawa, Hiroo; Yasuda, Sadatoshi; Kusuhara, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    We had made reports of patient radiation exposure for doctors to judge adaptation of medical radiation rightly. By these reports the doctors can be offered data of exposure dose and somatic effect. First, we sent out questionnaires so that we grasped the doctor's understanding about radiation exposure. Consequently we understood that the doctors had demanded data of exposure dose and somatic effect. Secondly, by the result of questionnaires we made the tables of exposure dose about radiological examination. As a result we have be able to presume exposure dose about high radiation sensitive organization as concrete figures. (author)

  14. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational exposure to natural radiation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The mining, milling and processing of uranium and thorium bearing minerals may result in radiation doses to workers. A preliminary survey pilot program, that included six mines in Brazil (two coal mines, one niobium mine, one nickel mine, one gold mine and one phosphate mine), was launched in order to determine the need to control the radioactive exposure of the mine-workers. Our survey consisted of the collection and analysis of urine samples, complemented by feces and air samples. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and polonium were measured in these samples and compared to background data from family members of the workers living in the same dwelling and from residents from the general population of Rio de Janeiro. The results from the coal mines indicated that the inhalation of radon progeny may be a source of occupational exposure. The workers from the nickel, gold and phosphate mines that were visited do not require a program to control internal radiological doses. The niobium mine results showed that in some areas of the industry exposure to thorium and uranium might occur. (author)

  16. Patient radiation exposure dose evaluation of whole spine scanography due to exposure direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Seo, Deok Nam [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, Graduate School of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Mu [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Whole spine scanography (WSS) is a radiological examination that exposes the whole body of the individual being examined to x-ray radiation. WSS is often repeated during the treatment period, which results in a much greater radiation exposure than that in routine x-ray examinations. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the patient dose of WSS using computer simulation, image magnification and angulation of phantom image using different patient position. We evaluated the effective dose(ED) of 23 consecutive patients (M : F = 13:10) who underwent WSS, based on the automatic image pasting method for multiple exposure digital radiography. The Anterior-Posterior position(AP) and Posterior-Anterior position( PA) projection EDs were evaluated based on the PC based Monte Carlo simulation. We measured spine transverse process distance and angulation using DICOM measurement. For all patient, the average ED was 0.069 mSv for AP position and 0.0361 mSv for PA position. AP position calculated double exposure then PA position. For male patient, the average ED was 0.089 mSv(AP) and 0.050 mSv(PA). For female patient, the average ED was 0.0431 mSv(AP) and 0.026 mSv(PA). The transverse process of PA spine image measured 5% higher than AP but angulation of transverse process was no significant differences. In clinical practice, just by change the patient position was conformed to reduce the ED of patient. Therefore we need to redefine of protocol for digital radiography such as WSS, whole spine scanography, effective dose, patient exposure dose, exposure direction, protocol optimization.

  17. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of humans to natural sources of radiation has been a continuous and inevitable feature of life on earth. This exposure exceeds all due to artificial sources combined for most people. Many exposures to natural radiation sources are modified by human action. In particular, natural radionuclides are released into the environment in mineral processing and in activities such as the production of phosphate fertilizers and the use of fossil fuels. An increase of exposures to this natural radiation is caused. The relevance of exposure to natural radiation is confirmed by the fact that, for most people, the exposures to natural background radiation have been much more significant than exposures to artificial sources, with exceptions. Among these exceptions have been noted: medical exposures, accidents with release of radionuclides and some specific workplaces. In all cases, however, the natural background radiation has formed the basis on which all the others exposures are added and is a common level serving as compared to other exposures. Regulations and instructions have begun to establish in some countries to regulate natural radiation, countries like Spain, have already incorporated into its regulations on health protection against ionizing radiation the subject of natural radiation. (author) [es

  18. Aberrant approach-avoidance conflict resolution following repeated cocaine pre-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David; Schumacher, Anett; Erb, Suzanne; Ito, Rutsuko

    2015-10-01

    Addiction is characterized by persistence to seek drug reinforcement despite negative consequences. Drug-induced aberrations in approach and avoidance processing likely facilitate the sustenance of addiction pathology. Currently, the effects of repeated drug exposure on the resolution of conflicting approach and avoidance motivational signals have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The present study sought to investigate the effects of cocaine pre-exposure on conflict resolution using novel approach-avoidance paradigms. We used a novel mixed-valence conditioning paradigm to condition cocaine-pre-exposed rats to associate visuo-tactile cues with either the delivery of sucrose reward or shock punishment in the arms in which the cues were presented. Following training, exploration of an arm containing a superimposition of the cues was assessed as a measure of conflict resolution behavior. We also used a mixed-valence runway paradigm wherein cocaine-pre-exposed rats traversed an alleyway toward a goal compartment to receive a pairing of sucrose reward and shock punishment. Latency to enter the goal compartment across trials was taken as a measure of motivational conflict. Our results reveal that cocaine pre-exposure attenuated learning for the aversive cue association in our conditioning paradigm and enhanced preference for mixed-valence stimuli in both paradigms. Repeated cocaine pre-exposure allows appetitive approach motivations to gain greater influence over behavioral output in the context of motivational conflict, due to aberrant positive and negative incentive motivational processing.

  19. Intervention in emergency situations involving radiation exposure (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document covers radiation protection aspects arising in emergency situations. It does not cover the measures necessary to reduce the health consequences of radiation exposure, i.e. the medical care of exposed individuals, nor does it cover psychological problems arising from the exposure of individuals or of a population. These problems may arise from anxiety about possible late effects of radiation exposure and from any actions implemented to reduce exposure. Even though radiation exposure levels may be low and insignificant, these problems must be taken into account in determining any action to be implemented to reduce radiation exposure. The primary concern of this document is with exposure in areas which are close to the source and in the period immediately after a source is out of control. It outlines the principles which can be used for planning and implementing countermeasures for protection of the public. 24 refs., 13 tabs

  20. Ultraviolet radiation exposure from UV-transilluminators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Jahangir-Blourchian, Mahdi

    2005-10-01

    UV-transilluminators use ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to visualize proteins, DNA, RNA, and their precursors in a gel electrophoresis procedure. This study was initiated to evaluate workers' exposure to UVR during their use of UV-transilluminators. The levels of irradiance of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C were determined for 29 UV-transilluminators at arbitrary measuring locations of 6, 25, 62, and 125 cm from the center of the UV-transilluminator's filter surface in the direction of the operator's head. The operators (faculty, research staff, and graduate students) worked within 62 cm of the transilluminators, with most subjects commonly working at time ranged from 1 to 60 min. Actinic hazard (effective irradiance level of UVR) was also determined for three representative UV-transilluminators at arbitrary measuring locations of 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cm from these sets' filter surface in the direction of the operator's head. The allowable exposure time for these instruments was less than 20 sec within 15 cm, less than 35 sec within 25 cm, and less than 2 min within 50 cm from the UV-transilluminators' filter surface. The results of this study suggest that the use of UV-transilluminators exposes operators to levels of UVR in excess of exposure guidelines. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees and that exposure should be controlled by one or the combination of automation, substitution, isolation, posted warning signs, shielding, and/or personal protective equipment.

  1. Patient radiation exposure during different kyphoplasty techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panizza, D.; Barbieri, M.; Parisoli, F.; Moro, L.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this study was to quantify patient radiation exposure during two different techniques of kyphoplasty (KP), which differ by a cement delivery method, in order to assess whether or not one of the two used methods can reduce the patient dose. Twenty patients were examined for this investigation. One X-ray fluoroscopy unit was used for localization, navigation and monitoring of cement delivery. The patient bio-metric data, the setting of the fluoroscope, the exposure time and the kerma-area product (KAP) were monitored in all the procedures for anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LL) fluoroscopic projections in order to assess the range of radiation doses imparted to the patient. Theoretical entrance skin dose (ESD) and effective dose (E) were calculated from intraoperatively measured KAP. An average ET per procedure was 1.5±0.5 min for the manual injection technique (study A) and 1.4±0.4 min for the distance delivery technique (study B) in the AP plane, while 3.2±0.7 and 5.1±0.6 min in the lateral plane, respectively. ESD was estimated as an average of 0.10±0.06 Gy for study A and 0.13±0.13 Gy for study B in the AP or/and 0.59±0.46 and 1.05±0.36 Gy in the lateral view, respectively. The cumulative mean E was 1.9±1.0 mSv procedure -1 for study A and 3.6±0.9 mSv procedure -1 for study B. Patient radiation exposure and associated effective dose from KP may be considerable. The technique of distance cement delivery appears to be slower than the manual injection technique and it requires a more protracted fluoroscopic control in the lateral projection, so that this system entails a higher amount of dose to the patient. (authors)

  2. Patient radiation exposure during different kyphoplasty techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Denis; Barbieri, Massimo; Parisoli, Francesco; Moro, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this study was to quantify patient radiation exposure during two different techniques of kyphoplasty (KP), which differ by a cement delivery method, in order to assess whether or not one of the two used methods can reduce the patient dose. Twenty patients were examined for this investigation. One X-ray fluoroscopy unit was used for localization, navigation and monitoring of cement delivery. The patient biometric data, the setting of the fluoroscope, the exposure time and the kerma-area product (KAP) were monitored in all the procedures for anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LL) fluoroscopic projections in order to assess the range of radiation doses imparted to the patient. Theoretical entrance skin dose (ESD) and effective dose (E) were calculated from intraoperatively measured KAP. An average ET per procedure was 1.5±0.5 min for the manual injection technique (study A) and 1.4±0.4 min for the distance delivery technique (study B) in the AP plane, while 3.2±0.7 and 5.1±0.6 min in the lateral plane, respectively. ESD was estimated as an average of 0.10±0.06 Gy for study A and 0.13±0.13 Gy for study B in the AP or/and 0.59±0.46 and 1.05±0.36 Gy in the lateral view, respectively. The cumulative mean E was 1.9±1.0 mSv procedure(-1) for study A and 3.6±0.9 mSv procedure(-1) for study B. Patient radiation exposure and associated effective dose from KP may be considerable. The technique of distance cement delivery appears to be slower than the manual injection technique and it requires a more protracted fluoroscopic control in the lateral projection, so that this system entails a higher amount of dose to the patient.

  3. Technologically modified exposures to natural radiation. Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex deals with some examples of technologically modified exposures to natural radiation. Radiation exposures due to coal-fired power plants, geothermal energy production, exploitation of phosphate rock, aircraft travel, and consumer products are discussed. The present state of knowledge does not allow an accurate estimate of the collective effective dose equivalent from technologically modified exposures to natural radiation to be made. This annex has an extensive bibliography with at least 200 references.

  4. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    David L Wenzler; Joel E Abbott; Jeannie J Su; William Shi; Richard Slater; Daniel Miller; Michelle J Siemens; Roger L Sur

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have reported on radiation risks of increased ionizing radiation exposure to medical personnel in the urologic community. Fluoroscopy is readily used in many urologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine radiation exposure to all operating room personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), commonly performed for large renal or complex stones. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected personnel exposure data for all PNL cases at...

  5. Repeated exposures to roadside particulate matter extracts suppresses pulmonary defense mechanisms, resulting in lipid and protein oxidative damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Michal; Porat, Ziv; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J.; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities and urban canyons can be harmful to the exposed population. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to health effects are not yet elucidated. It is postulated that exposure to repeated, small, environmentally relevant concentrations can affect lung homeostasis. This study examines the impact of repeated exposures to urban PM on mouse lungs with focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. Aqueous extracts from collected urban PM were administered to mice by 5 repeated intra-tracheal instillations (IT). Multiple exposures, led to an increase in cytokine levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the blood serum, indicating a systemic reaction. Lung mRNA levels of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes decreased by exposure to the PM extract, but not when metals were removed by chelation. Finally, disruption of lung tissue oxidant-inflammatory/defense balance was evidenced by increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation. Unlike response to a single IT exposure to the same dose and source of extract, multiple exposures result in lung oxidative damage and a systemic inflammatory reaction. These could be attributed to compromised capacity to activate the protective Nrf2 tissue defense system. It is suggested that water-soluble metals present in urban PM, potentially from break and tire wear, may constitute major drivers of the pulmonary and systemic responses to multiple exposure to urban PM. - Highlights: • Repeated exposure to urban PM cause systemic inflammation and oxidative damage to lung tissue lipids and proteins. • Repeated exposure to these PM extracts decreased transcription of Nrf2 protective genes. • Single as opposed to repeated exposure, induced confined lung response accompanied by activated defense mechanisms. • Metals, potentially from break and tire wear, drive the pulmonary response with exposure to urban PM. - Repeated exposures to urban PM water extracts

  6. Physician and nurse knowledge about patient radiation exposure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... Physician and nurse awareness of the radiation dose in the ED and the associated cancer risks to ... has activated mass media and Internet communications, and .... explained that radiation exposure has no relationship to.

  7. Radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Friesecke, I.

    1997-01-01

    This document approaches the radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure, presenting examples occurred, the pathophysiologic mechanisms for cell system tolerance in elevated radiation fields, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities

  8. Repeated low-dose exposures to sarin, soman, or VX affect acoustic startle in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C D; Lee, R B; Moran, A V; Sipos, M L

    2016-01-01

    Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are known to cause behavioral abnormalities in cases of human exposures and in animal models. The behavioral consequences of single exposures to CWNAs that cause observable toxic signs are particularly well characterized in animals; however, less is known regarding repeated smaller exposures that may or may not cause observable toxic signs. In the current study, guinea pigs were exposed to fractions (0.1, 0.2, or 0.4) of a medial lethal dose (LD50) of sarin, soman, or VX for two weeks. On each exposure day, and for a post-exposure period, acoustic startle response (ASR) was measured in each animal. Although relatively few studies use guinea pigs to measure behavior, this species is ideal for CWNA-related experiments because their levels of carboxylesterases closely mimic those of humans, unlike rats or mice. Results showed that the 0.4 LD50 doses of soman and VX transiently increased peak startle amplitude by the second week of injections, with amplitude returning to baseline by the second week post-exposure. Sarin also increased peak startle amplitude independent of week. Latencies to peak startle and PPI were affected by agent exposure but not consistently among the three agents. Most of the changes in startle responses returned to baseline following the cessation of exposures. These data suggest that doses of CWNAs not known to produce observable toxic signs in guinea pigs can affect behavior in the ASR paradigm. Further, these deficits are transient and usually return to baseline shortly after the end of a two-week exposure period. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saalfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1 and >3 weeks (CTA2 post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS, respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol (25% or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P 25–45 (early AIE or P45-65 (late AIE, or were left non-manipulated (NM. During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5 g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence.

  10. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. French population's exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This report deals with the exposure of the French population to ionizing radiation. The exposures taken into account are related to cosmic and telluric radiations, to radon, to ingestion of natural radionuclides, to medical imaging and to industrial and military sources. Additionally to the mean effective dose, considered as the macroscopic indicator of the population exposure, the variations of the effective dose for each source of exposure are also presented. Then, the variation of the total effective dose is presented. (authors)

  12. Radiation exposure in the wismut mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, G.; Ludwig, T.; Bauer, H.D.; Lehmann, F.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium mining grew fast in Saxonia after Second World War. No radiation protection was performed in the first 'wild' years (1946-1954). Winning with air hammer and drilling had been done without dust reduction and led to an enormous airborne dust concentration. These bad working conditions were unique world-wide. Measurements of dustborne activity concentrations had not been taken. To reconstruct the exposure conditions of miners in these years, four series of experiments under original working conditions were carried out. Stress must be laid on the fact that these measurements should result in the received doses according to uranium and it's long living daughters. Personal and stationary air samplers were used to collect the dust. Activity concentration measurements were done by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  13. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E.; Pedrazzi, G.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ( 57 Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ( 3 H, 14 C, 32 P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  14. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E. [Parma Univ., Health Physics (Italy); Pedrazzi, G. [Parma Univ., Dept. of Public Health (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ({sup 57}Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 32}P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  15. Dealing with consumer differences in liking during repeated exposure to food; typical dynamics in rating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Nanetti, Luca; Renken, Remco J; de Wijk, René A; Ter Horst, Gert J

    2014-01-01

    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in consumers; averaging will mix and hide possible subgroups of consumer behaviors, leading to a misinterpretation of the results. To deal with the variability in consumer liking, we propose to use clustering on data from consumer-product combinations to investigate the nature of the behavioral differences within the complete dataset. The resulting behavioral clusters can then be used to describe product acceptance. To test this approach we used two independent data sets in which young adults were repeatedly exposed to drinks and snacks, respectively. We found that five typical consumer behaviors existed in both datasets. These behaviors differed both in the average level of liking as well as its temporal dynamics. By investigating the distribution of a single product across typical consumer behaviors, we provide more precise insight in how consumers divide in subgroups based on their product liking (i.e. product modality). This work shows that taking into account and using interindividual differences can unveil information about product acceptance that would otherwise be ignored.

  16. Controlling radiation exposure during interventional procedures in childhood cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadio, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Many pediatric cancer patients undergo multiple diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures over the course of their illnesses and are therefore at high risk for radiation exposure. There are a variety of measures that radiologists can employ to reduce this risk. These include limiting the use of radiation whenever possible, using specific strategies to reduce radiation exposure during interventional procedures, using quality assurance programs to ensure compliance, and maintaining continuing staff radiation safety educational programs. Some of the diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiologic procedures that are performed in pediatric oncology patients are discussed here, along with specific tips for managing radiation exposure. (orig.)

  17. Medical radiation exposure and genetic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to background radiation throughout life (100 mrem/year to the gonads or 4 to 5 rem during the reproductive years). A lumbosacral series might deliver 2500 mrem to the male or 400 mrem to the female gonads. A radiologic procedure is a cost/benefit decision, and genetic risk is a part of the cost. Although cost is usually very low compared to benefit, if the procedure is unnecessary then the cost may be unacceptable. On the basis of current estimates, the doubling dose is assumed to be 40 rem (range 20 to 200) for an acute dose, and 100 rem for protracted exposure. Although there is no satisfactory way to predict the size of the risk for an individual exposed, any risk should be incentive to avoid unnecessary radiation to the gonads. Conception should be delayed for at least ten months for women and three or four months for men after irradiation of the gonads. The current incidence of genetically related diseases in the United States population is 60,000 per million live births. Based on the most conservative set of assumptions, an average gonadal dose of 1000 mrem to the whole population would increase the incidence of genetically related diseases by 0.2%

  18. Operation control device under radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kiichi; Murakami, Toichi.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention performs smooth progress of operation by remote control for a plurality of operations in periodical inspections in controlled areas of a nuclear power plant, thereby reducing the operator's exposure dose. Namely, the device monitors the progressing state of the operation by displaying the progress of operation on a CRT of a centralized control device present in a low dose area remote from an operation field through an ITV camera disposed in the vicinity of the operation field. Further, operation sequence and operation instruction procedures previously inputted in the device are indicated to the operation field through an operation instruction outputting device (field CRT) in accordance with the progress of the operation steps. On the other hand, the operation progress can be aided by inputting information from the operation field such as start or completion of the operation steps. Further, the device of the present invention can monitor the change of operation circumstances and exposure dose of operators based on the information from a radiation dose measuring device disposed in the operation circumstance and to individual operators. (I.S.)

  19. External radiation exposure after deposition of man-made radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.

    1991-01-01

    The first step in assessing the external radiation exposure of the population is the determination of the gamma dose rate over meadows, which are used as reference points for various reasons. The second step is the description of external radiation exposures in urban and rural environments. The relation to the radiation exposure in a meadow is a function of the radionuclide distribution, i.e. the type of deposition. Finally, a simple method of calculating external radiation exposure is developed on the basis of recent findings. The method is compared with the method used in the UNSCEAR report for calculating radiation exposures after Chernobyl and with the method described in the AVV (General Administrative Regulation) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  1. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Sun, J.D.; MacGregor, J.T.; Wehr, C.M.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased

  2. Repeated cocaine exposure facilitates the expression of incentive motivation and induces habitual control in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly H LeBlanc

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that mere exposure to drugs can induce long-term alterations in the neural systems that mediate reward processing, motivation, and behavioral control, potentially causing the pathological pursuit of drugs that characterizes the addicted state. The incentive sensitization theory proposes that drug exposure potentiates the influence of reward-paired cues on behavior. It has also been suggested that drug exposure biases action selection towards the automatic execution of habits and away from more deliberate goal-directed control. The current study investigated whether rats given repeated exposure to peripherally administered cocaine would show alterations in incentive motivation (assayed using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT paradigm or habit formation (assayed using sensitivity to reward devaluation. After instrumental and Pavlovian training for food pellet rewards, rats were given 6 daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP or saline, followed by a 10-d period of rest. Consistent with the incentive sensitization theory, cocaine-treated rats showed stronger cue-evoked lever pressing than saline-treated rats during the PIT test. The same rats were then trained on a new instrumental action with a new food pellet reward before undergoing a reward devaluation testing. Although saline-treated rats exhibited sensitivity to reward devaluation, indicative of goal-directed performance, cocaine-treated rats were insensitive to this treatment, suggesting a reliance on habitual processes. These findings, when taken together, indicate that repeated exposure to cocaine can cause broad alterations in behavioral control, spanning both motivational and action selection processes, and could therefore help explain aberrations of decision-making that underlie drug addiction.

  3. Repeated cocaine exposure facilitates the expression of incentive motivation and induces habitual control in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kimberly H; Maidment, Nigel T; Ostlund, Sean B

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that mere exposure to drugs can induce long-term alterations in the neural systems that mediate reward processing, motivation, and behavioral control, potentially causing the pathological pursuit of drugs that characterizes the addicted state. The incentive sensitization theory proposes that drug exposure potentiates the influence of reward-paired cues on behavior. It has also been suggested that drug exposure biases action selection towards the automatic execution of habits and away from more deliberate goal-directed control. The current study investigated whether rats given repeated exposure to peripherally administered cocaine would show alterations in incentive motivation (assayed using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm) or habit formation (assayed using sensitivity to reward devaluation). After instrumental and Pavlovian training for food pellet rewards, rats were given 6 daily injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg, IP) or saline, followed by a 10-d period of rest. Consistent with the incentive sensitization theory, cocaine-treated rats showed stronger cue-evoked lever pressing than saline-treated rats during the PIT test. The same rats were then trained on a new instrumental action with a new food pellet reward before undergoing a reward devaluation testing. Although saline-treated rats exhibited sensitivity to reward devaluation, indicative of goal-directed performance, cocaine-treated rats were insensitive to this treatment, suggesting a reliance on habitual processes. These findings, when taken together, indicate that repeated exposure to cocaine can cause broad alterations in behavioral control, spanning both motivational and action selection processes, and could therefore help explain aberrations of decision-making that underlie drug addiction.

  4. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, David L.; Abbott, Joel E.; Su, Jeannie J.; Shi, William; Slater, Richard; Miller, Daniel; Siemens, Michelle J.; Sur, Roger L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have reported on radiation risks of increased ionizing radiation exposure to medical personnel in the urologic community. Fluoroscopy is readily used in many urologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine radiation exposure to all operating room personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), commonly performed for large renal or complex stones. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected personnel exposure data for all PNL cases at two academic institutions. This was collected using the Instadose™ dosimeter and reported both continuously and categorically as high and low dose using a 10 mrem dose threshold, the approximate amount of radiation received from one single chest X-ray. Predictors of increased radiation exposure were determined using multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 91 PNL cases in 66 patients were reviewed. Median surgery duration and fluoroscopy time were 142 (38–368) min and 263 (19–1809) sec, respectively. Median attending urologist, urology resident, anesthesia, and nurse radiation exposure per case was 4 (0–111), 4 (0–21), 0 (0–5), and 0 (0–5) mrem, respectively. On univariate analysis, stone area, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery duration, and fluoroscopy time were associated with high attending urologist and resident radiation exposure. Preexisting access that was utilized was negatively associated with resident radiation exposure. However, on multivariate analysis, only fluoroscopy duration remained significant for attending urologist radiation exposure. Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury. PMID:28216931

  5. Exposing exposure: automated anatomy-specific CT radiation exposure extraction for quality assurance and radiation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodickson, Aaron; Warden, Graham I; Farkas, Cameron E; Ikuta, Ichiro; Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    To develop and validate an informatics toolkit that extracts anatomy-specific computed tomography (CT) radiation exposure metrics (volume CT dose index and dose-length product) from existing digital image archives through optical character recognition of CT dose report screen captures (dose screens) combined with Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine attributes. This institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study was performed in a large urban health care delivery network. Data were drawn from a random sample of CT encounters that occurred between 2000 and 2010; images from these encounters were contained within the enterprise image archive, which encompassed images obtained at an adult academic tertiary referral hospital and its affiliated sites, including a cancer center, a community hospital, and outpatient imaging centers, as well as images imported from other facilities. Software was validated by using 150 randomly selected encounters for each major CT scanner manufacturer, with outcome measures of dose screen retrieval rate (proportion of correctly located dose screens) and anatomic assignment precision (proportion of extracted exposure data with correctly assigned anatomic region, such as head, chest, or abdomen and pelvis). The 95% binomial confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for discrete proportions, and CIs were derived from the standard error of the mean for continuous variables. After validation, the informatics toolkit was used to populate an exposure repository from a cohort of 54 549 CT encounters; of which 29 948 had available dose screens. Validation yielded a dose screen retrieval rate of 99% (597 of 605 CT encounters; 95% CI: 98%, 100%) and an anatomic assignment precision of 94% (summed DLP fraction correct 563 in 600 CT encounters; 95% CI: 92%, 96%). Patient safety applications of the resulting data repository include benchmarking between institutions, CT protocol quality control and optimization, and cumulative

  6. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  7. DNA repair and cell cycle biomarkers of radiation exposure and inflammation stress in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Budworth

    Full Text Available DNA damage and repair are hallmarks of cellular responses to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that monitoring the expression of DNA repair-associated genes would enhance the detection of individuals exposed to radiation versus other forms of physiological stress. We employed the human blood ex vivo radiation model to investigate the expression responses of DNA repair genes in repeated blood samples from healthy, non-smoking men and women exposed to 2 Gy of X-rays in the context of inflammation stress mimicked by the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Radiation exposure significantly modulated the transcript expression of 12 genes of 40 tested (2.2E-06radiation. Three genes of this panel (CDKN1A, FDXR and BBC3 were also highly sensitive to LPS treatment in the absence of radiation exposure, and LPS co-treatment significantly affected their radiation responses. At the protein level, BAX and pCHK2-thr68 were elevated after radiation exposure, but the pCHK2-thr68 response was significantly decreased in the presence of LPS. Our combined panel yields an estimated 4-group accuracy of ∼90% to discriminate between radiation alone, inflammation alone, or combined exposures. Our findings suggest that DNA repair gene expression may be helpful to identify biodosimeters of exposure to radiation, especially within high-complexity exposure scenarios.

  8. The recovery of the human organism after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The repair of radiation damage in the human organism is reviewed. A distinction is made between the single repair steps, first the molecular repair of sublethal damage during the periods of 30 min to 2 h and several days to months, second the substitution of the whole cells during a period of reproduction which is specific for the kind and persistence of the cells. One example is the radiosensitive stem cell with a reproduction rate of 40% and a redoublication time of 10 d at 100 rads and the very low reproduction rate of 1% with redoublication time of 7 d after a dose of 400 rads. 5 rads seems to be acceptable for systems with recovery and repeated exposure, single doses normally should not exceed 25 rads, not 100 rads/d for to save human life, and not a total dose of 500 rads. About 20% of irradiation damage is not repaired and leads to late effects, for example the induction of tumors, the shortening of life span and an increase in embryonic mortality. The author recommends the acceptance of a radiation dose leading to 20 additional cases of leucemia in the whole population of Germany and an increase of tumor frequency of 1%. The shortening of life span should not exceed 0,5%. The equivalent residual dose (ERD) can be calculated by the following equation: ERD = last effective dose minus 5 rads x number of days. (AJ) [de

  9. Radiation exposure by man-modified materials containing natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.E. [Technical Inspection Agency of Bavaria, Munich (Germany); Eder, E. [Government of Bavaria, Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs Development, Munich (Germany); Reichelt, A. [Technical Inspection Agency of Bavaria, Munich (Germany)

    1992-07-01

    More than one hundred materials, containing natural radioactive nuclides, are being investigated due to radiation exposure to people. This paper deals with thoriated gas mantles and shows that the radiation exposure by inhalation of radionuclides released while burning and exchange is not negligible. (author)

  10. Epistemological limitation for attributing health effects to natural radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Abel J.

    2010-01-01

    The attribution of health effects to prolonged radiation exposure situations, such as those experienced in nature, is a challenging problem. The paper describes the epistemological limitations for such attribution it demonstrate that in most natural exposure situations, the theory of radiation-related sciences is not capable to provide the scientific evidence that health effects actually occur (or do not occur) and, therefore, that radiation effects are attributable to natural exposure situations and imputable to nature. Radiation exposure at high levels is known to provoke health effects as tissue reactions. If individuals experience these effects they can be attributed to the specific exposure with a high degree of confidence under the following conditions: the dose incurred have been higher that the relevant dose-threshold for the specific effect; and an unequivocal pathological diagnosis is attainable ensuring that possible competing causes have been eliminated. Only under these conditions, the occurrence of the effect may be properly attested and attributed to the exposure. However, even high levels of natural radiation exposure are lower than relevant dose-thresholds for tissue reactions and, therefore, natural radiation exposure is generally unable to cause these type of effects. One exception to this general rule could be situations of high levels of natural radiation exposure that might be sufficient to induce opacities in the lens of the eyes (which could be considered a tissue-reaction type of effect)

  11. Radiation exposure after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, Federica; Vavassori, Andrea; Polo, Alfredo; Rondi, Elena; Cambria, Raffaella; Orecchia, Roberto; Tosi, Giampiero

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Limited information is available on the true radiation exposure and associated risks for the relatives of the patients submitted to prostate brachytherapy with permanent implant of radioactive sources and for any other people coming into contact with them. In order to provide appropriate information, we analyzed the radiation exposure data from 216 prostate cancer patients who underwent 125 I or 103 Pd implants at the European Institute of Oncology of Milan, Italy. Patients and methods: Between October 1999 and October 2004, 216 patients with low risk prostate carcinoma were treated with 125 I (200 patients) or 103 Pd (16 patients) permanent seed implantation. One day after the procedure, radiation exposure measurements around the patients were performed using an ionization chamber survey meter (Victoreen RPO-50) calibrated in dose rate at an accredited calibration center (calibration Centre SIT 104). Results: The mean dose rate at the posterior skin surface (gluteal region) following 125 I implants was 41.3 μSv/h (range: 6.2-99.4 μSv/h) and following 103 Pd implants was 18.9 μSv/h (range 5.0-37.3 μSv/h). The dose rate at 50 cm from the skin decreased to the mean value of 6.4 μSv/h for the 125 I implants and to the mean value of 1.7 μSv/h for the 103 Pd implants. Total times required to reach the annual dose limit (1 mSv/year) recommended for the general population by the European Directive 96/29/Euratom and by the Italian law (Decreto Legislativo 241/2000) at a distance of 50 cm from the posterior skin surface of the implanted patient would be 7.7 and 21.6 days for 125 I and for 103 Pd. Good correlation between the measured dose rates and both the total implanted activity and the distance between the most posteriorly implanted seed and the skin surface of the patients was found. Conclusions: Our data show that the dose rates at 50 cm away from the prostate brachytherapy patients are very low and that the doses possibly absorbed by the

  12. Impact of climate change on occupational exposure to solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlo; Borra, Massimo; Militello, Andrea; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation. Given the uncertainties regarding the direction of changes in exposure to solar radiation due to climate change, compliance of outdoor workers with protective measures and a proper health surveillance are crucial. At the same time, education and training, along with the promotion of healthier lifestyles, are of paramount importance.

  13. Background radiation levels and medical exposure levels in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.V.; Solomon, S.B.; Thomson, J.E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The average effective background dose received by the Australian population has been reassessed to be ∼1.5 millisievert (mSv) per year. Over half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This background is to be compared with medical radiation, primarily diagnostic, which could add half as much again to the population exposure. This paper reviews research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background and from medical use. While the latter exposure is accepted to have a social benefit, there is a need to ensure that doses are no more than necessary to provide effective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  14. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187 induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells.

  15. Optimizing radiation exposure for CT localizer radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrer, Evelyn; Maeder, Ulf; Fiebich, Martin [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection-IMPS; Schaefer, Stefan; Krombach, Gabriele A. [Univ. Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Noel, Peter B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2017-08-01

    The trend towards submillisievert CT scans leads to a higher dose fraction of localizer radiographs in CT examinations. The already existing technical capabilities make dose optimization of localizer radiographs worthwhile. Modern CT scanners apply automatic exposure control (AEC) based on attenuation data in such a localizer. Therefore not only this aspect but also the detectability of anatomical landmarks in the localizer for the desired CT scan range adjustment needs to be considered. The effective dose of a head, chest, and abdomen-pelvis localizer radiograph with standard factory settings and user-optimized settings was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. CT examinations of an anthropomorphic phantom were performed using multiple sets of acquisition parameters for the localizer radiograph and the AEC for the subsequent helical CT scan. Anatomical landmarks were defined to assess the image quality of the localizer. CTDI{sub vol} and effective mAs per slice of the helical CT scan were recorded to examine the impact of localizer settings on a helical CT scan. The dose of the localizer radiograph could be decreased by more than 90% while the image quality remained sufficient when selecting the lowest available settings (80 kVp, 20 mA, pa tube position). The tube position during localizer acquisition had a greater impact on the AEC than the reduction of tube voltage and tube current. Except for the use of a pa tube position, all changes of acquisition parameters for the localizer resulted in a decreased total radiation exposure. A dose reduction of CT localizer radiograph is necessary and possible. In the examined CT system there was no negative impact on the modulated helical CT scan when the lowest tube voltage and tube current were used for the localizer.

  16. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  17. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE's performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace

  18. Radiation exposure of nurses in a coronary care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    In response to increasing awareness of radiation as a possible occupational hazard, nursing personnel staffing a hospital CCU were monitored over a 3-year period to determine occupational exposure. Portable x-ray machines, fluoroscopic units, and patients injected with radiopharmaceuticals were all potential radiation sources on such a unit. Whole-body TLD badges, exchanged monthly, indicated no cumulative exposures over 80 mR during the entire study period. The minimal exposures reported do not justify regular use of dosimeters. Adherence to standard protective measures precludes most exposure to machine-produced radiation. Close, prolonged contact with a patient after an RVG study that utilizes /sup 99m/Tc may account for some exposure. The data indicate that radiation is not a significant occupational hazard for CCU nurses at this hospital; similar minimal exposures would be expected of other nonoccupationally exposed nursing personnel in like environments

  19. Health risk assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential process for evaluating the human health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and for determining acceptable levels of exposure. There are two major components of radiation risk assessment: a measure of exposure level and a measure of disease occurrence. For quantitative estimation of health risks, it is important to evaluate the association between exposure and disease occurrence using epidemiological or experimental data. In these approaches, statistical risk models are used particularly for estimating cancer risks related to exposure to low levels of radiation. This paper presents a summary of basic models and methods of risk assessment for studying exposure-risk relationships. Moreover, quantitative risk estimates are subject to several sources of uncertainty due to inherent limitations in risk assessment studies. This paper also discusses the limitations of radiation risk assessment. (author)

  20. Registration and monitoring of radiation exposure from radiological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, F.; Pinto dos Santos, D.; Hempel, J.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for reducing radiation exposure are an important part of optimizing medical imaging and therefore a relevant quality factor in radiology. Regarding the medical radiation exposure, computed tomography has a special relevance. The use of the integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) radiation exposure monitoring (REM) profile is the upcoming standard for organizing and collecting exposure data in radiology. Currently most installed base devices do not support this profile generating the required digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reporting (SR). For this reason different solutions had been developed to register dose exposure measurements without having the dose SR object. Registration and analysis of dose-related parameters is required for constantly optimizing examination protocols, especially computed tomography (CT) examinations based on the latest research results in order to minimize the individual radiation dose exposure from medical imaging according to the principle as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). (orig.) [de

  1. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  2. Repeated prenatal exposure to valproic acid results in cerebellar hypoplasia and ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Stacey L; Kulesza, Randy J

    2017-01-06

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, social and communication defects, and is commonly associated with difficulties with motor coordination. The etiology of ASD, while mostly idiopathic, has been linked to hereditary factors and teratogens, such as valproic acid (VPA). VPA is used clinically to treat epilepsy, mood disorders, and in the prevention of migraines. The use of VPA during pregnancy significantly increases the risk of ASD in the offspring. Neuropathological studies show decreased cerebellar function in patients with ASD, resulting in gait, balance and coordination impairments. Herein, we have exposed pregnant rats to a repeated oral dose of VPA on embryonic days 10 and 12 and performed a detailed investigation of the structure and function of the cerebellar vermis. We found that throughout all ten lobules of the cerebellar vermis, Purkinje cells were significantly smaller and expression of the calcium binding protein calbindin (CB) was significantly reduced. We also found that dendritic arbors of Purkinje cells were shorter and less complex. Additionally, animals exposed to a repeated dose of VPA performed significantly worse in a number of motor tasks, including beam walking and the rotarod. These results suggest that repeated embryonic exposure to VPA induces significant cerebellar dysfunction and is an effective animal model to study the cerebellar alterations in ASD. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological effects of repeated inhalation exposure of beagle dogs to relatively insoluble aerosols of 144Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Beagle dogs were exposed repeatedly to a relatively insoluble form of 144 Ce (in fused aluminosilicate particles) to study the deposition, retention, and long-term biological effects for comparison with data from dogs that were exposed only once to a similar aerosol. Four groups of nine dogs each were exposed once every 8 weeks for 2 years (13 exposures) to achieve specified exposure goals. These goals were: to increase the lung burden by 2.5 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight with each exposure; to reestablish lung burdens of 9 or 4.5 μCi 144 Ce/kg body weight and to expose controls to fused aluminosilicate particles containing nonradioactive cerium. To date, 19 exposed dogs and 2 control dogs have died or were euthanized. The most prevalent findings to date have been pulmonary carcinomas (7 dogs) and hemangiosarcomas in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (3 dogs). Observations are continuing on the surviving 8 144 Ce-exposed and 7 control dogs who are now at approximately 2500 days (6.8 years) after the first exposure

  4. The effects of repeated low-level blast exposure on hearing in marines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina R Kubli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study evaluates a group of Military Service Members specialized in blast explosive training called “Breachers” who are routinely exposed to multiple low-level blasts while teaching breaching at the U.S. Marine Corps in Quantico Virginia. The objective of this study was to determine if there are any acute or long-term auditory changes due to repeated low-level blast exposures used in training. The performance of the instructor group “Breachers” was compared to a control group, “Engineers”. Methods: A total of 11 Breachers and four engineers were evaluated in the study. The participants received comprehensive auditory tests, including pure-tone testing, speech-in-noise (SIN measures, and central auditory behavioral and objective tests using early and late (P300 auditory evoked potentials over a period of 17 months. They also received shorter assessments immediately following the blast-exposure onsite at Quantico. Results: No acute or longitudinal effects were identified. However, there were some interesting baseline effects found in both groups. Contrary to the expected, the onsite hearing thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were slightly better at a few frequencies immediately after blast-exposure than measurements obtained with the same equipment weeks to months after each blast-exposure. Conclusions: To date, the current study is the most comprehensive study that evaluates the long-term effects of blast-exposure on hearing. Despite extensive testing to assess changes, the findings of this study suggest that the levels of current exposures used in this military training environment do not seem to have an obvious deleterious effect on hearing.

  5. Ocular exposure to ultraviolet and visible radiation from light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of the eyes to UV radiation and blue light of artificial light sources and the sun was evaluated. A spectroradiometer was used to determine the spectral irradiance at 1 nm intervals from 250 to 800 nm. Various groups of workers are at risk of ocular over-exposure to optical radiation, outdoor workers maintenance personnel of bright light source as and wear eye-protectors with effective filtering of UV radiation and blue light. (author)

  6. The effect of single and repeated ultraviolet radiation on the anterior segment of the rabbit eye

    OpenAIRE

    Fris, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Over the last two decades, depletion of stratospheric ozone has increased the flux of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the surface of the earth and the cumulative effect of UVR has become an important aspect of UV-induced eye damage. Epidemiological studies generally assess the chronic, low dose UVR exposure conditions while the laboratory animal experiments usually examine the acute response to high dose exposures. Thus, the study conditions are dissimilar and we are not free to assume that th...

  7. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation includes natural radiation which has been part cosmic radiation. Radon in homes, irradiation, gamma, among others, they have also been part of ionizing radiation. The activities that have lead to natural radiation materials are: mining and processing of uranium, radio application and thorium, phosphate industry, mining and smelting of metals, oil and gas extraction, coal mining and power generation, rare earth industry and titanium, zirconium and ceramics, building materials, waste water purification. Therefore, different criteria for radiation protection have had to create against exposure to natural radiation. Distinct rules and regulations to control were created in that sense [es

  8. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, Immanuel K H

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus.

  9. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  10. Observations of nesting avifauna under gamma-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buech, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    An opportunity arose to observe the nesting success of birds (up to the time of fledging) when the Enterprise Forest Radiation Facility was established for a study of the effects of gamma radiation on the flora and fauna of northern forest communities. The results of these observations on the fate of the nest occupants in relation to radiation exposure are presented

  11. The treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Wangyang; Liu Yulong

    2009-01-01

    Radiation dermatitis is often seen and is often a complication of radiation therapy of tumors. It is characterized by poor healing, stubborn relapse, and carcinogenesis.. The treatment include drug, physical therapy and surgery. This article describes the treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure. (authors)

  12. On the radiation exposure in temporomandibular joint examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, U.; Hildebrandt, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation exposure caused by standardized examinations of the temporomandibular joint has been determined with the aid of 660 exposures of an Alderson phantom. Comparative examinations were performed with the classic contact technique according to Parma to elucidate the results obtained. The lowest surface exposure was observed in contact examinations of the temporomandibular joint. Application of a flat cone led to a 13-fold reduction in surface exposure compared to contact examinations according to Parma. Furthermore, radiation exposure strongly decreased from the irradiation field to the adjacent area if a cone (flat cone and ear cone) was used. (author)

  13. Radiation exposure in I-131 iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years, the applied I-131 radioactivity quantity has doubled with a constant number of beds. In 1984, it was 925 GBq (25 Ci). Despite this development, no changes in the professional radiation exposure were made out. The evaluation shows a dose smaller than 0.04 man Sv/TBq (0.16 man rem/Ci) of I-131 applied. This value is below the traceability limit of the film badges. The incorporation load of the personnel (27 members) was determined by monthly body counter measurements. Only in one measurement thyroid gland activity of 5 kBq (140 nCi) was detected. Most measurements did not show any incorporation; and the few positive results were below 0.74 kBq (20 nCi). The environmental load due to unfiltered release from patients' rooms was determined at the fence of the nuclear research plant. The maximum was 0.24 mSv/a thyroid gland dose of a small child in 1982 taking into account the measured 90% partion of organic compound iodine. The waste water is decayed following chemical treatment in storage tanks. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Repeated restraint stress exposure during early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Ryan M; Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Wolf, Marina E; Caccamise, Aaron; Shroff, Freya; Smith, Alyssa B; Loweth, Jessica A

    2018-01-01

    A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1. Rats were then subjected to repeated restraint stress or control conditions (seven sessions held between WD6 and WD14). All rats were tested again for cue-induced cocaine seeking on WD15, 1 day after the last stress or control session. Although controls showed a time-dependent increase in cue-induced cocaine seeking (incubation), rats exposed to repeated stress in early withdrawal exhibited a more robust increase in seeking behavior between WD1 and WD15. In separate stressed and control rats, equivalent cocaine seeking was observed on WD48. These results indicate that repeated stress in early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cocaine craving, although craving plateaus at the same level were observed in controls. However, 1 month after the WD48 test, rats subjected to repeated stress in early withdrawal showed enhanced cue-induced cocaine seeking following acute (24 hours) food deprivation stress. Together, these data indicate that chronic stress exposure enhances the initial rate of incubation of craving during early withdrawal, resulting in increased vulnerability to cue-induced relapse during this period, and may lead to a persistent increase in vulnerability to the relapse-promoting effects of stress. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Physiological responses and manual performance in humans following repeated exposure to severe cold at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, H; Nagai, Y; Tochihara, Y

    2001-04-01

    We evaluated human physiological responses and the performance of manual tasks during exposure to severe cold (-25 degrees C) at night (0300-0500 hours) and in the afternoon (1500-1700 hours). Thirteen male students wearing standard cold protective clothing occupied a severely cold room (-25 degrees C) for 20 min, and were then transferred to a cool room (10 degrees C) for 20 min. This pattern of exposure was repeated three times, for a total time of exposure to extreme cold of 60 min. The experiments were started either at 1500 hours or 0300 hours and measurements of rectal temperature, skin temperature, blood pressure, performance in a counting task, hand tremor, and subjective responses were made in each condition. At the end of the experiment at night the mean decrease in rectal temperature [0.68 (SEM 0.04) degree C] was significantly greater than that at the end of the experiment in the afternoon [0.55 (SEM 0.08) degree C, P second cold exposure at night the mean increase in diastolic blood pressure [90 (SEM 2.0) mmHg] was significantly greater than that at the end of the second cold exposure in the afternoon [82 (SEM 2.8) mmHg, P second cold exposure at night, mean finger skin temperature [11.8 (SEM 0.8) degrees C] was significantly higher than that at the comparable time in the afternoon [9.0 (SEM 0.7) degrees C, P second cold exposure at night [25.6 (SEM 1.5) degrees C] was significantly higher than in the afternoon [20.1 (SEM 0.8) degrees C, P < 0.01]. The increased skin temperatures in the periphery resulted in increased heat loss. Since peripheral skin temperatures were highest at night, the subjects noted diminished sensations of thermal cold and pain at that time. Manual dexterity at the end of the first cold exposure at night [mean 83.7 (SEM 3.6) times.min-1] had decreased significantly more than at the end of the first cold exposure in the afternoon [mean 89.4 (SEM 3.5) times.min-1, P < 0.01]. These findings of a lowered rectal temperature and

  16. Investigation of radiation exposure dosage in dental and panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    Dental radiography and a 10-sheet procedure were conducted at 10 sites in the maxillomandibular anterior teeth and at both sides of the premolar and molar teeth sections with and without a protective apron (total 22 patterns). Experiments, which included a total of five patterns, involving standard ortho-radiography were performed with and without a protective apron, positioning of an apron exclusively on the anterior or the posterior portion of the body and utility of an apron that covered the entire body. Results are as follows: In dental radiography, internal organs included in a bundle demonstrated high radiation exposure, whereas organs excluded from the bundle exhibited low radiation exposure. In organs situated below the thyroid gland, utilization of aprons resulted in lower radiation exposure. In ortho-radiography, radiation exposure was greatest in the parotid gland, followed by the mandibular, sublingual and thyroid glands, respectively. The protective apron resulted in lower radiation exposure at sites situated below the mammary glands; moreover, a protector covering the entire body led to lower radiation exposure in comparison to an apron worn exclusively on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. No significant difference was observed in terms of exposure between protective aprons worn on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. Furthermore, a protective collar resulted in nearly zero radiation exposure in the thyroid gland. However, a protective collar largely interferes with interpretation of the radiograph; thus, in order to produce interpretable radiographs, protection of the thyroid gland is not possible. In conclusion, radiation exposure dosage can be reduced via utilization of a protective apron positioned below the thyroid gland during dental radiography and below the mammary glands during ortho-radiography. We confirmed evidence indicating that application of a protective apron can reduce patient radiation exposure dosage

  17. The role of temporal delay and repeated prospective memory cue exposure on the deactivation of completed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Moritz; Plessow, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Fischer, Rico

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that completed prospective memory (PM) intentions entail aftereffects in terms of ongoing-task-performance decrements in trials containing repeated PM cues which previously served as PM cues triggering the intended action. Previous research reported that PM aftereffects decrease over time, thus revealing a specific time course of PM aftereffects. In the present study, we tested two accounts for this pattern, assuming either that the decline of aftereffects is related to the temporal distance to PM task completion or may be a result of the repeated exposure of repeated PM cues in the ongoing task. In three experiments, we manipulated both the temporal distance to PM task completion and the frequency of repeated PM cues and demonstrated that aftereffects of completed intentions declined with repeated exposure of formerly relevant PM cues. In addition, effects of repeated exposure were not only limited to the repetition of specific PM-cue exemplars but also generalized to other semantically related PM cues within the PM-cue category. Together, findings show that decreased aftereffects of completed intentions are not related to the temporal duration of the subsequent test block, but crucially depend on the repeated exposure of the previously relevant PM cues.

  18. Thermal responses from repeated exposures to severe cold with intermittent warmer temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, H; Enomoto-Koshimizu, H; Tochihara, Y; Nakamura, K

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate physiological reaction and manual performance during exposure to warm (30 degrees C) and cool (10 degrees C) environments after exposure to very low temperatures (-25 degrees C). Furthermore, this experiment was conducted to study whether it is desirable to remove cold-protective jackets in warmer rooms after severe cold exposure. Eight male students remained in an extremely cold room for 20 min, after which they transferred into either the warm room or the cool room for 20 min. This pattern was repeated three times, and the total cold exposure time was 60 min. In the warm and cool rooms, the subjects either removed their cold-protective jackets (Condition A), or wore them continuously (Condition B). Rectal temperature, skin temperatures, manual performance, blood pressure, thermal, comfort and pain sensations were measured during the experiment. The effects of severe cold on almost all measurements in the cool (10 degrees C) environment were greater than those in the warm (30 degrees C) environment under both clothing conditions. The effects of severe cold on all measurements under Condition A except rectal temperature and toe skin temperature were significantly greater than those under Condition B in the cool environment but, not at all differences between Condition A and Condition B in the warm environments were significant. It was recognized that to remove cold-protective jackets in the cool room (10 degrees C) after severe cold exposure promoted the effects of severe cold. When rewarming in the warm resting room (30 degrees C), the physiological and psychological responses and manual performance were not influenced by the presence or absence of cold-protective clothing. These results suggest that it is necessary for workers to make sure to rewarm in the warm room outside of the cold storage and continue to wear cold-protective clothing in the cool room.

  19. Prenatal radiation exposure. Conclusions in the light of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppin, W.

    1987-01-01

    Within 6 years of the appearance of the guideline for action to be taken by doctors in the event of prenatal exposure to radiation, intended as a proposal for discussion, the following has turned out: in no case has termination of pregnancy become necessary following prenatal radiation exposure, prenatal radiation exposure was always low (about 20 mSv), there is no risk below respective threshold doses, teratogenesis is a non-stochastic process, which is why risk assessment was modified, the sensitivity of the human fetus to radiation is highest during the period of neuroblast development (9th to 16th week p.c.), and knowledge about an existing pregnancy can be taken for granted by that time, so radiation exposure is calculable and can be restricted to negligible quantities. (TRV) [de

  20. Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan in Skeletal Remains Following Differential Microclimate Exposure: Comparison of Acute vs. Repeated Drug Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lucas M; Unger, Kirk A; Watterson, James H

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of dextromethorphan (DXM) and its metabolite dextrorphan (DXT) in skeletal remains of rats following acute (ACU, 75 mg/kg, IP, n = 10) or three repeated (REP, 25 mg/kg, IP, n = 10, 40-min interval) doses of DXM is described. Following dosing and euthanasia, rats decomposed outdoors to skeleton in two different microclimate environments (n = 5 ACU and n = 5 REP at each site): Site A (shaded forest microenvironment) and Site B (rocky substrate exposed to direct sunlight, 600 m from Site A). Two drug-free rats at each site served as negative controls. Skeletal elements (vertebrae, ribs, pelvic girdles, femora, tibiae, skulls and scapulae) were recovered, pulverized and underwent methanolic microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Extracts were analyzed by GC-MS following clean-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Drug levels, expressed as mass-normalized response ratios and the ratios of DXT and DXM levels (RRDXT/RRDXM) were compared between drug exposures, microclimate sites, and across skeletal elements. DXM levels differed significantly (P < 0.05) between corresponding bone elements across exposure groups (5/7-site A; 4/7-site B), but no significant differences in DXT levels were observed between corresponding elements. RRDXT/RRDXM differed significantly (P < 0.05) between corresponding bone elements across exposure groups (6/7-site A; 5/7-site B). No significant differences were observed in levels of DXM, DXT or RRDXT/RRDXM between corresponding elements from either group between sites. When data from all bone elements was pooled, levels of DXM and RRDXT/RRDXM differed significantly between exposure groups at each site, while those of DXT did not. For both exposure groups, comparison of pooled data between sites showed no significant differences in levels of DXM, DXT or RRDXT/RRDXM. Different decomposition microclimates did not impede the discrimination of DXM exposure patterns from the analyses of DXM, DXT and RRDXT/RRDXM in bone samples. © The Author 2017

  1. Adaptive Changes in Sensorimotor Coordination and Motion Sickness Following Repeated Exposures to Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Initial interpretation of novel sensory information may be inappropriate and result in perceptual errors. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, unilateral labyrinthectomy and experimentally produced stimulus rearrangements. The purpose of this research was to compare disturbances in sensorimotor coordination produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays and to examine the effects of exposure duration, and repeated exposures to VR systems. The first study examined disturbances in balance control, and the second study examined disturbances in eye-head-hand (EHH) and eye-head coordination.

  2. Historical overview of radiation exposure guidance on radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapert, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is an historical overview of radiation exposure recommendations suggested by several commissions, committees, and agencies. Guidelines issued by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, International Atomic Energy Agency, Federal Radiation Council, Nuclear Energy Agency (formerly the European Nuclear Energy Agency), National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Food and Drug Administration, Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed

  3. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  4. Radiation exposure due to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information brochure contains 12 earlier papers of leading experts on the radiation hazard the population incurs during normal operation of nuclear facilities and the radiation-biological fundamentals of the effects of ionizing radio humans. (HP) [de

  5. Repeated exposure to immobilization or two different footshock intensities reveals differential adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa, Cristina; Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Daviu, Núria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2011-05-03

    Factors involved in adaptation to repeated stress are not well-characterized. For instance, acute footshock (FS) of high intensity appears to be less severe than immobilization (IMO) in light of the speed of post-stress recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and other physiological variables. However, repeated exposure to IMO consistently resulted in reduction of the HPA response to the same stressor (adaptation), whereas failure to adapt has been usually reported after FS. Thus, in the present work we directly compared the activation of HPA axis and other physiological changes in response to both acute and repeated exposure to IMO and two intensities of FS (medium and high) in adult male rats. Control rats were exposed to the FS boxes but they did not receive shocks. Daily repeated exposure to IMO resulted in significant adaptation of the overall ACTH and corticosterone responses to the stressor. Such a reduction was also observed with repeated exposure to FS boxes and FS-medium, whereas repeated exposure to FS-high only resulted in a small reduction of the corticosterone response during the post-stress period. This suggests that some properties of FS-high make adaptation to it difficult. Interestingly, overall changes in food intake and body weight gain throughout the week of exposure to the stressors reveal a greater impact of IMO than FS-high, indicating that factors other than the intensity of a stressor, at least when evaluated in function of the above physiological variables, can influence HPA adaptation. Since FS exposure is likely to cause more pain than IMO, activation of nociceptive signals above a certain level may negatively affect HPA adaptation to repeated stressors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation: recommendations for cosmetic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, C.; Carvalho, F.R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The beginning of the so-called tanning industry made possible the acquisition of a tanned skin independently of the available solar radiation. The tan is produced by ultraviolet radiation and, as well as in solar exposure, there are additional risks on the use of the so-called sun-beds. The damaging effects of ultraviolet exposure are well documented and reasonably quantified. The objective of this paper is to inform the potential effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure in sun-beds and to provide recommendations in order to reduce the associated risks. These recommendations are adapted for cosmetics use only (author)

  7. The Relationship between Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Vitamin D Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Engelsen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main factors influencing the synthesis of vitamin D, with particular focus on ultraviolet radiation exposure. On the global level, the main source of vitamin D is the sun. The effect of solar radiation on vitamin D synthesis depends to some extent on the initial vitamin D levels. At moderate to high latitudes, diet becomes an increasingly important source of vitamin D due to decreased solar intensity and cold temperatures, which discourage skin exposure. During the mid-winter season, these factors result in decreased solar radiation exposure, hindering extensively the synthesis of vitamin D in these populations.

  8. Non-Ionizing Radiation - sources, exposure and health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation contains the electromagnetic wavelengths from ultraviolet (UV) radiation to static electric and magnetic fields. Optical radiation consists of UV, visible and infrared (IR) radiation while EM fields include static, extremely low (ELF), low frequency (LF) and radiofrequency (RF) fields. The principal scientific organization on non-ionizing radiation is the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The main activity of ICNIRP is to provide guidance on safe exposure and protection of workers and members of the public by issuing statements and recommendations. (orig.)

  9. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, U.C. E-mail: ucmishra@yahoo.com

    2004-07-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a

  10. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.

    2004-01-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi

  11. Evaluation of the radiation exposure. Recommendation of the radiation protection commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldauf, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The recommendation of the Strahlenschutzkommission (radiation protection commission) deals with the realistic requirements for the radiation exposure assessment based on radio-ecological modeling. The recommendation is applicable for all exposure situations that can be derived from FEP (features, events processes) exposure scenarios. In this case the exposure scenario consists of natural and technical features and a set of processes and events that can influence the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes the scientific justification, the previous procedure in Germany and abroad (EURATOM, France, UK, Ukraine, USA).

  12. Environmental radiation exposure in case of power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper tries to overcome prejudices concerning radiation effects due to power plant accidents as well as to show the radiation exposure that may be expected near the the patient and to indicate ways and means to avoid or reduce this radiation exposure and to avoid contamination. It is a contribution to better information on radiation accidents and radiolesions in nuclear power plants with the aim of close cooperation between power plants, physicians, and hospitals and of helping to overcome erroneous popular assumptions. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Mast Cells Limit the Exacerbation of Chronic Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Response to Repeated Allergen Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Rivera, Vladimir-Andrey; Siebenhaar, Frank; Zimmermann, Carolin; Siiskonen, Hanna; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a chronic T cell-driven inflammatory skin disease that is caused by repeated exposure to contact allergens. Based on murine studies of acute contact hypersensitivity, mast cells (MCs) are believed to play a role in its pathogenesis. The role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis has not been investigated, in part because of the lack of murine models for chronic contact hypersensitivity. We developed and used a chronic contact hypersensitivity model in wild-type and MC-deficient mice and assessed skin inflammatory responses to identify and characterize the role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis. Ear swelling chronic contact hypersensitivity responses increased markedly, up to 4-fold, in MC-deficient Kit W-sh/W-sh (Sash) and MCPT5-Cre + iDTR + mice compared with wild-type mice. Local engraftment with MCs protected Sash mice from exacerbated ear swelling after repeated oxazolone challenge. Chronic contact hypersensitivity skin of Sash mice exhibited elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-17α, and IL-23, as well as increased accumulation of Ag-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 + tissue-resident memory T (T RM ) cells. The CD8 + T cell mitogen IL-15, which was increased in oxazolone-challenged skin of Sash mice during the accumulation of cutaneous T RM cells, was efficiently degraded by MCs in vitro. MCs protect from the exacerbated allergic skin inflammation induced by repeated allergen challenge, at least in part, via effects on CD8 + T RM cells. MCs may notably influence the course of chronic allergic contact dermatitis. A better understanding of their role and the underlying mechanisms may lead to better approaches for the treatment of this common, disabling, and costly condition. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Repeated exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles causes testicular toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Manickam, Vijayprakash; Raghunath, Azhwar; Periyasamy, Madhivadhani; Viswanathan, Mangala Priya; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 2 O 3 -NPs) could be toxic to mice testis. Fe 2 O 3 -NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered into mice once a week for 4 weeks. Our study showed that Fe 2 O 3 -NPs have the ability to cross the blood-testis barrier to get into the testis. The findings showed that exposure resulted in the accumulation of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs which was evidenced from the iron content and accumulation in the testis. Furthermore, 25 and 50 mg/kg Fe 2 O 3 -NPs administration increased the reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, glutathione peroxidase activity, and nitric oxide levels with a concomitant decrease in the levels of antioxidants-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C. Increased expression of Bax, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-PARP confirms apoptosis. Serum testosterone levels increased with increased concentration of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs exposure. In addition, the histopathological lesions like vacuolization, detachment, and sloughing of germ cells were also observed in response to Fe 2 O 3 -NPs treatment. The data from our study entailed that testicular toxicity caused by Fe 2 O 3 -NPs exposure may be associated with Fe 2 O 3 -NPs accumulation leading to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, precautions should be taken in the safe use of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs to avoid complications in the fertility of males. Further research will unravel the possible molecular mechanisms on testicular toxicity of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 594-608, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The hidden price of repeated traumatic exposure: Different cognitive deficits in different first-responders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat eLevy-Gigi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on first responders who are repeatedly exposed to traumatic events report low levels of PTSD symptoms and diagnosis. However, neuroimaging and behavioral studies show that traumatic exposure is associated with brain and cognitive dysfunctions. Taking together it may suggest that traumatic exposure have a price, which is not sufficiently defined by the standard PTSD measures. In a recent study we revealed that similar to individuals with PTSD, non-PTSD highly exposed firefighters display a selective impairment in hippocampal related functions. In the current study we aimed to test whether different first responders display a similar impairment. We concentrated on unique populations of active duty firefighters and criminal scene-investigators (CSI police, who are frequently exposed to similar levels and types of traumatic events, and compared them to civilian matched-controls with no history of trauma-exposure. We used a hippocampal dependent cue-context reversal paradigm, which separately evaluates reversal of negative and positive outcomes of cue and context related information. We predicted and found that all participants were equally able to acquire and retain stimulus-outcome associations. However, there were significant differences in reversal learning between the groups. Performance among firefighters replicated our prior findings; they struggled to learn that a previously negative context is later associated with a positive outcome. CSI police on the other hand showed a selective impairment in reversing the outcome of a negative cue. Hence after learning that a specific cue is associated with a negative outcome, they could not learn that later it is associated with a positive outcome. Performance in both groups did not correlate with levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression or behavioral inhibition symptoms. The results provide further evidence of the hidden price of traumatic exposure, suggesting that this price may differ as a

  16. Radiation exposure to patients during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, J.M.; Robles, J.E.; Arbizu, J.; Castro, F. de; Berian, J.M.; Richter, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    We analyzed the radiological exposure to patients during Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generator lithotriptor. Stone location is accomplished by fluoroscopy and 'quick pics' or snapshots. A prospective study over 55 patients showed a mean exposure of 32.2 R. The introduction of the ALARA criterion reduced it to 16.1 R in the following 145 patients. Mean radiation exposure to patient varies according to treatment difficulty. A mean increase of radiation exposure of 1.6 between low and high difficulty treatment groups was observed. This variation was about 96% when the physician who performed the treatment was considered. (author)

  17. Effect of squatting on sprinting performance and repeated exposure to complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam K

    2010-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a heavy weight training exercise on sprinting performance and on the effect of repeated exposure to a complex training protocol. Eleven male rugby union players (age 20.9 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study, which involved 5 separate testing sessions. Back squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) was established in session 1. Sessions 2-5 were identical and involved the subjects completing a 30-m sprint before and after a 3RM back squat protocol. Four minutes of rest was given between the back squatting and the posttest 30-m sprint. All sprint trials were measured with a laser measurement device (LAVEG, Jenoptik, Jena, Germany). Sprint time and instantaneous, average, and maximum velocity were the dependent variables. The criterion for significance was set at an alpha level of p > or = 0.05. No significant improvement was evident for any of the testing sessions (p > or = 0.05). In session 1, there was a significant increase in 30-m time and a significant reduction in average 30-m velocity and maximum velocity (p benefits in sprinting may not have been realized because of intra and intersubject variations in sprint technique. The session x phase interaction revealed a significant improvement in the pre to posttest changes in instantaneous velocity at 20 m (p = 0.035) and 30 m (p = 0.036) from session 1 to session 4. This indicates that the rugby players may be able to learn to apply the potentiation effects of complex training. From a practical perspective, players may need repeated exposure to this training modality to gain benefit from it, and this should be reflected in program planning.

  18. ACREM: A new air crew radiation exposure measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.; Kerschbaumer, S.; Schmitzer, C.; Strachotinsky, C.; Grosskopf, A.; Winkler, N.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic radiation has already been discovered in 1912 by the Austrian Nobel Laureate Victor F. Hess. After Hess up to now numerous measurements of the radiation exposure by cosmic rays in different altitudes have been performed, however, this has not been taken serious in view of radiation protection.Today, with the fast development of modern airplanes, an ever increasing number of civil aircraft is flying in increasing altitudes for considerable time. Members of civil aircrew spending up to 1000 hours per year in cruising altitudes and therefore are subject to significant levels of radiation exposure. In 1990 ICRP published its report ICRP 60 with updated excess cancer risk estimates, which led to significantly higher risk coefficients for some radiation qualities. An increase of the radiation weighting factors for mean energy neutron radiation increases the contribution for the neutron component to the equivalent dose by about 60%, as compared to the earlier values of ICRP26. This higher risk coefficients lead to the recommendation of the ICRP, that cosmic radiation exposure in civil aviation should be taken into account as occupational exposure. Numerous recent exposure measurements at civil airliners in Germany, Sweden, USA, and Russia show exposure levels in the range of 3-10 mSv/year. This is significantly more than the average annual dose of radiation workers (in Austria about 1.5 mSv/year). Up to now no practicable and economic radiation monitoring system for routine application on board exits. A fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, active in-flight dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is discussed in this paper

  19. Fluoroscopic radiation exposure: are we protecting ourselves adequately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffler, C Edward; Ilyas, Asif M

    2015-05-06

    While traditional intraoperative fluoroscopy protection relies on thyroid shields and aprons, recent data suggest that the surgeon's eyes and hands receive more exposure than previously appreciated. Using a distal radial fracture surgery model, we examined (1) radiation exposure to the eyes, thyroid, chest, groin, and hands of a surgeon mannequin; (2) the degree to which shielding equipment can decrease exposure; and (3) how exposure varies with fluoroscopy unit size. An anthropomorphic model was fit with radiation-attenuating glasses, a thyroid shield, an apron, and gloves. "Exposed" thermoluminescent dosimeters overlaid the protective equipment at the eyes, thyroid, chest, groin, and index finger while "shielded" dosimeters were placed beneath the protective equipment. Fluoroscopy position and settings were standardized. The mini-c-arm milliampere-seconds were fixed based on the selection of the kilovolt peak (kVp). Three mini and three standard c-arms scanned a model of the patient's wrist continuously for fifteen minutes each. Ten dosimeter exposures were recorded for each c-arm. Hand exposure averaged 31 μSv/min (range, 22 to 48 μSv/min), which was 13.0 times higher than the other recorded exposures. Eye exposure averaged 4 μSv/min, 2.2 times higher than the mean thyroid, chest, and groin exposure. Gloves reduced hand exposure by 69.4%. Glasses decreased eye exposure by 65.6%. There was no significant difference in exposure between mini and standard fluoroscopy. Surgeons' hands receive the most radiation exposure during distal radial plate fixation under fluoroscopy. There was a small but insignificant difference in mean exposure between standard fluoroscopy and mini-fluoroscopy, but some standard units resulted in lower exposure than some mini-units. On the basis of these findings, we recommend routine protective equipment to mitigate exposure to surgeons' hands and eyes, in addition to the thyroid, chest, and groin, during fluoroscopy procedures

  20. The causes and consequences of human exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Few phenomena cause as much concern in developed countries as human exposure to artificial sources of radiation, and yet there are more potent threats to health: natural radiation is more pervasive and exposures more substantial; common practices such as smoking and drinking are more detrimental. Developing countries may be more anxious to establish radiological procedures than radiological protection. This paper gives the ranges of exposure to which people are subjected from natural and artificial sources which should help to put all doses in perspective. The relationship between dose and risk is established and used to show that exposures to radiation leak to low levels of risk. Finally, the new recommendations of ICRP for the control of radiation risk are presented. (Author)

  1. Mouse fecal microbiome after exposure to high LET radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space travel is associated with continuous low-dose-rate exposure to high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. Pathophysiological manifestations after low-dose...

  2. Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang (Division of Urology, Dept. of Surgery, National Yang-Ming Medical College and Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Taiwan (China))

    1991-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au).

  3. Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang

    1991-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au)

  4. Evaluation of natural radiation exposure of the French population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billon, S.; Morin, A.; Baysson, H.; Gambard, J.P.; Rannou, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of the French population to ionising radiation is mainly due to natural radiation (i.e. exposure through: inhalation of radon decay products, external radiation of terrestrial and cosmic origin and water and food ingestion). In an epidemiological context, it is necessary to estimate as precisely as possible the population exposure, in order to study its influence on health indicators. In this aim, indicators of population exposure should be created taking into account results of environmental measurements by controlling the different factors that may influence these measurements (dwelling characteristics, seasonal variations, population density). The distribution of these exposures should also be studied at different geographical levels (department, job area). This work updates the estimation of the French population exposure to natural radiation. Radon exposure indicators have been based on concentrations measured in dwellings, corrected on season and dwelling characteristics (departmental range: 19-297 Bq/m 3 ). Indicators of terrestrial gamma ray exposure have been based on measured indoor and outdoor dose rates adjusted on dwelling characteristics (22-95 nSv/h). Cosmic ray exposure has been evaluated from altitude and weighted by population density (0.27-0.38 mSv/yr). Due to these three components, the effective annual dose was estimated to be at 2.2 mSv. (author)

  5. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L.

    2006-01-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value by a conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  6. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Justo Dorado, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  7. Patient radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, K.E.; Leibovic, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure air product (EAP) and center field entrance exposure (free-in-air) were measured in seventeen pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Exposures were recorded separately for biplane fluoroscopy and cine angiocardiography using flat-plate ionization chambers. In the posterior-anterior (PA) projections, median EAP was 425 Roentgen-square centimeter (R-cm 2 ), with a range of 90.5-3,882 R-cm 2 ; 29-35% of this exposure occurred during cine filming. In the lateral projection, median EAP was 276 R-cm 2 (range 117-1,173); 52-59% of this exposure was due to cine filming. Median center field entrance exposure in the PA view was 7.86 Roentgens (R) with a range 2.16-73.9 of and in the lateral projection 7.39 R (range 2.64-24.6). As much as 25% of the exposure from the entire examination was contributed by manual ''test'' exposures to set cine radiographic kVp. We recommend use of testing circuits, which determine cine radiographic factors automatically and thus should lower levels of exposure

  8. Patient radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, K.E.; Leibovic, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure are product (EAP) and center field entrance exposure (free-in-air) were measured in seventeen pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Exposures were recorded separately for biplane fluoroscopy and cine angiocardiography using flat-plate ionization chambers. In the posterior-anterior (PA) projections, median EAP was 425 Roentgen-square centimeter (R-cm 2 ), with a range of 90.5-3,882 R-cm 2 ; 29-35% of this exposure occurred during cine filming. In the lateral projection, median EAP was 276 R-cm 2 (range 117-1,173); 52-59% of this exposure was due to cine filming. Median center field entrance exposure in the PA view was 7.86 Roentgens (R) with a range 2.16-73.9 of and in the lateral projection 7.39 R (range 2.64-24.6). As much as 25% of the exposure from the entire examination was contributed by manual ''test'' exposures to set cine radiographic kVp. We recommend use of testing circuits, which determine cine radiographic factors automatically and thus should lower levels of exposure. (orig.)

  9. Radiation exposure to patients during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Swearingen, F.L.; McCullough, D.L.; Dyer, R.; Appel, B.

    1987-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is rapidly becoming an accepted treatment of renal calculi. Since fluoroscopy is involved to image the stones it is important to know how much radiation the patient receives during this procedure. Surface radiation exposure to the patient was measured in more than 300 fluoroscopic and radiographic procedures using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Initial results showed an average skin exposure of 10.1 rad per procedure for each x-ray unit, comparing favorably with exposure rates for percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and other routine radiological procedures. Factors influencing exposure levels include stone characteristics (location, size and opacity), physician experience and number of shocks required. Suggestions are given that may result in a 50 per cent reduction of radiation exposure

  10. Fatal cardiac arrhythmia after repeated exposure to 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Joseph; Wilson, James C; Lehrer, Michael

    2006-03-01

    A 42-year-old man was found dead after repeated exposure to 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE, Freon 152a), a propellant found in CRC Duster, a product intended for the removal of dust and lint. Toxicologic analysis detected DFE in femoral blood 136.3 mg/L, brain 117.5 mg/kg, liver 87.6 mg/kg, lung 60.3 mg/kg, adipose 235.7 mg/kg, and vitreous fluid 25.1 mg/L. The cause of death was determined to be a fatal cardiac arrhythmia due to intoxication with 1,1-difluoroethane. After comparison to previously published cases involving DFE, we suggest that analysis of adipose tissue for DFE and similar compounds, along with blood and other tissues, may be useful in distinguishing between acute versus chronic exposure. Adipose may also be a valuable alternate specimen for detection in cases where loss or elimination from blood is likely to have occurred.

  11. Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M; Salato, José; Blevins, Meridith; Silva, Wilson; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Vermund, Sten H; Gaspar, Felisbela

    2016-11-01

    Healers provide support for acute and chronic illnesses in rural Mozambique, such as socially acceptable traditional 'vaccinations' (subcutaneous cuts in the skin to rub herbs directly into the bloody lesion). We aimed to document the frequency of blood exposure by traditional practitioners in Mozambique. We conducted surveys with a simple random sample of 236 traditional healers in Zambézia province. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare 'injection' behaviours across districts. Healers treated a median of eight patients in the past month (IQR: 4-15). About 75% conducted 'injections'. These healers 'injected' a median of four patients (IQR: 1-8), used a new razor a median of three times (IQR: 1-8), and almost never used gloves. Lifetime blood exposures among those who provided 'injections' during treatments were estimated to be 1758 over a healer's career. The majority of healers are exposed repeatedly to patient blood. Given the high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, and other blood-borne agents, specific healer practices are an occupational hazard and reuse of razors is risky for their clients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this “highly informed” group of potential donors. PMID:27190650

  13. Repeated exposure to media violence is associated with diminished response in an inhibitory frontolimbic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we found that repeated exposure to violent media, but not to other equally arousing media, led to both diminished response in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (right ltOFC and a decrease in right ltOFC-amygdala interaction. Reduced function in this network has been previously associated with decreased control over a variety of behaviors, including reactive aggression. Indeed, we found reduced right ltOFC responses to be characteristic of those subjects that reported greater tendencies toward reactive aggression. Furthermore, the violence-induced reduction in right ltOFC response coincided with increased throughput to behavior planning regions. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings establish that even short-term exposure to violent media can result in diminished responsiveness of a network associated with behaviors such as reactive aggression.

  14. Repeated Exposure to Dissection Does Not Influence Students' Attitudes towards Human Body Donation for Anatomy Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Mandela, Pamela; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The use of unclaimed bodies for anatomical dissection has been the main method of instruction at our institution. There is however a shortage of cadavers for dissection given the increase in the number of medical schools as well as in the number of students enrolling in these schools. This shortage could be mitigated by having voluntary human body donation programs. This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students and surgical residents towards body donation for anatomy learning. We conducted an online survey involving 72 first-year medical students and 41 surgical residents at University of Nairobi who had completed one year of anatomy dissection. For the medical students, this was their first dissection experience while it was the second exposure for the surgery trainees. Most of the surgical trainees (70.7%) and medical students (68.1%) were opposed to self-body donation. This was mainly due to cultural (37%) and religious (20%) barriers. Surprisingly, of those not willing to donate themselves, 67.9% (82.8% surgical trainees, 59.2% medical students) would recommend the practice to other people. Exposure to repeated dissection does not change the perceptions towards body donation. It is noteworthy that culture and religion rank high as clear barriers amongst this "highly informed" group of potential donors.

  15. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently organizing it. In addition, instructions are given for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Also the procedures are described for situations leading to exceptional exposures. (10 refs., 1 tab.)

  16. Protection from potential exposures: application to selected radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This ICRP Report begins with the general principles of radiation protection in the case of potential exposures, followed by special issues in application and compliance with regulatory aims. The rest of the report uses event trees or fault trees to derive the logical structure of six scenarios of potential exposure, i.e. two irradiators, a large research accelerator, an accelerator for industrial isotope production, an industrial radiography device using a mobile source of radiation, and finally a medical gamma radiotherapy device. (UK)

  17. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Sairenji, Eiko; Anzai, Ikuro.

    1987-01-01

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them. (author)

  18. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Sairenji, Eiko; Anzai, Ikuro

    1987-03-01

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them.

  19. Repeated exposures to roadside particulate matter extracts suppresses pulmonary defense mechanisms, resulting in lipid and protein oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Michal; Porat, Ziv; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities and urban canyons can be harmful to the exposed population. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to health effects are not yet elucidated. It is postulated that exposure to repeated, small, environmentally relevant concentrations can affect lung homeostasis. This study examines the impact of repeated exposures to urban PM on mouse lungs with focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. Aqueous extracts from collected urban PM were administered to mice by 5 repeated intra-tracheal instillations (IT). Multiple exposures, led to an increase in cytokine levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the blood serum, indicating a systemic reaction. Lung mRNA levels of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes decreased by exposure to the PM extract, but not when metals were removed by chelation. Finally, disruption of lung tissue oxidant-inflammatory/defense balance was evidenced by increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation. Unlike response to a single IT exposure to the same dose and source of extract, multiple exposures result in lung oxidative damage and a systemic inflammatory reaction. These could be attributed to compromised capacity to activate the protective Nrf2 tissue defense system. It is suggested that water-soluble metals present in urban PM, potentially from break and tire wear, may constitute major drivers of the pulmonary and systemic responses to multiple exposure to urban PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prior exposure to repeated immobilization or chronic unpredictable stress protects from some negative sequels of an acute immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Ciurana, Jordi; Rabasa, Cristina; Ortega-Sánchez, Juan A; Sanchís-Ollè, Maria; Gabriel-Salazar, Marina; Ginesta, Marta; Belda, Xavier; Daviu, Núria; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) is gaining acceptance as a putative animal model of depression. However, there is evidence that chronic exposure to stress can offer non-specific stress protection from some effects of acute superimposed stressors. We then compared in adult male rats the protection afforded by prior exposure to CUS with the one offered by repeated immobilization on boards (IMO) regarding some of the negative consequences of an acute exposure to IMO. Repeated exposure to IMO protected from the negative consequences of an acute IMO on activity in an open-field, saccharin intake and body weight gain. Active coping during IMO (struggling) was markedly reduced by repeated exposure to the same stressor, but it was not affected by a prior history of CUS, suggesting that our CUS protocol does not appear to impair active coping responses. CUS exposure itself caused a strong reduction of activity in the open-field but appeared to protect from the hypo-activity induced by acute IMO. Moreover, prior CUS offered partial protection from acute IMO-induced reduction of saccharin intake and body weight gain. It can be concluded that a prior history of CUS protects from some of the negative consequences of exposure to a novel severe stressor, suggesting the development of partial cross-adaptation whose precise mechanisms remain to be studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of product information and repeated exposure on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations of local apple juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    The impact of product information and repeated exposure of local apple juice on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations was studied. Findings showed that consumers had high expectations towards the studied local apples juices. Consequently, the liking for the local apple juices...... did not fully determine consumer liking. Thus the sensory characteristics were also found to be of importance. Besides liking, the concept associations were also affected by product information. All local apple juices were associated as being more exclusive under informed tasting conditions....... No effects were found for liking of the apple juices over repeated exposure. Also, the consumers did not change their sensory perception over repeated consumption. However, the local apple juices were conceptualised as more familiar but remained exclusive after repeated consumption. When local producers have...

  2. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations

  3. Radio frequency (RF) radiation exposure and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Mahmoudi, R.; Iniewski, K.

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of wireless communication I show the explosive growth in time of mobile telephony and explain how this affects the perception of fear of the general public for electromagnetic radiation. Then, after explaining the physics of electromagnetic radiation, I discuss the interaction

  4. Cost benefit analysis for occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruthers, G.F.; Rodgers, R.C.; Donohue, J.P.; Swartz, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of system design, many decisions must be made concerning different aspects of that particular system. The design of systems and components in a nuclear power plant has the added faction of occupational exposure experienced as a result of that design. This paper will deal with the different methods available to factor occupational exposure into design decisions. The ultimate goal is to have exposures related to the design 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' or ALARA. To do this an analysis should be performed to show that the cost of reducing exposures any further cannot be justified in a cost-benefit analysis. In this paper examples will be given that will show that it is possible to change to a design which would increase occupational exposure somewhat but would increase the benefit over the cost of the extra exposure received. It will also be shown that some changes in design or additional equipment could be justified due to a reduction in exposure while some changes could not be justified on a reduction in exposure aspect alone but are justified on a time saving aspect such as during a refueling outage. (author)

  5. Radiation exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujnova, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an interdisciplinary department that deals with diagnosis and therapy using open sources. Therefore workers in nuclear medicine are in daily contact with ionizing radiation and thus it is essential to monitor a radiation load. Each work must therefore carry out monitoring of workers. It monitors compliance with the radiation limits set by law, allows an early detection of deviations from normal operation and to demonstrate whether the radiation protection at the workplace is optimized. This work describes the principles of monitoring of workers in nuclear medicine and monitoring methods for personal dosimetry. In the next section the author specifically deals with personal dosimetry at the Department of Nuclear Medicine St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, Bratislava (KNM-Ba-OUSA). The main part of the work is to evaluate the results of a one-year monitoring of radiation workers KNM-Ba-OUSA. (author)

  6. Radiation exposure during travelling in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Hassan, A.; Sulaiman, I.

    2006-01-01

    Absorbed dose rates in vehicles during travelling by different modes of transport in Malaysia were measured. Radiation levels measured on roads in Peninsular Malaysia were within a broad range, i.e. between 36 and 1560 nGy h -1 . The highest reading, recorded while travelling near monazite and zircon mineral dumps, was 13 times the mean environmental radiation level of Malaysia. It is evident that radioactive material dumps on the roadsides can influence the radiation level on the road. The absorbed dose rates measured while travelling on an ordinary train were between 60 and 350 nGy h -1 . The highest reading was measured when the train passed a tunnel built through a granite rock hill. The measurement during sea travelling by ferries gave the lowest radiation level owing to merely cosmic radiation at the sea level. (authors)

  7. Radiation exposure from Chest CT: Issues and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michael M.; Rizzo, Stefania; Kanarek, David; Shephard, Jo-Anne O.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns have been raised over alleged overuse of CT scanning and inappropriate selection of scanning methods, all of which expose patients to unnecessary radiation. Thus, it is important to identify clinical situations in which techniques with lower radiation dose such as plain radiography or no radiation such as MRI and occasionally ultrasonography can be chosen over CT scanning. This article proposes the arguments for radiation dose reduction in CT scanning of the chest and discusses recommended practices and studies that address means of reducing radiation exposure associated with CT scanning of the chest. PMID:15082885

  8. Estimates of radiation doses from various sources of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of radiation doses to individuals and to the collective US population from various sources of ionizing radiation. Summary tables present doses from various sources of ionizing radiation. Summary tables present doses from occupational exposures and annual per capita doses from natural background, the healing arts, nuclear weapons, nuclear energy and consumer products. Although doses from non-ionizing radiation are not as yet readily available in a concise form, the major sources of non-ionizing radiation are listed

  9. Effects of radiation exposure from radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witcofski, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the United States about 90 percent of man-made radiation exposure to the general population is from the use of radiation in diagnostic medicine. Although the doses of radiation from these procedures to individuals are generally quite small, large numbers of people are exposed. Estimates of the radiation doses associated with such use in the healing arts are approximately 15 million person-rem to the general population from diagnostic x ray and 3.3 million person-rem from the diagnostic use of radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose of this paper is to present what is known about the possible effects of radiation from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals

  10. Repeat Whole Brain Radiation Therapy with a Simultaneous Infield Boost: A Novel Technique for Reirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, W.A.; Prabhu, R.S.; Crocker, I.R.; Dhabban, A.; Ogunleye, T.; Kandula, Sh.; Jiang, X.; Curran, W.J.; Shu, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of patients who experience intracranial progression after whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is a clinical challenge. Novel radiation therapy delivery technologies are being applied with the objective of improving tumor and symptom control in these patients. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical outcomes of the application of a novel technology to deliver repeat WBRT with volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and a simultaneous infield boost (WB-SIB) to gross disease. A total of 16 patients were initially treated with WBRT between 2000 and 2008 and then experienced intracranial progression, were treated using repeat WB-SIB, and were analyzed. The median dose for the first course of WBRT was 35 Gy (range: 30–50.4 Gy). Median time between the initial course of WBRT and repeat WB-SIB was 11.3 months. The median dose at reirradiation was 20 Gy to the whole brain with a median boost dose of 30 Gy to gross disease. A total of 2 patients demonstrated radiographic disease progression after treatment. The median overall survival (OS) time from initial diagnosis of brain metastases was 18.9 months (range: 7.1–66.6 (95% CI: 0.8–36.9)). The median OS time after initiation of reirradiation for all patients was 2.7 months (range: 0.46–14.46 (95% CI: 1.3–8.7)). Only 3 patients experienced CTCAE grade 3 fatigue. No other patients experienced any ≥ CTCAE grade 3 toxicity. This analysis reports the result of a novel RT delivery technique for the treatment of patients with recurrent brain metastases. Side effects were manageable and comparable to other conventional repeat WBRT series. Repeat WB-SIB using the VMAT RT delivery technology is feasible and appears to have acceptable short-term acute toxicity. These results may provide a foundation for further exploration of the WB-SIB technique for repeat WBRT in future prospective clinical trials.

  11. Radiation exposure of radiographers who handle 18 F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is used in most diagnostic applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It has high annihilation energy of 511 keV, which results in potentially high radiation doses for staff. This study investigated radiographer radiation exposure during receipt, administration and scanning of ...

  12. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging among patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, Alan N

    2012-03-01

    There are concerns about levels of radiation exposure among patients who undergo diagnostic imaging for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared with other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We quantified imaging studies and estimated the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation received by patients with organic and functional GI disorders. We also identified factors and diagnoses associated with high CEDs.

  13. Radiation exposure of the crew in commercial air traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Markovic, P.; Petrovic, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The routine radiation exposure of the crews in Yugoslav Airlines (JAT) has been studied and some previous results are presented. The flights of four selected groups of pilots (four aircraft types) have been studied during one year. Annual exposures and dose equivalents are presented. Some additional results and discussions are given. (1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  14. Improvement of NSSS design to reduce occupational radiation exposure (ORE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubourg, M.

    1985-05-01

    As a result of its R and D activities, FRAMATOME has initiated concrete measures to help to reduce personnel radiation exposure. These measures include reduction in the sources and quantity of activable products, and in the duration of personnel exposure during maintenance

  15. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation

  16. Repeated exposures to cobalt or chromate on the hands of patients with hand eczema and contact allergy to that metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Kristiansen, J; Borg, L

    2000-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of daily repeated exposures to low cobalt or chromate concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and cobalt or chromate allergy. For 2 weeks, the patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into the appropriate metal salt solution in...... of providing evidence-based medicine in the area of allergic contact dermatitis in the future.......-sensitive patients. During the exposure period, accumulation of cobalt or chromate in the nail was demonstrated. Standardization of chemical methods of quantification of skin exposure to allergens, combined with experimental exposure studies in patients with specific contact allergy, will increase the possibility...

  17. Occupational radiation exposure monitoring among radiation workers in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Shrestha, Shanta Lall; Khanal, Tara; Ween, Borgny

    2008-01-01

    Nepal was accepted as a member of the IAEA in 2007. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is defined in Health Level IV. The population counted 26.4 millions in 2007. The health care sector increases with new hospitals and clinics, however, Nepal has no radiation protection authority or radiation protection regulation in the country until now. The radiation producing equipment in the health sector includes conventional X-ray and dental X-ray equipment, fluoroscopes, mammography, CT, catheterization laboratory equipment, nuclear medicine facilities, a few linear accelerators, Co 60 teletherapy and High Dose Rate brachytherapy sources. The situation regarding dosimetry service for radiation workers is unclear. A survey has been carried out to give an overview of the situation. The data collection of the survey was performed by phone call interviews with responsible staff at the different hospitals and clinics. Data about different occupationally exposed staff, use of personal radiation monitoring and type of dosimetry system were collected. In addition, it was asked if dosimetry reports were compiled in files or databases for further follow-up of staff, if needed. The survey shows that less of 25% of the procedures performed on the surveyed hospitals and clinics are performed by staff with personnel radiation monitoring. Radiation monitoring service for exposed staff is not compulsory or standardized, since there is no radiation protection authority. Nepal has taken a step forward regarding radiation protection, with the IAEA membership, although there are still major problems that have to be solved. An evaluation of the existing practice of staff dosimetry can be the first helpful step for further work in building a national radiation protection authority. (author)

  18. Deterioration of neurobehavioral performance in resident physicians during repeated exposure to extended duration work shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clare; Sullivan, Jason P; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Cade, Brian E; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2012-08-01

    Although acute sleep loss during 24- to 30-h extended duration work shifts (EDWS) has been shown to impair the performance of resident physicians, little is known about the effects of cumulative sleep deficiency on performance during residency training. Chronic sleep restriction induces a gradual degradation of neurobehavioral performance and exacerbates the effects of acute sleep loss in the laboratory, yet the extent to which this occurs under real-world conditions is unknown. In this study, the authors quantify the time course of neurobehavioral deterioration due to repeated exposure to EDWS during a 3-week residency rotation. A prospective, repeated-measures, within-subject design. Medical and cardiac intensive care units, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. Thirty-four postgraduate year one resident physicians (23 males; age 28.0 ± 1.83 (standard deviation) years) Residents working a 3-week Q3 schedule (24- to 30-h work shift starts every 3(rd) day), consisting of alternating 24- to 30-h (EDWS) and approximately 8-h shifts, underwent psychomotor vigilance testing before, during, and after each work shift. Mean response time, number of lapses, and slowest 10% of responses were calculated for each test. Residents also maintained daily sleep/wake/work logs. EDWS resulted in cumulative sleep deficiency over the 21-day rotation (6.3 h sleep obtained per day; average 2.3 h sleep obtained per extended shift). Response times deteriorated over a single 24- to 30-h shift (P Performance on the fifth and sixth shift was significantly worse than on the first shift (P performance and exacerbated the effects of acute sleep loss inherent in the 24- to 30-h EDWS that are commonly used in resident schedules.

  19. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Dose of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatas, Zubaidah

    2003-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to natural radiation from external sources include radionuclides in the earth and cosmic radiation, and by internal radiation from radionuclides, mainly uranium and thorium series, incorporated into the body. Living systems have adapted to the natural levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources enhance these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are the outcomes of physical and chemical processes that occur immediately after the exposure, then followed by biological process in the body. These processes will involve successive changes in the molecular, cellular, tissue and whole organism levels. Any dose of radiation, no matter how small, may produce health effects since even a single ionizing event can result in DNA damage. The damage to DNA in the nucleus is considered to be the main initiating event by which radiation causes damage to cells that results in the development of cancer and hereditary disease. It has also been indicated that cytogenetic damage can occur in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure, known as bystander effects. This paper reviews health risks of low dose radiation exposure to human body causing stochastic effects, i.e. cancer induction in somatic cells and hereditary disease in genetic cells. (author)

  20. Occupational radiation exposure and mortality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppock, E.; Dobson, D.; Fair, M.

    1992-06-01

    An epidemiological cohort study of some 300,000 Canadians enrolled in the National Dose Registry (NDR) is being undertaken to determine if there is excess cancer or other causes of mortality among those workers who are occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. The results of this study may provide better understanding of the dose-response relationship for low doses of ionizing radiation and aid in the verification of risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality. The Department of National Health and Welfare (DNHW) is responsible for the Registry; this study is being carried out by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices (BRMD) with financial assistance and co-operation of various agencies including Statistics Canada and the Atomic Energy Control Board

  1. electromagnetic radiation exposure from cellular base station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    2DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, FEDERAL ... equipment comply with international standards and thus the radiated field propagated from their installation ... adverse health effects such as blood brain barrier,.

  2. Cosmic radiation and air crew exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Lisjak, I.; Vekic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2005-01-01

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they interact with the air nuclei and induce cosmic-ray shower. When an aircraft is in the air, the radiation field within includes many types of radiation of large energy range; the field comprises mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons. Cosmic radiation dose for crews of air crafts A 320 and ATR 42 was measured using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured using the Alpha Guard radon detector. The total annual dose estimated for the A 320 aircraft crew, at altitudes up to 12000 meters, was 5.3 mSv (including natural radon radiation dose of 1.1 mSv).(author)

  3. Radiation exposure of airline crew members to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, G. E-mail: gianni.deangelis@iol.it; Caldora, M.; Santaquilani, M.; Scipione, R.; Verdecchia, A

    2001-06-01

    A study of radiation exposures in the ionizing radiation environment of the atmosphere is currently in progress for the Italian civil aviation flight personnel. After a description of the considered data sources/ the philosophy of the study is presented/ and an overview is given of the data processing with regard to flight routes/ the computational techniques for radiation dose evaluation along the flight paths and for the exposure matrix building/ along with an indication of the results that the study should provide.

  4. Application of maximum values for radiation exposure and principles for the calculation of radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    The guide presents the definitions of equivalent dose and effective dose, the principles for calculating these doses, and instructions for applying their maximum values. The limits (Annual Limit on Intake and Derived Air Concentration) derived from dose limits are also presented for the purpose of monitoring exposure to internal radiation. The calculation of radiation doses caused to a patient from medical research and treatment involving exposure to ionizing radiation is beyond the scope of this ST Guide

  5. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Section 32 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) defines the requirements to be applied to the monitoring of the radiation exposure and working conditions in Finland. The concepts relevant to the monitoring and guidelines for determining the necessity of the monitoring as well as its organizing are given in the guide. Instructions for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are given, also procedures for situations leading to exceptional exposures are described. (9 refs.)

  6. Fitness of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The advice in this guidance note is aimed at employers in control of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation and ancillary equipment. This includes NHS trusts, health authorities or boards, private hospitals, clinics, surgeries, medical X-ray facilities in industry, dentists and chiropractors. The guidance should also be useful to radiation protection advisers appointed by such employers. The guidance provides advice on the requirements of regulation 33 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85). In particular, it covers: (a) the selection, installation, maintenance, calibration and replacement of equipment to ensure that it is capable of restricting, so far as reasonably practicable, the medical exposure of any person to the extent that this is compatible with the intended diagnostic or therapeutic purpose; (b) recommended procedures for the definitive calibration of radiotherapy treatment; and (c) the need to investigate incidents involving a malfunction or defect in any 'radiation equipment' which result in medical exposures much greater than intended and to notify the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 'Medical exposure' is defined in IRR85 as exposure of a person to ionising radiation for the purpose of his or her medical or dental examination or treatment which is conducted under the direction of a suitably qualified person and includes any such examination or treatment conducted for the purposes of research. For convenience, people undergoing medical exposure will be referred to as 'patients' in this guidance. Nothing in this publication is intended to indicate whether or not patients should be informed of any incident resulting from malfunction or defect in equipment used for medical exposure and the possible consequences of that exposure. As stated above, this guidance concerns medical exposures much greater than intended and although exposures much lower than intended can also have serious consequences, the incident would not

  7. Radiation exposure of the population due to medical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.

    1976-01-01

    The question of individual benefit-risk ratio in X-ray exposures is considered. The growth rate of the number of radiological examinations in New Zealand, Sweden, UK and USA is stated to be between 2 and 6 per cent per annum. The risks of internal radioisotope tests are emphasised and reductions of exposure are reported when 99Tc isotopes are used, counterbalanced by the increasing number of exposures made; the question of radiation-induced leukemia is raised in this respect. The problems of analysing delayed radiation effects are discussed, and the possibility of animal tests is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  8. National registry of workers occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, P.G. da; Mota, H.C.; Alegre, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission started in 1987 a nationwide program in order to collect and maintain the radiation exposure records of the Brazilian workers. This data base consists of several files including: workers - personal data; institutions - section or department where the workers perform their activities; and annual doses - annual integrated doses and any relevant information regarding their exposures. The data base structure is introduced in the present work where its objectives are discussed taking into account the magnitude of the program as well as the difficulties of maintaining and the long term perspectives of a nationwide register of radiation occupational exposures. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig

  9. Radiation exposure and risk of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Syozo

    1979-01-01

    By using the risk factor given in ICRP publication 26 and an assumption of linear relationship between risk and dose, death rate and death number which correspond to radiation dose level and collective dose level of Japanese are estimated and they are compared with vital statistics of Japanese in 1975 to get out some ideas about radiation risk relative to the risks of everyday life. (author)

  10. Impact of repeated daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia and mild sustained hypercapnia on apnea severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokhana, Sanar S; Gerst, David G; Lee, Dorothy S; Badr, M Safwan; Qureshi, Tabarak; Mateika, Jason H

    2012-02-01

    We examined whether exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during wakefulness impacted on the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) during sleep in individuals with sleep apnea. Participants were exposed to twelve 4-min episodes of hypoxia in the presence of sustained mild hypercapnia each day for 10 days. A control group was exposed to sustained mild hypercapnia for a similar duration. The intermittent hypoxia protocol was completed in the evening on day 1 and 10 and was followed by a sleep study. During all sleep studies, the change in esophageal pressure (ΔPes) from the beginning to the end of an apnea and the tidal volume immediately following apneic events were used to measure respiratory drive. Following exposure to IH on day 1 and 10, the AHI increased above baseline measures (day 1: 1.95 ± 0.42 fraction of baseline, P ≤ 0.01, vs. day 10: 1.53 ± 0.24 fraction of baseline, P < 0.06). The indexes were correlated to the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) measured during the IH protocol but were not correlated to the magnitude of ventilatory long-term facilitation (vLTF). Likewise, ΔPes and tidal volume measures were greater on day 1 and 10 compared with baseline (ΔPes: -8.37 ± 0.84 vs. -5.90 ± 1.30 cmH(2)0, P ≤ 0.04; tidal volume: 1,193.36 ± 101.85 vs. 1,015.14 ± 119.83 ml, P ≤ 0.01). This was not the case in the control group. Interestingly, the AHI on day 10 (0.78 ± 0.13 fraction of baseline, P ≤ 0.01) was significantly less than measures obtained during baseline and day 1 in the mild hypercapnia control group. We conclude that enhancement of the HVR initiated by exposure to IH may lead to increases in the AHI during sleep and that initiation of vLTF did not appear to impact on breathing stability. Lastly, our results suggest that repeated daily exposure to mild sustained hypercapnia may lead to a decrease in breathing events.

  11. Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 2. Occupational exposure and system of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hiroji; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation protection is correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140) and nurses (n=496). Although medical exposure is usually understood by medical doctors and dentists, their knowledge was found to be insufficient. Sixty-eight percent of medical doctors and 50% of dentists did not know about the system of radiation protection. Dose monitoring was not correctly carried out by approximately 20% of medical staff members, and medical personnel generally complained of anxiety about occupational exposure rather than medical exposure. They did not receive sufficient education on radiation exposure and protection in school. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire suggested that they do not have adequate knowledge about radiation exposure and protection. The lack of knowledge about protection results in anxiety about exposure. To protect oneself from occupational exposure, individual radiation doses must be monitored, and medical practice should be reconsidered based on the results of monitoring. To eliminate unnecessary medical and occupational exposure and to justify practices such as radiological examinations, radiation protection should be well understood and appropriately carried out by medical doctors and dentists. Therefore, the education of medical students on the subject of radiation protection is required as is postgraduate education for medical doctors, dentists and nurses. (author)

  12. Radiation exposure of the population around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, W.; Beltz, D.; Handl, J.; Michel, R.

    1999-01-01

    Although the population in large parts of northern Ukraine, the region around Chernobyl, was resettled, these people are now returning to their accustomed agricultural environment - illegally, but tolerated. In order for evacuated villages to be cleared for resettlement, the dose commitment due to continuous external and internal exposures of the persons returning must be determined. Examination concentrates on the fallout of reactor nuclides, the path of radionuclides through the food chain to people, and on present and post exposures. Special attention in this respect is paid to the deposition density of cesium. On the basis of the data collected so far, the village inhabitants considered in 1998/99 suffer an average external exposure of 0.7±0.2 mSv/a in addition to the natural external exposure of 0.8 mSv/a and, with a conversion factor of 0.038 mSv/a per kBq of 137 Cs whole body activity [8], 0.5±0.2 mSv/a (excluding inhabitants 17 and 18) of additional internal exposure, mainly as a function of mushroom intake. The ban on consumption of mushrooms and fruit growing in the forests, and education of the public about the reasons for it, could help to reduce the additional internal exposure further to approx. 0.1 mSv/a. (orig.) [de

  13. Cytogenetics observation and radiation influence evaluation of exposed persons in a discontinuous radiation exposure event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Liu Xiulin; Yang Guoshan; Ge Shili; Jin Cuizhen; Yao Bo

    2003-01-01

    The cytogenetics results and dose estimation of exposed and related persons in an discontinuous radiation exposure event were reported in this paper. According to dicentrics + ring and micronucleus results combined with clinical data, slight (middle) degree of subacute radiation symptom of the victim was diagnosed. A part of 52 examined persons were exposed to radiation in a certain degree

  14. Occupational radiation exposure in the GDR in 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.; Rothe, W.; Scheler, R.

    1980-01-01

    In 1977, radiation workers were monitored for external and internal radiation exposure on the basis of film badges (37,348 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter (198 persons) and analyses of biosamples (174 persons). According to the film badge data, the monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 253. In 6 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy and the 9 highest annual exposure values were in the range of 50 to 120 mGy. Also, annual collective and annual per caput doses have been given for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups. Based on model considerations, the internal radiation exposure situation resulting from unintentional intakes of radionuclides has been assessed in terms of committed dose equivalents to members of two selected groups of radiation workers: (a) persons with more-than-average internal contamination levels; (b) persons subjected to frequent individual monitoring. Except for some organ doses, the individual radiation exposure was below one-tenth the maximum permissible dose. (author)

  15. Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, mining and milling; medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker, which is attributable to the worker's occupation and committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses attributable to their occupation, which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. It should be noted that the UNSCEAR 2000 Report describes a downward trend in the exposure of several groups of workers, but it also indicates that occupational exposure is affecting an increasingly large group of people worldwide. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, inter alia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection which includes radiation dose limits for occupational exposure. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO. These Guides describe, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). The IAEA i organized its first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection. The

  16. Astronaut exposure to space radiation - Space Shuttle experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwell, W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle astronauts are exposed to both the trapped radiation and the galactic cosmic radiation environments. In addition, the sun periodically emits high-energy particles which could pose a serious threat to flight crews. NASA adheres to federal regulations and recommended exposure limits for radiation protection and has established a radiological health and risk assessment program. Using models of the space radiation environment, a Shuttle shielding model, and an anatomical human model, crew exposure estimates are made for each Shuttle flight. The various models are reviewed. Dosimeters are worn by each astronaut and are flown at several fixed locations to obtain inflight measurements. The dosimetry complement is discussed in detail. A comparison between the premission calculations and measurements is presented. Extrapolation of Shuttle experience to long-duration exposure is explored. 14 refs

  17. A computer system for occupational radiation exposure information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized occupational radiation exposure information system has been developed to maintain records for contractors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The system also allows indexing and retrieval of three million documents from microfilm, thus significantly reducing storage needs and costs. The users are linked by display terminals to the data base permitting them instant access to dosemetry and other radiation exposure information. Personnel dosemeter and bioassay results, radiation training, respirator fittings, skin contaminations and other radiation occurrence records are included in the data base. The system yields immediate analysis of radiological exposures for operating management and health physics personnel, thereby releasing personnel to use their time more effectively

  18. An observation of histological evidence on internal organ damages in mice caused by repeated exposures to motorcycle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, Arinto Y. P.; Juswono, Unggul P.; Noor, Johan A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been identified as a source of ultrafine particles, which have significant impacts on human health. Repeated and prolonged exposure to ultrafine particles may have a significant association with organ damage. Here, we evaluated the correlation between repeated exposure to ultrafine particles and organ damage in mice. Motorcycle emissions were injected into an exposure chamber with mice for a period of 20 seconds. This treatment was conducted over 10 days. The mice were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th days for organ preparations. Based on the results, motorcycle emission exposure caused organ damage in mice, with different severities depending on the organ. The highest damage was found for the lung, followed by the kidney, erythrocytes, and liver.

  19. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-20

    The information of the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015 covers the following issues: selected topics of radiation protection, natural radiation exposure; civilizing (artificial) radiation exposure: nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, uranium mine recultivation, radioactive materials in industry and households, fallout from nuclear weapon testing and reactor accidents; occupational radiation exposure: exposed personnel in nuclear facilities, aviation personnel, radiation accidents; medical radiation exposure: nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy; non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields, UV radiation, optical radiation.

  20. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany; Natuerliche und zivilisatorische Strahlenexposition des Menschen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-15

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  1. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  2. Measurement of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure in Epidemiological Studies (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swerdlow, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of radiofrequency (RF) exposure is important to the quality of epidemiological studies of the possible association of RF exposure with disease. The extent and type of exposure measurement in past epidemiological studies of RF, and the features of measurement that would be desirable for better studies in the future are summarised. Measurement characteristics that are discussed include quantification of radiation frequency and of intensity and timing of exposures, measurement (or good estimation) of exposures for individuals rather than only for groups, quality of measurement, and measurement of RF exposures experienced outside the study setting. Integration of exposure measurement into the design of epidemiological studies is needed for better assessments of possible RF effects. (author)

  3. Occupational exposure to natural sources of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, T.; Sciocchetti, G.; Rannou, A.

    1993-01-01

    The most important natural sources of radiation are analyzed. The situation in France, Italy, and Spain concerning protection against natural radiation is described, including the identification of sources, and defined practices, organizations charged of national surveys and the responsibility of regulatory bodies and the role of operating management. The activities of the international organizations (ICRP, CEC and IAEA) are presented and discussed, and existing actions toward harmonization in the CEC, IAEA and other international programs is also discussed. (R.P.) 23 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Exposure to low doses of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the knowledge about the effects of ionizing radiations on mankind. Some of them have been well documented (skin cancer and leukaemia for the pioneer scientists who worked on radiations, some other types of cancer for workers who handled luminescent paints, rock miners, nuclear explosion survivors, patients submitted to radiological treatments). He also evokes the issue of hereditary cancers, and discusses the issue of low dose irradiation where some surveys can now be performed on workers. He discusses the biological effects of these low doses. He outlines that many questions remain about these effects, notably the influence of dose level and of dose rate level on the biological reaction

  5. The new radiation protection law. Exposure scenarios and disposal; Das neue Strahlenschutzrecht. Expositionssituationen und Entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting (October 2017, Hannover) on the new radiation protection law includes abstracts concerning the following sessions: actual development in radiation protection jurisdiction, implementation of the EU basic safety standards (BSS) in Europe, planned exposure scenarios, existing exposure scenarios, emergency exposure situations, final radioactive waste disposal, education, radon, radiation protection issues, statistics, medical radiation exposure.

  6. Radiation in the living environment: sources, exposure and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rashi

    2013-01-01

    We are living in a milieu of radiations and continuously exposed to radiations from natural sources from conception to death. We are exposed to radiation from Sun and outer space, radioactive materials present in the earth, house we live in, buildings and workplace, food we eat and air we breath. Each flake of snow, grain of soil, drop of rain, a flower, and even each man in the street is a source of this radiation. Even our own bodies contain naturally occurring radioactive elements. The general belief is that the radiations are harmful and everybody is scared of the same. The cancer is the most important concern on account of exposure to Ionizing Radiation which is initiated by the damage to DNA. The level of exposure depends on the environmental and working conditions and may vary from low to moderate to high and depending on the same the exposed humans can be classified as general public, non nuclear workers (NNW) and nuclear workers (NW). Though, the LNT theory which is considered to be the radiation paradigm considers all radiation at all levels to be harmful and the -severity of the deleterious effect increases with the increase in dose, however, the available literature, data and reports (epidemiological and experimental) speaks otherwise particularly at low levels. The purpose of this paper is to address the question, whether the radiation is harmful at all levels or it is simply media hype and the truth is different, and to promote harmony with nature and to improve our quality of life with the knowledge that cancer mortality rates decrease following exposure to LLIR. Various sources of radiation exposure and the subsequent consequences will be discussed. (author)

  7. Adaptive Changes In Postural Equilibrium And Motion Sickness Following Repeated Exposures To Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Changes in the environmental sensory stimulus conditions and the way we interact with the new stimuli may result in motion sickness, and perceptual, spatial orientation and sensorimotor disturbances. Initial interpretation of novel sensory information may be inappropriate and result in perceptual errors. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, unilateral labyrinthectomy and experimentally produced stimulus rearrangements. Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays, and to examine the effects of exposure duration, and repeated exposures to VR systems. Forty-one subjects (21 men, 20 women) participated in the study with an age range of 21-49 years old. One training session was completed in order to achieve stable performance on the posture and VR tasks before participating in the experimental sessions. Three experimental sessions were performed each separated by one day. The subjects performed a navigation and pick and place task in either a dome or head-mounted display

  8. Delayed development of radiation sickness in animals following partial exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinina, S.F.; Markochev, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Causes of reduction of the life span of animals after partial exposure of the head, thorax, and abdomen are analyzed. Pulmonosclerosis and cardiosclerosis were mainly responsible for animal death following partial radiation exposure of the thorax; these conditions appreciably shortened the life span of the animals. After exposure of the head deaths were due to pneumonias which negligibly reduced the duration of life. Exposure of the abdomen led to the development of diabetes mellitus which shortened the life span by half. 18 refs., 1 tab

  9. Calculation of radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology. Method and surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvauferrier, R.; Ramee, A.; Ezzeldin, K.; Guibert, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized method for evaluating the radiation exposure of the main target organs during various diagnostic radiologic procedures is described. This technique was used for educational purposes: study of exposure variations according to the technical modalities of a given procedure, and study of exposure variations according to various technical protocols (IVU, EGD barium study, etc.). This method was also used for studying exposure of patients during hospitalization in the Rennes Regional Hospital Center (France) in 1982, according to departments (urology, neurology, etc.). This method and results of these three studies are discussed [fr

  10. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabala, Dana [Railways Medical Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Bilascu Gheorghe St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  11. Occupational external radiation exposure in the GDR in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 a total of 36,794 occupationally exposed persons were monitored by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, using film badges. The monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 415. In 11 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy and 6 annual exposure values were in the range of 50 to 120 mGy. An attempt has been made to assess the annual collective and annual per caput doses for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups without completely summing up the individual exposure data. (author)

  12. Absolute exposure determination of cobalt-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Ali, A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    The report describes the procedure for the determination of absolute exposure for Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. A graphite cavity chamber, nominal volume of 1 cm 3 , manufactured by Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been used. The exposure rate at reference distance determined with the graphite chamber was compared with mean exposure rate measured with NPL-Therapy level X-ray exposure meter normalized to same date. An agreement of 0.39% was found between the two measuring systems, which seems to be very encouraging and quite satisfactory. (authors)

  13. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management

  14. Justification, optimization and classification of exposure situations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrabalek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Inspiration to this brief information was the experience of studying the draft Radiation Protection Act submitted by the Ministry of Health to the Interdepartmental Annotation Procedure (IAP) on July 20, 2017 and of the IRP itself. The bill was drafted by officials from the Public Health Service. People who are expected to be well aware of the issue because they form national safety standards and laws, and manage and direct treatment of ionizing radiation sources, and oversee observing rules of protecting humans from the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation sources. Rules on the handling and protection of radiation sources for dangerous effects are recommended by multinational organizations. They are headed by ICRP International Radiological Protection Committee, which periodically issues updated radiation protection guidelines around the 10-year period. In line with ICRP recommendations, other professional organizations, such as the IAEA, WHO, EURATOM, and, ultimately, national governments, update their basic safety standards, translating recommendations into the national legal system. Most of interested know that ICRP 103 (2007) has brought some changes to the radiation protection system. In particular, there was an increased emphasis on the comprehensive optimization of radiation protection, and in the context of the recitals principle, the meaning of the word 'harm' was broadened. In addition to health damage, in the sense of which we have long been accustomed, it includes all economic and social losses to which comes from the introduction of the radiation source and introduction of protective measures around it. To simplify access to protect people from the effects of radiation and radiation sources, three basic models of human irradiation - exposure situations: - Exposure scenarios are the result of the optimization of human irradiation due to the operation of the radiation source or the performance of activities where the risk of irradiation is not

  15. Assigning a value to transboundary radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The document offers guidance on the application of the Basic Safety Standards with regard to the particular problem of using differential cost-benefit analysis in the optimization of radiation protection in the case of transboundary radioactive pollution. Examples of optimization of 14 C retention at a nuclear power plant and of 85 Kr retention at a reprocessing plant are presented

  16. MODELING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar flux on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e., the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation). The American Cancer Society reports that over 80% of skin cancers occur on the face, he...

  17. Controlling criteria for radiation exposure of astronauts and space workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1989-01-01

    Space workers likely to suffer from radiation exposure in the outer space are currently limited to the U.S. and Soviet Union, and only a small amount of data and information is available concerning the techniques and criteria for control of radiation exposure in this field. Criteria used in the Soviet Union are described first. The criteria (TRS-75), called the Radiation Safety Criteria for Space Navigation, are tentative ones set up in 1975. They are based on risk assessment. The standard radiation levels are established based on unit flight time: 50rem for 1 month, 80rem for 3 months, 110rem for 6 months and 150rem for 12 months. These are largely different from the emergency exposure limit of 100mSv (10rem) specified in a Japanese law, and the standard annual exposure value of 50mSv (5rem) for workers in nuclear power plants at normal times. For the U.S., J.A. Angelo, Jr., presented a paper titled 'Radiation Protection Issues and Techniques concerning Extended Manned Space Missions' at an IAEA meeting held in 1988. Though the criteria shown in the paper are not formal ones at the national level, similar criteria are expected to be adopted by the nation in the near future. The exposure limits recommended in the paper include a depth dose of 1-4Sv for the whole life span of a worker. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Radiation exposure of operator during various interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, In Kyu; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Wee Saing

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the levels of radiation exposure of an operator which may be influenced by the wearing an apron, type of procedure, duration of fluoroscopy and operator's skill during various interventional procedures. Radiation doses were measured both inside and outside the apron(0.5 mm lead equivalent) of the operator by a film badge monitoring method and the duration of fluoroscopy was measured in 96 procedures prospectively. The procedures were 30 transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), 25 percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainages (PTBD), 16 stone removals (SR), 15 percutaneous needle aspirations (PNCA) and 10 percutaneous nephrostomies(PCN). To assess the difference of exposure by the operator's skill, the procedures of TAE and PTBD were done separately by groups of staffs and residents. Average protective effect of the apron was 72.8%. Average radiation exposure(unit: μ Sv/procedure was 23.3 in PTBD by residents, 10.0 in PTBD by staffs, 10.0 in SR, 8.7 in TAE by residents, 7.3 in TAE by staffs, 9.0 in PCN and 6.0 in PCNA. Average radiation exposure of residents were 1.9 times greater than those of staffs. Radiation exposure was not proportionally related to the duration of fluoroscopy, but influenced by wearing an apron, various types of procedure and operator's skills

  19. Occupational radiation exposure in the GDR in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.; Rothe, W.; Scheler, R.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, radiation workers were monitored for external and internal radiation exposure on the basis of film badges (37,980 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter (186 persons) and analyses of biosamples (144 persons). According to the film badge data, the monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 427. In 13 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy, 8 persons received annual doses in the range of 50 to 120 mGy, and the highest annual dose was above 250 mGy. Also, annual collective and annual per caput doses have been given for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups. Based on model considerations, the internal radiation exposure situation resulting from unintentional intakes of radionuclides has been assessed in terms of committed dose equivalents to members of two selected groups of radiation workers: (a) persons with more-than-average internal contamination levels; (b) persons subjected to frequent individual monitoring. Except for some organ doses, the individual internal radiation exposure was well below one-tenth the maximum permissible dose. (author)

  20. Reduction of radiation exposure in Japanese BWR Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Yoshitake

    1995-01-01

    The reduction of occupational exposure to radiation during the annual inspection and maintenance outages of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWR) is one of the most important objectives for stable and reliable operation. It was shown that this radiation exposure is caused by radionuclides, such as Co-60, Co-58 and Mn-54 which are produced from the metal elements Co, Ni, and Fe present in the corrosion products of structural materials that had been irradiated by neutrons. Therefore, to reduce radiation sources and exposures in Japanese BWRs, attempts have been reinforced to remove corrosion products and activated corrosion products from the primary coolant system. This paper describes the progress of the application of these measures to Japanese BWRs. Most Japanese BWR-4 and BWR-5 type nuclear power plants started their commercial operations during the 1970s. With the elapse of time during operations, a problem came to the forefront, namely that occupational radiation exposure during plant outages gradually increased, which obstructed the smooth running of inspections and maintenance work. To overcome this problem, extensive studies to derive effective countermeasures for radiation exposure reduction were undertaken, based on the evaluation of the plants operation data

  1. Reduction of radiation exposure in Japanese BWR Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Yoshitake [ISOGO Nuclear Engineering Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    The reduction of occupational exposure to radiation during the annual inspection and maintenance outages of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWR) is one of the most important objectives for stable and reliable operation. It was shown that this radiation exposure is caused by radionuclides, such as Co-60, Co-58 and Mn-54 which are produced from the metal elements Co, Ni, and Fe present in the corrosion products of structural materials that had been irradiated by neutrons. Therefore, to reduce radiation sources and exposures in Japanese BWRs, attempts have been reinforced to remove corrosion products and activated corrosion products from the primary coolant system. This paper describes the progress of the application of these measures to Japanese BWRs. Most Japanese BWR-4 and BWR-5 type nuclear power plants started their commercial operations during the 1970s. With the elapse of time during operations, a problem came to the forefront, namely that occupational radiation exposure during plant outages gradually increased, which obstructed the smooth running of inspections and maintenance work. To overcome this problem, extensive studies to derive effective countermeasures for radiation exposure reduction were undertaken, based on the evaluation of the plants operation data.

  2. Hearing loss associated with repeated MRI acquisition procedure-related acoustic noise exposure: an occupational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Suzan; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of repeated exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise during image acquisition procedures (scans) on hearing. METHODS: A retrospective occupational cohort study was performed among workers of an MRI manufacturing facility (n=474). Longitudinal audiometry data from the

  3. Human health and exposure to electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Muirhead, C.R.; Ennis, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    This review consists of three main parts. In the first the general features of electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body are described. The second part deals with the epidemiological evidence for effects on general health and birth outcome. The third part describes the epidemiological evidence from occupational and residential studies of a possible association between electromagnetic field exposures and cancer. (author)

  4. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  5. Radiation exposure of nuclear medicine procedures in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine procedures offer the possibility to detect abnormalities on the basis of physiological and metabolic changes and to treat a growing number of diseases in human beings. However, the use of radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine examinations causes a significant component of the total radiation exposure of populations. In Germany it is an essential task of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection to determinate and assess radiation exposure of the population due to nuclear medicine diagnostics and therapy. An important input for this task is the frequency of nuclear-medical examinations with application of ionising radiation and the radiation exposure of patients related to the various procedures. Additional implementation of age- and gender-specific data today allows more exact risk stratification in focusing on different subgroups of patients. Moreover, the collective effective dose as well as the per caput effective dose of the German population may be estimated and compared with earlier collected data or foreign countries. These data reveal where the indication should be questioned particularly critically and if the dose for the various examinations can be reduced and, thus, contribute to the definition of diagnostic reference levels for nuclear medicine procedures in Germany with the aim of both a sufficient image quality and a minimum of radiation exposure. Exceeding the high- as well as the low-values requires documentation and explanation. (orig.)

  6. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L.; Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs

  7. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  8. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-01

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  9. Retrospective internal radiation exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neton, J.W.; Flora, J.T.; Spitz, H.B.; Taulbee, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of workers at U.S. Department of Energy facilities are being conducted by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to evaluate the health risk associated with exposure to sources of external and internal ionizing radiation. While exposure to external sources of radiation can be estimated from personal dosimeter data, reconstruction of exposure due to internally deposited radioactivity is more challenging because bioassay monitoring data is frequently less complete. Although comprehensive monitoring was provided for workers with the highest internal exposures, the majority of workers were monitored relatively infrequently. This monitoring was conducted to demonstrate compliance with regulations rather than to evaluate exposure for use in epidemiologic studies. Attributes of past internal monitoring programs that challenge accurate exposure assessment include: incomplete characterization of the workplace source term; a lack of timely measurements; insensitive and/or nonspecific bioassay measurements; and the presence of censored data. In spite of these limitations, many facilities have collected a large amount of worker and workplace monitoring information that can be used to evaluate internal exposure while minimizing worker misclassification. This paper describes a systematic approach for using the available worker and workplace monitoring data that can lead to either a qualitative or quantitative retrospective assessment of internal exposures. Various aspects of data analysis will be presented, including the evaluation of minimum detectable dose, the treatment of censored data, and the use of combinations of bioassay and workplace data to characterize exposures. Examples of these techniques applied to a cohort study involving chronic exposure scenarios to uranium are provided. A strategy for expressing exposure or dose in fundamental, unweighted units related to the quantity of radiation delivered to an organ will also

  10. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)

  11. Radiation exposure dose on persons engaged in radiation-related industries in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Bong Sik

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the status of radiation exposure doses since the establishment of the 'Regulations on Safety Management of Diagnostic Radiation Generation Device' in January 6, 1995. The level of radiation exposure in people engaged or having been engaged in radiation-related industries of inspection organizations, educational organization, military units, hospitals, public health centers, businesses, research organizations or clinics over a 5 year period from Jan. 1, 2000 to Dec. 31, 2004 was measured. The 149,205 measurement data of 57,136 workers registered in a measurement organization were analysed in this study. Frequency analysis, a Chi-square test, Chi-square trend test, and ANOVA was used for data analysis. Among 57,136 men were 40,870 (71.5%). 50.3% of them were radiologic technologists, otherwise medical doctors (22.7%), nurse (2.9%) and others (24.1%). The average of depth radiation and surface radiation during the 5-year period were found to decrease each year. Both the depth radiation and surface radiation exposure were significantly higher in males, in older age groups, in radiological technologists of occupation. The departments of nuclear medicine had the highest exposure of both depth and surface radiation of the divisions of labor. There were 1.98 and 2.57 per 1,000 person-year were exposed more than 20 mSv (limit recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection) in depth and surface radiation consequently. The total exposure per worker was significantly decreased by year. But Careful awareness is needed for the workers who exposed over 20 mSv per year. In order to minimize exposure to radiation, each person engaged in a radiation-related industry must adhere to the individual safety management guidelines more thoroughly. In addition, systematic education and continuous guidance aimed at increasing the awareness of safety must be provided

  12. Exposure to radiofrequency radiation from diathermy units in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrnjak, M.; Zivkovic, D.; Milicevic, L.

    1998-01-01

    Intensities of microwave (MW) and radio wave (short wave) radiation to whom personnel occupied in use of radiofrequency (RF) diathermy in physical therapy could be exposed were measured in two hospitals, in two therapy wards. The Narda Microwave Corp. (USA) Broadband Radiation Meter - Model 8616, with appropriate probes, was used for measurements. The measurements were performed around the 3 types of diathermy units in various ways of application. Results of the measurements showed that the intensities of short waves radiation around the applicators, cables and units (at the distance of 30 cm) ranged from 187 mW/cm sup 2 , and on the majority of measuring points were considerably over the upper exposure limit of 1,22 mW/cm sup 2 (according to JUS N.NO.205:1190 limits of exposure to RF fields). Intensities of microwave radiation in the vicinity of units and patient range from <0,002 to 1,45 mW/cm sup 2. The intensities of MW radiation are over the exposure limit of 1 mW/cm sup 2 in two measuring points. Results of measurements show that personnel occupied in use of microwave and short wave diathermy in medicine could be regularly exposed to radiation, and that this radiation has considerably high intensity in the vicinity of the therapy unit and patient (author)

  13. Damage of rat liver tissue caused by repeated and sustained +Gz exposure and the mechanism thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bing LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the mechanisms of positive acceleration (+Gz on the damage of rat liver tissue and the effect of +Gz on the expression of JNK/c-Jun in liver cells. Methods  Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6: control, +2Gz, +6Gz and +10Gz group. With prone position, the rats in control group were fixed to the turning arm of centrifuge with head towards the axis for 5 minutes. The fixation method in +2Gz, +6Gz and +10Gz group was the same as in the control group. The increase rate of acceleration was 1G/s with a peak-time of 3 minutes, and each +Gz exposure repeated 5 times with an interval of 30 minutes. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of liver tissue, fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression of hepatic c-Jun mRNA, and Western blotting to detect the hepatic protein expression of p-c-Jun, c-Jun, p-JNK and JNK. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined. Results  The levels of serum ALT and AST increased significantly in +6Gz and, especially, the +10Gz group than in control group and +2Gz group (P<0.05. The same situation also existed in the increase of c-Jun mRNA expression (P<0.05. Hepatic c-jun and p-c-Jun (c-Jun activated form protein expression increased with the increase of G value. Compared with control group, no change was found in JNK protein expression in the other three groups, but the expression of p-JNK (activated form of JNK increased in +6Gz and +10Gz groups (P<0.05. HE staining showed the disorganized liver cells with irregular shapes, the unclear cell gap and the vacuolar changes in +6Gz and +10Gz groups. Conclusions  Repeated and sustained +Gz may cause enhanced expression of c-Jun/ p-c-Jun and p-JNK in hepatic cells. JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway may play an important role in the process of hepatic stress injury. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.15

  14. Health effects of low level radiation exposure among radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Motoi

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, a cohort study of radiation workers has been conducted since 1990. The cohort population consisted of about 176,000 workers (mostly males) who had been registered in the centralized radiation dose registry system and engaged in various radiation works at nuclear facilities. Statistical analyses were performed mainly on the 2,934 deaths, of which 1,191 were cancer cases, detected among 119,000 male subjects during the prospective follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio showed that for any cancers mortality was not different between this population and Japanese general population. By the trend test, though significantly increasing trend in accord with increasing doses was not observed for both cancer in all sites and leukemia, it was highly significant for esophagus cancer and external causes of deaths. Results of the questionnaire survey study of lifestyle of radiation workers suggested that increasing trend of these diseases was at least partly due to the influence of some confounding factors. As a result of reviewing published studies, including the present work, trend of mortality from cancer in all sites with increasing doses seems still unclear, whereas for leukemia it appears to stay flat under 100 mSv but rapidly rise up in the doses higher than this as if fitting to either a linear-quadratic or threshold models. (author)

  15. Basis for limiting exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, W.R.

    1979-07-01

    In view of the uncertainty about the size of the risk from radiation, it is assumed that all doses are potentially harmful with the probability of harm proportional to the dose, without threshold. Canada participates in the work of UNSCEAR, and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board follows the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in setting its dose limits, encouraging the application of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) concept through its licensing and compliance activities

  16. Exposures to natural radiation sources. Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of the radiation doses from natural sources in humans is presented. Both external sources of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic rays) and of terrestrial origin, and internal sources, comprising the naturally-occurring radionuclides which are taken into the human body, are discussed. This Annex is to a large extent a summary of Annex B of the 1977 report of the Committee. The doses due to the radon isotopes and to their short-lived decay products are briefly reviewed.

  17. The accidental exposure to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is divided in three parts, the first one gives the radioactivity sources, the doses and the effects, the second part is devoted to the medical exposures, the third part concerns the accidents and the biological effects of an irradiation the different syndromes ( the acute whole-body irradiation syndrome, the localized irradiation syndrome, the inflammatory syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome,neuro-vascular syndrome) are detailed. (N.C.)

  18. Human Health and Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    passed through volunteers from electrodes attached to their heads and bodies while they were subjected to a series of psychological tests (Bonnell et...al, 1985; Stollery, 1986). The pattern of current was equivalent to that produced by exposure to a 36 kV m- 1 field at 50 Hz. The psychological tests ...Silverman, 1977; Lilienfeld et al, 1978; Stopps and Janischewsky, 1979; Knave et al, 1979; Robinette et al, 1980; Marsh et al, 1982; Silverman, 1985

  19. Controlling occupational radiation exposure at operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical development of the philosophy of keeping the radiation exposure of workers at light-water reactors as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is presented. A review is made of some of the ALARA activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and various nuclear installations. Data compiled by the NRC show that routine and special maintenance at light-water reactors accounts for 72 percent of all occupational exposure at these sites. The role that Oak Ridge National Laboratory has taken in ALARA research is presented, with emphasis placed on a study of valve malfunctions at light-water reactors. The valve study indicates a trend toward decreasing valve reliability over the past few years. Finally a cost--benefit analysis of radiation dose reduction is discussed. The rationale for assigning a cost per man-rem based on the radiation exposure level that is encountered is presented

  20. Review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for external ionising radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsbury, E. A.; Bakhanova, E.; Barquinero, J. F.; Brai, M.; Chumak, V.; Correcher, V.; Darroudi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Gruel, G.; Guclu, I.; Horn, S.; Jaworska, A.; Kulka, U.; Lindholm, C.; Lloyd, D.; Longo, A.; Marrale, M.; Monteiro Gil, O.; Oestreicher, U.; Pajic, J.; Rakic, B.; Romm, H.; Trompier, F.; Veronese, I.; Voisin, P.; Vral, A.; Whitehouse, C. A.; Wieser, A.; Woda, C.; Wojcik, A.; Rothkamm, K.

    2011-01-01

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. (authors)

  1. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Mina [Dankook University Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Young [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Kwan [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young Won [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  2. Occuptional radiation exposures and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Mina; Kim, Jae Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Jin, Young Won

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation workers were among the earliest occupational groups exposed to external ionizing radiation due to their administration of a range of medical diagnostic procedures and accounted for 7.4 million worldwide in 2008. Ionizing radiation is the confirmed human carcinogen for most organ sites. The aims of the study is to evaluate the association between occupational practices including radiation exposure and thyroid cancer risk among radiologic technologists. We found no significant association between the risk of thyroid cancer and the majority of work practices among diagnostic radiation technologists in general. However workers performing fluoroscopy and interventional procedures showed increased risks although the lack of a clear exposure– response gradient makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Future studies with larger sample size and detailed work practices implementation are needed to clarify the role of occupational radiation work in thyroid cancer carcinogenesis.

  3. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  4. Safety of natural radiation exposure. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.

    2000-01-01

    People have been exposed every time and everywhere to natural radiation and ''intuitively'' know the safety of this radiation exposure. On the other hand the theory of no threshold value on radiological carcinogenesis is known widely, and many people feel danger with even a smallest dose of radiation exposure. The safety of natural radiation exposure can be used for the risk communication with the public. For this communication, the safety of natural radiation exposure should be proved ''scientifically''. Safety is often discussed scientifically as the risks of the mortality from many practices, and the absolute risks of safe practices on the public are 1E-5 to 1E-6. The risks based on the difference of natural radiation exposure on carcinogenesis have been analyzed by epidemiological studies. Much of the epidemiological studies have been focused on the relationship between radiation doses and cancer mortalities, and their results have been described as relative risks or correlation factors. In respect to the safety, however, absolute risks are necessary for the discussion. Cancer mortalities depend not only on radiation exposure, but also on ethnic groups, sexes, ages, social classes, foods, smoking, environmental chemicals, medical radiation, etc. In order to control these confounding factors, the data are collected from restricted groups or/and localities, but any these ecological studies can not perfectly compensate the confounding factors. So positive or negative values of relative risks or the meaningful correlation factors can not be confirmed that their values are derived originally from the difference of their exposure doses. The absolute risks on these epidemiological studies are also affected by many factors containing radiation exposure. The absolute risk or the upper value of the confidence limit obtained from the epidemiological study which is well regulated confounding factors is possible to be a maximum risk on the difference of the exposure doses

  5. Chromosome aberrations in workers with exposure to α-particle radiation from internal deposits of plutonium: expectations from in vitro studies and comparisons with workers with predominantly external γ-radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curwen, Gillian B.; Tawn, E.J. [The University of Manchester, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research (CIGMR), School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sotnik, Natalia V.; Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region 456780 (Russian Federation); Cadwell, Kevin K. [Medical School, Newcastle University, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Hill, Mark A. [University of Oxford, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Gray Laboratories, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    mFISH analysis of chromosome aberration profiles of 47 and 144 h lymphocyte cultures following exposure to 193 mGy α-particle radiation confirmed that the frequency of stable aberrant cells and stable cells carrying translocations remains constant through repeated cell divisions. Age-specific rates and in vitro dose-response curves were used to derive expected translocation yields in nine workers from the Mayak nuclear facility in Russia. Five had external exposure to γ-radiation, two of whom also had exposure to neutrons, and four had external exposure to γ-radiation and internal exposure to α-particle radiation from incorporated plutonium. Doubts over the appropriateness of the dose response used to estimate translocations from the neutron component made interpretation difficult in two of the workers with external exposure, but the other three had translocation yields broadly in line with expectations. Three of the four plutonium workers had translocation yields in line with expectations, thus supporting the application of the recently derived in vitro α-particle dose response for translocations in stable cells. Overall this report demonstrates that with adequate reference in vitro dose-response curves, translocation yield has the potential to be a useful tool in the validation of red bone marrow doses resulting from mixed exposure to external and internal radiation. (orig.)

  6. Occupational radiation exposure in work with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation exposure to personnel dealing with radioactive materials is studied on a national scale. The survey covers any type of radiation work except for mining and milling of radioactive ore, fuel production, and nuclear reactor operation. Assessments are based on a decade's collection of personnel monitoring data obtained by film dosimetry techniques, as well as on data from systematic operational site monitoring. Statistical analysis indicated exposures based on personal records to follow a normal distribution pattern and, hence, arithmetic averages to be representative. Airborne concontrations of radioactive materials and aerosols in working areas are shown to follow a logarithmic normal distribution pattern, so that geometric means are representative. Radiation exposures are generally found to be well below annual maximum permissible doses for radiation workers. However, their distribution among employee groups is nonuniform. Group A, comprising about 700 subjects, received mean annual gonad doses of more than 1000 mrem; group B, about 670 subjects, had doses ranging from 100 to 500 mrem per year; and group C, 1610 subjects, received less than 100 mrem per year. Most of the radiation dose is accounted for by external radiation, which contributed 0.327 mrem to the genetically significant population dose (0.227 from exposure to males, and 0.025 mrem from exposure to females). Analysis of accidental exposures occurring over the period 1963-1973 indicated that the contribution of this source is substantial as compared to routine work (1.0:0.3). Based on the results obtained, a number of preventive measures are developed and introduced into practice to improve radiological safety in work with radioactive materials. (A.B.)

  7. Low Magnitude Occupational Radiation Exposures Are They Safe or Unsafe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, R.

    2013-01-01

    Man has always been exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources and background exposure varies with the locations. No deleterious effects have been uniquely correlated, either they are not produced at low levels of exposure or their frequency is too low to be statistically observable. Direct source of information on radiation hazards in man is obviously based on follow up of population groups exposed to certain levels of radiation. Harmful effects of ionizing radiations are traced to documented exposures; for radiologists during 1920 s and 30 s, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity, workers in the radium industry, follow-up data of Japanese nuclear bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Marshallese accident in 1954, and the victims of the limited number of accidents at nuclear installations including Chernobyl. Mostly these information are from situations involving higher doses and dose rates. Ionizing radiations have been used extensively on the peaceful applications of atomic energy in general and medical applications in particular have shown to outweigh benefits over the risks. Personnel, low magnitude of exposures are encountered during routine work in handling radiation sources. In the light of present knowledge there is need to reassess the quantum of actual risk instead of projected risk based on long time models. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) described models for dose-response relationships and micro-dosimetric arguments for defining low doses. The definition of low doses could also be based on direct observations in experimental or epidemiological studies. Through measurement of cell damage or death using human lymphocytes, linear and quadratic terms have been fitted the response and low doses have been judged to be 20-40 mSv. Data derived from epidemiological studies, mainly the atomic bomb survivors, suggests that for solid tumours and leukaemia, 200 mSv could be considered the

  8. Assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid development in the assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation has produced an impressive array of risk differentials of presumed biologic significance. In the human data these differentials involve: (1) the variety of cancer, especially its size; (2) host factors, especially age; (3) time following exposure; (4) magnitude of dose; and (5) type of radiation. From experimental work we may presume that dose-rate also plays a role, especially for sparsely ionizing radiation. Current research is extending the scope of differentials with respect to these and other variables, including cell type and concomitant environmental risk factors, and testing dose-response models suggested by experimental and theoretical work. As facts to be explained, differentials in risk may lead to hypotheses to be explored experimentally and improve our understanding of how ionizing radiation causes cancer. 74 references

  9. A relational database for personnel radiation exposure management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.; Miller, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In-house utility personnel developed a relational data base for personnel radiation exposure management computer system during a 2 1/2 year period. The (PREM) Personnel Radiation Exposure Management System was designed to meet current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements related to radiological access control, Radiation Work Permits (RWP) management, automated personnel dosimetry reporting, ALARA planning and repetitive job history dose archiving. The system has been operational for the past 18 months which includes a full refueling outage at Clinton Power Station. The Radiation Protection Department designed PREM to establish a software platform for implementing future revisions to 10CFR20 in 1993. Workers acceptance of the system has been excellent. Regulatory officials have given the system high marks as a radiological tool because of the system's ability to track the entire job from start to finish

  10. Evaluation on the Radiation Exposure of Radiation Workers in Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Jang, Yo Jong; Kim, Tae Yoon; Jeong, Do Hyung; Choi, Gye Suk

    2012-01-01

    Unlike the existing linear accelerator with photon, proton therapy produces a number of second radiation due to the kinds of nuclide including neutron that is produced from the interaction with matter, and more attention must be paid on the exposure level of radiation workers for this reason. Therefore, thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) that is being widely used to measure radiation was utilized to analyze the exposure level of the radiation workers and propose a basic data about the radiation exposure level during the proton therapy. The subjects were radiation workers who worked at the proton therapy center of National Cancer Center and TLD Badge was used to compare the measured data of exposure level. In order to check the dispersion of exposure dose on body parts from the second radiation coming out surrounding the beam line of proton, TLD (width and length: 3 mm each) was attached to on the body spots (lateral canthi, neck, nipples, umbilicus, back, wrists) and retained them for 8 working hours, and the average data was obtained after measuring them for 80 hours. Moreover, in order to look into the dispersion of spatial exposure in the treatment room, TLD was attached on the snout, PPS (Patient Positioning System), Pendant, block closet, DIPS (Digital Image Positioning System), Console, doors and measured its exposure dose level during the working hours per day. As a result of measuring exposure level of TLD Badge of radiation workers, quarterly average was 0.174 mSv, yearly average was 0.543 mSv, and after measuring the exposure level of body spots, it showed that the highest exposed body spot was neck and the lowest exposed body spot was back (the middle point of a line connecting both scapula superior angles). Investigation into the spatial exposure according to the workers' movement revealed that the exposure level was highest near the snout and as the distance becomes distant, it went lower. Even a small amount of exposure will eventually increase

  11. Glucometabolic effects of single and repeated exposure to forced-swimming stressor in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Ayodele Olufemi; Iranloye, Bolanle Olubusola; Ogunsola, Oluseyi Abimbola

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of a single (acute) and repeated (chronic) exposure to forced-swimming stressor on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and glycogen content in male rats. Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) were divided randomly into five groups: control group, single exposure (SE) to forced-swim stressor, repeated exposure to forced-swim stressor for 7 days (RE7), 14 days (RE14) and 28 days (RE28). Glucose tolerance test and Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose and insulin profiles. ELISA was performed to assess plasma insulin and corticosterone levels. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, high- and low-density lipoproteins, hepatic and skeletal glycogen content were also determined. Repeated exposure to stressor induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in the experimental rats. Results showed that all RE groups exhibited a significantly higher area under the curve compared with others (p=0.0001); similarly, HOMA-IR increased (p=0.0001) in all RE groups compared with control. Prolonged exposure to stressor significantly increased the plasma insulin and corticosterone levels but decreased the glycogen content in the liver and skeletal muscle when compared with the control group. Additionally, chronic stressor significantly increased the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, however, acute stressor produced significantly elevated high-density lipoproteins level. In conclusion, repeated exposure to forced-swimming stressor induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats by disrupting the insulin sensitivity as well as heightening the glycogenolysis in the liver and skeletal muscle. Acute stressor was unable to cause glucose intolerance and insulin resistance but it appears that may have a positive effect on the lipid metabolism.

  12. Radiation problems of Fukushima. Little exposure of residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasawa, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    More than one and half year passed after Fukushima nuclear accident, radiation hazards, especially due to internal irradiation, were still public concern of people living within Fukushima prefecture and Tokyo metropolitan area. However according to several investigations, internal exposure was greatly lower than the level of health hazards due to internal radiation. In August 2012, Fukushima prefecture published internal dose rate of 26 persons was greater than 1 mSv (max 3 mSv) and others than 1 mSv based on whole body counters test results for 63366 residents after June 2011. Appropriate disclosure of exposure dose and related risks was required for risk communication. Target of internal exposure dose rate less than 1 mSv/year was almost attained and people with rather higher dose should be individually checked to reduce exposure. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Radiofrequency radiation exposure from RF-generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.M.; Bell, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of an intervention to assist industry improve the control of risks associated with the use of RF-generating plant, exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) was assessed in 30 workplaces. Information about the workplace, work practices and knowledge about RFR and its control was also collected. The study found that: 1. For 72% of operators and 35% of bystanders, the spatially averaged exposure exceeded the exposure limits. These figures approximately halved when the duty cycle was applied; 2. Assessment of RFR levels was not common; 3. Task rotation was used to limit exposure of operators; 4. Access was not controlled to areas where RFR sources were used; 5. There was lack of knowledge about RF shielding practices in industry; 6. Nearly 50% of workplaces did not maintain the plant regularly; and 7. There had been no health surveillance on any plant operators in any of the workplaces in the study. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  14. Radiation exposures from nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, G M

    1958-12-01

    A summary of the pertinent data on radiation exposures from nuclear tests in Nevada is presented. The data are presented in categories of external ..gamma.. radiation, activity concentrations in air, and activity concentrations in water. Methods used to estimate exposure and to evaluate data are described. The data are tabulated. The maximum external exposure was 7 to 8 r for 15 persons involved. In terms of relatively large populations, the average exposure for the 1,000,000 people living nearest the site was at the rate of 1/2 r/30 yr. The highest concentration of fallout activity in the air was about 1.3 ..mu..c/m/sup 3/ averaged over the 30 hr that the activity was present in significant quantities. The highest concentration of fallout activity in a potential drinking water supply was about 1.4 x 10/sup -/ ..mu..c/me extrapolated to D + 3 days. Evaluation of these data is given.

  15. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ataş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections.METHODS:Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection (IVI group] were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema (DME or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD. Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS:The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients (44.4% were male and twenty (55.6% were female. Average age was 68.4±9.0 (range 50-86. The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight (66.7% of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism. There was no bacterial growth in 8 (20.5% of IVI eyes and in 16 (44.4% of control eyes (P=0.03. Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS in IVI eyes and 47.2% CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant (P=0.2. Eleven of 25 bacteria (44.0% isolated from IVI eyes and 11 (57.9% of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant (12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes (P=0.44. There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and

  16. Present situation of occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imabori, Akira

    1979-01-01

    The present situation of the radiation exposure of workers, including both employes and subcontractors, in the nuclear power plants in Japan, is presented. Twenty seven nuclear power reactors in operation and under construction are tabulated with the name, the owner, the electric output and the commissioning year of each plant. The results of exposure of the workers in these plants are shown, classifying the dose rate into less than 0.5 rem, 0.5 - 1.5 rem, 1.5 - 2.5 rem, 2.5 - 5 rem and more than 5 rem, and the workers into employes and subcontractors. It is noted that the exposure dose of the subcontractors occupies about 88% of all exposure dose, and the exposure is concentrated during regular inspection period. The exposure dose of about 80% of the workers is less than 0.5 rem, and no one was irradiated more than 5 rem in a year. The total exposure dose, which has especially the tendency of increasing with extended maintenance period and decreasing during plant operation period, shows also the trend of increasing with the lapse of operation years. As for the point of view of whole exposure dose, the value is 0.06 -- 0.43 man-rem/10 6 kWh in 1976 FY. It is considered to be necessary to grasp the total exposure dose of each worker wandering from one plant to another, and the central registration center for the workers in radioactive environment was established in 1978. The whole exposure dose data of each worker are stored in the central computer in this center. This system is highly appreciated in radiation exposure management. The total exposure dose is related to the rate of utilization of nuclear plants, and it is expected to decrease with the decrease of plant outage. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. Long-term health outcomes after exposure to repeated concussion in elite level: rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; McSkimming, P; Wainman-Lefley, J; Maclean, L M; Hay, J; McConnachie, A; Stewart, W

    2017-06-01

    There is continuing concern about effects of concussion in athletes, including risk of the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, information on long-term health and wellbeing in former athletes is limited. Outcome after exposure to repeated brain injury was investigated in 52 retired male Scottish international rugby players (RIRP) and 29 male controls who were similar in age and social deprivation. Assessment included history of playing rugby and traumatic brain injury, general and mental health, life stress, concussion symptoms, cognitive function, disability and markers of chronic stress (allostatic load). The estimated number of concussions in RIRP averaged 14 (median=7; IQR 5-40). Performance was poorer in RIRP than controls on a test of verbal learning (p=0.022) and of fine co-ordination of the dominant hand (p=0.038) and not significantly different on other cognitive tests (p>0.05). There were no significant associations between number of concussions and performance on cognitive tests. Other than a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in controls, no group differences were detected in general or mental health or estimates of allostatic load. In RIRP, persisting symptoms attributed to concussion were more common if reporting more than nine concussions (p=0.028), although these symptoms were not perceived to affect social or work functioning. Despite a high number of concussions in RIRP, differences in mental health, social or work functioning were not found late after injury. Subtle group differences were detected on two cognitive tests, the cause of which is uncertain. Prospective group comparison studies on representative cohorts are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Relative biological effectiveness if alpha radiation for human lung exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Kirdin, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The concept of RBE, which introduced by ICRP and ICRU about 50 years ago to compare biological effects of ionizing radiation of different types, still continues to be the essential element of current and projected radiation protection systems in terms of deriving quantities (quality factor and radiation weighting factor). For example, RBE for the stochastic effects induction has to be considered for appropriate radiation weighting of the absorbed dose while estimating equivalent dose. Simulation of lung cancer radiation risk for the cases of inhalation of radon progeny and incorporation of plutonium in lung in comparison with external reference radiation allows assessment of RBE for alpha-radiation. Specific radiation risk models were developed by results of the direct epidemiological studies and used for such simulation. Simulation included published risk models for nuclear workers of the Mayak facilities in the former Soviet Union exposed to incorporated plutonium (Kreisheimer et al., 2003; Gilbert et al., 2004) and underground miners exposed to radon progenies (BEIR VI, 1999). Additionally lung cancer risk model was developed for a case of population indoor radon exposure. Lung cancer risk related to external exposure is estimated using the risk model develop ed using data of Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. By results of lifetime lung cancer risk simulation using Monte Carlo approach estimated median value of RBE in case of indoor radon exposure is 1.5 (with 90% range 0.4 to 7). In case of the two models developed by BEIR VI for lung cancer risk due to radon exposure in underground miners the median values of RBE are 2.1 and 4.4 (with 90% ranges 0.3 to 17 and 0.7 to 45) respectively.Two different models for lung cancer risk related to plutonium exposure resulted in close estimates of RBE: median value of 12 and 13 (with 90% range 4 to 104 and 4 to 136) respectively. Considerable discrepancy between RBE

  19. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaaimi, M.; Alkhorayef, M.; Omar, M.; Abughaith, N.; Alduaij, M.; Salahudin, T.; Alkandri, F.; Sulieman, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure is associated with eye lens opacities and cataracts. Radiation workers with heavy workloads and poor protection measures are at risk for vision impairment or cataracts if suitable protection measures are not implemented. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the occupational radiation exposure in a nuclear medicine (NM) department. The annual average effective doses (Hp[10] and Hp[0.07]) were measured using calibrated thermos-luminescent dosimeters (TLDs; MCP-N [LiF:Mg,Cu,P]). Five categories of staff (hot lab staff, PET physicians, NM physicians, technologists, and nurses) were included. The average annual eye dose (Hp[3]) for NM staff, based on measurements for a typical yearly workload of >7000 patients, was 4.5 mSv. The annual whole body radiation (Hp[10]) and skin doses (Hp[0.07]) were 4.0 and 120 mSv, respectively. The measured Hp(3), Hp(10), and Hp(0.07) doses for all NM staff categories were below the dose limits described in ICRP 2014 in light of the current practice. The results provide baseline data for staff exposure in NM in Kuwait. Radiation dose optimization measures are recommended to reduce NM staff exposure to its minimal value.

  20. Factors impacting public acceptance of medical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Satsuki; Kanda, Reiko

    2009-01-01

    We undertook a survey to determine the public acceptance of medical radiation exposure throughout Japan, and 1,357 responses (67.9% response rate) were obtained using a two-stage systematic stratified random sampling method. The acceptance of exposure of children was generally similar to that of adults. For each of the attributes, 45-60% of the participants were accepting of exposure for cancer treatment and diagnosis, but only 30% were accepting of exposure for X-ray diagnoses of bone fractures and dental caries. In general, the presence of a child did not markedly affect women's acceptance of exposure. Factor analyses identified 3 factors influencing the acceptance of child exposure: symptomatic diseases to determine treatment, the possibility of high-risk diseases (or major organ diseases), and the association wi