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Sample records for repeated open-space forced

  1. Using Open Space Technology for School Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David

    2002-01-01

    Describes a theory referred to as Open Space Technology (OST), which holds that the most productive learning in conference settings takes place in the open space between formally scheduled conference sessions. Argues that OST can be applied to staff development days and other educational development programs. (Contains 10 references.) (NB)

  2. Fatigue-induced dissociation between rate of force development and maximal force across repeated rapid contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Tarperi, Cantor; Festa, Luca; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether the presence of fatigue induced by prolonged running influenced the time courses of force generating capacities throughout a series of intermittent rapid contractions. Thirteen male amateur runners performed a set of 15 intermittent isometric rapid contractions of the knee extensor muscles, (3s/5s on/off) the day before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) a half marathon. The maximal voluntary contraction force, rate of force development (RFDpeak), and their ratio (relative RFDpeak) were calculated. At POST, considering the first (out of 15) repetition, the maximal force and RFDpeak decreased (p<0.0001) at the same extent (by 22±6% and 24±22%, respectively), resulting in unchanged relative RFDpeak (p=0.6). Conversely, the decline of RFDpeak throughout the repetitions was more pronounced at POST (p=0.02), thus the decline of relative RFDpeak was more pronounced (p=0.007) at POST (-25±13%) than at PRE (-3±13%). The main finding of this study was that the fatigue induced by a half-marathon caused a more pronounced impairment of rapid compared to maximal force in the subsequent intermittent protocol. Thus, the fatigue-induced impairment in rapid muscle contractions may have a greater effect on repeated, rather than on single, attempts of maximal force production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Open space preservation, property value, and optimal spatial configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Jiang; Stephen K. Swallow

    2007-01-01

    The public has increasingly demonstrated a strong support for open space preservation. How to finance the socially efficient level of open space with the optimal spatial structure is of high policy relevance to local governments. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit open space model to help identify the socially optimal amount and optimal spatial...

  4. Restorative urban open space: Exploring the spatial configuration of human emotional fulfilment in urban open space

    OpenAIRE

    Thwaites, K.; Helleur, E.; Simkins, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of outdoor settings to benefit human well being is well established by research. Examples of restorative settings can be found throughout history and are still applied today in health-care facilities, as healing or restorative gardens for the sick, but their wider significance in the urban public realm remains insufficiently explored. A conceptual framework for restorative urban open space based on mosaics of linked and nested spaces woven into the urban fabric is presented. The ...

  5. The differential effect of metabolic alkalosis on maximum force and rate of force development during repeated, high-intensity cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Raftry, Sean; Brooks, Cristy; Dowswell, Ben; Romero, Rick; Green, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on maximal force production, rate of force development (RFD), and muscle recruitment during repeated bouts of high-intensity cycling. Ten male and female (n = 10) subjects completed two fixed-cadence, high-intensity cycling trials. Each trial consisted of a series of 30-s efforts at 120% peak power output (maximum graded test) that were interspersed with 30-s recovery periods until task failure. Prior to each trial, subjects consumed 0.3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (ALK) or placebo (PLA). Maximal voluntary contractions were performed immediately after each 30-s effort. Maximal force (F max) was calculated as the greatest force recorded over a 25-ms period throughout the entire contraction duration while maximal RFD (RFD max) was calculated as the greatest 10-ms average slope throughout that same contraction. F max declined similarly in both the ALK and PLA conditions, with baseline values (ALK: 1,226 ± 393 N; PLA: 1,222 ± 369 N) declining nearly 295 ± 54 N [95% confidence interval (CI) = 84-508 N; P force vs. maximum rate of force development during a whole body fatiguing task.

  6. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander

    2015-01-01

    for different organic wastes influenced the specific draught. Overall, the decrease in draught force could lead to a decrease in tractor fuel consumption for soil tillage of up to 25% for compost applied at an accelerated rate and up to 14% for compost applied at a normal rate. This reduced fuel consumption......Abstract Soil application of organic waste products (OWP) can maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content, which in turn could lead to increased porosity and potentially to reduced energy use for soil tillage. Only a few studies have addressed the effect of SOC content on draught force...... for soil tillage, and this still needs to be addressed for fields that receive diverse types of organic waste of urban, agricultural and agro-industrial origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in SOC induced by repeated soil application of OWP on draught force for soil...

  7. Soundscape of Urban Open Spaces in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui

    This study aims to investigate the soundscape of urban open spaces in Hong Kong. Open space in densely populated cities has been considered as an important asset for urban inhabitants in that they afford opportunities for leisure, recreation and an active involvement with nature. For quite a long time, visual aesthetic was the dominant consideration in open space design and other senses were given less concern. Continuous stream of attention-demanding sounds from the noisy environment may bombard these open spaces, rendering them no longer able to satisfy the eye alone. Sound and consequently the acoustic environment are receiving increasing attention. This study used noise mapping technique supplemented by GIS spatial analysis tools to delineate quiet open spaces with traffic noise exposure less than 60 dB (A) L10, 1h and conducted field observations to determine their usages. The identified quiet open spaces are either concentrated in hilly and remote areas with low accessibility, or sporadically scattered among tall buildings. Some large urban parks and small sitting-out areas are even located in the center of the city. Larger open spaces serve group visits, such as hiking and sightseeing, while smaller ones are easily accessible to local residents for social and recreational purposes. The acoustic environment III urban open spaces varies with space and time. To characterize the acoustic quality of soundscapes in the quiet open spaces, sound walk and field recording were undertaken place in 25 selected study sites. Despite the dominance of traffic noise, soundscapes in the urban open spaces are also shaped by natural sounds. Sounds from birds and water are common and prevalent particularly in gardens and playgrounds. Soundscape approach is a human-centered point of view. How the visitors perceive and evaluate sounds and the acoustic quality has great implication for soundscape design. On-site interview of 1,610 visitors unravels human preference of individual

  8. Healthy campus by open space design: Approaches and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Siu Yu Lau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the architectural and landscape design strategies and intentions for green, open spaces facilities targeting stress alleviation for learning environments such as those of university campuses in a compact urban setting. Literature reviews provide three prevailing perspectives for physical design pedagogical operatives: healing gardens where greenery and plants produce restorative effects; flexible spaces that accommodate functional needs of different activities; and green buildings that incorporate open space as a catalyst for integrated eco-system. Corresponding design approaches (landscape design, spatial design and green design are scrutinized by case study. A comparison of two university campuses with different urban contexts is conducted to identify challenges and opportunities for applying these design approaches. For a compact campus, high-dense surroundings may limit the size of an open space and may handicap circulation and accessibility; on the other side, a small open space may provide its users more intimate contact with natural restorative elements and also a more controllable microclimate for physical comfort. A healthy campus should encompass diverse open spaces to satisfy different purposes. Finally, a framework that integrates the three approaches is combined to produce a sustainable design rubric.

  9. DESIGN OF URBAN OPEN SPACES FOR USER NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin İnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The researches done in both the natural and built environments suggest that inspired design can make significant improvements in the lives of people and the environment. While considerable numbers of studies have been done on user needs and conflicts in open space, no single document integrates all of this knowledge and makes it available to professionals, students and researchers. This article aims to review and synthesize the knowledge addressing basic user needs that include comfort, relaxation, passive and active engagements, privatization of public space etc. Also gives some suggestions for reducing conflict among various groups competing for the use of open space in order to be created successful urban open spaces. More researches in the form of new case studies needed to show how user needs can be effectively translated into design. Programming, planning, design and management based on human needs will be essential to the future development of open spaces as well as the growth of the professions designing for open spaces.

  10. Courts and open spaces in the Late Helladic III Argolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siennicka, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    and significance of courts and other open spaces in the Mycenaean settlements in the Argolid during the Palatial and Post-Palatial periods (c. 15th–11th centuries BC). Various categories of areas, like courts, open spaces and open-air areas are discussed, with an emphasis on their functions and status. Courts......While space remains a neglected subject in research on Mycenaean settlements, archaeological and ethnographical studies devoted to social meaning of places and areas used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric and other communities increase in number. This paper aims to review the use...... and open spaces are considered as reflecting patterns of spatial organization in the settlements and of the diverse activities of their residents. The differences between the use of open areas in the acropoleis and in the lower towns are pointed out, as well as changes in the use patterns after the fall...

  11. Force Spectroscopy of the Plasmodium falciparum Vaccine Candidate Circumsporozoite Protein Suggests a Mechanically Pliable Repeat Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Aditya Prasad; Sharma, Shobhona; Ainavarapu, Sri Rama Koti

    2017-02-10

    The most effective vaccine candidate of malaria is based on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major surface protein implicated in the structural strength, motility, and immune evasion properties of the infective sporozoites. It is suspected that reversible conformational changes of CSP are required for infection of the mammalian host, but the detailed structure and dynamic properties of CSP remain incompletely understood, limiting our understanding of its function in the infection. Here, we report the structural and mechanical properties of the CSP studied using single-molecule force spectroscopy on several constructs, one including the central region of CSP, which is rich in NANP amino acid repeats (CSPrep), and a second consisting of a near full-length sequence without the signal and anchor hydrophobic domains (CSPΔHP). Our results show that the CSPrep is heterogeneous, with 40% of molecules requiring virtually no mechanical force to unfold (<10 piconewtons (pN)), suggesting that these molecules are mechanically compliant and perhaps act as entropic springs, whereas the remaining 60% are partially structured with low mechanical resistance (∼70 pN). CSPΔHP having multiple force peaks suggests specifically folded domains, with two major populations possibly indicating the open and collapsed forms. Our findings suggest that the overall low mechanical resistance of the repeat region, exposed on the outer surface of the sporozoites, combined with the flexible full-length conformations of CSP, may provide the sporozoites not only with immune evasion properties, but also with lubricating capacity required during its navigation through the mosquito and vertebrate host tissues. We anticipate that these findings would further assist in the design and development of future malarial vaccines. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anhorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC. According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5% are fairly suitable (Category C.

  13. Force response of the fingertip pulp to repeated compression--effects of loading rate, loading angle and anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serina, E R; Mote, C D; Rempel, D

    1997-10-01

    Repeated loading of the fingertips has been postulated to contribute to tendon and nerve disorders at the wrist during activities associated with prolonged fingertip loading such as typing. To fully understand the pathomechanics of these soft tissue disorders, the role of the fingertip pulp in attenuating the applied dynamic forces must be known. An experiment was conducted to characterize the response of the in vivo fingertip pulp under repeated, dynamic, compressive loadings, to identify factors that influence pulp dynamics, and to better understand the force modulation by the pulp. Twenty subjects tapped repeatedly on a flat plate with their left index finger, while the contact force and pulp displacement were measured simultaneously. Tapping trials were conducted at three fingertip contact angles from the horizontal plane (0 degree, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees) and five tapping rates (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 Hz). The fingertip pulp responds as a viscoelastic material, exhibiting rate-dependence, hysteresis, and a nonlinear force-displacement relationship. The pulp was relatively compliant at forces less than 1 N, but stiffened rapidly with displacement at higher forces for all loading conditions. This suggests that high-frequency forces of a small magnitude (< 1 N) are attenuated by the nonlinearly stiffening pulp while these forces of larger magnitude are transmitted to the bone. Pulp response was significantly influenced by the angle of loading. Fingertip dimensions, gender, and subject age had little to no influence on pulp parameters.

  14. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP serum levels in rats after forced repeated swimming stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžovic-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To estimate the effects of forced repeated swimming stress on BNP serum levels in rats. Methods Adult male Wistar rats weighting between 280-330 g were divided into two groups: control group (n =8 and stress group (n =8. Rats in the stress group were exposed to forced swimming stress daily, for 7 days. The rats were forced to swim in plastic tanks (90 cm wide, 120 cm deep containing tap water (temperature ca. 25°C. The depth of water was 40 cm. Duration of each swimming session progressively increased from 10 minutes on the irst day to 40 minutes on days 6 and 7. Rats were sacriiced and blood was drawn from abdominal aorta for BNP analysis immediately after the last swimming session. B-type natriuretic serum level was determined by ELISA method using RAT BNP-32 kit (Phoenix Pharmaceutical Inc.. Results There was no statistically signiicant difference between mean BNP serum level in the stress group after the swimming period (0.81±0.14 ng/ml as compared to the unstressed group of rats (0.8 ±0.08ng/ml. After the swimming period mean body weight slightly decreased in the stress group in comparison with values before stress period (296.3 g vs.272.8 g, but this difference was not statistically signiicant. The stress period had no inluence on food intake in the stress rat group. Conclusion The workload consisting of 40-minutes long swimming session is not suficient to provoke BNP release from myocardium in rats.

  15. Book Review: Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Gregory A.

    2012-05-01

    In Opening Space Research: Dreams, Technology, and Scientific Discovery, George Ludwig takes the reader behind the scenes of space exploration in the 1950s. The well-known episodes in this history—such as the stories of Sputnik, Laika the cosmodog, and the founding of NASA—are here placed in the rich context of the scientific and technical goals that motivated Ludwig and his fellow researchers. Ludwig relates the personal experiences of the many engineers, physicists, and university students who made possible humanity’s first ventures into space.

  16. A technique for conditioning and calibrating force-sensing resistors for repeatable and reliable measurement of compressive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rick S; Desmoulin, Geoffrey T; Milner, Theodore E

    2008-12-01

    Miniature sensors that could measure forces applied by the fingers and hand without interfering with manual dexterity or range of motion would have considerable practical value in ergonomics and rehabilitation. In this study, techniques have been developed to use inexpensive pressure-sensing resistors (FSRs) to accurately measure compression force. The FSRs are converted from pressure-sensing to force-sensing devices. The effects of nonlinear response properties and dependence on loading history are compensated by signal conditioning and calibration. A fourth-order polynomial relating the applied force to the current voltage output and a linearly weighted sum of prior outputs corrects for sensor hysteresis and drift. It was found that prolonged (>20h) shear force loading caused sensor gain to change by approximately 100%. Shear loading also had the effect of eliminating shear force effects on sensor output, albeit only in the direction of shear loading. By applying prolonged shear loading in two orthogonal directions, the sensors were converted into pure compression sensors. Such preloading of the sensor is, therefore, required prior to calibration. The error in compression force after prolonged shear loading and calibration was consistently industrial design applications where measurements of finger and hand force are needed.

  17. Public evaluation of open space in Illinois: citizen support for natural area acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Erik A; Stewart, William P; McDonald, Cary; Miller, Craig

    2004-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a broad-based support for open space preservation and protection. Research also has characterized the public values and rationale that underlie the widespread support for open space. In recognition of the widespread public support for open space, various levels of government have implemented programs to provide public access to open space. There are many different types of open space, ranging from golf courses, ball parks, wildlife areas, and prairies, to name a few. This paper addresses questions related to the types of open space that should be prioritized by planners and natural resource managers. The results of this study are based on a stratified random sample of 5000 households in Illinois that were sent a questionnaire related to their support for various types of open space. Through a comparatively simple action grid analysis, the open space types that should be prioritized for public access include forest areas, stream corridors, wildlife habitat, and lakes/ponds. These were the open space types rated of the highest importance, yet were also the open space types rated the lowest in respondent satisfaction. This kind of analysis does not require the technical expertise of other options for land-use prioritizations (e.g., conjoint analysis, contingent valuation), yet provides important policy directives for planners. Although open space funds often allow for purchase of developed sites such as golf courses, ball parks, and community parks, this study indicates that undeveloped (or nature-based) open space lands are most needed in Illinois.

  18. The hydrophobic dipeptide Leu-Ile inhibits immobility induced by repeated forced swimming via the induction of BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Nitta, Atsumi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Morishita, Koji; Liu, Wenting; Ibi, Daisuke; Alkam, Tursun; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2011-07-01

    Depression has recently become a serious problem in society worldwide. However, we lack appropriate therapeutic tools, since the causes of depression remain unclear. Degeneration of neuronal cells and a decrease in neurogenesis have been suggested recently as two of the factors responsible for depression-like behavior. Furthermore, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also suggested to be an important factor in recovering from such behavior. We have previously demonstrated that the hydrophobic dipeptide leucyl-isoleucine (Leu-Ile) induces BDNF in cultured neuronal cells. We therefore investigated possible antidepressant-like effects of Leu-Ile in an animal model using the repeated forced swim test (FST). Mice were forced to swim for 6 min once a day in a cylinder containing water. The mice were treated with Leu-Ile s.c. or p.o. immediately after each FST. Five-day repeated Leu-Ile treatment significantly increased BDNF mRNA levels and activated the BDNF/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the hippocampi of the mice. While 2-week repeated FST increased immobility time, Leu-Ile treatment for 2 weeks offset this increase. In C57BL/6J-BDNF heterozygous knockout (BDNF(+/-)) mice, Leu-Ile failed to reduce the immobility time increased by repeated FST. We next investigated the extent of cell proliferation in the hippocampus as 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) uptake into hippocampal cells. Repeated FST significantly reduced the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, while this deficit was prevented by repeated Leu-Ile treatment. These results suggest that Leu-Ile has an antidepressant-like effect, at least in part by supporting cell proliferation through the BDNF signaling pathway.

  19. Open Space Box: communication to support Big Data in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Communication to and from a small spacecraft can be at an extremely slow Baud rate, means both sending and receiving any communication will take some time. Extract, Transform and Load tools designed to transmit and receive data needs to have a flexible protocol. The Open Space Box model provides this base for smaller spacecraft to provide users data in a fashion that is pervasive within satellites as well as the ground stations. It also autonomically distinguishes data streams and disseminates relevant information to the related end users. Streaming Data can also be considered the generation of Big Data. At a ground station, the receiving of data can create the problem of Big Data and its management. Messages are sent in batch mode and communications are done using MapReduce.

  20. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  1. The force recovery following repeated quick releases applied to pig urinary bladder smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA method for measuring several quick-releases during one contraction of a pig urinary bladder smooth muscle preparation was developed. The force recovery following quick release in this muscle type was studied by fitting a multiexponential model to 926 responses measured during the first

  2. The force recovery following repeated quick releases applied to pig urinary bladder smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractA method for measuring several quick-releases during one contraction of a pig urinary bladder smooth muscle preparation was developed. The force recovery following quick release in this muscle type was studied by fitting a multiexponential model to 926 responses measured during the first

  3. The value of urban open space: meta-analyses of contingent valuation and hedonic pricing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, Luke M; Koetse, Mark J

    2011-10-01

    Urban open space provides a number of valuable services to urban populations, including recreational opportunities, aesthetic enjoyment, environmental functions, and may also be associated with existence values. In separate meta-analyses of the contingent valuation (CV) and hedonic pricing (HP) literature we examine which physical, socio-economic, and study characteristics determine the value of open space. The dependent variable in the CV meta-regression is defined as the value of open space per hectare per year in 2003 US$, and in the HP model as the percentage change in house price for a 10 m decrease in distance to open space. Using a multi-level modelling approach we find in both the CV and HP analyses that there is a positive and significant relationship between the value of urban open space and population density, indicating that scarcity and crowdedness matter, and that the value of open space does not vary significantly with income. Further, urban parks are more highly valued than other types of urban open space (forests, agricultural and undeveloped land) and methodological differences in study design have a large influence on estimated values from both CV and HP. We also find important regional differences in preferences for urban open space, which suggests that the potential for transferring estimated values between regions is likely to be limited. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Urban Open Space Extraction Method:Combining Spectral and Geometric Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guobin; Dan G. Blumberg

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an advanced method based on remote sensing and Geographic Information System for urban open space extraction combining spectral and geometric characteristics. From both semantic and remote sensing perspectives, a hybrid hierarchy structure and class organization of open space are issues and mapped from one to another. Based on per-pixel and segmentation mechanism separately, two classification approaches are performed. Owing to prior of spatial aggregation and spectral contribution, the segmentation-based classification exhibits its superiority over a pixel-based classification. Finally a GIS-based post procedure is hired to eliminate some unsuitable open space components in both spatial and numerical constraints on the one hand, and separate open space some fabrics from fused remote sensing classes by defining their Shape Index on the other hand. The case study of Beer Sheva based on ASTER data proves this method is a feasible way for open space extraction.

  5. Cesium Diffusion through Angstrom-Scale Open Spaces in Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Koichiro; Sato, Kiminori; Nakata, Masataka

    2017-03-01

    Saponite clay minerals possess the local molecular structures, where one and two nanosheets are inserted into interlayer spaces forming open spaces with their sizes of ˜3 and ˜9 Å, respectively. Here, Cs diffusion via the above-mentioned open spaces is highlighted based on the results of open space analysis using positronium (Ps) lifetime spectroscopy coupled with a conventional diffusion experiment. A population of Cs is found to significantly migrate in the saponite clay yielding a diffusion coefficient of ˜2.0 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 with an application of Fick's second law, which arises from overall diffusion contributed from open spaces with a variety of sizes. On the other hand, the diffusion coefficient solely attributable to the angstrom-scale open space is ˜2.5 × 10-8 cm2 s-1, which amounts to more than ˜10% than that of overall diffusion.

  6. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity.

  7. Repeatability of measurements: Non-Hermitian observables and quantum Coriolis force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardas, Bartłomiej; Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2016-08-01

    A noncommuting measurement transfers, via the apparatus, information encoded in a system's state to the external "observer." Classical measurements determine properties of physical objects. In the quantum realm, the very same notion restricts the recording process to orthogonal states as only those are distinguishable by measurements. Therefore, even a possibility to describe physical reality by means of non-Hermitian operators should volens nolens be excluded as their eigenstates are not orthogonal. Here, we show that non-Hermitian operators with real spectra can be treated within the standard framework of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, we propose a quantum canonical transformation that maps Hermitian systems onto non-Hermitian ones. Similar to classical inertial forces this map is accompanied by an energetic cost, pinning the system on the unitary path.

  8. Chronic exercise prevents repeated restraint stress-provoked enhancement of immobility in forced swimming test in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Jang-Kyu; Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    We assessed whether chronic treadmill exercise attenuated the depressive phenotype induced by restraint stress in ovariectomized mice (OVX). Immobility of OVX in the forced swimming test was comparable to that of sham mice (CON) regardless of the postoperative time. Immobility was also no difference between restrained mice (exposure to periodic restraint for 21 days; RST) and control mice (CON) on post-exposure 2nd and 9th day, but not 15th day. In contrast, the immobility of ovariectomized mice with repeated stress (OVX + RST) was profoundly enhanced compared to ovariectomized mice-alone (OVX), and this effect was reversed by chronic exercise (19 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks; OVX + RST + Ex) or fluoxetine administration (20 mg/kg, OVX + RST + Flu). In parallel with behavioral data, the immunoreactivity of Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) in OVX was significantly decreased by repeated stress. However, the reduced numbers of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in OVX + RST were restored in response to chronic exercise (OVX + RST + Ex) and fluoxetine (OVX + RST + Flu). In addition, the expression pattern of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) was similar to that of the hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis markers (Ki-67 and DCX, respectively). These results suggest that menopausal depression may be induced by an interaction between repeated stress and low hormone levels, rather than a deficit in ovarian secretion alone, which can be improved by chronic exercise.

  9. Automatic Open Space Area Extraction and Change Detection from High Resolution Urban Satellite Images

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study efficient and reliable automatic extraction algorithm to find out the open space area from the high resolution urban satellite imagery, and to detect changes from the extracted open space area during the period 2003, 2006 and 2008. This automatic extraction and change detection algorithm uses some filters, segmentation and grouping that are applied on satellite images. The resultant images may be used to calculate the total available open space area and the built up area. It may also be used to compare the difference between present and past open space area using historical urban satellite images of that same projection, which is an important geo spatial data management application.

  10. Remaking Nigeria’s Urbanism: Assessing and Redressing the Dearth of Open Spaces in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubisi Onwuanyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned land use in most Nigerian cities has meant that all urban land needs are not adequately provided for within their landscapes. Open spaces are either conspicuously missing or inadequate. There is a tendency for existing open spaces to be lost to urban development pressure and a disregard for zoning. This paper identifies available and accessible open spaces in Benin City and assesses their adequacy using as a guide standards established in two selected international jurisdictions, discusses the potential benefits of open space to the city on the one hand and its residents on the other given the incipient impacts of global warming and climate change, and the prospects of mitigation by greening the city even in its already built-up state. Data is sourced from journals, reports, archival records and inspections of the urban environment. The findings confirm a great dearth of open spaces as well as deteriorating urban environmental conditions which have implications for health, well-being and urban sustainability. The recommendations are that future expansions of the city space incorporate adequate provisions for open spaces, whilst within the existing built-up city, solutions be sought in the creation of greenways, green paths, private green spaces, promoting street trees and the conversion of brownfield sites to green areas.

  11. Repeated exposure to corticosterone increases depression-like behavior in two different versions of the forced swim test without altering nonspecific locomotor activity or muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Wendie; Fournier, Neil M; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2009-08-01

    We have recently shown that repeated high dose injections of corticosterone (CORT) reliably increase depression-like behavior on a modified one-day version of the forced swim test. The main purpose of this experiment was to compare the effect of these CORT injections on our one-day version of the forced swim test and the more traditional two-day version of the test. A second purpose was to determine whether altered behavior in the forced swim test could be due to nonspecific changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength. Separate groups of rats received a high dose CORT injection (40 mg/kg) or a vehicle injection once per day for 21 consecutive days. Then, half the rats from each group were exposed to the traditional two-day forced swim test and the other half were exposed to our one-day forced swim test. After the forced swim testing, all the rats were tested in an open field and in a wire suspension grip strength test. The CORT injections significantly increased the time spent immobile and decreased the time spent swimming in both versions of the forced swim test. However, they had no significant effect on activity in the open field or grip strength in the wire suspension test. These results show that repeated CORT injections increase depression-like behavior regardless of the specific parameters of forced swim testing, and that these effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength.

  12. The Impact of Green Open Space on Community Attachment—A Case Study of Three Communities in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuemei Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of urbanization in China, the quality of urban life and community attachment have attracted increasing attention of the governments and society. Existing research on community attachment has mainly examined how individual characteristics affect community attachment, such as their length of residence and socioeconomic status. However, some scholars have become interested in exploring the effects of green open space on community attachment. This research examined whether the distribution of green open space in communities had significant effects on community attachment, and both the impact and path were also investigated. Through a questionnaire survey, relevant data in three communities of Beijing were collected. The impact of green open space layout on community attachment was evaluated by using hierarchical regression, and the impact path was examined by using a structural equation model. The results showed that green open space in a community had significant effects on the community attachment, with centralized green open space layout having a greater effect than that of dispersed green open space. Moreover, the more complex the shape of green open space is, the greater the impact is. The degree of satisfaction with the green open space had direct effects on the community attachment. The accessibility and perceived area of green open space could indirectly have an impact on the community attachment by affecting the degree of satisfaction with the green open space. Nevertheless, residents’ perceived importance of green open space could affect the community attachment directly and indirectly, as it affects the degree of satisfaction.

  13. The geography of recreational open space: influence of neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Kawachi, Ichiro; White, Kellee; Williams, David R

    2013-08-01

    The geography of recreational open space might be inequitable in terms of minority neighborhood racial/ethnic composition and neighborhood poverty, perhaps due in part to residential segregation. This study evaluated the association between minority neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, neighborhood poverty, and recreational open space in Boston, Massachusetts (US). Across Boston census tracts, we computed percent non-Hispanic Black, percent Hispanic, and percent families in poverty as well as recreational open space density. We evaluated spatial autocorrelation in study variables and in the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression residuals via the Global Moran's I. We then computed Spearman correlations between the census tract socio-demographic characteristics and recreational open space density, including correlations adjusted for spatial autocorrelation. After this, we computed OLS regressions or spatial regressions as appropriate. Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found for neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics (all p value = 0.001). We found marginally significant positive spatial autocorrelation in recreational open space (Global Moran's I = 0.082; p value = 0.053). However, we found no spatial autocorrelation in the OLS regression residuals, which indicated that spatial models were not appropriate. There was a negative correlation between census tract percent non-Hispanic Black and recreational open space density (r S = -0.22; conventional p value = 0.005; spatially adjusted p value = 0.019) as well as a negative correlation between predominantly non-Hispanic Black census tracts (>60 % non-Hispanic Black in a census tract) and recreational open space density (r S = -0.23; conventional p value = 0.003; spatially adjusted p value = 0.007). In bivariate and multivariate OLS models, percent non-Hispanic Black in a census tract and predominantly Black census tracts were associated with

  14. Distribution of green open space in Malang City based on multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasyim, A. W.; Hernawan, F. P.

    2017-06-01

    Green open space is one of the land that its existence is quite important in urban areas where the minimum area is set to reach 30% of the total area of the city. Malang which has an area of 110,6 square kilometers, is one of the major cities in East Java Province that is prone to over-land conversion due to development needs. In support of the green space program, calculation of green space is needed precisely so that remote sensing which has high accuracy is now used for measurement of green space. This study aims to analyze the area of green open space in Malang by using Landsat 8 image in 2015. The method used was the vegetation index that is Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). From the study obtained the calculation of green open space was better to use the vegetation index method to avoid the occurrence of misclassification of other types of land use. The results of the calculation of green open space using NDVI found that the area of green open space in Malang City in 2015 reached 39% of the total area.

  15. Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, Merlin M; Reid, John

    2017-08-01

    Urbanization has placed pressure on open space within and adjacent to cities. In recent decades, a greater awareness has developed to the fact that individuals derive multiple benefits from urban open space. Given the location, there is often a high opportunity cost to preserving urban open space, thus it is important for both public and private stakeholders to justify such investments. The goals of this study are twofold. First, we use detailed surveys and precise, accessible, mapping methods to demonstrate how travel-cost methods can be applied to the valuation of urban open space. Second, we assess the degree to which typical methods of estimating travel times, and thus travel costs, introduce bias to the estimates of welfare. The site we study is Taylor Mountain Regional Park, a 1100-acre space located immediately adjacent to Santa Rosa, California, which is the largest city (∼170,000 population) in Sonoma County and lies 50 miles north of San Francisco. We estimate that the average per trip access value (consumer surplus) is $13.70. We also demonstrate that typical methods of measuring travel costs significantly understate these welfare measures. Our study provides policy-relevant results and highlights the sensitivity of urban open space travel-cost studies to bias stemming from travel-cost measurement error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants in Wistar rats submitted to repeated forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Fernanda; dos Santos, Juliano; Walber, Thais; Marcon, Juliana C; dos Santos, Tiago Souza; Lino de Oliveira, Cilene

    2015-04-01

    Repeated forced swimming test (rFST) may detect gradual effects of antidepressants in adult rats. Antidepressants, as enrichment, affected behavior and neurogenesis in rats. However, the influence of enrichment on behavioral and neurogenic effects of antidepressants is unknown. Here, effects of antidepressants on rFST and hippocampal neurogenesis were investigated in rats under enriched conditions. Behaviors of male Wistar rats, housed from weaning in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE), were registered during rFST. The rFST consisted of 15min of swimming (pretest) followed by 5min of swimming in the first (test), seventh (retest 1) and fourteenth (retest 2) days after pretest. One hour before the test, rats received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (1ml/kg), fluoxetine (2.5mg/kg) or imipramine (2.5 or 5mg/kg). These treatments were performed daily until the day of the retest 2. After retest 2, rats were euthanized for the identification of markers for neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Fluoxetine or imipramine decreased immobility in retests 1 and 2, as compared to saline. EE abolished these differences. In EE, fluoxetine or imipramine (5mg/kg) reduced immobility time in retest 2, as compared to the test. Independent of the housing conditions, fluoxetine and imipramine (5mg/kg) increased the ratio of immature neurons per progenitor cell in the hippocampus. In summary, antidepressants or enrichment counteracted the high immobility in rFST. Enrichment changed the effects of antidepressants in rFST depending on the type, and the dose of a substance but failed to change neurogenesis in control or antidepressant treated-rats. Effects of antidepressants and enrichment on rFST seemed neurogenesis-independent.

  17. Investigating the Impact of Schools' Open Space on Learning and Educational Achievement of Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Gilavand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background It is obvious that most of informal learnings of social skills and constructive plays occur in school yards and play-fields where children spend much of their non-official time of teaching. This study aimed to investigate the impact of schools' open space on learning and educational achievement of elementary students in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods At a cross-sectional study, 210 students were selected randomly as sample of study. Data collection tools included Hermance’s achievement motivation questionnaire and researcher-constructed questionnaire (observation checklist to examine the physical parameters of learning schools' open space and interviews with students. Data of study were analyzed in SPSS- 21 software. Results Results of this study showed that schools' open space has a significant impact on learning and academic achievement of elementary school students in Ahvaz- Iran (P

  18. Open-space preservation in the Netherlands: Planning, practice and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, E.; Dekkers, J.; Dijk, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Open-space preservation is a planner's issue that is constantly debated, in particular on the success of the implemented instruments. Assessments of policy effectiveness face many methodological problems that are briefly discussed here. We choose to analyse the contribution of Dutch policies to

  19. Open-space preservation in the Netherlands : Planning, practice and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, Eric; Dekkers, Jasper; van Dijk, Terry

    Open-space preservation is a planner's issue that is constantly debated, in particular on the success of the implemented instruments. Assessments of policy effectiveness face many methodological problems that are briefly discussed here. We choose to analyse the contribution of Dutch policies to

  20. Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in three times observation at 07.00, 11.00 a.m. and 3.30 p.m . Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive using Microsoft Excel 2007 and PAST. The result showed that butterflies composition in all sites dominated by Delias sp., Leptosia nina and Eurema venusta. The diversity index of all sites showed moderate rank that indicate communities equilibrium in environment was still good. In this case, Velodrom Green Open Space has the highest one of diversity index, it was about 2,199. Brawijaya University and Jakarta Green Open Space have a high similarity index based on Morisita Index. The highest abundance of butterflies was observed at 11.00-12.30 a.m. Delias sp. and Leptosia nina has temporal spread all day long, while Eurema venusta just in day light.

  1. Open space in human settlements: the lesson from the Islamic tradition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germeraad, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The pressure on the development of adequate open space systems in the Arab-Muslim countries in the Middle East is growing due to: massive migration to the cities, changes in the patterns of life and social networks, and an increasing growth in population. This process results in the development of n

  2. COSMO: a decision-support system for the central open space, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, W.B.; Knaapen, J.P.; Roos-Klein-Lankhorst sic, J.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate scenarios for nature restoration, a landscape ecological decision-support system has been developed, a knowledge-based system integrated in a geographical information system. The grid-based application in the Central Open Space of the Netherlands (the COSMO model) is presented here. Four

  3. The role of open space in urban neighbourhoods for health-related lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestan, Katarina Ana; Eržen, Ivan; Golobič, Mojca

    2014-06-01

    The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1) a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2) behavior observation and mapping and (3) a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.

  4. COSMO: a decision-support system for the central open space, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, W.B.; Knaapen, J.P.; Roos-Klein-Lankhorst sic, J.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate scenarios for nature restoration, a landscape ecological decision-support system has been developed, a knowledge-based system integrated in a geographical information system. The grid-based application in the Central Open Space of the Netherlands (the COSMO model) is presented here. Four

  5. 77 FR 13261 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY..., State and Private Forestry, Cooperative Forestry staff, published a document in the Federal Register of... Conservation Program (Community Forest Program or CFP). The document contained incorrect funding information...

  6. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  7. The Role of Open Space in Urban Neighbourhoods for Health-Related Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ana Lestan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper addresses the relationship between quality of open space and health related lifestyle in urban residential areas. The research was performed in the residential developments in Ljubljana, Slovenia, dating from the time of political and economic changes in the early nineties. Compared to the older neighborhoods, these are typically single-use residential areas, with small open spaces and poor landscape design. The research is concerned with the quality of life in these areas, especially from the perspective of the vulnerable users, like the elderly and children. Both depend on easily accessible green areas in close proximity to their homes. The hypothesis is that the poor open space quality affects their health-related behavior and their perceived health status. The research has three methodological phases: (1 a comparison between urban residential areas by criteria describing their physical characteristics; (2 behavior observation and mapping and (3 a resident opinion survey. The results confirm differences between open spaces of the selected residential areas as well as their relation with outdoor activities: a lack of outdoor programs correlates with poor variety of outdoor activities, limited to transition type, less time spent outdoors and lower satisfaction with their home environment. The survey also disclosed a strong influence of a set of socio-economic variables such as education and economic status on physical activity and self-perceived health status of people. The results therefore confirm the hypothesis especially for less affluent and educated; i.e., vulnerable groups.

  8. Adaptation of the pituitary-adrenal axis to daily repeated forced swim exposure in rats is dependent on the temperature of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasa, Cristina; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Comparison of exposure to certain predominantly emotional stressors reveals a qualitatively similar neuroendocrine response profile as well as a reduction of physiological responses after daily repeated exposure (adaptation). However, particular physical components of the stressor may interfere with adaptation. As defective adaptation to stress can enhance the probability to develop pathologies, we studied in adult male rats (n = 10/group) swimming behavior (struggling, immobility and mild swim) and physiological responses (ACTH, corticosterone and rectal temperature) to daily repeated exposure to forced swim (20 min, 13 d) at 25 or 36 °C (swim25 or swim36). Rats were repeatedly blood-sampled by tail-nick and hormones measured by radioimmunoassay. Some differences were observed between the two swim temperature groups after the first exposure to forced swim: (a) active behaviors were greater in swim25 than swim36 groups; (b) swim25 but not swim36 caused hypothermia; and (c) swim36 elicited the same ACTH response as swim25, but plasma corticosterone concentration was lower for swim36 at 30 min post-swim. After daily repeated exposure, adaptation in ACTH secretion was observed with swim36 already on day 4, whereas with swim25 adaptation was not observed until day 13 and was of lower magnitude. Nevertheless, after repeated exposure to swim25 a partial protection from hypothermia was observed and the two swim conditions resulted in progressive reduction of active behaviors. Thus, daily repeated swim at 25 °C impairs adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as compared to swim at 36 °C, supporting the hypothesis that certain physical components of predominantly emotional stressors can interfere with the process of adaptation.

  9. Procedure of Forecasting Operational and Extremal State of Critical Systems of the Rocket Technique Under Repeated Thermo-Force Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Yu.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model for investigation of the thermoelastoplastic stress-strain state and the strength of the rocket technique systems under the repeated starting is proposed. The thermal conductivity equation and constitutive equations of thermoplasticity for the repeated elastic-plastic deformation processes of isotropic materials along small-curvature paths, the strength and low-cyclic fatigue criteria, numerical methods for solving the boundary-value heat conduction problems and corresponding computer software are used.

  10. Public opinion and interest group positions on open-space issues in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA: Implications for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannery, Thomas Allan

    1987-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to elicit and compare the open-space preferences of citizens and openspace experts in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. A randomly selected sample of 492 citizens and 35 open-space experts participated in a telephone survey during May 5 18, 1986. The following hypothesis was tested and used as a guideline for the study: HO1: There is no significant difference between respondents' status and preference for open space in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The hypothesis was rejected. Findings confirmed respondents' status affected preference for open space. Of the eight issues on which the citizen and expert groups were compared, five recorded significant differences in response profiles. The open-space expert group was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate offroad vehicle facilities, wildlife preserves, a citywide recreational trail, and a trail system along the arroyos and city ditches. The citizen sample was significantly more supportive of using open space to accommodate overnight camping facilities. Both groups equally supported using open space to accommodate an outdoor amphitheater, outdoor education facilities, and rafting, kayaking, and canoeing facilities. The finding indicated that expert preferences did not represent an aggregate of citizen preferences for managing open-space resources. Understanding both expert and citizen positions will facilitate decision-making processes and help resolve environmental disputes.

  11. Public open spaces of small centralised settlements: Researching the typology of public open spaces and their occurrence in the area of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Crnič

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The area of Slovenia is rather widely intertwined with a network of centralised areas of various hierarchies. Several researchers (Drozg, Ravbar, Vrišer, Fister, and many others, who used a variety of input data and received adequate results, have been dealing with the topic of the influence of centres, their connections and characteristics. For a settlement to exist, it has to possess a program for the provision of its citizens. At the same time such a settlement has its own characteristics and ingredients at the level of the design of the settlement as well as construction. Fister (1993 dealt with the latter topic while Vrišer (1998 focused on the functionality of settlements and their influence on the catchment areas. In this context the question arises as to whether there is a connection between the categorisation of the Slovenian area in regards to the characteristics of construction by Fister and classification in regards to the program, its importance and the question whether classification criteria exists which could be connected into larger rounded off units with similar characteristics in regards to the building and similar program characteristics of public open spaces by Vrišer. The basis for researching the problem in question was the comparison of the model by Fister with the model by Vrišer. Acquired results formed the basis for further research of public open spaces connecting constructions in settlements with centres of second level by Vrišer.

  12. Repeated forced swim stress differentially affects formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and the endocannabinoid system in stress normo-responsive and stress hyper-responsive rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elaine M; Okine, Bright N; Olango, Weredeselam M; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to a homotypic stressor such as forced swimming enhances nociceptive responding in rats. However, the influence of genetic background on this stress-induced hyperalgesia is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of repeated forced swim stress on nociceptive responding in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats versus the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic background that is susceptible to stress, negative affect and hyperalgesia. Given the well-documented role of the endocannabinoid system in stress and pain, we investigated associated alterations in endocannabinoid signalling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and amygdala. In SD rats, repeated forced swim stress for 10 days was associated with enhanced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, compared with naive, non-stressed SD controls. In contrast, WKY rats exposed to 10 days of swim stress displayed reduced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour. Swim stress increased levels of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA in the ipsilateral side of the dorsal spinal cord of SD rats, an effect not observed in WKY rats. In the amygdala, swim stress reduced anandamide (AEA) levels in the contralateral amygdala of SD rats, but not WKY rats. Additional within-strain differences in levels of CB1 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) mRNA and levels of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) were observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the dorsal horn and/or amygdala. These data indicate that the effects of repeated stress on inflammatory pain-related behaviour are different in two rat strains that differ with respect to stress responsivity and affective state and implicate the endocannabinoid system in the spinal cord and amygdala in these differences.

  13. Repeatability of maximal voluntary force and of surface EMG variables during voluntary isometric contraction of quadriceps muscles in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainoldi, A; Bullock-Saxton, J E; Cavarretta, F; Hogan, N

    2001-12-01

    The repeatability of initial values and rate of change of EMG signal mean spectral frequency (MNF), average rectified values (ARV), muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was investigated in the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of both legs of nine healthy male subjects during voluntary, isometric contractions sustained for 50 s at 50% MVC. The values of MVC were recorded for both legs three times on each day and for three subsequent days, while the EMG signals have been recorded twice a day for three subsequent days. The degree of repeatability was investigated using the Fisher test based upon the ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA), the Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Data collected showed a high level of repeatability of MVC measurement (normalized SEM from 1.1% to 6.4% of the mean). MNF and ARV initial values also showed a high level of repeatability (ICC>70% for all muscles and legs except right VMO). At 50% MVC level no relevant pattern of fatigue was observed for the VMO and VL muscles, suggesting that other portions of the quadriceps might have contributed to the generated effort. These observations seem to suggest that in the investigation of muscles belonging to a multi-muscular group at submaximal level, the more selective electrically elicited contractions should be preferred to voluntary contractions.

  14. A methodology for the evaluation of the human-bioclimatic performance of open spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Tsiros, Ioannis; Chronopoulou-Sereli, Aik.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a simple methodology to improve the evaluation of the human-biometeorological benefits of open spaces. It is based on two groups of new indices using as basis the well-known PET index. This simple methodology along with the accompanying indices allows a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the climatic behavior of the selected sites. The proposed methodology was applied in a human-biometeorology research in the city of Athens, Greece. The results of this study are in line with the results of other related studies indicating the considerable influence of the sky view factor (SVF), the existence of the vegetation and the building material on human-biometeorological conditions. The proposed methodology may provide new insights in the decision-making process related to urban open spaces' best configuration.

  15. 100 Most Cited Articles in Urban Green and Open Spaces: A Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Rakhshandehroo; Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof; Nader Ale Ebrahim; Ali Sharghi; Roozbeh Arabi

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have contributed significantly to the development of the subject of urban green and open spaces (UGOS) in both practical and fundamental aspects. As the number of citations indicates a paper and author’s competency, the online web of science (ISI) was browsed to identify the 100 most cited papers in the field of UGOS from 1980 to 2013. Papers were analyzed for authorship, journal sources, publishers, institutions, countries, year of publication, categories, and author keywords. Th...

  16. Planning open spaces for Biodiversity: Evaluating Urban Parks for Wildlife Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Livingston

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural open spaces adjacent to developing cities are frequently affected by advancing urban sprawl. It requires a delicate balancing act to conserve habitats while developing new environments for city inhabitants. As landscape architects, planners, and managers of these areas, we continue to explore mitigation strategies for habitats affected by development. One strategy focuses on creating new spaces within development that can fulfil some of the functions previously provided by natural areas and serve as resource links among remaining peripheral natural areas (Forman and Godron, 1986. Previous research has shown that created open spaces, such as parks and golf courses may provide critical habitat functions associated with natural areas if planned appropriately (Mannan and Boal, 2000; Shaw et al, 1998. However, few studies have evaluated the specific characteristics associated with created open spaces for their wildlife habitat value. This research addresses the following question: What is the potential habitat value of current vegetation in urban parks in Tucson, Arizona? The goals of this study were to: 1 evaluate potential habitat value of urban parks using a wildlife habitat value index (Shaw et al, 1998, and 2 provide recommendations emphasising increased biodiversity through habitat development in these open spaces. Most vegetation in the surveyed parks was non-native and provided little escape cover for wildlife. Plant species richness and abundance were relatively low in most parks, but higher for sites where existing native vegetation was incorporated into the park. Recommendations emphasise: 1 appropriate arrangement and placement of species based on functions required by human and wildlife users; 2 increased horizontal and vertical vegetation layers; 3 design focus on regional plant communities; and 4 development of written specifications for parks that address design uses of native species and their maintenance.

  17. Repeated electroconvulsive stimuli have long-lasting effects on hippocampal BDNF and decrease immobility time in the rat forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Cui, Ranji; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-03-27

    Electroconvulsive therapy is considered an effective treatment for severe depression. However, the mechanisms for its long-lasting antidepressant efficacy are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated changes of the immobility time in the forced swim test and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein after withdrawal from 14-day repeated electroconvulsive stimuli (ECS, 50 mA, 0.2 s) in rats. Immobility time in the forced swim test was markedly decreased 6 h after withdrawal following 14-day ECS treatment. Thereafter, prolongation of the withdrawal period gradually diminished the decreasing effect of immobility time, but significant effects persisted for up to 3 days after the withdrawal. Locomotor activity in the open-field test increased 6 h after withdrawal from the ECS treatment, and the enhanced effect persisted for at least 7 days. The BDNF protein level in the hippocampus was markedly increased 6 h after the withdrawal, and remained high for at least 7 days. These findings provide further evidence that repeated ECS has long-lasting effect on increase in BDNF and locomotor activity and decrease in immobility time in the forced swim test.

  18. Global Positioning System-Based Stimulation for Robo-Pigeons in Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation method is described that will enable researchers to study fight control characteristics of robo-pigeons in fully open space. It is not limited by the experimental environment and overcomes environmental interference with flight control in small experimental spaces using a compact system. The system consists of two components: a global positioning system (GPS-based stimulator with dimensions of 38 mm × 26 mm × 8 mm and a weight of 18 g that can easily be carried by a pigeon as a backpack and a PC-based program developed in Virtual C++. The GPS-based stimulator generates variable stimulation and automatically records the GPS data and stimulus parameters. The PC-based program analyzes the recorded data and displays the flight trajectory of the tested robo-pigeon on a digital map. This method enables quick and clear evaluation of the flight control characteristics of a robo-pigeon in open space based on its visual trajectory, as well as further optimization of the microelectric stimulation parameters to improve the design of robo-pigeons. The functional effectiveness of the method was investigated and verified by performing flight control experiments using a robo-pigeon in open space.

  19. A public hedonic analysis of environmental attributes in an open space preservation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Erik E.

    The Town of Brookhaven, on Long Island, NY, has implemented an open space preservation program to protect natural areas, and the ecosystem services they provide, from suburban growth. I used a public hedonic model of Brookhaven's open space purchases to estimate implicit prices for various environmental attributes, locational variables and spatial metrics. I also measured the correlation between cost per acre and non-monetary environmental benefit scores and tested whether including cost data, as opposed to non-monetary environmental benefit score alone, would change the prioritization ranks of acquired properties. The mean acquisition cost per acre was 82,501. I identified the key on-site environmental and locational variables using stepwise regression for four functional forms. The log-log specification performed best ( R2adj= 0.727). I performed a second stepwise regression (log-log form) which included spatial metrics, calculated from a high-resolution land cover classification, in addition to the environmental and locational variables. This markedly improved the model's performance ( R2adj=0.866). Statistically significant variables included the property size, location in the Pine Barrens Compatible Growth Area, location in a FEMA flood zone, adjacency to public land, and several other environmental dummy variables. The single significant spatial metric, the fractal dimension of the tree cover class, had the largest elasticity of any variable. Of the dummy variables, location within the Compatible Growth Area had the largest implicit price (298,792 per acre). The priority rank for the two methods, non-monetary environmental benefit score alone and the ratio of non-monetary environmental benefit score to acquisition cost were significantly positively correlated. This suggests that, despite the lack of cost data in their ranking method, Brookhaven does not suffer from efficiency losses. The economics literature encourages using both environmental benefits and

  20. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  1. Grassland communities of urban open spaces in Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamokete N.V. Dingaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation in urban environments is greatly impacted by human activities and it is in constant threat of degradation and destruction as a result of urbanisation. This vegetation, although fragmented, serves an important ecological function and needs to be properly managed and conserved. Studies on urban vegetation are lacking in South Africa, with only a handful having been carried out since the end of the last century. This study was initiated to identify, classify and describe the grassland communities of the urban open spaces in Bloemfontein. Relevés were compiled in 61 sample plots, where species present and habitat information were recorded. Care was taken to restrict sample plots to vegetation in pristine condition, wherever possible, and severely degraded stands were avoided. A two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed two distinct major communities, seven communities and four sub-communities. Both detrended and canonical correspondence analyses indicated the vegetation units to be associated with soil texture and pH, although biotic factors such as overgrazing, burning and mowing also influence the composition of the vegetation. The proper management and conservation of urban open spaces requires in-depth knowledge of the spatial distribution, floristic, structural and functional compositions within the major vegetation types in this environment. The present study further contributed towards formulating ways for the proper management, utilisation and functioning of the open spaces within the Bloemfontein area.Conservation implications: The Grassland Biome of South Africa is poorly conserved, mainly because of its status as an agricultural hub of the country. The preservation of natural and semi-natural forms of urban vegetation is important because such vegetation, although often disturbed and degraded, could form dispersal corridors between peri-urban and rural

  2. Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C Svendsen

    Full Text Available Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons. Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1 A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2 A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3 measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMR(F are repeatable in individual fish; and 4 MMR(F correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMR(S. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMR(F. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR and MMR(S. Repeatability and correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O(2sat, demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMR(F was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O(2sat to 70% O(2sat. MMR(F was repeatable in individual fish, and MMR(F correlated positively with MMR(S, but the relationships between MMR(F and MMR(S were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor. Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S support the conjecture that MMR(F represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection.

  3. Factors Influencing Visitors to Suburban Open Space Areas near a Northern Japanese City

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    Yasushi Shoji

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visitor information often serves as the basis for the management plan of parks. However, there exist few scientific and fundamental surveys for parks and open spaces in Japan. We analyzed the correlation between the number of visitors and the various factors in a suburban open space in a northern Japanese city, Takino Park. To explain the fluctuations in the number of visitors in Takino Park, multiple regression analyses with the stepwise method were conducted. The analyses employed social factors and meteorological factors, such as the day of the week, school vacations, temperature and the weather. The results show that the most influential factor is the day of the week, i.e., Sundays and holidays. The weather is also influential as the number of visitors decreases on rainy and snowy days. Comparing different seasons of the year, we found that influential factors varied from one season to the other. A key distinguishing finding of our results is that the weather conditions at the departure site and the weather forecast are also determining factors. These findings will help park managers understand the current situations and examine future management strategies to maintain and enhance visitor satisfaction, and improve information services.

  4. Open space anxiety test in rodents: the elevated platform with steep slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Abdelkader

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a behavioral test protocol for assessing anxiety in mice and rats in single or multiple sessions. The test is based on exposure of animals to an open-space elevated platform with suspended steep slopes attached on two opposite sides. In this test, all animals cross frequently onto and spend more time in the areas adjacent to slopes than in the areas adjacent to a void space. Balb/c mice (albinos) were shown consistently to be more anxious than CD-1 mice (albinos), c57/Bl6J and c57/Bl6N (pigmented) mice; they do not cross onto the slopes. When Balb/c mice are treated with amphetamine or diazepam, the number of crossings on the platform is significantly increased but only diazepam-treated mice do cross onto the slopes. In the presence of a protected space on the platform, the behavior of c57/Bl6J compares to that of Balb/c mice; they stop crossings onto the slopes and demonstrate avoidance response. Unlike the current existing tests, the present open-space anxiety test demonstrates reliable and consistent results with strong construct and discriminant validity. It provides unequivocal measures of fear-induced anxiety, which are not confounded with measures of fear-induced escape/avoidance responses, hyperactivity or impulsive responses.

  5. Examining public open spaces by neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Keam, Rosanna; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin

    2010-11-01

    Public open spaces (POS) are recognized as important to promote physical activity engagement. However, it is unclear how POS attributes, such as activities available, environmental quality, amenities present, and safety, are associated with neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation. Twelve neighborhoods were selected within 1 constituent city of Auckland, New Zealand based on higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 6) walkability characteristics. Neighborhoods were dichotomized as more (n = 7) or less (n = 5) socioeconomically deprived. POS (n = 69) were identified within these neighborhoods and audited using the New Zealand-Public Open Space Tool. Unpaired 1-way analysis of variance tests were applied to compare differences in attributes and overall score of POS by neighborhood walkability and deprivation. POS located in more walkable neighborhoods have significantly higher overall scores when compared with less walkable neighborhoods. Deprivation comparisons identified POS located in less deprived communities have better quality environments, but fewer activities and safety features present when compared with more deprived neighborhoods. A positive relationship existed between presence of POS attributes and neighborhood walkability, but the relationship between POS and neighborhood-level deprivation was less clear. Variation in neighborhood POS quality alone is unlikely to explain poorer health outcomes for residents in more deprived areas.

  6. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects.

  7. Linguistic Landscape and Space: A Multimodal Analysis of Linguistic landscape in Robot Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the linguistic landscape in an indoor public place, Robot Open Space in Zhongguancun Dream Laboratory, which is a building housing a handful of innovative entrepreneurial enterprises. The subject of analysis in this present paper is the impact of different spaces on the features of linguistic landscape. Each of the three major sub-spaces in the company Robot Open Space has different functions and the linguistic landscape with its different features varies accordingly. This present study has the following contributions. First, the shift of analytical attention from the outdoor linguistic landscape to the indoor linguistic landscape provides a new angle for LL analysis and further expands the scenery of linguistic landscape. Then, the newly establish analytical framework, the “multimodal model for linguistic landscape analysis” enrich the current theoretical models that is quite rare. Last, the qualitative analysis of the linguistic landscapes in different spaces shed light on the correlation between space and linguistic landscape, indicating that space is an integral factor to be considered when it comes to LL analysis.Keywords: linguistic landscape; multimodal model; qualitative analysis; space

  8. Crash worthy capacity of a hybridized epoxy-glass fiber aluminum columnar tube using repeated axial resistive force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paruka, Perowansa [Jalan Politeknik, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia); Siswanto, Waluyo Adi [Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja (Malaysia); Maleque, Md Abdul [Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Shah, Mohd Kamal Mohd [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A combination of aluminum columnar member with composite laminate to form a hybrid structure can be used as collapsible energy absorbers especially in automotive vehicular structures to protect occupants and cargo. A key advantage of aluminum member in composite is that it provides ductile and stable plastic collapse mechanisms with progressive deformation in a stable manner by increasing energy absorption during collision. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the influence of the number of hybrid epoxy glass layers in overwrap composite columnar tubes. Three columnar tube specimens were used and fabricated by hand lay-up method. Aluminum square hollow shape was combined with externally wrapped by using an isophthalic epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber skin with an orientation angle of 0 .deg. /90 .deg. The aluminum columnar tube was used as reference material. Crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes were prepared using one, two, and three layers to determine the crash worthy capacity. Quasi-static crush test was conducted using INSTRON machine with an axial loading. Results showed that crush force and the number of layers were related to the enhancement of energy absorption before the collapse of columnar tubes. The energy absorption properties of the crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes improved significantly with the addition of layers in the overwrap. Microscopic analysis on the modes of epoxy-glass fiber laminate failure was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Repeated Forced Swim Exacerbates Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity: Neuroprotective Effects of Nanowired Delivery of 5-HT3-Receptor Antagonist Ondansetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, José Vicente; Sharma, Aruna; Muresanu, Dafin F; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tian, Z Ryan; Patnaik, Ranjana; Sharma, Hari S

    2017-08-31

    The possibility that stress associated with chronic forced swim (FS) may exacerbate methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity was examined in a rat model. Rats were subjected to FS in a pool (30 °C) for 15 min daily for 8 days. Control rats were kept at room temperature. METH was administered (9 mg/kg, s.c.) in both control and FS rats and allowed to survive 4 h after the drug injection. METH in FS rats exacerbated BBB breakdown to Evans blue albumin (EBA) by 150 to 220% and ([131])-Iodine by 250 to 380% as compared to naive rats after METH. The METH-induced BBB leakage was most pronounced in the cerebral cortex followed by the hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, and hypothalamus in both FS and naive rats. The regional BBB changes were associated with a reduction in the local cerebral blood flow (CBF). Brain edema was also higher by 2 to 4% in FS rats after METH than in naive animals. Neuronal and glial cell injuries were aggravated by threefold to fivefold after METH in FS than the control group. Pretreatment with ondansetron (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before METH injection in naive rats reduced the brain pathology and improved the CBF. However, TiO2-nanowired delivery of ondansetron (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was needed to reduce METH-induced brain damage, BBB leakage, reduction in CBF, and edema formation in FS. Taken together, these observations are the first to show that METH exacerbates BBB breakdown leading to neurotoxicity in FS animals. This effect of METH-induced BBB breakdown and brain pathology in naive and FS rats is attenuated by ondansetron treatment indicating an involvement of 5-HT3 receptors, not reported earlier.

  10. Sustainable Sites Initiative: US updated rating criteria for open spaces design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Valente

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the U.S. Sustainable Sites Initiative, by illustrating and commenting the recent updates of the rating criteria in addition to a number of certified projects, including some sites visited by the author in California. The system is compared with existing tools, as LEED 2009 for Neighborhood Development Rating System, albeit some differences also in scale of interventions. In the work, scientific literature and personal considerations are given about those aspects still not evaluated by the system and its potential wider applicability with regard to directions of research on the topic. The theme fits well in the mainstream of studies dedicated to the design of resilient open spaces, contributing to adaptation and mitigation of climate change.

  11. The Relationship of Children Connectivity and Physical Activities with Satisfaction of Open Spaces in High Rise Apartments in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sharghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increase of urbanization has pressure on the urban children's lives and physical activities. While in designing of residential apartments’ open spaces, there is little attention to the children. The children, who live in the high-rise apartments found to have less physical activities. However, supposedly, children need to engage in the physical activity in the outdoor areas as WHO recommend that children take part in at least one hour of moderate physical activity in every day. This paper firstly, reviews different researches in this area. Then, it attempts to find children’s satisfaction regarding connectivity to open spaces as a dependent variable and their preferred activities, perceived safety, and familiarity about connectivity to open spaces as independent variables. The method of study is a semi-interview survey with 80 children between 6 and 12 years old (primary school ages in two cases in Tehran. The result of this research shows that children satisfaction from open space has an effect on their outdoor activities. Therefore, the designers should be considering children physical activities needs in open spaces.

  12. What Attracts People to Visit Community Open Spaces? A Case Study of the Overseas Chinese Town Community in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example. The association between the number of visitors and space characteristics is examined with multivariate regression models. Results show that large areas with accessible lawns, well-maintained footpaths, seats, commercial facilities, and water landscapes are important characteristics that could increase the use of community open spaces. However, adding green vegetation, sculptures, and landscape accessories in open spaces has limited effects on increasing the outdoor activities of residents. Thus, to increase the use of community open spaces, landscape designers should focus more on creating user-oriented spaces with facilities that encourage active use than on improving ornamental vegetation and accessories.

  13. Implementation of the Forest Service Open Space Conservation Strategy in Washington State: Exploring the Role of the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Pringle; Lee K. Cerveny; Gordon A. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The loss of open space was declared one of the “four threats to the health of our nation’s forests” by former USDA Forest Service Chief Dale Bosworth in 2004. Since then, the agencywide Open Space Conservation Strategy (OSCS) was released and the “four threats” were incorporated into the agency’s National Strategic Plan. These actions indicate that the OSCS is in the...

  14. Thermal Performance of Housing Open Spaces in the City of Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. TURKI HASAN ALI ALHADIDI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urban growth has lead to an urgent need to increase residential buildings in such a way that requires quick execution of such buildings. The appearance of modern materials such as reinforced concrete has helped in getting fast-constructed houses of a westerly pattern such that excluding the inherited styles that are in harmony with severe environment like that of the Middle East. This has resulted in a modern pattern of buildings lacks the microclimate which was enjoyed by the traditional pattern and which have provided the inhabitant with a relative thermal comfort. ‎This research try to compare different microclimates due to the variation of open architectural spaces patterns in the residential units (traditional ones represented by (the courtyards and Iwan and the modem one represented by the space of (garages and terraces in Summer in Mosul city. ‎ ‎The results showed that the traditional open spaces are the nearest to the thermal comfort zone, although both of them don't represent the ideal state of human comfort in this ‎period of Summer.

  15. Abundance of diurnal raptors on open space grasslands in an urbanized landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M.E.; Bock, C.E.; Haire, S.L.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted point counts of diurnal raptors on Boulder, Colorado, grasslands for three winters and summers, and compared results to landscape features of the count areas. Four wintering species were scarce on plots that included significant amounts of urban habitat, with a critical landscape threshold at about 5-7% urbanization: Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). Counts of the first three species also were positively correlated with proximity of the count plots to the nearest colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Two breeding species, the Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis) and Swainson's Hawk (B. swainsoni), were more abundant on plots dominated by lowland hayfields and tallgrass prairies, as opposed to upland mixed and shortgrass prairies. They, along with the ubiquitous American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), were not sensitive to the amounts of urbanization (up to 30%) that occurred in the landscapes sampled. Results of this study suggest that urban open space grasslands can support sizable populations of most diurnal raptors, as long as prey populations persist, but that some species are highly sensitive to landscape urbanization.

  16. Plutonium contamination in soils in open space and residential areas near Rocky Flats, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaor, M I

    1999-02-01

    Spatial analysis of the 240Pu:239Pu isotopic ratio of 42 soil samples collected around Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado, was conducted to assess the effect of Rocky Flats Plant activity on the soil environment. Two probability maps that quantified the uncertainty of the spatial distribution of plutonium isotopic ratios were constructed using the sequential Gaussian simulation technique (sGs). Assuming a plutonium isotopic ratio range of 0.152+/-0.003 to 0.169+/-0.009 is characteristic to global fallout in Colorado, and a mean value of 0.155 is representative for the Rocky Flats Plant area, the main findings of the current work were (1) the areas northwest and southwest of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium ratio > or = 0.155, thus were minimally impacted by the plant activity; (2) the study area east of Rocky Flats Plant (approximately 120 km2) exhibited a plutonium isotopic ratio open space and residential areas amounted to 111.2 GBq, with a standard error of estimate of 50.8 GBq.

  17. The influence of personal belief, agency mission and city size on open space decision making processes in three southwestern cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Friggens; Carol Raish; Deborah Finch; Alice McSweeney

    2015-01-01

    The southwest has experienced dramatic population increases over the last 30 years, a trend that is expected to continue. Open space conservation is important both from the standpoint of preserving ecosystem services as well as maintaining quality of life for urban populations. Federal agencies manage a large proportion of the public land in the Southwestern U.S. We...

  18. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  19. Impact of demographic trends on future development patterns and the loss of open space in the California Mojave Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomben, Peter; Lilieholm, Robert; Gonzalez-Guillen, Manuel

    2012-02-01

    During the post-World War II era, the Mojave Desert Region of San Bernardino County, California, has experienced rapid levels of population growth. Over the past several decades, growth has accelerated, accompanied by significant shifts in ethnic composition, most notably from predominantly White non-Hispanic to Hispanic. This study explores the impacts of changing ethnicity on future development and the loss of open space by modeling ethnic propensities regarding family size and settlement preferences reflected by U.S. Census Bureau data. Demographic trends and land conversion data were obtained for seven Mojave Desert communities for the period between 1990 and 2001. Using a spatially explicit, logistic regression-based urban growth model, these data and trends were used to project community-specific future growth patterns from 2000 to 2020 under three future settlement scenarios: (1) an "historic" scenario reported in earlier research that uses a Mojave-wide average settlement density of 3.76 persons/ha; (2) an "existing" scenario based on community-specific settlement densities as of 2001; and (3) a "demographic futures" scenario based on community-specific settlement densities that explicitly model the Region's changing ethnicity. Results found that under the demographic futures scenario, by 2020 roughly 53% of within-community open space would remain, under the existing scenario only 40% would remain, and under the historic scenario model the communities would have what amounts to a deficit of open space. Differences in the loss of open space across the scenarios demonstrate the importance of considering demographic trends that are reflective of the residential needs and preferences of projected future populations.

  20. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  1. Space-Mass Relation And Gravity In A Geometrically Open Space Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Govindaraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gravity is a property of space-time fabric and not a universal force of attraction between two objects with mass. Considering that energy is distributed in space-time while mass replaces space-time from its place producing a denser or warped space-time around the mass problems regarding the nature of gravity can be addressed. This paper talks about understanding the nature of gravity as a virtual force created by warped space time and also explains what gives a particle its mass. Irrespective of mass gravity can exist anywhere in the universe but can be experienced only by the presence of mass or by distributing of energy through it. Mass is a void in space-time but in real world matter exists in their smallest form as sub-atomic particles separated with a space-time. If a particle is said to have a greater energy then it has created a relatively bigger void in space-time.

  2. a Spatial Analysis on Gis-Hedonic Pricing Model on the Influence of Public Open Space and House Price in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainora, A. M.; Norzailawati, M. N.; Tuminah, P.

    2016-06-01

    Presently, it is noticeable that there is a significant influence of public open space about house price, especially in many developed nations. Literature suggests the relationship between the two aspects give impact on the housing market, however not many studies undertaken in Malaysia. Thus, this research was initiated to analyse the relationship of open space and house price via the techniques of GIS-Hedonic Pricing Model. In this regards, the GIS tool indicates the pattern of the relationship between open space and house price spatially. Meanwhile, Hedonic Pricing Model demonstrates the index of the selected criteria in determining the housing price. This research is a perceptual study of 200 respondents who were the house owners of double-storey terrace houses in four townships, namely Bandar Baru Bangi, Taman Melawati, Subang Jaya and Shah Alam, in Klang Valley. The key research question is whether the relationship between open space and house price exists and the nature of its pattern and intensity. The findings indicate that there is a positive correlation between open space and house price. Correlation analysis reveals that a weak relationship (rs research has achieved its research aims and thus, offers the value added in applying the GIS-Hedonic pricing model in analysing the influence of open space to the house price in the form of spatially and textually.

  3. Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC versus emergency repeat cesarean section at teaching hospitals in India: an ICMR task force study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Dhillon

    2014-06-01

    Results: A total of 155863 deliveries occurred during the study duration, there were 28.1% (n=43824 cesarean section and (10.1% (n=15664 were the number of previous cesarean section. In 84% (n=13151 had repeat cesarean delivery and 2513 (16% delivered vaginally. A trial of labor was planned in 4035 (25.8% women. The success rate of VBAC was 62.3% with 2513 women had successful vaginal delivery and 1522 (37.7% delivered by emergency repeat cesarean section. Major indication of emergency cesarean section was CPD (52.9%, foetal distress (25.8%, severe PIH/eclampsia (5.0%, previous 2 CS (0.7%, APH (1.4% and others (2.7%. In majority, surgical technique was conventional and in 3.7% the Misgav-Ladach technique was used. Scar dehiscence and surgical complications were observed in 5.4% and 4.0% of cases respectively. Blood transfusion was given in 7.0% and post-operative complications were seen in 6.8%. Perinatal and maternal mortality was 18.0/1000 and 257/100000 deliveries respectively. Conclusions: Safety in childbirth for women with prior cesarean is a major public health concern. Repeat caesarean section and planned vaginal birth after cesarean section are both associated with benefits and harms and correct management represents one of the most significant and challenging issues in obstetric practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 592-597

  4. 开放空间复杂地形人员疏散模拟研究%Simulation Study on Pedestrian Evacuation in Open Space under Complicated Topographic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 刘茂; 孟博; 王炜

    2012-01-01

    为研究开放空间复杂地形条件下人员疏散,开发出能够模拟行人疏散的三维可视化软件系统.将复杂多变的地形分解为一系列连续变化的坡面,分析斜坡上行人受力,考虑重力影响,在经典社会力模型的基础上,提出一个改进模型.选择某气井周边居民疏散案例,运用VC++和OpenGL图形库技术初步完成整合数字高程模型(DEM)、道路网络和行人特征的三维社会力人员疏散模拟程序.最后通过实例模拟,可以明显地观察到人群的动态疏散过程以及在灾难中的拥堵行为、转向躲避行为和超越行为.应用该模型,能够实现复杂地形人员疏散三维动态模拟,并快速预测疏散时间.%In order to study the pedestrian evacuation in open space under complicated topographic condition, this paper develops a three-dimensional dynamic simulation program for pedestrian evacuation. At first, this paper proposes an improved social force model. In this model, the complex topography is decomposed into a series of continuous varying slopes. Through analysis of forces acting on pedestrian on a slope, the component of gravity is added to the classical social force model to formulate the differential equation of pedestrian movement. Then, considering the residents evacuation around a gas well as a case, the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) , road net and physical characteristics are integrated by applying the platform of the Visual C + +6. 0 and the OpenGL 3D graphics library and a simulation program are developed for pedestrian evacuation based on the 3D social force model. At last, the 3D dynamic visualization of pedestrian evacuation in complex terrain is realized and behaviors of pedestrians ( congestion, turning, collision avoiding and passing by) can be demonstrated vividly. The approach provided in this paper can also predict process and time for the evacuation in complex terrain.

  5. A SPATIAL ANALYSIS ON GIS-HEDONIC PRICING MODEL ON THE INFLUENCE OF PUBLIC OPEN SPACE AND HOUSE PRICE IN KLANG VALLEY, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zainora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, it is noticeable that there is a significant influence of public open space about house price, especially in many developed nations. Literature suggests the relationship between the two aspects give impact on the housing market, however not many studies undertaken in Malaysia. Thus, this research was initiated to analyse the relationship of open space and house price via the techniques of GIS-Hedonic Pricing Model. In this regards, the GIS tool indicates the pattern of the relationship between open space and house price spatially. Meanwhile, Hedonic Pricing Model demonstrates the index of the selected criteria in determining the housing price. This research is a perceptual study of 200 respondents who were the house owners of double-storey terrace houses in four townships, namely Bandar Baru Bangi, Taman Melawati, Subang Jaya and Shah Alam, in Klang Valley. The key research question is whether the relationship between open space and house price exists and the nature of its pattern and intensity. The findings indicate that there is a positive correlation between open space and house price. Correlation analysis reveals that a weak relationship (rs < 0.1 established between the variable of open space and house price (rs = 0.91, N = 200, p = 0.2. Consequently, the rate of house price change is rather small. In overall, this research has achieved its research aims and thus, offers the value added in applying the GIS-Hedonic pricing model in analysing the influence of open space to the house price in the form of spatially and textually.

  6. ÁREAS VERDES URBANAS, ESPAÇOS LIVRES PARA O LAZER / Urban green areas, open spaces for leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia MAZZEI Mazzei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation and the management of Conservation Units in urban areas, as in the category ofintegral protection as of sustainable use, aims to improve the quality of life of the urban citizenat the same time that it promotes an improvement in the urban environment quality, endowingthe urban space with vegetal covering and fundamental green areas to the reproduction of thenatural cycle and maintenance of the dynamic balance. In the urban environment, the differentcategories of open spaces and the indexes of green area per inhabitant intend to offer optionsto the leisure and recreation activities, besides of characterizing as strategic instruments forthe municipal planning, integrating the characteristics and the limits of the environment to theurban expansion.

  7. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  8. 城市开放空间中的高层建筑%On high-rise buildings in urban open space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉倩

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the relationship between the urban high-rise buildings and the urban open space,the paper illustrates the understanding of the urban open space and the urban high-rise buildings,and points out the urban open space and the urban high-rise buildings are inseparable integrity and the cities can be more attractive and harmonious with their mutual coordination.%为了解决好城市高层建筑与城市开放空间之间的关系,阐述了对城市开放空间及城市高层建筑的理解,指出城市开放空间与城市高层建筑是不可分割的整体,两者只有相互协调才能使城市更加美丽、和谐。

  9. Repeated forced swim stress enhances CFA-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and affects the expressions of pCREB and c-Fos in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, H; Kimura, A; Donishi, T; Kaneoke, Y

    2014-02-14

    Stress affects brain activity and promotes long-term changes in multiple neural systems. Exposure to stressors causes substantial effects on the perception and response to pain. In several animal models, chronic stress produces lasting hyperalgesia. The insular (IC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) are the regions exhibiting most reliable pain-related activity. And the IC and ACC play an important role in pain modulation via the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and c-Fos in the IC and ACC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to clarify changes in the cerebral cortices that affect the activity of the descending pain modulatory system in the rats with stress-induced hyperalgesia. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) induced an increase in the expression of pCREB and c-Fos in the anterior IC (AIC). CFA injection into the hindpaw after the FS shows significantly enhanced thermal hyperalgesia and induced a decrease in the expression of c-Fos in the AIC and the posterior IC (PIC). Quantitative image analysis showed that the numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the left AIC and PIC were significantly lower in the FS+CFA group (L AIC, 95.9±6.8; L PIC, 181.9±23.1) than those in the naive group (L AIC, 151.1±19.3, pthermal hyperalgesia through dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system.

  10. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-05-01

    Mental health is a public health priority globally. Public Open Space (POS) may enhance mental health by facilitating contact with nature and the development of supportive relationships. Despite growing interest in the influence of the built environment on mental health, associations between POS attributes and mental health remain relatively unexplored. In particular, few studies have examined the relative effects of the quantity and quality of POS within a neighbourhood on mental health. Guided by a social-ecological framework, this study investigated the relationship between POS attributes (i.e., quantity and quality) and better mental health (i.e., low risk of psychological distress) in residents of new housing developments in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The extent to which relationships between POS attributes and mental health were confounded by psychosocial factors (e.g., social support, sense of community) and frequent use of POS was also explored. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey (n = 911), a POS audit, and Geographical Information Systems, and was analysed using logistic regression. Approximately 80% of survey participants were at low risk of psychological distress. Residents of neighbourhoods with high quality POS had higher odds of low psychosocial distress than residents of neighbourhoods with low quality POS. This appeared to be irrespective of whether or not they used POS. However, the quantity of neighbourhood POS was not associated with low psychological distress. From a mental health perspective, POS quality within a neighbourhood appears to be more important than POS quantity. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation.

  12. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  13. Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas.

  14. Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Thorne

    Full Text Available Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2% currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%. Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area. Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9% rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other

  15. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro

    2016-01-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals...... appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial...... vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers' associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay...

  16. Formation and Development of Open Space System in Philadelphia%费城开放空间系统的形成与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋石

    2014-01-01

    By introducing the formation and development of Philadelphia's urban open space systems, this article describes the long-term development process of the Philadelphia open space system starts from the initial ideal "Greene Country Towne", to meet the challenges of the plight of the industrial era - the construction of Benjamin Franklin Parkway and Fairmount Park system, and to the improvement and optimization of multi-dimensional, multi-functional open space system in the de-industrialization process. This article proposes that the Philadelphia open space system has a character of historic dimension and multi-value, and reflects its diversity and continuity.%通过介绍美国费城的城市开放空间系统的形成及发展过程,概述了费城开放空间系统从最初的“绿色乡村城镇”理想,到应对工业化时期困境的挑战--富兰克林林荫大道和费尔芒特公园系统建设,再到去工业化时期多维度、多功能开放空间系统完善与优化的这一长期发展历程,最后总结出费城开放空间系统具有历史维度和多元价值、体现多样性和连续性的特征。

  17. Aspects of Cultural Landscape Application on Classical Stage Art. Ballet Performance in the Open Space as a Significant Element of the Cultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lebedeva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the applications aspects of cultural landscape for the preparation of the classical performing arts staging. Research findings highlighted that the cultural landscape (parks, estates, castles, bastions, etc. objects occupies an increasingly important role in public recreation and classical art development programs. At the same time it is noted that event’s aesthetic and emotional quality suffers due to the fact that no specific attention was given for the preparation of the event space. More methodological materials are necessary for preparation of this type of design spaces. In Lithuania classical performing arts events in cultural landscape open spaces are based on XVI–XVII century tradition and has good prospects for modern development. A review of some of the classical art events installations, based on the importance of quality of open spaces influence on the emotional impact, that should be an integral part of the cultural event. The author summarizes his experience of ballet events in open spaces in the cultural landscape – Klaipėda, Trakai. Presented is Tchaikovsky's ballet “Swan Lake” construction in Klaipėda John Hill project that includes infrastructure and environmental design concept: audience space, stage design, stage design performance solutions. Analogous key decisions are later adapted to the ballet performance in the natural environment of the lake Trakai. Experience of this project dictated the necessity of deeper understanding and methodological basis for the classical performing arts analysis and design.

  18. Inhibited SERCA Activity Retards Decline of Repeated Short Tetani Force in Atrophic Soleus%抑制SERCA活性减缓萎缩比目鱼肌间断强直收缩张力的下降

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦博; 马孝武; 李辉; 余志斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 确定骨骼肌收缩的舒张时程可作为判断肌质网钙离子ATP酶(SERCA)活性的功能性指标,并探讨SERCA活性对后肢去负荷大鼠萎缩比目鱼肌间断强直收缩张力下降速率的调节作用.方法 采用尾部悬吊大鼠模型,游离骨骼肌肌条进行灌流,观测收缩功能的改变.结果 与对照组相比,去负荷4周萎缩比目鱼肌肌条在27℃灌流条件下,间断强直收缩的舒张时程( TR75)显著缩短,强直收缩张力快速下降.相反,采用SERCA活性抑制剂环匹阿尼酸(Cyclopiazonic Acid),可延长TR75时程,并恢复强直收缩张力下降速率至对照水平.较低灌流温度(22℃)降低对照大鼠比目鱼肌SERCA活性,同时减缓强直收缩张力的下降;较高温度(35℃)则产生相反的结果.低浓度咖啡因灌流不能改变萎缩比目鱼肌强直收缩下降速率;增加灌流液Ca2+浓度和钙离子载体A23187作用下,减慢强直收缩张力下降速率.结论 缩短的TR75与萎缩比目鱼肌SERCA活性增加相关联,TR75可作为表征SERCA活性的功能性指标.适度抑制SERCA活性,可能通过提高肌纤维内Ca2+浓度,减缓强直收缩张力下降速率.%Objective To confirm that the relaxation duration can be used as a functional marker of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) activity and to elucidate the role of SERCA activity on the rate of force decline during repeated short tetani in the atrophic soleus induced with electric-stimulated intermittent.Methods Tail-suspended rats were used to simulate weightlessness on the ground.The isolated muscle strips were perfused to measure the changes in contractile function.Results Four-week unloaded soleus showed a significant shortening in twitch and tetanic time-from-peak-force-to-75%-relaxation (TR75) and a faster decline of force in 27 ℃ perfusion condition compared with the control group.The shortened TR75 was related to a high SERCA activity in the unloaded soleus.On the contrary

  19. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  20. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  1. Open space morphology and research framework with multi-perspectives%多维视角下城市开放空间研究框架的建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凌云; 徐振; 王良桂

    2014-01-01

    Research on different aspects of urban open spaces is a point to understand their transformations. The author reviewed the literatures on urban morphology, landscape ecology, policy evaluation, perception and aesthetics, history and sociology to equate theories and methodologies related to open space. Combining with mapping physical form and ty-pological changes, investigation of the factors influencing morphology, deduction of what these morphological changes bring, these five sub-topics would construct a multi-dimension framework for open space study. With historical-GIS as database platform and analysis tools, this framework was adopt by the authors to study open space in Nanjing, which showed the potential of supporting interdisciplinary research and public participation as a open platform.%理解城市化进程中开放空间的演变需要多元化的研究视角,对我国城市开放空间形态研究需要在整合多维视角的框架下进行历史空间信息的再现和分析。笔者梳理了城市形态学、景观生态学、政策绩效评价、感知与美学、历史人文等领域与开放空间有关的理论、方法,将这5个维度与形态学研究中的追溯形态变化、分析变化动因以及演绎变化结果3个层面结合形成立体的研究框架。在此框架下,以历史地理信息系统为平台对南京开放空间演变进行了多角度形态分析,展示了这种研究框架可以为多学科融入规划实践、公众参与提供全面的知识图景和开放的信息平台。

  2. Tolerance, sensitization and dependence to diazepam in Balb/c mice exposed to a novel open space anxiety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, A; Michalikova, S; van Rensburg, R; Chazot, P L

    2010-05-01

    Balb/c mice were exposed to an elevated platform that is extended on two opposite sides with lowered steep slopes. They were tested for 12min per session in 6 successive days. They received i.p. administration of either saline or one dose of diazepam (DZP 0.5, 1, 3mg/kg) in sessions 1-3, and saline in sessions 4 and 5. All groups of mice received a single dose of DZP (1mg/kg) in session 6. DZP produced inverted U-shaped dose-responses on the number of entries into different areas of the apparatus, with a peak in mean response at 1mg/kg whereas its effect on the duration of entries was mostly comparable between the 3 doses. It increased the number of crossings on the surface of the platform and facilitated entries onto the slopes. DZP-treated mice crossed frequently onto and spent longer time on the slopes in sessions 1-3 whereas saline-treated mice remained on the platform in sessions 1-6. Withdrawal of DZP in sessions 4-5 increased the latency of first entry and decreased the number and duration of entries onto the slopes which was reversed with the administration of 1mg/kg of DZP in the next session. This ON-OFF the drug may be due to the half-life of DZP which is very short in mice and rats ( approximately 0.88h). It also indicates that DZP-treated mice did not benefit from previous experience of entries onto the slopes which suggests a possible "state-dependent" effect. Administration of DZP after repeated exposures to the test did not facilitate entries onto the slopes but instead increased significantly the number of crossings on the surface of the platform; this increase was much higher than that observed in mice initially treated with DZP and exposed to the test. There is no evidence of habituation in saline-treated mice: the number of crossings on the platform was comparable between the first 5 sessions of the test. These results demonstrate that repeated exposures to the same anxiogenic environment resulted in avoidance responses developing tolerance and

  3. Belém’s built form and its developments to the formation of a system of open spaces accessible to population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Duarte Cardoso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a characterization of the built space of Belém highlighting, its estuarine condition, physical geography and its economic, social and spacial development. It is based on Quapá-SEL Workshop conclusions held in Belém, in May 2015, in which teachers and students from São Paulo and Pará Federal Universities assessed the conditions of urban open spaces of the city. The results highlight a disarticulation between real estate agents strategies and of urban management towards structuring an Open Spaces System (SEL in Portuguese, as well as its limited appropriation by the population. There is a remarkable differentiation between the landscapes of central area in opposition / contraposition to that at the city’s expansion area. This debate showed how much permanent preservation areas on the banks of inland rivers and islands (the main green spaces of the city and main linkage with the Amazonian biome, with its landscape potentials, have been unevenly appropriated in the city, through gentrification.

  4. Past and predicted future effects of housing growth on open space conservation opportunity areas and habitat connectivity around National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Baumann, Matthias; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Helmers, David P.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2016-01-01

    ContextHousing growth can alter suitability of matrix habitats around protected areas, strongly affecting movements of organisms and, consequently, threatening connectivity of protected area networks.ObjectivesOur goal was to quantify distribution and growth of housing around the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System. This is important information for conservation planning, particularly given promotion of habitat connectivity as a climate change adaptation measure.MethodsWe quantified housing growth from 1940 to 2000 and projected future growth to 2030 within three distances from refuges, identifying very low housing density open space, “opportunity areas” (contiguous areas with habitat corridors within these opportunity areas in 2000.ResultsOur results indicated that the number and area of open space opportunity areas generally decreased with increasing distance from refuges and with the passage of time. Furthermore, total area in habitat corridors was much lower than in opportunity areas. In addition, the number of corridors sometimes exceeded number of opportunity areas as a result of habitat fragmentation, indicating corridors are likely vulnerable to land use change. Finally, regional differences were strong and indicated some refuges may have experienced so much housing growth already that they are effectively too isolated to adapt to climate change, while others may require extensive habitat restoration work.ConclusionsWildlife refuges are increasingly isolated by residential housing development, potentially constraining the movement of wildlife and, therefore, their ability to adapt to a changing climate.

  5. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Van Hecke

    Full Text Available Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents' visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12-16 years, 64% boys were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium. Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people, the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents' behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents' home or school

  6. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers’ willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owusu Amponsah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. The indiscriminative use of pharmaceutical products by households in many of these countries is another source of health concern. Low quality water treatment in these countries has however been hampered by the high cost of infrastructure provision and maintenance. Cost-sharing among stakeholders appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers’ associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation. The results further show that the probability of being willing to pay by farmers who agreed that the current water they used for irrigation was harmful is approximately 5.3 times greater than that of those who did not. The analysis of the farmers’ ability to pay revealed that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m3. This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce.

  7. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro; Schou, Torben Wilde; Abaidoo, Robert Clement

    2016-03-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. The indiscriminative use of pharmaceutical products by households in many of these countries is another source of health concern. Low quality water treatment in these countries has however been hampered by the high cost of infrastructure provision and maintenance. Cost-sharing among stakeholders appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers' associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation. The results further show that the probability of being willing to pay by farmers who agreed that the current water they used for irrigation was harmful is approximately 5.3 times greater than that of those who did not. The analysis of the farmers' ability to pay revealed that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m(3). This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce.

  8. Social and Physical Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents’ Physical Activity in Urban Public Open Spaces: A Qualitative Study Using Walk-Along Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Veitch, Jenny; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies examining physical activity in Public Open Spaces (POS) focused solely on the physical environment. However, according to socio-ecological models the social environment is important as well. The aim of this study was to determine which social and physical environmental factors affect adolescents’ visitation and physical activity in POS in low-income neighbourhoods. Since current knowledge on this topic is limited, especially in Europe, qualitative walk-along interviews were used to obtain detailed and context-specific information. Participants (n = 30, aged 12–16 years, 64% boys) were recruited in POS in low-income neighbourhoods in Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp (Belgium). Participants were interviewed while walking in the POS with the interviewer. Using this method, the interviewer could observe and ask questions while the participant was actually experiencing the environment. All audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 10 software and thematic analysis was used to derive categories and subcategories using a grounded theory approach. The most important subcategories that were supportive of visiting POS and performing physical activity in POS were; accessibility by foot/bicycle/public transport, located close to home/school, presence of (active) friends and family, cleanliness of the POS and features, availability of sport and play facilities, large open spaces and beautiful sceneries. The most important subcategories that were unsupportive of visiting POS and physical activity in POS were; presence of undesirable users (drug users, gangs and homeless people), the behaviour of other users and the cleanliness of the POS and features. Social factors appeared often more influential than physical factors, however, it was the combination of social and physical factors that affected adolescents’ behaviour in POS. Easily accessible POS with high quality features in the proximity of adolescents’ home or school may

  9. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  10. 美国城市开放空间中公共参与方式的实现%The Realization of Public Participation Mode in USA City Open Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赛; 戴胤

    2014-01-01

    This paper completed the reading of City Parks and Open Space Planning and Design, extracts characteristics of t-he public participation mode of USA city open space planning and design, and researches its inspiration to city open space pl-anning in our country.%本文完成对《城市公园与开放空间规划设计》的阅读,提取美国城市开放空间规划设计中公众参与方式的特点,研究借鉴其对我国城市开放空间规划的启发。

  11. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  12. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  13. Public Open Space Development for Elderly People by Using the DANP-V Model to Establish Continuous Improvement Strategies towards a Sustainable and Healthy Aging Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wei Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the global trend of population aging, how to integrate the health needs of elderly people into public open space (POS development while taking into account public interest is a major challenge in the 21st century. Although the issues of elderly people’s health and their POS needs are receiving increasing attention, research on continuous improvement strategies for POS for healthy aging societies is still limited. Hence, this study explored continuous improvement strategies thoroughly and systematically by using the DANP-V model. The findings revealed cognitive differences between expert and elderly groups. Moreover, water features, waste management, and co-maintenance spaces were the three criteria with the largest gap value. POS improvement has previously been implemented based on a priority order ranked from the criterion with largest gap value to the criterion with the smallest one. However, an alternative approach based on the cause–effect relationship is proposed in this paper. The study findings have both theoretical and practical implications for POS planners and designers.

  14. 城市开放空间中宠物犬活动场地规划设计探讨%On Designing Dog Park in Open Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜朝玲; 周建华

    2016-01-01

    According to the spatial relationship and development status quo between dogs and people,be-tween dogs and urban space,it presents a common phenomenon that people are not easy to find a space to walk their dogs in urban area.Hence,this study points out the significance of setting a specific area for walking the dog in open space.By doing field researches and surveys,I generalized dog's activity routines and the needs of dogs and its'owner.In addition,the types and reasonable disposition of pet playground , which is proper to applied in our country,have been discussed and explored.%从宠物犬与人、宠物犬与城市空间的关系及发展现状出发,阐述城市中“遛狗难”的现象,引出在城市开放空间中设置宠物犬活动场地的重要意义。通过实地调研和问卷调查,总结宠物犬和主人的活动规律和需求,探讨适应于我国实际情况的宠物犬活动场地类型与合理布局。

  15. [Open space of Non-Profit Organization La Casona de los Barriletes. Support program for youth in the process of being discharged from shelter facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Juan José; Mattarucco, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    On this paper we outline a work program called Outpatient Therapeutic Family Space (Open Space) of the Non-Profit Organization La Casona de los Barriletes, whose goals consist of supporting youth going through discharge processes from shelter facilities in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) where they were admitted or residing, and contributing with the consolidation of social inclusion processes. After a brief inspection of the history of the institution from where this program is developed, we explain a group of conceptual themes that help us focus on the problems, and we develop notions such as vulnerability, mental condition/disorder/disease, and health/illness/care process. Based on these definitions, we describe areas for the development of multidimensional interventions from an interdisciplinary team, aiming at developing cross-institution and cross-sector coordination allowing for the construction of community reference networks for youth accompanied by their families or affective referents. Later on we analyze certain factors that operate as stimuli and obstacles in this task. Lastly, we present several considerations based on the revision of the work carried out.

  16. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  17. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  18. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  20. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  1. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  2. Attenuation of pCREB and Egr1 expression in the insular and anterior cingulate cortices associated with enhancement of CFA-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity after repeated forced swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, Hiroki; Kimura, Akihisa

    2017-09-01

    The perception and response to pain are severely impacted by exposure to stressors. In some animal models, stress increases pain sensitivity, which is termed stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). The insular cortex (IC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which are typically activated by noxious stimuli, affect pain perception through the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study, we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and early growth response 1 (Egr1) in the IC and ACC at 3h (the acute phase of peripheral tissue inflammation) after complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection in naïve rats and rats preconditioned with forced swim stress (FS) to clarify the effect of FS, a stressor, on cortical cell activities in the rats showing SIH induced by FS. The CFA injection into the hindpaw induced mechanical hypersensitivity and increased the expression of the pCREB and Egr1 in the IC and ACC at 3h after the injection. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) prior to the CFA injection enhanced the CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and attenuated the increase in the expression of pCREB and Egr1 in the IC and ACC. These findings suggested that FS modulates the CFA injection-induced neuroplasticity in the IC and ACC to enhance the mechanical hypersensitivity. These findings are thought to signify stressor-induced dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  4. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  5. Forces in yeast flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2015-02-07

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  6. Failure Characteristic of Laser Cladding Samples on Repeated Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-hong; ZHENG Qi-guang; FU Ge-yan; ZHANG Jin-ping

    2004-01-01

    Using self-made impact fatigue test instruments and related analytic devices,the mechanical components with laser cladding layer have been attempted.It is found that,on repeated impact force,several failure modes of the components include the surface cracks,surface plastic deformation,corrosive pitting and coat collapse,etc.The paper reported the test method and initial analysis conclusions about the unique failure characteristics of the mechanical components on repeated impact load.

  7. Environmental Assessment Building 5745, Historical Building Demolition, Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    wetlands occur, and the pine-oak-hickory- maple forest , which dominates the uplands. Seven plants listed on the state rare list and ten uncommon...parks/picnic areas, FamCamp, pools, golf course Open Space 16,450 75.0 Conservation areas, forest , safety clearance/security areas, utility...easements Water 2,317 11.0 Ponds, lakes, streams, forest wetlands Total 21,802 100 BAFB Total Area Source: Barksdale Air Force Base General Plan

  8. Deciphering open space in urban contexts: Geophysical survey, soil multi-element chemical analysis, and artifact distributions at the 15th–16th-century AD Swahili settlement of Songo Mnara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Sulas, Federica

    2015-01-01

    to map artifact and geochemical distributions across these areas. These data provided a means to distinguish a ‘public space’ at the site: correlations were found between anomalies, daub, certain chemical elements (Fe, P, K, Mn) while areas without anomalies—the ‘public space’—correlated with more...... fragmented ceramics and other chemical elements (Ca, Na, Mg, Sr). The integrated methodological framework developed at Songo Mnara offers a new way to define areas that may have functioned as ‘public spaces’ as well as possible activities that were carried out in them. The results suggest that open spaces...

  9. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  10. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  11. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  12. Rectified Forces in Rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Timothy Todd

    The forces exerted on a three-level atom by a bichromatic standing-wave field are investigated. A theoretical analysis shows that the standing-wave dipole force can be rectified, i.e., maintain its sign over many optical wavelengths. Three systems in particular are studied: the lambda, the vee, and the cascade. Experimental results for the rubidium 5S --> 5P --> 5D cascade system are used to confirm the theory. The nearly coincident transition wavelengths for this system (780.0 nm and 776.0 nm) provide potential wells repeating at the beat wavelength (71 μm) which can accumulate laser cooled atoms. This force may have future applications in forming deep neutral atom traps as well as in the creation of new elements for atom optics. Two-color, two-photon spectroscopy of the 5D_{5/2}cascade system (5S --> 5P --> 5D) was also performed.

  13. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  14. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  15. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  16. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  17. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  18. El espacio abierto: una tecnica didactica facilitadora del desarrollo de competencias generales en la formacion profesional superior The open space: a facilitating didactic technique in the development of genereral competences in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villalobos Claveria

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El propósito principal del presente artículo es demostrar que el Espacio Abierto (Open Space como técnica investigativa puede ser un adecuado procedimiento didáctico para el desarrollo de competencias genéricas (transversales en la formación profesional superior. Para alcanzar dicho propósito, en primer lugar, se describe el Espacio Abierto como la técnica investigativa y la información requerida para su aplicación. En segundo lugar, se presenta una propuesta de aplicación ya validada con un conjunto de académicos de dos universidades regionales, para su eventual utilización en las aulas universitarias. El presente trabajo se centra en los resultados preliminares del proyecto Fondecyt Nº 1070466: "La construcción del sujeto docente universitario en universidades regionales: Factores claves en su desempeño académico y profesional", financiado por el gobierno de Chile, en la línea Conicyt/Fondecyt. Estudio que pretende caracterizar factores claves que definen la profesión docente universitaria en instituciones de enseñanza superior regionales para el diseño de una propuesta de perfeccionamiento de académicos e investigadores en docencia superior.The main goal of this article is to demonstrate that the Open Space as a research technique can be a suitable didactic procedure for the development of general competences (cross-sectional in higher education. In order to reach this goal, we begin by describing the Open Space as a research technique as well as the information required for its application. Secondly, an application proposal is presented, which has been previously validated by a group of professors from two regional universities. This proposal is intended to be used in university classrooms when possible. This study focuses on the preliminary results of Fondecyt Project Nº 1070466: "The education of the university professor in regional universities: Key factors in their academic and professional performance", financed

  19. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  20. Effects of Methimepip and JNJ-5207852 in Wistar rats exposed to an open-field with and without object and in Balb/c mice exposed to an open-space spatial maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel eEnnaceur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of the histamine H3 receptor in anxiety is controversial, due to limitations in drug selectivity and limited validity of behavioral tests in previous studies. When exposed to an empty open field, Wistar rats spent more time in the outer area and made very low number of brief crossings in the central area. However, when an object occupied the central area, rats crossed frequently into and spent a long time in the central area. Administration of a range of different doses of methimepip (H3 receptor agonist reduced the entries into the central area with a novel object, indicating enhanced avoidance response. When balb/c mice were exposed to an open space 3D maze, neither methimepip nor JNJ-5207852 (H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist induced entry into the arms of the apparatus, indicative of lack of anxiolytic effects.

  1. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  2. 洛阳市区绿色开放空间系统的动态演变与功能优化%Dynamic evolution and optimization of green open space in Luoyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王发曾; 王胜男; 李猛

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of green open space plays a significant role in achieving sustainable development of ecological cities. Green open space system in Luoyang consists of 6 categories. product green area, farmland and forest, riparian area, garden, road landscape area and auxiliary green area. By using landscape pattern analysis, Structure Evenness Radio Index, Ecological Intensity Index, and Huff model, the paper examines the dynamic changes in area, shape and distribution of the green open space from 1988 to 200S. It evaluates service capacity of the green open space system before spatial distribution and demand-supply condition is optimized. Results are shown as follows. 1) For the 20 years there is an increase in riparian areas, gardens, road landscape areas and auxiliary green areas, while a decrease in product green area, farmland and forest. Green space is abundant in Quadrants 2-5 and Rings 4-8, and less in Quadrants 7 and 8 and Rings 1,2, and 10. 2) There are significant differences in Evenness Radio of all quadrants and rings. However', Quadrant 6 and Ring 5 show stable Evenness Radio, indicating gradual improvement of green space distribution in riparian areas, gardens, road landscape areas and auxiliary green areas. 3) There is a notable increase in density of green patches, with areas along the Luohe River and west fringe of the city having the highest value. Many green patches have low Shape Index, though some regions see an increase. The patches generally display regular geometry shapes, which are obvious products of urban planning. 4) Ecological SeIving Intensity Index of 2008 is 0. 288, and falls into Class III, being an ordinary level. Time costs for local residents visiting green open space are high. Demand and supply of green space service are out of balance for both the northern and southern parts of the city. 5) The frame of overall design for green open space system optimization is "1 center with 3 rings, 4 belts with 3 axes, and 3

  3. Anchoring skeletal muscle development and disease: The role of ankyrin repeat domain containing proteins in muscle physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-M. Tee (Jin-Ming); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe ankyrin repeat is a protein module with high affinity for other ankyrin repeats based on strong Van der Waals forces. The resulting dimerization is unusually resistant to both mechanical forces and alkanization, making this module exceedingly useful for meeting the extraordinary dema

  4. Strong Force

    CERN Document Server

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  5. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  6. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  7. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  8. Ambientes laborais em Open-Space: a relação entre a perceção das características físicas do ambiente de trabalho e o desempenho, a satisfação e a coesão grupal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Raquel Teles Ferreira da

    2016-01-01

    O presente estudo pretende avaliar o efeito das características físicas na perceção do ambiente de trabalho e no desempenho, satisfação e coesão grupal em ambientes laborais com formato Open-Space. Participaram neste estudo 100 trabalhadores de uma empresa de tecnologias situada em Dublin, Irlanda, cujo local de trabalho é um Open-Space, com idades compreendidas entre os 21 e os 54 anos e nacionalidades que variam entre 20 tipos de naturalidade. Foi usado um questionário de auto-preenchimento...

  9. 广州西关旧城社区开放空间活力度因素模型%Study on Factor Model of Environmental Vitality of Open Space in Guangzhou's Old City Residential Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小雷

    2016-01-01

    Environmental vitality of open space is an elementary object of old city renewal. Based on the viewpoint that social vitality is more importance than economic vitality and culture vitality for residential community in old city area,the activities and behavior patterns,cognitive factor and environmental characteristics of residential communi-ty open space are taken as the three basic dimensions for judging environmental vitality. After establishing factor model of degree of environmental vitality (DEV),a quantitative research by questionnaire survey was conducted, and data collected at twice interval of a year. Through multivariate regression analysis,it is shown that there are four variables which can predict DEV;they are facilities for sitting,desire to activities,quantity of open space, and intensity of physical training behavior. Factor analyses show that the four mutual independence dimensionalities included in factor model of DEV are environmental status,environmental cognition,behavioral characteristic,and crowding degree of space. This model is a key clue for the renewal of Xiguan's old city.%开放空间的环境活力是旧城更新的基本目标之一。基于旧城居住社区的社会活力比经济活力及文化活力更为重要的理念,利用空间使用方式、认知要素和环境特征三个基本维度建立广州西关传统居住社区公共开放空间环境活力度的要素模型,以时隔一年的两次问卷调查的量化方法检验广州西关旧城居住社区的环境活力。多元回归分析发现,“可坐性”“活动愿望”“公共空间的数量”和“锻炼行为强度”是4个基本的环境活力度预测变量;因子分析表明,开放空间环境活力的关联因素模型包含“空间环境现状”“环境认知”“行为特性”“空间拥挤度”等四个相互独立的维度,该模型是广州西关旧城社区开放空间更新的重要线索。

  10. Wide Open Spaces: Wikis Ready or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Remember when the Internet was about opening up access to information and breaking down the barriers between content creators and content consumers? Think back to when spam was just a meatlike substance. To those heady days when Timothy Leary was predicting that the PC would be the LSD of the nineties. Before the DMCA. Before eBay. Back when the…

  11. Wide Open Spaces: Wikis Ready or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Remember when the Internet was about opening up access to information and breaking down the barriers between content creators and content consumers? Think back to when spam was just a meatlike substance. To those heady days when Timothy Leary was predicting that the PC would be the LSD of the nineties. Before the DMCA. Before eBay. Back when the…

  12. Psalmists in Cramped and Open Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren

    2014-01-01

    of methodological approaches from cognitive linguistics, such as the “Conceptual Metaphor Theory” associated with George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, and the “Conceptual Integration Networks” approach or “Blending Theory” introduced by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner, to analyse in more detail the use of this motif...

  13. OPEN SPACE ALLOCATION AND TRAVEL COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kent F. Kovacs

    2003-01-01

    The gain from dividing parks into smaller pieces to reduce travel costs is weighed against the loss in services the parks provide since they are smaller. The optimal number of parks is dependent on whether travel costs are concentrated in parts of the town.

  14. In dialogue: an open space to mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Sílvia Marina Silva

    2014-01-01

    Relatório de estágio de mestrado em Educação (área de especialização em Mediação Educacional e Supervisão na Formação) O presente relatório vislumbra a apresentação de um projeto de mediação, desenvolvido num contexto real de trabalho, no âmbito do Estágio Académico do Mestrado em Mediação Educacional e Supervisão na Formação, entre Outubro de 2013 e Junho de 2014, numa instituição particular de solidariedade social (IPSS) por mim selecionada. O conceito de mediação carateriza-...

  15. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  16. Forced Snaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponedel, Benjamin; Knobloch, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    We study spatial localization in the real subcritical Ginzburg-Landau equation ut =m0 u +m1 cos2/π l x u +uxx +d | u | 2 u -| u | 4 u with spatially periodic forcing. When d > 0 and m1 = 0 this equation exhibits bistability between the trivial state u = 0 and a homogeneous nontrivial state u =u0 with stationary localized structures which accumulate at the Maxwell point m0 = - 3d2 / 16 . When spatial forcing is included its wavelength is imprinted on u0 creating conditions favorable to front pinning and hence spatial localization. We use numerical continuation to show that under appropriate conditions such forcing generates a sequence of localized states organized within a snakes-and-ladders structure centered on the Maxwell point, and refer to this phenomenon as forced snaking. We determine the stability properties of these states and show that longer lengthscale forcing leads to stationary trains consisting of a finite number of strongly localized, weakly interacting pulses exhibiting foliated snaking.

  17. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  18. Construction legislation and energy efficiency. A discussion on the covered open spaces for ventilation adopted by the Rio de Janeiro city building code, Brazil; Legislacao edilicia e eficiencia energetica. Uma discussao sobre os vaos de ventilacao adotados pelo codigo de obras do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Gustavo Carvalho; Barroso-Krause, Claudia [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Arquitetura]. E-mails: gparj@terra.com.br; bkrause@ufrj.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper analyses, under the energetic efficiency viewpoint, the critical points of the Rio de Janeiro city construction legislation, by the time that decrees the directives for covered open spaces for ventilation in multi-familiar buildings. The paper also demonstrates where and how the building code influences the architectonic project to induce energy consumption not contributing for an efficient architecture.

  19. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  20. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  1. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  2. Intermolecular forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, A D

    1975-11-06

    The nature of molecular interactions is examined. Intermolecular forces are divided into long-range and short-range components; the former operate at distances where the effects of electron exchange are negligible and decrease as an inverse power of the separation. The long-range interactions may be subdividied into electrostatic, induction and dispersion contributions, where the electrostatic component is the interaction of the permanent charge distributions and the others originate in the fluctuations in the distributions. Typical magnitudes of the various contributions are given. The forces between macroscopic bodies are briefly considered, as are the effects of a medium. Some of the manifestations of molecular interactions are discussed.

  3. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  4. 西南山地传统场镇开放空间特点与保护%The Characteristics and Protection of the Open Space of Southwest Traditional Mountainous Towns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周露; 张锦华

    2011-01-01

    Southwest mountainous traditional towns have the special natural and cultural resources, which reflect the town buildings' respect for nature, idea of adapting to the environmental development, unique shape, and seamless pattern with the landscape environment. And the cultural meaning bred in the landscape environment formed the unique culture between the mountainous town and buildings. The authors use the analyzing method of "dot-line-surface" layer advancing in researching the open space of Southwest traditional mountainous towns, and sum up their form characteristics under different scales. On the premise of sustainability, the principle and strategy of how to protect the original and authentic features of traditional towns are put forward, in order to achieve the continuation and development of the space physical form and humanities spirit.%西南山地传统场镇中特殊的自然与人文资源构成,反映了场镇建设尊重自然、适应环境发展的思想,独特的形态与山水环境浑然一体的格局以及孕育其中的人文内涵更是形成山地场镇与建筑间特有的文化.对西南山地传统场镇开放空间进行研究,采用由“点”及“线”到“面”层层推进的分析方法,总结出其在不同尺度视角下的形态特征.在可持续发展的前提下,对传统场镇开放空间如何保持原真性进行了策略思考,以求得其空间物质形态与人文精神的延续和发展.

  5. Comparative investigations of tablet crushing force testers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn; Jensen, C.G.; Poulsen, L.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of 16 tablet breaking force testers was evaluated in terms of accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability. Three tablet formulations with different plastic or brittle deformation mechanisms and with target breaking forces of 50, 100 and 150 N were tested. Statistically significant...... by the concept of components of variance was 5-7 % depending on the model tablet excipient. The standard deviation within testers (repeatability) was affected by the type of model formulation showing increasing variability with increasing brittleness of the compressed material. No specific effect of altering...

  6. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  8. Force decomposition in robot force control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The unit inconsistency in force decomposition has motivated an investigation into the force control problem in multiple-arm manipulation. Based on physical considerations, it is argued that the force that should be controlled is the internal force at the specified frame in the payload. This force contains contributions due to both applied forces from the arms and the inertial force from the payload and the arms. A least-squares scheme free of unit inconsistency for finding this internal force is presented. The force control issue is analyzed, and an integral force feedback controller is proposed.

  9. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  10. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  12. Unusual structures are present in DNA fragments containing super-long Huntingtin CAG repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Duzdevich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD, expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat length beyond about 300 repeats induces a novel phenotype associated with a reduction in transcription of the transgene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed the structure of polymerase chain reaction (PCR-generated DNA containing up to 585 CAG repeats using atomic force microscopy (AFM. As the number of CAG repeats increased, an increasing proportion of the DNA molecules exhibited unusual structural features, including convolutions and multiple protrusions. At least some of these features are hairpin loops, as judged by cross-sectional analysis and sensitivity to cleavage by mung bean nuclease. Single-molecule force measurements showed that the convoluted DNA was very resistant to untangling. In vitro replication by PCR was markedly reduced, and TseI restriction enzyme digestion was also hindered by the abnormal DNA structures. However, significantly, the DNA gained sensitivity to cleavage by the Type III restriction-modification enzyme, EcoP15I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: "Super-long" CAG repeats are found in a number of neurological diseases and may also appear through CAG repeat instability. We suggest that unusual DNA structures associated with super-long CAG repeats decrease transcriptional efficiency in vitro. We also raise the possibility that if these structures occur in vivo, they may play a role in the aetiology of CAG repeat diseases such as HD.

  13. Effects of ligand binding on the mechanical properties of ankyrin repeat protein gankyrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Settanni

    Full Text Available Ankyrin repeat proteins are elastic materials that unfold and refold sequentially, repeat by repeat, under force. Herein we use atomistic molecular dynamics to compare the mechanical properties of the 7-ankyrin-repeat oncoprotein Gankyrin in isolation and in complex with its binding partner S6-C. We show that the bound S6-C greatly increases the resistance of Gankyrin to mechanical stress. The effect is specific to those repeats of Gankyrin directly in contact with S6-C, and the mechanical 'hot spots' of the interaction map to the same repeats as the thermodynamic hot spots. A consequence of stepwise nature of unfolding and the localized nature of ligand binding is that it impacts on all aspects of the protein's mechanical behavior, including the order of repeat unfolding, the diversity of unfolding pathways accessed, the nature of partially unfolded intermediates, the forces required and the work transferred to the system to unfold the whole protein and its parts. Stepwise unfolding thus provides the means to buffer repeat proteins and their binding partners from mechanical stress in the cell. Our results illustrate how ligand binding can control the mechanical response of proteins. The data also point to a cellular mechano-switching mechanism whereby binding between two partner macromolecules is regulated by mechanical stress.

  14. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  15. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  16. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  17. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  18. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  19. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  20. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  1. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  2. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  3. Do institutions matter in neighbourhood commons governance? A two-stage relationship between diverse property-rights structure and residential public open space (POS quality: Kota Kinabalu and Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Gabriel Hoh Teck

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existing literature regarding institutional influence ontraditional commons, there is still a comparative dearth of research that theorisesproperty-rights structure and its impact on contemporary commons. This isparticularly true for public open space (POS governance: its management andutilisation and hence its quality, of which underinvestment and overexploitationleads to increasingly negative externalities and outcomes. An interdisciplinarystudy is employed here to depict the relationships of diverse property-rightsstructure attributes – POS title existence, community existence, POS title transfer and POS site handing-over period to local government – with quality ofresidential POS. A cross-sectional survey via direct structured observation witha POS quality audit tool was conducted to collect a randomly stratified sampleof 155 Country Lease (CL POS and entire 22 Native Title (NT POS, from thedistricts of Kota Kinabalu and Penampang, Sabah, respectively. Archival searchand document analysis on data of property-rights attributes were executed aswell. Next, 2-stage Pearson’s Chi-Square ( c2 and Lambda (λ with ProportionalReduction Error feature analyses were performed. Results showed that only thesethree property-rights attributes – title deed existence, community existence andPOS site handing-over period to local government- are significantly associatedwith POS quality at significance level (p≤0.05. It is found that, although POSwith title deed and community’s involvement might not contribute to goodquality, these attributes were likely to provide better quality. On the other hand,it is found that the more recent the POS site handing over to government, thehigher the likelihood of good POS quality and vice versa. Such empirical findingsprima facie infer that: (i current local property-rights structure does matter incontributing to POS condition, particularly the effective management right whichlikely leads to better

  4. 包容性设计对老龄化社会公共空间营建的意义%The Significance of Inclusive Design in Public Open Space Design and Building for the Aging Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文英; 冯希亮

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive design is a way of designing products and environments so they are usable and appealing to everyone regardless of age, ability or circumstance by working with users to remove barriers in the social, technical, political and economic processes underpinning building and design. From the introduction of I'DGO research and case studies, this article discussed the background, concept and operation approach about Inclusive design, analyzed the relationship between the physical and mental conditions of the aged, living quality and outdoor environment, summarized the principle and design method of inclusive design in open space, proposed recommendations in response to the problems and new demands occurred in China at the aging society, put forwards that the study of gerontics should be combined to listen to the needs of vulnerable groups, through the approach of inclusive design, make the environment more inclusive to them, and promote social equality and justice.%包容性设计指设计的产品或环境不受使用者年龄和能力的影响即可被使用,或与使用者共同努力消除社会、技术、政治和经济过程中的障碍的基础建设和设计.通过阐述英国“户外空间的包容性设计(I’DGO)”项目的研究现状、实践案例,探讨了包容性设计的产生背景,概念内涵和操作方法,进一步分析老年人身心条件、生活质量与户外环境之间的关系,总结出包容性设计在公共空间营建中的原则和设计方法.针对老龄化趋势所产生的新需求以及我国包容性设计的现状,提出应结合老年学的研究,倾听来自社会弱势、边缘群体的呼声,通过包容性设计的途径,提高城市公共空间的建设对弱势人群的包容程度,促进实现社会环境的公平性.

  5. 基于生物气候条件的西北地区城市开放空间设计——以白银金鱼公园全民健身广场设计为例%Urban Open Space Design in Northwest China Based on the Bio-climatic Conditions: Taking Baiyin Jingyu Park Healthy Square as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕晓莉; 刘起

    2011-01-01

    从西北地区的广场设计面临的现妾问题出发,从地域气候角度分析了现象下的内在成因.从而以生物气候的视野提出应对的西北地区域市开放空间设计策略.最后.以白银金鱼公园全民健身广场为实证案例,提出了基于生物气候条件的设计系列方法.%Firstly, the paper analyzes the present urban open space design method and its existing problems in the northwest China. Farther more, a reasonable strategy based on bio-climatic conditions is given to urban open space. At last, a series of method is put forward by taking Baiyin Jingyu Park Healthy Square as an example.

  6. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    .g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e...... to the automotive sector in Wales. Specifically, the paper evaluates the "Accelerates" programme initiated by the Welsh Development Agency and elaborates on how and to what extent the Accelerate programme supports the development of a sustainable automotive industry cluster. The Accelerate programme was set up...

  7. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  8. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  9. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth......: There was no evident optimization of jaw motor function in terms of reduction in the variability of bite force values and muscle activity, when this simple task was repeated up to sixty times, in participants with normal intact periodontium....

  10. Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara E Stepp

    Full Text Available Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies.

  11. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  12. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  13. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  14. [Comparative analysis of internal repeating segments in proteins of species from the three kingdoms of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhu, Sheng; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2005-03-01

    In 1970's, Ohno proposed that primordial proteins might evolve from periodic amplification of oligopeptides. Internal repeating segments in proteins may play important roles in functional evolution of proteins. In this study,a new method was designed to extract internal repeating segments from proteomes of 8 modern species belong to eukaryota, bacteria and archaea, respectively. The repeating patterns and the frequencies within proteomes of each kingdom were analyzed by matrix plot. Simple repeat segments were found in eukaryotic proteins with high frequencies,but were much lower in bacteria and none in archaea. Further analysis showed that, the biased usage of amino acids in the internal repeating segments was positively related to the frequencies of individual amino acids in the proteome of a given species. The correlation coefficient was up to 0.95 in prokaryota, with the eukaryota to be lower. The high frequency of simple repeat sequences in eukaryotic proteomes, as well as the disparate relationships of amino acid compositions between the internal repeating segments and their haboring eukaryotic proteomes imply that the fast evolution of simple repeat sequences could be one force that generates the high complexity of eukarytic proteomes.

  15. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  16. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  17. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  18. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  19. Quantifying plyometric intensity via rate of force development, knee joint, and ground reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Randall L; Ebben, William P

    2007-08-01

    Because the intensity of plyometric exercises usually is based simply upon anecdotal recommendations rather than empirical evidence, this study sought to quantify a variety of these exercises based on forces placed upon the knee. Six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes who routinely trained with plyometric exercises performed depth jumps from 46 and 61 cm, a pike jump, tuck jump, single-leg jump, countermovement jump, squat jump, and a squat jump holding dumbbells equal to 30% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). Ground reaction forces obtained via an AMTI force plate and video analysis of markers placed on the left hip, knee, lateral malleolus, and fifth metatarsal were used to estimate rate of eccentric force development (E-RFD), peak ground reaction forces (GRF), ground reaction forces relative to body weight (GRF/BW), knee joint reaction forces (K-JRF), and knee joint reaction forces relative to body weight (K-JRF/BW) for each plyometric exercise. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that E-RFD, K-JRF, and K-JRF/BW were different across the conditions (p 0.05). Results indicate that there are quantitative differences between plyometric exercises in the rate of force development during landing and the forces placed on the knee, though peak GRF forces associated with landing may not differ.

  20. The effect of keyboard keyswitch make force on applied force and finger flexor muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, D; Serina, E; Klinenberg, E; Martin, B J; Armstrong, T J; Foulke, J A; Natarajan, S

    1997-08-01

    The design of the force-displacement characteristics or 'feel' of keyboard keyswitches has been guided by preference and performance data; there has been very little information on how switch 'feel' alters muscle activity or applied force. This is a laboratory-based repeated measures design experiment to evaluate the effect of computer keyboard keyswitch design on applied finger force and muscle activity during a typing task. Ten experienced typists typed on three keyboards which differed in keyswitch make force (0.34, 0.47 and 1.02 N) while applied fingertip force and finger flexor electromyograms were recorded. The keyboard testing order was randomized and subjects typed on each keyboard for three trials, while data was collected for a minimum of 80 keystrokes per trial. No differences in applied fingertip force or finger flexor EMG were observed during typing on keyboards with switch make force of 0.34 or 0.47 N. However, applied fingertip force increased by approximately 40% (p < 0.05) and EMG activity increased by approximately 20% (p < 0.05) when the keyswitch make force was increased from 0.47 to 1.02 N. These results suggest that, in order to minimize the biomechanical loads to forearm tendons and muscles of keyboard users, keyswitches with a make force of 0.47 N or less should be considered over switches with a make force of 1.02 N.

  1. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RIVER AND OPEN SPACE IN EUROPEAN CITISE:CASE STUDIES OF LONDON AND THE EMSCHER REGIONAL PARK%欧洲城市河流与开放空间耦合关系研究——以英国伦敦、德国埃姆舍地区公园为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张坤

    2013-01-01

    River and open space have been studied and applied in many fields relevant to sustainable planning,such as ecological network,greenway system,green corridor,etc.,to restraint urban sprawl.Focus on the urban region,this paper takes two cases in Europe,and explores three aspects of the relationship between open space and river within the scope of ecological sustainable concepts.The two cases are the East London Green Grid in England and the Emscher Regional Park in Germany.Conceming spatial planning,the river system plays the role of axis,and open spaces are forming perpendicularly to the river.In regard to functional aspect,open space organized by rivers can generate an effect to the urban spatial structure and density,guiding the urbanization to a more sustainable one.%在绿道、生态廊道、生态网络等多个可持续的规划理念中,河流和开放空间作为遏制城市蔓延的重要生态资源被广泛研究和应用.本文以德国鲁尔区埃姆含地区公园和英国东伦敦绿色网格规划为例,首先从空间结构、规划策略两个层面探讨了城市区域河流和开放空间的耦合关系的形成,其次对比两个案例,分析了河流与开放空间的耦合关系对城市发展的影响.研究发现河流是城市开放空间组织的重要的中枢系统,开放空间在河流的组织下和其他城市结构相结合使得城市向更可持续的方向发展.

  3. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  4. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  5. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  6. Malaysia and forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Arzura Idris

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysi...

  7. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  8. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  9. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  10. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  11. Accuracy and repeatability of a new method for measuring facet loads in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Derek C; Niosi, Christina A; Zhu, Qingan A; Oxland, Thomas R; Wilson, David R

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the repeatability and accuracy of a relatively new, resistance-based sensor (Tekscan 6900) for measuring lumbar spine facet loads, pressures, and contact areas in cadaver specimens. Repeatability of measurements in the natural facet joint was determined for five trials of four specimens loaded in pure moment (+/- 7.5 N m) flexibility tests in axial rotation and flexion-extension. Accuracy of load measurements in four joints was assessed by applying known compressive loads of 25, 50, and 100 N to the natural facet joint in a materials testing machine and comparing the known applied load to the measured load. Measurements of load were obtained using two different calibration approaches: linear and two-point calibrations. Repeatability for force, pressure, and area (average of standard deviation as a percentage of the mean for all trials over all specimens) was 4-6% for axial rotation and 7-10% for extension. Peak resultant force in axial rotation was 30% smaller when calculated using the linear calibration method. The Tekscan sensor overestimated the applied force by 18 +/- 9% (mean+/-standard deviation), 35 +/- 7% and 50 +/- 9% for compressive loads of 100, 50, and 25 N, respectively. The two-point method overestimated the loads by 35 +/- 16%, 45 +/- 7%, and 56 +/- 10% for the same three loads. Our results show that the Tekscan sensor is repeatable. However, the sensor measurement range is not optimal for the small loads transmitted by the facets and measurement accuracy is highly dependent on calibration protocol.

  12. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  13. The neuromuscular fatigue induced by repeated scrums generates instability that can be limited by appropriate recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, B; Hautier, C A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the fatigue on the machine scrum pushing sagittal forces during repeated scrums and to determine the origin of the knee extensor fatigue. Twelve elite U23 rugby union front row players performed six 6-s scrums every 30 s against a dynamic scrum machine with passive or active recovery. The peak, average, and the standard deviation of the force were measured. A neuromuscular testing procedure of the knee extensors was carried out before and immediately after the repeated scrum protocol including maximal voluntary force, evoked force, and voluntary activation. The average and peak forces did not decrease after six scrums with passive recovery. The standard deviation of the force increased by 70.2 ± 42.7% (P scrum pushing instability associated with central and peripheral fatigue of the knee extensors. Active recovery seems to limit all these manifestations of fatigue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  15. Feasibility of novel four degrees of freedom capacitive force sensor for skin interface force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Chisato

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of our study was to develop a novel capacitive force sensor that enables simultaneous measurements of yaw torque around the pressure axis and normal force and shear forces at a single point for the purpose of elucidating pressure ulcer pathogenesis and establishing criteria for selection of cushions and mattresses. Methods Two newly developed sensors (approximately 10 mm×10 mm×5 mm (10 and 20 mm×20 mm×5 mm (20 were constructed from silicone gel and four upper and lower electrodes. The upper and lower electrodes had sixteen combinations that had the function as capacitors of parallel plate type. The full scale (FS ranges of force/torque were defined as 0–1.5 N, –0.5-0.5 N and −1.5-1.5 N mm (10 and 0–8.7 N, –2.9-2.9 N and −16.8-16.8 N mm (20 in normal force, shear forces and yaw torque, respectively. The capacitances of sixteen capacitors were measured by an LCR meter (AC1V, 100 kHz when displacements corresponding to four degrees of freedom (DOF forces within FS ranges were applied to the sensor. The measurement was repeated three times in each displacement condition (10 only. Force/torque were calculated by corrected capacitance and were evaluated by comparison to theoretical values and standard normal force measured by an universal tester. Results In measurements of capacitance, the coefficient of variation was 3.23% (10. The Maximum FS errors of estimated force/torque were less than or equal to 10.1 (10 and 16.4% (20, respectively. The standard normal forces were approximately 1.5 (10 and 9.4 N (20 when pressure displacements were 3 (10 and 2 mm (20, respectively. The estimated normal forces were approximately 1.5 (10 and 8.6 N (10 in the same condition. Conclusions In this study, we developed a new four DOF force sensor for measurement of force/torque that occur between the skin and a mattress. In measurement of capacitance, the repeatability was good and it was confirmed that the sensor had

  16. Repeated Muscle Injury as a Presumptive Trigger for Chronic Masticatory Muscle Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Dessem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available skeletal muscles sustain a significant loss of maximal contractile force after injury, but terminally damaged fibers can eventually be replaced by the growth of new muscle (regeneration, with full restoration of contractile force over time. After a second injury, limb muscles exhibit a smaller reduction in maximal force and reduced inflammation compared with that after the initial injury (i.e., repeated bout effect. In contrast, masticatory muscles exhibit diminished regeneration and persistent fibrosis, after a single injury; following a second injury, plasma extravasation is greater than after a single injury and maximal force is decreased more than after the initial injury. Thus, masticatory muscles do not exhibit a repeated bout effect and are instead increasingly damaged by repeated injury. We propose that the impaired ability of masticatory muscles to regenerate contributes to chronic muscle pain by leading to an accumulation of tissue damage, fibrosis, and a persistent elevation and prolonged membrane translocation of nociceptive channels such as P2X3 as well as enhanced expression of neuropeptides including CGRP within primary afferent neurons. These transformations prime primary afferent neurons for enhanced responsiveness upon subsequent injury thus triggering and/or exacerbating chronic muscle pain.

  17. Knudsen forces on microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, A.; Wig, A.; Meriaudeau, F.; Ferrell, T. L.; Thundat, T.

    2002-11-01

    When two surfaces at two different temperatures are separated by a distance comparable to a mean-free path of the molecules of the ambient medium, the surfaces experience Knudsen force. This mechanical force can be important in microelectromechanical systems and in atomic force microscopy. A theoretical discussion of the magnitude of the forces and the conditions where they can be encountered is discussed. A potential application of the Knudsen force in designing a cantilever-based vacuum gauge is discussed.

  18. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  19. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  20. Characterization of robotic system passive path repeatability during specimen removal and reinstallation for in vitro knee joint testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Mary T; Smith, Sean D; Jansson, Kyle S; LaPrade, Robert F; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2014-10-01

    Robotic testing systems are commonly utilized for the study of orthopaedic biomechanics. Quantification of system error is essential for reliable use of robotic systems. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify a 6-DOF robotic system's repeatability during knee biomechanical testing and characterize the error induced in passive path repeatability by removing and reinstalling the knee. We hypothesized removing and reinstalling the knee would substantially alter passive path repeatability. Testing was performed on four fresh-frozen cadaver knees. To determine repeatability and reproducibility, the passive path was collected three times per knee following the initial setup (intra-setup), and a single time following two subsequent re-setups (inter-setup). Repeatability was calculated as root mean square error. The intra-setup passive path had a position repeatability of 0.23 mm. In contrast, inter-setup passive paths had a position repeatability of 0.89 mm. When a previously collected passive path was replayed following re-setup of the knee, resultant total force repeatability across the passive path increased to 28.2N (6.4N medial-lateral, 25.4N proximal-distal, and 10.5 N anterior-posterior). This study demonstrated that removal and re-setup of a knee can have substantial, clinically significant changes on our system's repeatability and ultimately, accuracy of the reported results. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  2. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  3. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  4. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  5. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  6. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  7. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  8. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, prepeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  9. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  10. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  11. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  12. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  13. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  14. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  15. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  16. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  17. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiji eNageshwaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasised following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA in 1991. In this review we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  18. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  19. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species

  20. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  1. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  2. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  3. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  4. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...

  5. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  6. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  7. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  8. Mechanical Alterations Associated with Repeated Treadmill Sprinting under Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Racinais, Sébastien; Millet, Grégoire P.; Périard, Julien D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Examine the mechanical alterations associated with repeated treadmill sprinting performed in HOT (38°C) and CON (25°C) conditions. Methods Eleven recreationally active males performed a 30-min warm-up followed by three sets of five 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery and 3-min between sets in each environment. Constant-velocity running for 1-min at 10 and 20 km.h-1 was also performed prior to and following sprinting. Results Mean skin (37.2±0.7 vs. 32.7±0.8°C; P<0.001) and core (38.9±0.2 vs. 38.8±0.3°C; P<0.05) temperatures, together with thermal comfort (P<0.001) were higher following repeated sprinting in HOT vs. CON. Step frequency and vertical stiffness were lower (-2.6±1.6% and -5.5±5.5%; both P<0.001) and contact time (+3.2±2.4%; P<0.01) higher in HOT for the mean of sets 1–3 compared to CON. Running distance per sprint decreased from set 1 to 3 (-7.0±6.4%; P<0.001), with a tendency for shorter distance covered in HOT vs. CON (-2.7±3.4%; P = 0.06). Mean vertical (-2.6±5.5%; P<0.01), horizontal (-9.1±4.4%; P<0.001) and resultant ground reaction forces (-3.0±2.8%; P<0.01) along with vertical stiffness (-12.9±2.3%; P<0.001) and leg stiffness (-8.4±2.7%; P<0.01) decreased from set 1 to 3, independently of conditions. Propulsive power decreased from set 1 to 3 (-16.9±2.4%; P<0.001), with lower propulsive power values in set 2 (-6.6%; P<0.05) in HOT vs. CON. No changes in constant-velocity running patterns occurred between conditions, or from pre-to-post repeated-sprint exercise. Conclusions Thermal strain alters step frequency and vertical stiffness during repeated sprinting; however without exacerbating mechanical alterations. The absence of changes in constant-velocity running patterns suggests a strong link between fatigue-induced velocity decrements during sprinting and mechanical alterations. PMID:28146582

  9. Unified Model of Dynamic Forced Barrier Crossing in Single Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friddle, R W

    2007-06-21

    Thermally activated barrier crossing in the presence of an increasing load can reveal kinetic rate constants and energy barrier parameters when repeated over a range of loading rates. Here we derive a model of the mean escape force for all relevant loading rates--the complete force spectrum. Two well-known approximations emerge as limiting cases; one of which confirms predictions that single-barrier spectra should converge to a phenomenological description in the slow loading limit.

  10. Instrument for measuring human biting force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Mantyla, Olavi; Makiniemi, Matti; Mahonen, Kalevi; Virtanen, Kauko

    1995-02-01

    Alongside EMG activity, biting force is the primary parameter used for assessing the biting problems of dentulous patients and patients with dentures. In a highly conductive oral cavity, dielectric measurement methods are preferred, for safety reasons. The maximum biting force for patients with removable dentures is not more than 100 ... 300 N. We report here on an instrument developed for measuring human biting force which consists of three units: a mouthpiece, a signal processing and interface unit (SPI), and a PC. The mouthpiece comprises a sensor head of thickness 3.4 mm, width 20 mm and length 30 mm constructed of two stainless steel plates and with a fiber optic microbending sensor between them. This is connected to the SPI unit by a three-meter fiber optic cable, and the SPI unit to the PC by an RS connection. A computer program has been developed that includes measurement, display, zeroing, and calibration operations. The instrument measures biting force as a function of time and displays the time-dependent force profile and maximum force on a screen or plots it in hard copy. The dynamic measurement range of the mouthpiece is from 0 to 1000 N, and the resolution of the instrument is 10 N. The results of preliminary clinical measurements and repeatability tests are reported.

  11. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  12. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  13. Sociodemographic and substance use correlates of repeated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... morbid psychiatric illnesses, social stress and market forces act as risk ..... lack of protective housing, social and neighborhoods problems, inter personal .... Hanoi, Vietnam: Fifth ICAAP- Melbourne. 2001. 15. Nessa A., Latif ...

  14. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  15. Fluid force transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  16. Hydrophobic Forces in Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Pazhianur, Rajesh R

    1999-01-01

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used to conduct force measurements to better understand the role of hydrophobic forces in flotation. The force measurements were conducted between a flat mineral substrate and a hydrophobic glass sphere in aqueous solutions. It is assumed that the hydrophobic glass sphere may simulate the behavior of air bubbles during flotation. The results may provide information relevant to the bubble-particle interactions occurring during flotation. The glass ...

  17. Debunking Coriolis Force Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2014-01-01

    Much has been written and debated about the Coriolis force. Unfortunately, this has done little to demystify the paradoxes surrounding this fictitious force invoked by an observer in a rotating frame of reference. It is the purpose of this article to make another valiant attempt to slay the dragon of the Coriolis force! This will be done without…

  18. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  19. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  20. Facial emotion recognition in myotonic dystrophy type 1 correlates with CTG repeat expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Winblad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 to recognise basic facial emotions. We also explored the relationship between facial emotion recognition, neuropsychological data, personality, and CTG repeat expansion data in the DM-1 group. In total, 50 patients with DM-1 (28 women and 22 men participated, with 41 healthy controls. Recognition of facial emotional expressions was assessed using photographs of basic emotions. A set of tests measured cognition and personality dimensions, and CTG repeat size was quantified in blood lymphocytes. Patients with DM-1 showed impaired recognition of facial emotions compared with controls. A significant negative correlation was found between total score of emotion recognition in a forced choice task and CTG repeat size. Furthermore, specific cognitive functions (vocabulary, visuospatial construction ability, and speed and personality dimensions (reward dependence and cooperativeness correlated with scores on the forced choice emotion recognition task.These findings revealed a CTG repeat dependent facial emotion recognition deficit in the DM-1 group, which was associated with specific neuropsychological functions. Furthermore, a correlation was found between facial emotional recognition ability and personality dimensions associated with sociability. This adds a new clinically relevant dimension in the cognitive deficits associated with DM-1.

  1. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  2. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  3. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  4. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  5. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  6. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  7. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  8. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  9. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  10. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  11. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  12. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  13. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  14. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  15. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  16. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  17. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  18. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions f...

  19. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiji eNageshwaran; Richard eFestenstein

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions fr...

  20. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    ) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number......We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  1. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  2. Quantum fictitious forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Abt. fuer Quantenphysik, Univ. Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Cirone, M.A.; Straub, F.; Schleich, W.P. [Abt. fuer Quantenphysik, Univ. Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Dahl, J.P. [Abt. fuer Quantenphysik, Univ. Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Chemical Physics, Dept. of Chemistry, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Seligman, T.H. [Centro de Ciencias Fisicas, Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: ''Force without force''. (orig.)

  3. Forces in molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another?

  4. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  5. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  6. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  7. Specific Measurement of Tethered Running Kinetics and its Relationship to Repeated Sprint Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Filipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repeated sprint ability has been widely studied by researchers, however, analysis of the relationship between most kinetic variables and the effect of fatigue is still an ongoing process. To search for the best biomechanical parameter to evaluate repeated sprint ability, several kinetic variables were measured in a tethered field running test and compared regarding their sensitivity to fatigue and correlation with time trials in a free running condition. Nine male sprint runners (best average times: 100 m = 10.45 ± 0.07 s; 200 m = 21.36 ± 0.17 s; 400 m = 47.35 ± 1.09 s completed two test sessions on a synthetic track. Each session consisted of six 35 m sprints interspersed by 10 s rest under tethered field running or free running conditions. Force, power, work, an impulse and a rate of force development were all directly measured using the sensors of a new tethered running apparatus, and a one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc test used to verify differences between sprints (p < 0.05. Pearson product-moment correlation measured the relationship between mechanical variables and free running performance. A total impulse, the rate of force development and maximum force did not show significant differences for most sprints. These three variables presented low to moderate correlations with free running performance (r between 0.01 and -0.35. Maximum and mean power presented the strongest correlations with free running performance (r = -0.71 and -0.76, respectively; p < 0.001, followed by mean force (r = -0.61; p < 0.001 and total work (r = -0.50; p < 0.001. It was concluded that under a severe work-to-rest ratio condition, power variables were better suited to evaluating repeated sprint ability than the other studied variables.

  8. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Björnham, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...

  10. Fuzzy tandem repeats containing p53 response elements may define species-specific p53 target genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Simeonova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary forces that shape regulatory networks remain poorly understood. In mammals, the Rb pathway is a classic example of species-specific gene regulation, as a germline mutation in one Rb allele promotes retinoblastoma in humans, but not in mice. Here we show that p53 transactivates the Retinoblastoma-like 2 (Rbl2 gene to produce p130 in murine, but not human, cells. We found intronic fuzzy tandem repeats containing perfect p53 response elements to be important for this regulation. We next identified two other murine genes regulated by p53 via fuzzy tandem repeats: Ncoa1 and Klhl26. The repeats are poorly conserved in evolution, and the p53-dependent regulation of the murine genes is lost in humans. Our results indicate a role for the rapid evolution of tandem repeats in shaping differences in p53 regulatory networks between mammalian species.

  11. A repulsive magnetic force driven translation micromirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Zuo, Hui; He, Siyuan

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a repulsive magnetic force driven micromirror with large displacement and high surface quality which well solves the limitation of the previous design, i.e. large variation in translation starting position and low repeatability, caused by the touching points between the moving film and substrate before and in operation. The new design utilizes a driving mechanism, i.e. permanent magnet ring above and electromagnet underneath the moving film, to lift the moving film from touching the substrate and generate a repulsive magnetic force (instead of attractive force in the previous design) to push the moving film up and away from the substrate for translation. Due to the touching, the previous design has to pre-oscillate for 20–30 min at 1 Hz before usage (after resting for a few hours) to reduce the starting position variation from ~15 µm to 3–4 µm. Even after the pre-oscillation, the repeatability is still low, which is 14.2% because of the touching in operation. In the design presented in this paper, the touching between the moving film and the substrate is completely eliminated before and in operation. As a result, the starting position of the translating mirror is constant each time and the repeatability is  <1%. In addition, this design does not need the residual stress gradient to curve up the moving film. The maximum displacement of 144 µm can be achieved when 140 mA current is applied on the electromagnet. As an application, the micromirror is used as the movable mirror in a Michelson interferometer to measure the wavelength of a laser beam. The result shows a measurement accuracy of 2.19% for a 532 nm laser beam.

  12. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  13. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  14. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (psprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  16. Force induced DNA melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K [Center for Condensed Matter Theory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-12 (India)], E-mail: santosh@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: maiti@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2009-01-21

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f{sub m}, at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  17. Theory of intermolecular forces

    CERN Document Server

    Margenau, H; Ter Haar, D

    1971-01-01

    Theory of Intermolecular Forces deals with the exposition of the principles and techniques of the theory of intermolecular forces. The text focuses on the basic theory and surveys other aspects, with particular attention to relevant experiments. The initial chapters introduce the reader to the history of intermolecular forces. Succeeding chapters present topics on short, intermediate, and long range atomic interactions; properties of Coulomb interactions; shape-dependent forces between molecules; and physical adsorption. The book will be of good use to experts and students of quantum mechanics

  18. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  19. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  20. REPEAT facility. Report for May, June, July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, C. B.

    1981-08-01

    The construction of the REPEAT facility, a test facility for passive and hybrid solar heating systems is reported. The development of a simulation program for envelope type passive solar systems, constructing an envelope test cell, collecting data to validate the program, and application of the program to determine the best envelope type design are discussed. A low cost monitoring system using a dedicated microprocessor system, an inexpensive, high accuracy A/D converter, and minimum system hardware is developed. A method to determine the average temperature and the average daily temperature variation inside a passively heated solar building is presented.

  1. Cataractogenesis after Repeat Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been the unsubstantiated clinical impression that laser refractive surgery accelerates cataract development along with solid experimental data about the cataractogenic effects of excimer laser treatment. We present the first documented case of significant cataract formation in a young myope after repeat excimer laser ablation necessitating phacoemulsification with a posterior chamber implant. Proposed explanations include focusing of the ablation wave on the posterior capsule (acoustic wave lens epithelial damage, photooxidative stress of the lens (ultraviolet and inflammatory oxidative stress, and corticosteroid-induced cataract (lens toxicity.

  2. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  3. Greater neurobehavioral deficits occur in adult mice after repeated, as compared to single, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jessica N; Deshane, Alok S; Niedzielko, Tracy L; Smith, Cory D; Floyd, Candace L

    2016-02-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for the majority of all brain injuries and affected individuals typically experience some extent of cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric deficits. Given that repeated mTBIs often result in worsened prognosis, the cumulative effect of repeated mTBIs is an area of clinical concern and on-going pre-clinical research. Animal models are critical in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of single and repeated mTBI-associated deficits, but the neurobehavioral sequelae produced by these models have not been well characterized. Thus, we sought to evaluate the behavioral changes incurred after single and repeated mTBIs in mice utilizing a modified impact-acceleration model. Mice in the mTBI group received 1 impact while the repeated mTBI group received 3 impacts with an inter-injury interval of 24h. Classic behavior evaluations included the Morris water maze (MWM) to assess learning and memory, elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety, and forced swim test (FST) for depression/helplessness. Additionally, species-typical behaviors were evaluated with the marble-burying and nestlet shredding tests to determine motivation and apathy. Non-invasive vibration platforms were used to examine sleep patterns post-mTBI. We found that the repeated mTBI mice demonstrated deficits in MWM testing and poorer performance on species-typical behaviors. While neither single nor repeated mTBI affected behavior in the EPM or FST, sleep disturbances were observed after both single and repeated mTBI. Here, we conclude that behavioral alterations shown after repeated mTBI resemble several of the deficits or disturbances reported by patients, thus demonstrating the relevance of this murine model to study repeated mTBIs.

  4. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Delhomel, Gregory; Brughelli, Matt; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effects of explosive strength (ExpS) vs. repeated shuttle sprint (RS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in young elite soccer players, 15 elite male adolescents (14.5 ± 0.5 years) performed, in addition to their soccer training program, RS (n = 7) or ExpS (n = 8) training once a week for a total of 10 weeks. RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 × 15- to 20-m repeated shuttle sprints interspersed with 14 seconds of passive or 23 seconds of active recovery (≈2 m·s⁻¹); ExpS training consisted of 4-6 series of 4-6 exercises (e.g., maximal unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs), calf and squat plyometric jumps, and short sprints). Before and after training, performance was assessed by 10 and 30 m (10 and 30 m) sprint times, best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test, a CMJ, and a hopping (Hop) test. After training, except for 10 m (p = 0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all p's repeated shuttle sprint test were only observed after RS training, whereas CMJ height was only increased after ExpS. Because RS and ExpS were equally efficient at enhancing maximal sprinting speed, RS training-induced improvements in RSA were likely more related to progresses in the ability to change direction.

  5. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  6. Comparative genomics and molecular dynamics of DNA repeats in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck; Kerrest, Alix; Dujon, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Repeated elements can be widely abundant in eukaryotic genomes, composing more than 50% of the human genome, for example. It is possible to classify repeated sequences into two large families, "tandem repeats" and "dispersed repeats." Each of these two families can be itself divided into subfamilies. Dispersed repeats contain transposons, tRNA genes, and gene paralogues, whereas tandem repeats contain gene tandems, ribosomal DNA repeat arrays, and satellite DNA, itself subdivided into satellites, minisatellites, and microsatellites. Remarkably, the molecular mechanisms that create and propagate dispersed and tandem repeats are specific to each class and usually do not overlap. In the present review, we have chosen in the first section to describe the nature and distribution of dispersed and tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes in the light of complete (or nearly complete) available genome sequences. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the fast evolution of two specific classes of tandem repeats: minisatellites and microsatellites. Given that a growing number of human neurological disorders involve the expansion of a particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, a large part of the recent experimental work on microsatellites has focused on these particular repeats, and thus we also review the current knowledge in this area. Finally, we propose a unified definition for mini- and microsatellites that takes into account their biological properties and try to point out new directions that should be explored in a near future on our road to understanding the genetics of repeated sequences.

  7. Variability of a "force signature" during windmill softball pitching and relationship between discrete force variables and pitch velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimphius, Sophia; McGuigan, Michael R; Suchomel, Timothy J; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed reliability of discrete ground reaction force (GRF) variables over multiple pitching trials, investigated the relationships between discrete GRF variables and pitch velocity (PV) and assessed the variability of the "force signature" or continuous force-time curve during the pitching motion of windmill softball pitchers. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for all discrete variables was high (0.86-0.99) while the coefficient of variance (CV) was low (1.4-5.2%). Two discrete variables were significantly correlated to PV; second vertical peak force (r(5)=0.81, p=0.03) and time between peak forces (r(5)=-0.79; p=0.03). High ICCs and low CVs support the reliability of discrete GRF and PV variables over multiple trials and significant correlations indicate there is a relationship between the ability to produce force and the timing of this force production with PV. The mean of all pitchers' curve-average standard deviation of their continuous force-time curves demonstrated low variability (CV=4.4%) indicating a repeatable and identifiable "force signature" pattern during this motion. As such, the continuous force-time curve in addition to discrete GRF variables should be examined in future research as a potential method to monitor or explain changes in pitching performance.

  8. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  9. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  10. The Perpetual Repeater: an Educative Musical Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Skriagina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Music Undergraduate Program of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (National Pedagogic University, two musical events were planned: an original work written for choir, soloists and symphonic band, and an opera for children. As a result, the cantata ‘The Perpetual Repeater” has been created as an adaptation of a work named “50 Milions de Segons” (50 Millions of Seconds, staged by the CATANIA project of the Barcelona Servei Educatiu de L’Auditori. This work tells the story of those school teachers who, paradoxically enough repeat the same course year after year. After visiting L’Auditori of Barcelona to participate in the pedagogic musical work carried out with school children, we considered the possibility of developing an analogous project, in a similar sociocultural and educational environment, within our Music Undergraduate Program. So, this article deals with two fundamental moments which are essential to understand the educational work implemented with the ISPA students of sixth degree, as well as with a group of the program’s students: The Purpose, which describes in detail the planning of the musical work for children, and The Experience, in which the way the process of The Perpetual Repeater Cantatawas carried out is described.

  11. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  12. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  13. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  14. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  15. Repeat-induced gene silencing in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, D; Fiering, S; Martin, D I; Whitelaw, E

    1998-01-01

    In both plants and Drosophila melanogaster, expression from a transgenic locus may be silenced when repeated transgene copies are arranged as a concatameric array. This repeat-induced gene silencing is frequently manifested as a decrease in the proportion of cells that express the transgene, resulting in a variegated pattern of expression. There is also some indication that, in transgenic mammals, the number of transgene copies within an array can exert a repressive influence on expression, with several mouse studies reporting a decrease in the level of expression per copy as copy number increases. However, because these studies compare different sites of transgene integration as well as arrays with different numbers of copies, the expression levels observed may be subject to varying position effects as well as the influence of the multicopy array. Here we describe use of the lox/Cre system of site-specific recombination to generate transgenic mouse lines in which different numbers of a transgene are present at the same chromosomal location, thereby eliminating the contribution of position effects and allowing analysis of the effect of copy number alone on transgene silencing. Reduction in copy number results in a marked increase in expression of the transgene and is accompanied by decreased chromatin compaction and decreased methylation at the transgene locus. These findings establish that the presence of multiple homologous copies of a transgene within a concatameric array can have a repressive effect upon gene expression in mammalian systems.

  16. Bite force in patients with functional disturbances of the masticatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helkimo, E; Carlsson, G E; Carmeli, Y

    1975-10-01

    In thirty patients (24 women and 6 men) treated because of dysfunction of the masticatory system at the department of Stomatognathic Physiology, University of Gothenburg, bite force was registered before, during and after treatment had been completed. In the controls, thirty-six dental students and trainee dental nurses, with no dysfunction of the masticatory system, bite force was registered on two occasions. Bite force was measured between the first molars on each side and between the central incisors. Also finger force was registered. The force measurements were made at five different levels, increasing from very weak to maximum force. Repeated tests of bite force in the control group, made at intervals of about 1 week, gave almost identical results. Bite force in the patient group was lower than in the control group at the first registration but increased with palliation of the symptoms during treatment. There was no significant difference in bite force between the affected and the unaffected side.

  17. A Fifth Force: Generalized through Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1999-01-01

    The connection between the Biefield-Brown Effect, the recent repeat of the 1902 Trouton-Noble (TN) experiments, and the gravity shielding experiments was explored. This connection is visualized through high capacitive electron concentrations. From this connection, a theory is proposed that connects mass energy to gravity and a fifth force. The theory called the Gravi-Atomic Energy theory presents two new terms: Gravi-atomic energy and quantum vacuum pressure (QVP). Gravi-atomic energy is defined as the radiated mass energy, which acts on vacuum energy to create a QVP about a mass, resulting in gravity and the fifth force. The QVP emission from a superconductor was discussed followed by the description of a test for QVP from a superconductor using a Cavendish balance.

  18. Simulations for EBS Task Force BMT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempinen, A. [Marintel Ky, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    The Aespoe HRL International Joint Committee has set up a Task Force on Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS). Its long time objective is to develop effective tools for analysis of THM(C) behaviour of buffer and backfill. The idea of the Task Force is to offer a forum to develop the tools of the work groups. This BMT has two parts: BMT 1.1 and BMT 1.2 based on the performance of THM mock-up experiments on MX-80 bentonite by CEA and FEBEX bentonite by CIEMAT, respectively. Simulation results are presented here. These simulations are performed with Freefem++ software, which is a high-level programming language for solving partiel differential equations with finite element method. The mathematical model used is based on continuum thermodynamics. The simulations repeat the evolution of relevant THM variables of the experiments fairly well, but some modificatios of parameters is needed, especially in hydraulic behaviour. (orig.)

  19. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  20. Test-retest repeatability of the Strain Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A; Stevens, Edward M; Moore, J Steven

    2006-05-01

    Fifteen raters individually, and in five teams of three, evaluated the test-retest repeatability of published data collection and rating methods of the Strain Index by analyzing 61 job video files twice over a 5-month period. Raters estimated average and peak hand forces, measured Duration of Exertion, cycle time, and exertions per job cycle, calculated percent Duration of Exertion and Efforts per Minute, and assigned ratings for five of the six Strain Index task variables. Twelve additional jobs were analyzed to determine Strain Index Score and hazard classification. Intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients for task variable ratings and accompanying data ranged from 0.66 to 0.95 for both individuals and teams. The Strain Index Score ICC(2,1) for individuals and teams were 0.56 and 0.82, respectively. Intra-rater reliability for the hazard classification was 0.81 for individuals and 0.88 for teams. The results indicate that the Strain Index has good test-retest reliability.

  1. Crack Propagation in a Toughened Epoxy Adhesive under Repeated Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A. Ashcroft

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesives are being increasingly used in structural applications, especially in aerospace, automotive and naval structures, making their structural integrity an important issue. In-service loading histories of such structures usually contain low-energy impacts, repetition of which can significantly affect their performance. This paper deals with the behaviour of the toughened epoxy adhesive FM73 under repeated impacts, known as impact fatigue. Izod impact fatigue tests were performed on FM73 specimens in order to study the evolution of damage and to characterise this via measurable parameters, such as the maximum force and the contact time. A finite element model was developed to simulate the impact tests and this was used to calculate the dynamic strain energy release rate, which was compared with that determined using a simple analytical method. A relationship between the maximum dynamic strain energy release rate and impact fatigue crack growth rate was established that was used as the basis of an impact fatigue crack growth law.

  2. Elementary Particles and Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigg, Chris

    1985-01-01

    Discusses subatomic particles (quarks, leptons, and others) revealed by higher accelerator energies. A connection between forces at this subatomic level has been established, and prospects are good for a description of forces that encompass binding atomic nuclei. Colors, fundamental interactions, screening, camouflage, electroweak symmetry, and…

  3. Polarizable force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S; Salonen, Emppu

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the most common methods for including an explicit description of electronic polarization in molecular mechanics force fields: the induced point dipole, shell, and fluctuating charge models. The importance of including polarization effects in biomolecular simulations is discussed, and some of the most important achievements in the development of polarizable biomolecular force fields to date are highlighted.

  4. Nanofluids mediating surface forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Georgia A; Briscoe, Wuge H

    2012-11-01

    Fluids containing nanostructures, known as nanofluids, are increasingly found in a wide array of applications due to their unique physical properties as compared with their base fluids and larger colloidal suspensions. With several tuneable parameters such as the size, shape and surface chemistry of nanostructures, as well as numerous base fluids available, nanofluids also offer a new paradigm for mediating surface forces. Other properties such as local surface plasmon resonance and size dependent magnetism of nanostructures also present novel mechanisms for imparting tuneable surface interactions. However, our fundamental understanding, experimentally and theoretically, of how these parameters might affect surface forces remains incomplete. Here we review recent results on equilibrium and dynamic surface forces between macroscopic surfaces in nanofluids, highlighting the overriding trends in the correlation between the physical parameters that characterise nanofluids and the surface forces they mediate. We also discuss the challenges that confront existing surface force knowledge as a result of this new paradigm.

  5. Changes in spring-mass model characteristics during repeated running sprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Millet, Grégoire P

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated fatigue-induced changes in spring-mass model characteristics during repeated running sprints. Sixteen active subjects performed 12 × 40 m sprints interspersed with 30 s of passive recovery. Vertical and anterior-posterior ground reaction forces were measured at 5-10 m and 30-35 m and used to determine spring-mass model characteristics. Contact (P Stride frequency (P  0.05) increased with time. As a result, vertical stiffness decreased (P  0.05). Changes in vertical stiffness were correlated (r > 0.7; P stride frequency. When compared to 5-10 m, most of ground reaction force-related parameters were higher (P stride frequency, vertical and leg stiffness were lower (P run-based sprints are repeated, which alters impact parameters. Maintaining faster stride frequencies through retaining higher vertical stiffness is a prerequisite to improve performance during repeated sprinting.

  6. Repeatability study of mechanomyography in submaximal isometric contractions using coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akataki, K; Mita, K; Itoh, Y

    1999-01-01

    The within-day and between-day repeatability of the mechanomyogram (MMG) was assessed using the coefficient of variation (CV) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and was compared with that of the electromyogram (EMG). The MMG and EMG were recorded simultaneously during isometric elbow flexion trials at different submaximal levels of 10% to 90% MVC. The testing session consisting of 9 submaximal trials was repeated 8 times on the same day for estimation of the within-day variation. In order to examine the between-day variation, the same testing session was also performed 8 times over 3 weeks with a 2-day rest interval between each session. The CVs within-day and between-day in both the MMG and EMG did not demonstrate any significant differences relating to the magnitude of force exerted. The CVs combined over all the force levels were approximately 10% within the same day and 25% between days for both the MMG and EMG. These corresponded to the within-day ICC of approximately 0.95 and the between-day ICC of 0.80. The repeatability of the MMG during submaximal isometric contractions of biceps brachii muscles is considered to be similar to that of the more established EMG.

  7. 47 CFR 90.247 - Mobile repeater stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile repeater stations. 90.247 Section 90.247... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.247 Mobile repeater stations. A... repeater to extend the communications range of hand-carried units subject to the following: (a)...

  8. Polymorphic GGC repeat differentially regulates human reelin gene expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, A M; Levitt, P; Pimenta, A F

    2006-10-01

    The human gene encoding Reelin (RELN), a pivotal protein in neurodevelopment, includes a polymorphic GGC repeat in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). CHO cells transfected with constructs encompassing the RELN 5'UTR with 4-to-13 GGC repeats upstream of the luciferase reporter gene show declining luciferase activity with increasing GGC repeat number (P autism.

  9. CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene: Size matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Willemsen (Ralph); G.J. Levenga (Josien); B.A. Oostra (Ben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe FMR1 gene contains a CGG repeat present in the 5'-untranslated region which can be unstable upon transmission to the next generation. The repeat is up to 55 CGGs long in the normal population. In patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a repeat length exceeding 200 CGGs (full

  10. The Total Force Policy and Effective Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    analysis.” 23 Roald Dahl, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , (New York: Pequin Books, 1964), 87, 150. Mr. Dahl’s image of the everlasting gobstopper...Office of the Chief, Army Reserve, 1997. Dahl, Roald. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Penguin Books: New York, 1964. Feaver, Peter D. Armed Servants...knot24 that must be untied in order to prove relevance as a military force. Of course, we know the end of these ancient and modern stories. Charlie

  11. Presenting using Two-Handed Interaction in Open Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, Luc; Smit, Jasper; Isenberg, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent demonstrations of low-cost, infrared-based point tracking, we explore two-handed, surface-less interaction for presentation. On both hands, thumb and index finger are equipped with retro-reflective markers which are tracked by a Wiimote. We contribute a robust finger pairing and pinc

  12. 76 FR 65121 - Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... recreation and exercise; forests protect public water supplies and may provide financial benefits from forest... the CFP may address a variety of outcomes such as protecting a municipal water supply, providing... resources to purchase important parcels of privately owned forest land as the parcels are offered for sale...

  13. Presenting using Two-Handed Interaction in Open Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaming, Luc; Smit, Jasper; Isenberg, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Based on recent demonstrations of low-cost, infrared-based point tracking, we explore two-handed, surface-less interaction for presentation. On both hands, thumb and index finger are equipped with retro-reflective markers which are tracked by a Wiimote. We contribute a robust finger pairing and

  14. NOSTALGIA FOR A PAST: BEIRUT’S SHARED OPEN SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mady

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El teixit urbà de Beirut és un palimpsest que reflecteix diferents períodes històrics amb els seus creixements naturals, deformacions i esdeveniments. Les petjades dels espais urbans oberts incloent carrers i algunes places persisteixen i alimenten memòries col·lectives en aquesta ciutat. Altres espais oberts emergeixen a través de la capa de la postguerra i informen sobre les pràctiques quotidianes de les societats coexistents de Beirut. Aquest document ofereix una visió general de l'estat dels espais urbans oberts a Beirut, i se centra en l'ètica de l'estètica dels espais urbans oberts de postguerra a Beirut. L'objectiu és establir una comprensió del paper dels espais en relació amb la memòria, la identitat i la vida urbana quotidiana en temps present Beirut.

  15. Opening Spaces of Possibility: The Teacher as Bricoleur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Bricolage is the make-do activities a handyperson employs while working. The bricoleur is one who tinkers with the materials at hand. Teachers can act as a bricoleur by continually cobbling materials together in the course of teaching. Such intellectual activity requires flexibility and the capacity to work with what is given while being…

  16. 76 FR 744 - Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... 1500-1508 as well as the Council on Environmental Quality's NEPA procedures at 40 CFR 1500-1508. CFP... of Grant Requirements with the deed in the lands records of the local county or municipality. (2... include: improved water quality, wildlife and fish habitat, forest based educational programs including...

  17. Opening Spaces for Critical Literacy: Introducing Books to Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Meredith; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley; Rogers, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    How might book introductions open up spaces for critical literacy? This is the research question we asked while examining the records of teaching and learning within a yearlong teacher-research project in a second grade classroom. We designed a series of literacy units focused on themes of human rights, freedom, peace, and civil rights. Our focus…

  18. Auditory Perception in an Open Space: Detection and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    line of sight provides attenuation of about 5 dB or more across most of the auditory frequency range, and higher barriers can attenuate sound by as much...distance estimation to, various sound sources spread across a large open field. This report presents results of the detection and recognition tasks. Both...acoustic (target sound and noise level) and meteorological (wind direction and strength, temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity) data were

  19. The Art of Open Spaces: Contemporary Sea and Prairiescapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The number of contemporary Kansas prairie artists whose works project an affinity for the sea continues to grow. This article focuses on six in particular: painters Robert Sudlow, Keith Jacobshagen, Lisa Grossman, and Louis Copt, and photographers Terry Evans and Larry Schwarm. Each of these Kansas-connected prairie artists has exhibited…

  20. Open-Space Lab Provides Data on a New Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreamer, Ralph

    1972-01-01

    Describes the Jenkins Elementary School which not only serves as a neighborhood elementary education facility, but also provides students at Millersville State College, Pennsylvania, an opportunity to learn, work with, and observe the many different concepts embodied in open education. (Author/MB)

  1. Behavioral Indicators of Drug Carrying in Open Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    value of personnel in theater with experience in law enforcement gained from constant interaction with individuals who deceive, defraud, intimidate...MiChael MCClary Kiernan Group Holdings Jacksonville Beach, Florida i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From...unlimited. 1Kiernan Group Holdings, 1201 1st Street North, Unit 504, Jacksonville Beach, FL 32250 Unclassified Unlimited 23 Nathan Meehan (202) 767-1426 Law

  2. Open Spaces, Public Spaces, Publics, Open-minded Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Bravo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 a double issue of the international architectural review (published in Italy “Casabella” was dedicated to “The design of open spaces”. Different positions and scholars and diverse point of views explored this complex theme, trying to explain the reasons, the modes and the possibilities of a new strategy in design research and practice. The starting point was the very term “open space”, which doesn’t belong to the classical vocabulary of architectural theory, with no reference to modern town planning manuals.Nowadays the difference between “open space”, as indicated in regulations of urban city spaces, and “public space” has found new declensions related to public life of groups or individuals, taking place in consolidated environments as well as in peripheral areas or in residual spaces up to edge cities, able to give values and functions to neglected or abandoned places. Next to public meeting spaces, such as large congress hall, fair precincts, political or cultural events, shopping centers, and to waiting spaces, such as offices, public institutions, underground stations, airports, many public spaces do not have an architectural connotation: life can be found at the corner of two suburban roads, where spontaneous conversation or some kind of special event slowly starts to layer, indicating a kind of rituality, or in anonymous suburban places where minority ethnic or immigrant groups gather, becoming places of solidarity and sharing. All these expressions, as already Vittorio Gregotti pointed out in his introductory essay on Casabella, articulate in a new way the demands for public space and for its architectural definition.

  3. Repeat Testing Effects on Credentialing Exams: Are Repeaters Misinformed or Uninformed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Raymond, Mark R.; Haist, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate security concerns and unfair score gains, credentialing programs routinely administer new test material to examinees retesting after an initial failing attempt. Counterintuitively, a small but growing body of recent research suggests that repeating the identical form does not create an unfair advantage. This study builds upon and…

  4. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  5. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  6. Potential of repeated polymer well treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Munkacsi, I.; Troemboeczki, S.

    1993-11-01

    This paper analyzes field results obtained by routine application of a polymer/silicate well treatment technique at the Algyo-2 field in Hungary. First, the reservoir is described briefly; then, the basic concept of the method is outlined. Reference is made to the multifunctioning chemical mechanism of gelation and the favorable rheological properties of the treating fluids that jointly result in a highly selective placement and an efficient permeability reduction in the target reservoir space. Application of the method 17 times in 16 producing wells yielded more than 90,000 Mg of incremental oil production. Typical well behaviors also are illustrated. Finally, the potential of repeated treatments is discussed, taking laboratory and field results into account.

  7. Quantum repeaters using continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Josephine; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum optical states are fragile and can become corrupted when passed through a lossy communication channel. Unlike for classical signals, optical amplifiers cannot be used to recover quantum signals. Quantum repeaters have been proposed as a way of reducing errors and hence increasing the range of quantum communications. Current protocols target specific discrete encodings, for example quantum bits encoded on the polarization of single photons. We introduce a more general approach that can reduce the effect of loss on any quantum optical encoding, including those based on continuous variables such as the field amplitudes. We show that in principle the protocol incurs a resource cost that scales polynomially with distance. We analyze the simplest implementation and find that while its range is limited it can still achieve useful improvements in the distance over which quantum entanglement of field amplitudes can be distributed.

  8. Statistical Properties of repeating FRB 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals possibly occurring at cosmological distances. However the physical model of FRBs is mystery, many models have been proposed. Here we study the frequency distributions of peak flux, fluence, duration and waiting time for repeating FRB 121102. The cumulative distributions of peak flux, fluence and duration show power-law forms. The waiting time distribution also shows power-law distribution, and is consistent with a non-stationary Poisson process. We also use the statistical results to test the proposed models for FRBs. Comparing with the model predications, we find that the theoretical models proposed by Dai et al. (2016) and Katz (2016) are favored. These distributions are consistent with the predications from avalanche models of driven systems.

  9. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vattipally B Sreenu; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are the repetitive nucleotide sequences of motifs of length 1–6 bp. They are scattered throughout the genomes of all the known organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. Microsatellites undergo mutations in the form of insertions and deletions (INDELS) of their repeat units with some bias towards insertions that lead to microsatellite tract expansion. Although prokaryotic genomes derive some plasticity due to microsatellite mutations they have in-built mechanisms to arrest undue expansions of microsatellites and one such mechanism is constituted by post-replicative DNA repair enzymes MutL, MutH and MutS. The mycobacterial genomes lack these enzymes and as a null hypothesis one could expect these genomes to harbour many long tracts. It is therefore interesting to analyse the mycobacterial genomes for distribution and abundance of microsatellites tracts and to look for potentially polymorphic microsatellites. Available mycobacterial genomes, Mycobacterium avium, M. leprae, M. bovis and the two strains of M. tuberculosis (CDC1551 and H37Rv) were analysed for frequencies and abundance of SSRs. Our analysis revealed that the SSRs are distributed throughout the mycobacterial genomes at an average of 220–230 SSR tracts per kb. All the mycobacterial genomes contain few regions that are conspicuously denser or poorer in microsatellites compared to their expected genome averages. The genomes distinctly show scarcity of long microsatellites despite the absence of a post-replicative DNA repair system. Such severe scarcity of long microsatellites could arise as a result of strong selection pressures operating against long and unstable sequences although influence of GC-content and role of point mutations in arresting microsatellite expansions can not be ruled out. Nonetheless, the long tracts occasionally found in coding as well as non-coding regions may account for limited genome plasticity in these genomes.

  10. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  11. Ceftriaxone attenuates locomotor activity induced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Corley, Gladys; Kovalevich, Jane; Yen, William; Langford, Dianne; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-11-27

    Ceftriaxone (CTX) decreases locomotor activation produced by initial cocaine exposure and attenuates development of behavioral sensitization produced by repeated cocaine exposure. An important question that has not yet been answered is whether or not CTX reduces behavioral sensitization to cocaine in cases in which the antibiotic is administered only during the period of cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure and precedes reintroduction to cocaine. We investigated this question using C57BL/6 mice. Mice pretreated with cocaine (15mg/kg×14 days) and then challenged with cocaine (15mg/kg) after 30 days of cocaine absence displayed sensitization of locomotor activity. For combination experiments, CTX injected during the 30 days of cocaine absence attenuated behavioral sensitization produced by cocaine challenge. In the case in which CTX was injected together with cocaine for 14 days, development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine challenge was also reduced. CTX attenuated the increase in locomotor activity produced by acute cocaine exposure; however, its efficacy was dependent on the dose of cocaine as inhibition was detected against 30mg/kg, but not 15mg/kg, of cocaine. These results from mice indicate that CTX attenuates locomotor activity produced by acute and repeated cocaine exposure and counters cocaine's locomotor activating properties in a paradigm in which the antibiotic is injected during the period of forced cocaine absence that follows repeated cocaine exposure.

  12. A Novel Framework for Short Tandem Repeats (STRs Using Parallel String Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bala MuraliKrishna,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Short tandem repeats (STRs have become important molecular markers for a broad range of applications, such as genome mapping and characterization, phenotype mapping, marker assisted selection of crop plants and a range of molecular ecology and diversity studies. These repeated DNA sequences are found in both Plants and bacteria. Most of the computer programs that find STRs failed to report its number of occurrences of the repeated pattern, exact position and it is difficult task to obtain accurate results from the larger datasets. So we need high performance computing models to extract certain repeats. One of the solution is STRs using parallel string matching, it gives number of occurrences with corresponding line number and exact location or position of each STR in the genome of any length. In this, we implemented parallel string matching using JAVA Multithreading with multi core processing, for this we implemented a basic algorithm and made a comparison with previous algorithms like Knuth Morris Pratt, Boyer Moore and Brute force string matching algorithms and from the results our new basic algorithm gives better results than the previous algorithms. We apply this algorithm in parallel string matching using multi-threading concept to reduce the time by running on multicore processors. From the test results it is shown that the multicore processing is a remarkably efficient and powerful compared to lower versions and finally this proposed STR using parallel string matching algorithm is better than the sequential approaches.

  13. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  14. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chih-Hao [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong [Department of Biochemistry, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Shian [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chung-Fan [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Tseng, You-Chen [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiming, E-mail: til@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Nation Taiwan University, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, College of Medicine, Nation Taiwan University, 1-1 Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  15. The excess of small inverted repeats in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses have shown that there is a large excess of perfect inverted repeats in many prokaryotic genomes but not in eukaryotic ones. This difference could be due to a genuine difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes or to differences in the methods and types of data analyzed--full genome versus protein coding sequences. We used simulations to show that the method used previously tends to underestimate the expected number of inverted repeats. However, this bias is not large and cannot explain the excess of inverted repeats observed in real data. In contrast, our method is unbiased. When both methods are applied to bacterial protein coding sequences they both detect an excess of inverted repeats, which is much lower than previously reported in whole prokaryotic genomes. This suggests that the reported large excess of inverted repeats is due to repeats found in intergenic regions. These repeats could be due to transcription factor binding sites, or other types of repetitive DNA, on opposite strands of the DNA sequence. In contrast, the smaller, but significant, excess of inverted repeats that we report in protein coding sequences may be due to sequence-directed mutagenesis (SDM). SDM is a process where one copy of a small, imperfect, inverted repeat corrects the other copy via strand misalignment, resulting in a perfect repeat and a series of mutations. We show by simulation that even very low levels of SDM, relative to the rate of point mutation, can generate a substantial excess of inverted repeats.

  16. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  17. Designed armadillo repeat proteins as general peptide-binding scaffolds: consensus design and computational optimization of the hydrophobic core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Pellarin, Riccardo; Larsen, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    interactions with peptides or parts of proteins in extended conformation. The conserved binding mode of the peptide in extended form, observed for different targets, makes armadillo repeat proteins attractive candidates for the generation of modular peptide-binding scaffolds. Taking advantage of the large...... number of repeat sequences available, a consensus-based approach combined with a force field-based optimization of the hydrophobic core was used to derive soluble, highly expressed, stable, monomeric designed proteins with improved characteristics compared to natural armadillo proteins. These sequences...

  18. Pilot study: Assessing repeatability of the EcoWalk platform resistive pressure sensors to measure plantar pressure during barefoot standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zequera, Martha; Perdomo, Oscar; Wilches, Carlos; Vizcaya, Pedro

    2013-06-01

    Plantar pressure provides useful information to assess the feet's condition. These systems have emerged as popular tools in clinical environment. These systems present errors and no compensation information is presented by the manufacturer, leading to uncertainty in the measurements. Ten healthy subjects, 5 females and 5 males, were recruited. Lateral load distribution, antero-posterior load distribution, average pressure, contact area, and force were recorded. The aims of this study were to assess repeatability of the EcoWalk system and identify the range of pressure values observed in the normal foot. The coefficient of repeatability was less than 4% for all parameters considered.

  19. Role of DNA Polymerases in Repeat-Mediated Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik A. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of simple DNA repeats cause numerous hereditary diseases in humans. We analyzed the role of DNA polymerases in the instability of Friedreich’s ataxia (GAAn repeats in a yeast experimental system. The elementary step of expansion corresponded to ∼160 bp in the wild-type strain, matching the size of Okazaki fragments in yeast. This step increased when DNA polymerase α was mutated, suggesting a link between the scale of expansions and Okazaki fragment size. Expandable repeats strongly elevated the rate of mutations at substantial distances around them, a phenomenon we call repeat-induced mutagenesis (RIM. Notably, defects in the replicative DNA polymerases δ and ∊ strongly increased rates for both repeat expansions and RIM. The increases in repeat-mediated instability observed in DNA polymerase δ mutants depended on translesion DNA polymerases. We conclude that repeat expansions and RIM are two sides of the same replicative mechanism.

  20. Effect of repeated contact on adhesion measurements involving polydimethylsiloxane structural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, E.; Maboudian, R.; Arzt, E.

    2009-09-01

    During the last few years several research groups have focused on the fabrication of artificial gecko inspired adhesives. For mimicking these structures, different polymers are used as structure material, such as polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), polyurethanes (PU), and polypropylene (PP). While these polymers can be structured easily and used for artificial adhesion systems, the effects of repeated adhesion testing have never been investigated closely. In this paper we report on the effect of repeated adhesion measurements on the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer kit Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning). We show that the adhesion force decreases as a function of contact cycles. The rate of change and the final value of adhesion are found to depend on the details of the PDMS synthesis and structuring.

  1. Effect of repeated contact on adhesion measurements involving polydimethylsiloxane structural material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroner, E; Arzt, E [INM-Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany); Maboudian, R, E-mail: elmar.kroner@inm-gmbh.de [Department of Chem. Eng., 201 Gilman Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1462 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    During the last few years several research groups have focused on the fabrication of artificial gecko inspired adhesives. For mimicking these structures, different polymers are used as structure material, such as polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), polyurethanes (PU), and polypropylene (PP). While these polymers can be structured easily and used for artificial adhesion systems, the effects of repeated adhesion testing have never been investigated closely. In this paper we report on the effect of repeated adhesion measurements on the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer kit Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning). We show that the adhesion force decreases as a function of contact cycles. The rate of change and the final value of adhesion are found to depend on the details of the PDMS synthesis and structuring.

  2. Repeated high-intensity exercise modulates Ca(2+) sensitivity of human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, K D; Hvid, L G; Willis, S J;

    2016-01-01

    The effects of short-term high-intensity exercise on single fiber contractile function in humans are unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (a) to access the acute effects of repeated high-intensity exercise on human single muscle fiber contractile function; and (b) to examine whether...... the fourth sprint with respect to Ca(2+) sensitivity and maximal Ca(2+) -activated force. To investigate the oxidative effects of exercise on single fiber contractile function, a subset of fibers was incubated with dithiothreitol (DTT) before analysis. Ca(2+) sensitivity was enhanced by exercise in both MHC...... I (17%, P exercise. In conclusion, repeated high-intensity exercise increased Ca(2+) sensitivity in both MHC I and MHC II...

  3. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    -clustering', has been successfully utilized to discover local patterns in gene expression data and similar biomedical data types. Here, we contribute a new heuristic: 'Bi-Force'. It is based on the weighted bicluster editing model, to perform biclustering on arbitrary sets of biological entities, given any kind...... of pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...... datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus were analyzed. All resulting biclusters were subsequently investigated by Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to evaluate their biological relevance. The distinct theoretical foundation of Bi-Force (bicluster editing) is more powerful than strict biclustering. We thus...

  4. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  5. Causal reasoning with forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Causal composition allows people to generate new causal relations by combining existing causal knowledge. We introduce a new computational model of such reasoning, the force theory, which holds that people compose causal relations by simulating the processes that join forces in the world, and compare this theory with the mental model theory (Khemlani et al., 2014) and the causal model theory (Sloman et al., 2009), which explain causal composition on the basis of mental models and structural equations, respectively. In one experiment, the force theory was uniquely able to account for people's ability to compose causal relationships from complex animations of real-world events. In three additional experiments, the force theory did as well as or better than the other two theories in explaining the causal compositions people generated from linguistically presented causal relations. Implications for causal learning and the hierarchical structure of causal knowledge are discussed. PMID:25653611

  6. Romanian Armed Forces Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    strategic importance is defined by the configuration of the Carpathian Mountains to the north-east, by the lower course and estuary of the Danube river...Companies, 1 Engineer Company, 1 Mountain Company, 1 Military Police Company, 1 Mine-clearing Detachment); Air Forces (4 MIG-21 LANCER, 1 C- 130B...Land Forces - 3 Infantry Companies, 1 Engineer Company, 1 Mountain Company, 1 Paratroops Company, 1 Military Police Company, 1 Demining Detachment

  7. Distributed Surface Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    proposed SSC. 1. Definition and Planning The definition and planning phase is appropriate when utilizing any problem- solving algorithm . Before any... MONKEY 149 AGENDA · Background · Scenario · Assumptions · Mission, Commander’s Intent, and Org. Chart · Naval and Air forces . Concept of...forces provide support to Coal ition partners during the execution of Operation Mute Monkey in the South China Sea. · End-state: Deter Chinese

  8. REPdenovo: Inferring De Novo Repeat Motifs from Short Sequence Reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chu

    Full Text Available Repeat elements are important components of eukaryotic genomes. One limitation in our understanding of repeat elements is that most analyses rely on reference genomes that are incomplete and often contain missing data in highly repetitive regions that are difficult to assemble. To overcome this problem we develop a new method, REPdenovo, which assembles repeat sequences directly from raw shotgun sequencing data. REPdenovo can construct various types of repeats that are highly repetitive and have low sequence divergence within copies. We show that REPdenovo is substantially better than existing methods both in terms of the number and the completeness of the repeat sequences that it recovers. The key advantage of REPdenovo is that it can reconstruct long repeats from sequence reads. We apply the method to human data and discover a number of potentially new repeats sequences that have been missed by previous repeat annotations. Many of these sequences are incorporated into various parasite genomes, possibly because the filtering process for host DNA involved in the sequencing of the parasite genomes failed to exclude the host derived repeat sequences. REPdenovo is a new powerful computational tool for annotating genomes and for addressing questions regarding the evolution of repeat families. The software tool, REPdenovo, is available for download at https://github.com/Reedwarbler/REPdenovo.

  9. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  10. Novel Low-Cost Sensor for Human Bite Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarred Fastier-Wooller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a low cost and reliable maximal voluntary bite force sensor which can be manufactured in-house by using an acrylic laser cutting machine. The sensor has been designed for ease of fabrication, assembly, calibration, and safe use. The sensor is capable of use within an hour of commencing production, allowing for rapid prototyping/modifications and practical implementation. The measured data shows a good linear relationship between the applied force and the electrical resistance of the sensor. The output signal has low drift, excellent repeatability, and a large measurable range of 0 to 700 N. A high signal-to-noise response to human bite forces was observed, indicating the high potential of the proposed sensor for human bite force measurement.

  11. Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki eMatsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.

  12. Modelling repeatedly flaring delta-sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Active regions (AR) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into $\\alpha$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the $\\delta$-sunspots are known to be super-active and produce the most X-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin sub-photospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux-tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic $\\delta$-sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  13. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  14. Confusion around the tidal force and the centrifugal force

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Takuya; Boffin, Henri M J

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the tidal force, whose notion is sometimes misunderstood in the public domain literature. We discuss the tidal force exerted by a secondary point mass on an extended primary body such as the Earth. The tidal force arises because the gravitational force exerted on the extended body by the secondary mass is not uniform across the primary. In the derivation of the tidal force, the non-uniformity of the gravity is essential, and inertial forces such as the centrifugal force are not needed. Nevertheless, it is often asserted that the tidal force can be explained by the centrifugal force. If we literally take into account the centrifugal force, it would mislead us. We therefore also discuss the proper treatment of the centrifugal force.

  15. Selection of body sway parameters according to their sensitivity and repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For the precise evaluation of body balance, static type of tests performed on a force plate are the most commonly used ones. In these tests, body sway characteristics are analyzed based on the model of inverted pendulum and looking at the center of pressure (COP movement in time. Human body engages different strategies to compensate for balance perturbations. For this reason, there is a need to identify parameters which are sensitive to specific balance changes and which enable us to identify balance sub-components. The aim of our study was to investigate intra-visit repeatability and sensibility of the 40 different body sway parameters. Twenty-nine subjects participated in the study. They performed three different balancing tasks of different levels of difficulty, three repetitions each. The hip-width parallel stance and the single leg stance, both with open eyes, were used as ways to compare different balance intensities due to biomechanical changes. Additionally, deprivation of vision was used in the third balance task to study sensitivity to sensory system changes. As shown by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, repeatability of cumulative parameters such as COP, maximal amplitude and frequency showed excellent repeatability (ICC>0,85. Other parameters describing sub-dynamics through single repetition proved to have unsatisfying repeatability. Parameters most sensitive to increased intensity of balancing tasks were common COP, COP in medio-lateral and in antero-posterior direction, and maximal amplitues in the same directions. Frequency of oscilations has proved to be sensitive only to deprivation of vision. As shown in our study, cumulative parameters describing the path which the center of pressure makes proved to be the most repeatable and sensitive to detect different increases of balancing tasks enabling future use in balance studies and in clinical practice.

  16. Assessment of pose repeatability and specimen repositioning of a robotic joint testing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Daou, H; Lord, B; Amis, A; Rodriguez Y Baena, F

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the quantitative assessment of a robotic testing platform, consisting of an industrial robot and a universal force-moment sensor, via the design of fixtures used to hold the tibia and femur of cadaveric knees. This platform was used to study the contributions of different soft tissues and the ability of implants and reconstruction surgeries to restore normal joint functions, in previously published literature. To compare different conditions of human joints, it is essential to reposition specimens with high precision after they have been removed for a surgical procedure. Methods and experiments carried out to determine the pose repeatability and measure errors in repositioning specimens are presented. This was achieved using an optical tracking system (fusion Track 500, Atracsys Switzerland) to measure the position and orientation of bespoke rigid body markers attached to the tibial and femoral pots after removing and reinstalling them inside the rigs. The pose repeatability was then evaluated by controlling the robotic platform to move a knee joint repeatedly to/from a given pose while tracking the position and orientation of a rigid body marker attached to the tibial fixture. The results showed that the proposed design ensured a high repeatability in repositioning the pots with standard deviations for the computed distance and angle between the pots at both ends of the joint equal to 0.1mm, 0.01mm, 0.13° and 0.03° for the tibial and femoral fixtures respectively. Therefore, it is possible to remove and re-setup a joint with high precision. The results also showed that the errors in repositioning the robotic platform (that is: specimen path repeatability) were 0.11mm and 0.12°, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Repeated ketamine treatment induces sex-specific behavioral and neurochemical effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Connor; Sens, Jonathon; Mauch, Joseph; Pandit, Radhika; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2016-10-01

    One of the most striking discoveries in the treatment of major depression was the finding that infusion of a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients. However, ketamine's antidepressant-like actions are transient and can only be sustained by repeated drug treatment. Despite the fact that women experience major depression at roughly twice the rate of men, research regarding the neurobiological antidepressant-relevant effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on the male sex. Importantly, knowledge regarding the sex-differentiated effects, the frequency and the dose on which repeated ketamine administration stops being beneficial, is limited. In the current study, we investigated the behavioral, neurochemical and synaptic molecular effects of repeated ketamine treatment (10mg/kg; 21days) in male and female C57BL/6J mice. We report that ketamine induced beneficial antidepressant-like effects in male mice, but induced both anxiety-like (i.e., decreased time spent in the center of the open field arena) and depressive-like effects (i.e., enhanced immobility duration in the forced swim test; FST) in their female counterparts. Moreover, repeated ketamine treatment induced sustained sex-differentiated neurochemical and molecular effects, as it enhanced hippocampal synapsin protein levels and serotonin turnover in males, but attenuated glutamate and aspartate levels in female mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that repeated ketamine treatment induces opposite behavioral effects in male and female mice, and thus, present data have far-reaching implications for the sex-oriented use of ketamine in both experimental and clinical research settings.

  18. USAF Security Forces Training Needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weeks, Joseph L; Garza, Jorge S; Archuleta, Mark A; McDonald, L. B

    2002-01-01

    .... The Air Force Research Laboratory and McDonald Research Associates have launched a research and development project dedicated to exploring affordable strategies for security forces distributed...

  19. Male rats play a repeated donation game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Grace; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-05-15

    While previous studies have demonstrated direct and generalized reciprocity in female Norway rats [26], the present study determined if unrelated male laboratory rats respond on behalf of a partner in an iterated sequential game. Pairs of rats worked for food reward in an operant chamber, where participants alternated as Donor and Responder in successive trials. In each trial, the Donor chose between variable and constant reward levers, where the constant reward lever delivered 1 pellet, and the variable reward lever triggered insertion of Responder lever(s); the Donor received 2 pellets when the Responder made any response. In forced-choice constant (FC) trials, the Responder also received 1 pellet for responding on the constant reward lever. In forced-choice variable (FV) trials, the Responder received no pellets for responding on the variable reward lever. In free-choice (FR) trials, the Responder chose between constant (1 pellet) and variable reward levers (0 pellets). With their cagemate, rats earned 61.4±2.0 pellets (64.0±2.1% of 96 possible pellets). As Donor in FC trials, rats preferred the variable reward lever, and the Responder responded frequently. In FV trials, Donor preference for the variable reward lever declined as Responder lever responses decreased. In FR trials, rats alternated responding on variable and constant reward levers as Donor and Responder, respectively. When paired with a new partner, there was no effect on Donor responses, but responses by the Responder decreased in the FV block. Similar effects were observed when paired with a maximally-cooperative stooge. Importantly, rats did not adjust their behavior as Donor to receive more pellets. Results suggest that unrelated male rats will work on behalf of a partner, and that their behavior is sensitive to familiarity, and to cooperative responses by their partner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Olsen, Peter D; Marshall, Helen C; Lizamore, Catherine A; Elliot, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using "top-up" sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1-3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second "top-up" intervention (Post 4-5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: -1.8 ± 1.6%, -1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: -2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: -2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: -1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: -1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3-5 (-2.0 ± 2.4%, -2.2 ± 2.4%, -1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13-37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of "top-up" training after intervention 1, had little effect on either group. Repeat-sprint training in

  1. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Olsen, Peter D.; Marshall, Helen C.; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Elliot, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using “top-up” sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1–3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second “top-up” intervention (Post 4–5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: −1.8 ± 1.6%, −1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: −2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: −2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: −1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: −1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3–5 (−2.0 ± 2.4%, −2.2 ± 2.4%, −1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13–37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of “top-up” training after intervention 1, had little effect on either

  2. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-08-26

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the -1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded repeats with more than 35 consecutive CAG codons. An atypical +1 shift site, UUC C at the 5' end of CAG repeats, which has some resemblance to the influenza A virus shift site, triggers the +1 frameshifting and is enhanced by the increased propensity of the expanded CAG repeats to form a stem-loop structure. The +1 trans-frame-encoded product can directly influence the aggregation of the parental Htt exon 1.

  3. Repeats in transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Seema

    2013-06-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins (TACC1, 2, and 3) are essential proteins associated with the assembly of spindle microtubules and maintenance of bipolarity. Dysregulation of TACCs is associated with tumorigenesis, but studies of microsatellite instability in TACC genes have not been extensive. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat instability is known to cause many types of cancer. The present in silico analysis of SSRs in human TACC gene sequences shows the presence of mono- to hexa-nucleotide repeats, with the highest densities found for mono- and di-nucleotide repeats. Density of repeats is higher in introns than in exons. Some of the repeats are present in regulatory regions and retained introns. Human TACC genes show conservation of many repeat classes. Microsatellites in TACC genes could be valuable markers for monitoring numerical chromosomal aberrations and or cancer.

  4. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  5. Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats for High-Level Microsatellite Instability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Buhard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability.

  6. Vertical finger displacement is reduced in index finger tapping during repeated bout rate enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2017-01-01

    , and 2) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and by changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n=24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency......, separated by 10 min rest. The recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement was replicated. The faster tapping (8.8±18.7 taps min-1, corresponding to 6.0±11.0%, p=.033) was accompanied by reduced vertical displacement (1.6±2.9 mm, corresponding to 6.3±14.9%, p=.012) of the fingertip....... Concurrently, peak force was unchanged. The present study points at separate control mechanisms governing kinematics and kinetics during finger tapping....

  7. Zinc-finger directed double-strand breaks within CAG repeat tracts promote repeat instability in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, David; Moye, Christopher; Morton, Jason; Sykoudis, Kristen; Lin, Yunfu; Carroll, Dana; Wilson, John H

    2009-06-16

    Expanded triplet repeats have been identified as the genetic basis for a growing number of neurological and skeletal disorders. To examine the contribution of double-strand break repair to CAG x CTG repeat instability in mammalian systems, we developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that recognize and cleave CAG repeat sequences. Engineered ZFNs use a tandem array of zinc fingers, fused to the FokI DNA cleavage domain, to direct double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a site-specific manner. We first determined that the ZFNs cleave CAG repeats in vitro. Then, using our previously described tissue culture assay for identifying modifiers of CAG repeat instability, we found that transfection of ZFN-expression vectors induced up to a 15-fold increase in changes to the CAG repeat in human and rodent cell lines, and that longer repeats were much more sensitive to cleavage than shorter ones. Analysis of individual colonies arising after treatment revealed a spectrum of events consistent with ZFN-induced DSBs and dominated by repeat contractions. We also found that expressing a dominant-negative form of RAD51 in combination with a ZFN, dramatically reduced the effect of the nuclease, suggesting that DSB-induced repeat instability is mediated, in part, through homology directed repair. These studies identify a ZFN as a useful reagent for characterizing the effects of DSBs on CAG repeats in cells.

  8. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  9. Neuropathological diagnosis and CAG repeat expansion in Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Xuereb, J H; MacMillan, J C; Snell, R; Davies, P.; Harper, P S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To correlate the degree of CAG repeat expansion with neuropathological findings in Huntington's disease. METHODS--The CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a large series of brain samples from 268 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease in which full neuropathological data was available. RESULTS--Analysis by polymerase chain reaction was successful in 63% of samples (169 of 268). Repeat expansions were detected in 152 of 153 (99%) samples with a neuropathologic...

  10. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of rep...

  11. Repeated fecal microbiota transplantation in a child with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Arai, Katsuhiro; Abe, Jun; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshioka, Takako; Hosoi, Kenji; Kuroda, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy, who was subsequently treated successfully with repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The patient was steroid dependent despite several infliximab treatments, and colectomy was proposed to improve quality of life. After repeated FMT, she was able to maintain remission with on minimal dose of steroid. Although her fecal microbiota was dysbiotic before FMT, it was restored to a similar pattern as the donor after repeated FMT.

  12. Artificial leucine rich repeats as new scaffolds for protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baabur-Cohen, Hemda; Dayalan, Subashini; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2011-04-15

    The leucine rich repeat (LRR) motif that participates in many biomolecular recognition events in cells was suggested as a general scaffold for producing artificial receptors. We describe here the design and first total chemical synthesis of small LRR proteins, and their structural analysis. When evaluating the tertiary structure as a function of different number of repeating units (1-3), we were able to find that the 3-repeats sequence, containing 90 amino acids, folds into the expected structure.

  13. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  14. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...... development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way...

  15. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  16. Mononucleotide repeats are asymmetrically distributed in fungal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaff Leo H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic analyses of sequence features have resulted in a better characterisation of the organisation of the genome. A previous study in prokaryotes on the distribution of sequence repeats, which are notoriously variable and can disrupt the reading frame in genes, showed that these motifs are skewed towards gene termini, specifically the 5' end of genes. For eukaryotes no such intragenic analysis has been performed, though this could indicate the pervasiveness of this distribution bias, thereby helping to expose the selective pressures causing it. Results In fungal gene repertoires we find a similar 5' bias of intragenic mononucleotide repeats, most notably for Candida spp., whereas e.g. Coccidioides spp. display no such bias. With increasing repeat length, ever larger discrepancies are observed in genome repertoire fractions containing such repeats, with up to an 80-fold difference in gene fractions at repeat lengths of 10 bp and longer. This species-specific difference in gene fractions containing large repeats could be attributed to variations in intragenic repeat tolerance. Furthermore, long transcripts experience an even more prominent bias towards the gene termini, with possibly a more adaptive role for repeat-containing short transcripts. Conclusion Mononucleotide repeats are intragenically biased in numerous fungal genomes, similar to earlier studies on prokaryotes, indicative of a similar selective pressure in gene organization.

  17. Huntington's disease as caused by 34 CAG repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, Jürgen; Arning, Larissa; Wieczorek, Stefan; Kraus, Peter H; Gold, Ralf; Saft, Carsten

    2008-04-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polymorphic stretch of CAG repeats in the coding 5' part of the HD gene on chromosome 4p. Expansions of CAG blocks beyond 35 repeats are associated with the clinical presentation of HD. There is an intermediate range of rare alleles between 27 and 35 CAG repeats with a higher risk for further expansion in subsequent generations. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with clinical features of HD and 34 CAG repeat units.

  18. Intragenic tandem repeat variation between Legionella pneumophila strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarraud Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genomes harbour a large number of tandem repeats, yet the possible phenotypic effects of those found within the coding region of genes are only beginning to be examined. Evidence exists from other organisms that these repeats can be involved in the evolution of new genes, gene regulation, adaptation, resistance to environmental stresses, and avoidance of the immune system. Results In this study, we have investigated the presence and variability in copy number of intragenic tandemly repeated sequences in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Within the genome of the Philadelphia strain, we have identified 26 intragenic tandem repeat sequences using conservative selection criteria. Of these, seven were "polymorphic" in terms of repeat copy number between a large number of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. These strains were collected from a wide variety of environments and patients in several geographical regions. Within this panel of strains, all but one of these seven genes exhibited statistically different patterns in repeat copy number between samples from different origins (environmental, clinical, and hot springs. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that intragenic tandem repeats could play a role in virulence and adaptation to different environments. While tandem repeats are an increasingly popular focus of molecular typing studies in prokaryotes, including in L. pneumophila, this study is the first examining the difference in tandem repeat distribution as a function of clinical or environmental origin.

  19. Force-Free Foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Compère, Geoffrey; Lupsasca, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic field configurations with vanishing Lorentz force density are known as force-free and appear in terrestrial, space, and astrophysical plasmas. We explore a general method for finding such configurations based on formulating equations for the field lines rather than the field itself. The basic object becomes a foliation of spacetime or, in the stationary axisymmetric case, of the half-plane. We use this approach to find some new stationary and axisymmetric solutions, one of which could represent a rotating plasma vortex near a magnetic null point.

  20. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2017-01-10

    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  1. Genus-specific protein binding to the large clusters of DNA repeats (short regularly spaced repeats) present in Sulfolobus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Shen, Biao

    2003-01-01

    Short regularly spaced repeats (SRSRs) occur in multiple large clusters in archaeal chromosomes and as smaller clusters in some archaeal conjugative plasmids and bacterial chromosomes. The sequence, size, and spacing of the repeats are generally constant within a cluster but vary between clusters...... that are identical in sequence to one of the repeat variants in the S. solfataricus chromosome. Repeats from the pNOB8 cluster were amplified and tested for protein binding with cell extracts from S. solfataricus. A 17.5-kDa SRSR-binding protein was purified from the cell extracts and sequenced. The protein is N...... terminally modified and corresponds to SSO454, an open reading frame of previously unassigned function. It binds specifically to DNA fragments carrying double and single repeat sequences, binding on one side of the repeat structure, and producing an opening of the opposite side of the DNA structure. It also...

  2. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  3. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia

    2017-01-01

    Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in

  4. International Quick Response Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-06

    humaijitarian relief, maintenance of a cease-fire, and promocion of national reconciliation - and became a manhunt for Somali warlord Mohamed Farah...maritime components would accompany this 6 5This scheme is adopted from USPACOM’s and USACOM’s Joint Task Force and JuiiL AdapUiv= Fuce Packages

  5. due to Capillary Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of doubly-clamped and cantilever microbeams subjected to capillary forces. These forces can be as a result of a volume of liquid trapped underneath the microbeam during the rinsing and drying process in fabrication. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium, the capillary force as a nonlinear function of displacement, and accounts for the mid-plane stretching and geometric nonlinearities. The capillary force is assumed to be distributed over a specific length underneath the microbeam. The Galerkin procedure is used to derive a reduced-order model consisting of a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that describe the microbeams static and dynamic behaviors. We study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We calculate the pull-in length that distinguishes the free from the pinned configurations as a function of the beam thickness and gap width for both microbeams. Comparisons are made with analytical results reported in the literature based on the Ritz method for linear and nonlinear beam models. The instability problem, which brings the microbeam from a pinned to adhered configuration is also investigated. For this case, we use a shooting technique to solve the boundary-value problem governing the deflection of the microbeams. The critical microbeam length for this second instability is also calculated.

  6. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    square, the very definition of political jiu-jitsu.124 The CSF commanders continued to press protestors, often using lethal force.125 The battle on...incident France 2 had a crew of four arrested and held for 10 hours on August while Jared Malsin, who works for Time Magazine and freelance photographer

  7. Use of Security Forces

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2017-01-01

    This Good Practice Handbook on the Use of Security Forces: Assessing and Managing Risks and Impacts has been developed for IFC clients and other private sector companies and their consultants. The handbook provides practical, project-level guidance for companies to better understand and implement the requirements outlined in Performance Standard 4. Chapters focus on risk assessment, managi...

  8. 10K Force Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    hellfire missiles for the longbow helicopters, TACMS Block II MLRS, and cluster m bombs for the fixed wing assets. c. What capabilities will the force need...Essential Elements of Analysis (EEA) 3 5. NEASURES OF PERORNANCE . ...... 3 .6. STUDYA LTZRNATIVE£ ......... . 4 7. METODOLOGY ... ...... . . . . 4 8

  9. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... contributor to force transfer within muscular tissue....

  10. Residual force enhancement following eccentric induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Geoffrey A; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2012-06-26

    During lengthening of an activated skeletal muscle, the force maintained following the stretch is greater than the isometric force at the same muscle length. This is termed residual force enhancement (RFE), but it is unknown how muscle damage following repeated eccentric contractions affects RFE. Using the dorsiflexors, we hypothesised muscle damage will impair the force generating sarcomeric structures leading to a reduction in RFE. Following reference maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) in 8 young men (26.5±2.8y) a stretch was performed at 30°/s over a 30° ankle excursion ending at the same muscle length as the reference MVCs (30° plantar flexion). Surface electromyography (EMG) of the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles was recorded during all tasks. The damage protocol involved 4 sets of 25 isokinetic (30°/s) lengthening contractions. The same measures were collected at baseline and immediately post lengthening contractions, and for up to 10min recovery. Following the lengthening contraction task, there was a 30.3±6.4% decrease in eccentric torque (Pmuscle damage (Pmuscle function compared to isometric actions succeeding damage. Thus, active force of cross-bridges is decreased because of impaired excitation-contraction coupling but force generated during stretch remains intact because force contribution from stretched sarcomeric structures is less impaired.

  11. Evaluation of progressive damage of nano-modified composite laminates under repeated impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koricho, Ermias G.; Karpenko, Oleksii; Khomenko, Anton; Haq, Mahmoodul; Cloud, Gary L.; Udpa, Lalita

    2016-04-01

    However, studies on the effect of nano-reinforcements in repeated impact scenarios are relatively limited. This work investigates the effect of resin nanoclay modification on the impact resistance of glass-fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites subjected to repeated impacts. Three impact energy levels were used in experiments with a minimum of four specimens per case for statistical significance. Each sample was subjected to 40 repeated impacts or was tested up to perforation, whichever happened first. The impact response was evaluated in terms of evolution of the peak force, bending stiffness, visual damage inspection and optical transmission scanning (OTS) at critical stages as a function of number of impacts. Also, the damage degree (DD) was calculated to monitor the evolution of damage in the laminates. As expected, the impact response of the GFRP composites varied based on the presence of nano-clay and the applied impact energy. The modification of the resin with nano-clay introduced novel phenomena that changed the damage progression mechanism under repetitive impacts, which was verified by visual observation and optical transmission scanning. A better understanding of these phenomena (e.g. crack-bridging, tortuosity) and their contributions to enhancements in the impact behavior and modifications of the types of damage propagation can lead to better design of novel structural composites.

  12. Evidence for perceptual learning with repeated stimulation after partial and total cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevethan, Ceri T; Urquhart, James; Ward, Richard; Gentleman, Douglas; Sahraie, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Lesions of occipital cortex result in loss of sight in the corresponding regions of visual fields. The traditional view that, apart from some spontaneous recovery in the acute phase, field defects remain permanently and irreversibly blind, has been challenged. In patients with partial field loss, a range of residual visual abilities in the absence of conscious perception (blindsight) has been demonstrated (Weiskrantz, 1986). Recent findings (Sahraie et al., 2006, 2010) have also demonstrated increased visual sensitivity in the field defect following repeated stimulation. We aimed to extend these findings by systematically exploring whether repeated stimulation can also lead to increased visual sensitivity in two cases with total (bilateral) cortical blindness. In addition, for a case of partial blindness, we examined the extent of the recovery as a function of stimulated region of the visual field, over extended periods of visual training. Positive auditory feedback was provided during the training task for correct detection of a spatial grating pattern presented at specific retinotopic locations using a temporal two alternative forced-choice paradigm (Neuro-Eye Therapy). All three cases showed improved visual sensitivity with repeated stimulation. The findings indicate that perceptual learning can occur through systematic visual field stimulation even in cases of bilateral cortical blindness.

  13. Myricetin Attenuates Depressant-Like Behavior in Mice Subjected to Repeated Restraint Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zegang Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that oxidative stress may be implicated in chronic stress-induced depression. Several flavonoids with anti-oxidative effects have been proved to be anti-depressive. Myricetin is a well-defined flavonoid with the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible effects of chronic administration of myricetin on depressant-like behaviors in mice subjected to repeated restraint (4 h/day for 21 days. Our results showed that myricetin administration specifically reduced the immobility time in mice exposed to chronic stress, as tested in both forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Myricetin treatment improved activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX in the hippocampus of stressed mice. In addition, myricetin treatment decreased plasma corticosterone levels of those mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. The effects of myricetin on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in hippocampus were also investigated. The results revealed that myricetin normalized the decreased BDNF levels in mice subjected to repeated restraint stress. These findings provided more evidence that chronic administration of myricetin improves helpless behaviors. The protective effects of myricetin might be partially mediated by an influence on BDNF levels and might be attributed to myricetin-mediated anti-oxidative stress in the hippocampus.

  14. Specific Measurement of Tethered Running Kinetics and its Relationship to Repeated Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipe; Dos Reis, Ivan; Ribeiro, Luiz; Martins, Luiz; Gobatto, Claudio

    2015-12-22

    Repeated sprint ability has been widely studied by researchers, however, analysis of the relationship between most kinetic variables and the effect of fatigue is still an ongoing process. To search for the best biomechanical parameter to evaluate repeated sprint ability, several kinetic variables were measured in a tethered field running test and compared regarding their sensitivity to fatigue and correlation with time trials in a free running condition. Nine male sprint runners (best average times: 100 m = 10.45 ± 0.07 s; 200 m = 21.36 ± 0.17 s; 400 m = 47.35 ± 1.09 s) completed two test sessions on a synthetic track. Each session consisted of six 35 m sprints interspersed by 10 s rest under tethered field running or free running conditions. Force, power, work, an impulse and a rate of force development were all directly measured using the sensors of a new tethered running apparatus, and a one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc test used to verify differences between sprints (p sprints. These three variables presented low to moderate correlations with free running performance (r between 0.01 and -0.35). Maximum and mean power presented the strongest correlations with free running performance (r = -0.71 and -0.76, respectively; p sprint ability than the other studied variables.

  15. An In-vitro Comparison of Force Loss of Orthodontic Non-Latex Elastics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Alavi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount and consistency of the applied forces to the tooth are important factors in tooth movements; therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the initial force and the force loss of three brands of elastics in 24 hours.In this in-vitro study sixty non-latex elastics (3/16 medium from three companies (Forestadent, Dentaurum and Ortho Technology were randomly selected. Two static tests were performed, the first in a dry environment to evaluate the initial force and the other performed in a wet environment (artificial saliva to evaluate the force loss in 24 hours. The Universal testing machine measured the forces after stretching the elastics to three times the lumen diameter. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, One-way ANOVA, Tukey-HSD, Paired samples test, and one sample test.The difference between the brands was significant (p=0.002. Force loss was observed in all samples; 4-7.5% force loss occurred after one hour and 19-38% force loss occurred after 24 hours. The average initial force of Forestadent and Ortho Technology was significantly higher than marketed forces (pDentaurum>Ortho-Technology. According to the initial force and force loss percentage it is suggested to replace the non-latex elastics several times a day.

  16. Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vural, B; Poda, M; Atlioglu, E;

    1998-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals.......Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals....

  17. PILER-CR: Fast and accurate identification of CRISPR repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of prokaryotic genomes has recently revealed the presence of CRISPR elements: short, highly conserved repeats separated by unique sequences of similar length. The distinctive sequence signature of CRISPR repeats can be found using general-purpose repeat- or pattern-finding software tools. However, the output of such tools is not always ideal for studying these repeats, and significant effort is sometimes needed to build additional tools and perform manual analysis of the output. Results We present PILER-CR, a program specifically designed for the identification and analysis of CRISPR repeats. The program executes rapidly, completing a 5 Mb genome in around 5 seconds on a current desktop computer. We validate the algorithm by manual curation and by comparison with published surveys of these repeats, finding that PILER-CR has both high sensitivity and high specificity. We also present a catalogue of putative CRISPR repeats identified in a comprehensive analysis of 346 prokaryotic genomes. Conclusion PILER-CR is a useful tool for rapid identification and classification of CRISPR repeats. The software is donated to the public domain. Source code and a Linux binary are freely available at http://www.drive5.com/pilercr.

  18. Repeatable mechanochemical activation of dynamic covalent bonds in thermoplastic elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imato, Keiichi; Kanehara, Takeshi; Nojima, Shiki; Ohishi, Tomoyuki; Higaki, Yuji; Takahara, Atsushi; Otsuka, Hideyuki

    2016-08-18

    Repeated mechanical scission and recombination of dynamic covalent bonds incorporated in segmented polyurethane elastomers are demonstrated by utilizing a diarylbibenzofuranone-based mechanophore and by the design of the segmented polymer structures. The repeated mechanochemical reactions can accompany clear colouration and simultaneous fading.

  19. PCR-free digital minisatellite tandem repeat genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuchao; Seo, Tae Seok

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated a proof-of-concept for novel minisatellite tandem repeat typing, called PCR-free digital VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) typing, which is composed of three steps: a ligation reaction instead of PCR thermal cycling, magnetic bead-based solid-phase capture for purification, and an elongated sample stacking microcapillary electrophoresis (μCE) for sensitive digital coding of repeat number. We designed a 16-bp fluorescently labeled ligation probe which is complementary to a repeat unit of a biotinylated synthetic template mimicking the human D1S80 VNTR locus and is randomly hybridized with the minisatellite tandem repeats. A quick isothermal ligation reaction was followed to link the adjacent ligation probes on the DNA templates, and then the ligated products were purified by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. After a denaturing step, a large amount of ligated products whose size difference was equivalent to the repeat unit were released and recovered. Through the elongated sample stacking μCE separation on a microdevice, the fluorescence signal of the ligated products was generated in the electropherogram and the peak number was directly counted which was exactly matched with the repeat number of VNTR locus. We could successfully identify the minisatellite tandem repeat number with only 5 fmol of DNA template in 30 min.

  20. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  1. Vocabulary Learning through Assisted and Unassisted Repeated Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effects of unassisted and assisted repeated reading has primarily focused on how each approach may contribute to improvement in reading comprehension and fluency. Incidental learning of the form and meaning of unknown or partially known words encountered through assisted and unassisted repeated reading has yet…

  2. Impact of Inclusion or Exclusion of Repeaters on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including or excluding repeaters on the equating process and results. New forms of two tests were equated to their respective old forms using either all examinees or only the first timer examinees in the new form sample. Results showed that for both tests used in this study, including or excluding repeaters in the…

  3. Effect of Repeated Simulations by Standardized Patients on Intercase Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study using five Southern Illinois University senior medical school classes (n=350 students) investigated whether having a standardized patient simulate a case repeatedly in postclerkship medical student evaluation affects the measure's reliability. Results suggest that repeated simulation had little or no effect on intercase reliability of…

  4. Analysis of CR1 Repeats in the Zebra Finch Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bird species have smaller genomes and fewer repeats than mammals. Chicken Repeat 1 (CR1 repeat is one of the most abundant families of repeats, ranging from ~133,000 to ~187,000 copies accounting for ~50 to ~80% of the interspersed repeats in the zebra finch and chicken genomes, respectively. CR1 repeats are believed to have arisen from the retrotransposition of a small number of master elements, which gave rise to multiple CR1 subfamilies in the chicken. In this study, we performed a global assessment of the divergence distributions, phylogenies, and consensus sequences of CR1 repeats in the zebra finch genome. We identified and validated 34 CR1 subfamilies and further analyzed the correlation between these subfamilies. We also discovered 4 novel lineage-specific CR1 subfamilies in the zebra finch when compared to the chicken genome. We built various evolutionary trees of these subfamilies and concluded that CR1 repeats may play an important role in reshaping the structure of bird genomes.

  5. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain : Effects on Emotional Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrillo, Maria; Migliorati, Filippo; Bruls, Rune; Han, Yingying; Heinemans, Mirjam; Pruis, Ilanah; Gazzola, V.; Keysers, C.

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar

  6. Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2014-03-01

    We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.

  7. CTG trinucleotide repeat "big jumps": large expansions, small mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions are the genetic cause of numerous human diseases, including fragile X mental retardation, Huntington disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Disease severity and age of onset are critically linked to expansion size. Previous mouse models of repeat instability have not recreated large intergenerational expansions ("big jumps", observed when the repeat is transmitted from one generation to the next, and have never attained the very large tract lengths possible in humans. Here, we describe dramatic intergenerational CTG*CAG repeat expansions of several hundred repeats in a transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1, resulting in increasingly severe phenotypic and molecular abnormalities. Homozygous mice carrying over 700 trinucleotide repeats on both alleles display severely reduced body size and splicing abnormalities, notably in the central nervous system. Our findings demonstrate that large intergenerational trinucleotide repeat expansions can be recreated in mice, and endorse the use of transgenic mouse models to refine our understanding of triplet repeat expansion and the resulting pathogenesis.

  8. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  9. Monotone missing data and repeated controls of fallible authors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Chapters 2 and 3 focus on repeated audit controls with categorical variables. Chapter 4 and 5 introduce and analyse a very general multivariate regression model for (monotone) missing data. In the final Chapter 6 the previous chapters are combined into a more realistic model for repeated audit contr

  10. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  11. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used ... social sigma24, repeat abortion may be as well, perhaps even .... 0.1198. aIncludes hostess, cleaner, waitress, housemaid, commercial sex worker, and cook ..... be made to support the process by strengthening.

  12. Witness recall across repeated interviews in a case of repeated abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; La Rooy, David

    2014-02-01

    In this illustrative case study we examine the three forensic interviews of a girl who experienced repeated sexual abuse from ages 7 to 11. She disclosed the abuse after watching a serialized television show that contained a storyline similar to her own experience. This triggered an investigation that ended in successful prosecution of the offender. Because this case involved abuse that was repeated on a weekly basis for 4 years we thus investigated the degree to which the child's narrative reflected specific episodes or generic accounts, and both the interviewer's and child's attempts to elicit and provide, respectively, specific details across the 3 interviews collected in a 1 month period. Across the 3 interviews, the child's account was largely generic, yet on a number of occasions she provided details specific to individual incidents (episodic leads) that could have been probed further. As predicted: earlier interviews were characterized more by episodic than generic prompts and the reverse was true for the third interview; the child often responded using the same style of language (episodic or generic) as the interviewer; and open questions yielded narrative information. We discuss the importance of adopting children's words to specify occurrences, and the potential benefits of permitting generic recall in investigative interviews on children's ability to provide episodic leads. Despite the fact that the testimony was characterized by generic information about what usually happened, rather than specific episodic details about individual occurrences, this case resulted in successful prosecution.

  13. Support force measures of midsized men in seated positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tamara Reid; Hubbard, Robert P

    2007-02-01

    Two areas not well researched in the field of seating mechanics are the distribution of normal and shear forces, and how those forces change with seat position. The availability of these data would be beneficial for the design and development of office, automotive and medical seats. To increase our knowledge in the area of seating mechanics, this study sought to measure the normal and shear loads applied to segmental supports in 12 seated positions, utilizing three inclination angles and four levels of seat back articulation that were associated with automotive driving positions. Force data from six regions, including the thorax, sacral region, buttocks, thighs, feet, and hand support were gathered using multi-axis load cells. The sample contained 23 midsized subjects with an average weight of 76.7 kg and a standard deviation of 4.2 kg, and an average height of 1745 mm with a standard deviation of 19 mm. Results were examined in terms of seat back inclination and in terms of torso articulation for relationships between seat positions and support forces. Using a repeated measures analysis, significant differences (p<0.05) were identified for normal forces relative to all inclination angles except for forces occurring at the hand support. Other significant differences were observed between normal forces behind the buttocks, pelvis, and feet for torso articulations. Significant differences in the shear forces occurred under the buttocks and posterior pelvis during changes in seat back inclination. Significant differences in shear forces were also identified for torso articulations. These data suggest that as seat back inclination or torso articulation change, significant shifts in force distribution occur.

  14. Effects of 3-repeat tau on taxol mobility through microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Fygenson, Deborah; Kim, Mahn Won

    2005-03-01

    Both the anti-cancer drug taxol and the microtubule-associated protein tau suppress dynamics of microtubules (MT). We have observed taxol mobility with full-length 3-repeat tau, one of six tau isoforms, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on MTs and compare with earlier results on recombinant full-length adult 4-repeat tau. Taxol mobility becomes highly sensitive to taxol concentration in the presence of 3-repeat tau (up to 1:1 molar ratio) as it does in the presence of 4-repeat tau, but is 2 to 3 times faster at low taxol concentrations. Fitting to a mean-field binding reaction model [J.L. Ross et.al, PNAS 101:12910-5 (2004)] suggests that the presence of 3-repeat tau enhances taxol movement through pores in the MT walls.

  15. Variation in the genomic locations and sequence conservation of STAR elements among staphylococcal species provides insight into DNA repeat evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves Joanne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus Repeat (STAR elements are a type of interspersed intergenic direct repeat. In this study the conservation and variation in these elements was explored by bioinformatic analyses of published staphylococcal genome sequences and through sequencing of specific STAR element loci from a large set of S. aureus isolates. Results Using bioinformatic analyses, we found that the STAR elements were located in different genomic loci within each staphylococcal species. There was no correlation between the number of STAR elements in each genome and the evolutionary relatedness of staphylococcal species, however higher levels of repeats were observed in both S. aureus and S. lugdunensis compared to other staphylococcal species. Unexpectedly, sequencing of the internal spacer sequences of individual repeat elements from multiple isolates showed conservation at the sequence level within deep evolutionary lineages of S. aureus. Whilst individual STAR element loci were demonstrated to expand and contract, the sequences associated with each locus were stable and distinct from one another. Conclusions The high degree of lineage and locus-specific conservation of these intergenic repeat regions suggests that STAR elements are maintained due to selective or molecular forces with some of these elements having an important role in cell physiology. The high prevalence in two of the more virulent staphylococcal species is indicative of a potential role for STAR elements in pathogenesis.

  16. Variation in the genomic locations and sequence conservation of STAR elements among staphylococcal species provides insight into DNA repeat evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Joanne; Blades, Matthew; Arafat, Yasrab; Malik, Salman A; Bayliss, Christopher D; Morrissey, Julie A

    2012-09-28

    Staphylococcus aureus Repeat (STAR) elements are a type of interspersed intergenic direct repeat. In this study the conservation and variation in these elements was explored by bioinformatic analyses of published staphylococcal genome sequences and through sequencing of specific STAR element loci from a large set of S. aureus isolates. Using bioinformatic analyses, we found that the STAR elements were located in different genomic loci within each staphylococcal species. There was no correlation between the number of STAR elements in each genome and the evolutionary relatedness of staphylococcal species, however higher levels of repeats were observed in both S. aureus and S. lugdunensis compared to other staphylococcal species. Unexpectedly, sequencing of the internal spacer sequences of individual repeat elements from multiple isolates showed conservation at the sequence level within deep evolutionary lineages of S. aureus. Whilst individual STAR element loci were demonstrated to expand and contract, the sequences associated with each locus were stable and distinct from one another. The high degree of lineage and locus-specific conservation of these intergenic repeat regions suggests that STAR elements are maintained due to selective or molecular forces with some of these elements having an important role in cell physiology. The high prevalence in two of the more virulent staphylococcal species is indicative of a potential role for STAR elements in pathogenesis.

  17. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  18. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  19. The van der Waals force and gravitational force in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    It was thought that the van der Waals force and gravitational force were distinct. Now a model is used to describe the attraction between macroscopic objects according to van der Waals interaction. The force between two objects with thermal equilibrium deviates from the law of universal gravitation slightly, and the gravity on the earth is explained approximately. We argue that the gravitational force is the van der Waals force actually. In other words, the gravitational force and mass are related to the quantum fluctuations of electron clouds in atoms, and these parameters are dictated by dielectric susceptibility.

  20. CAG trinucleotide RNA repeats interact with RNA-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, B.A.; Eberwine, J.; Spencer, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Genes associated with several neurological diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormally long trinucleotide repeat sequence. By way of example, Huntington`s disease (HD), is characterized by selective neuronal degeneration associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract. Normally, this CAG tract is comprised of 11-34 repeats, but in HD it is expanded to >37 repeats in affected individuals. The mechanism by which CAG repeats cause neuronal degeneration is unknown, but it has been speculated that the expansion primarily causes abnormal protein functioning, which in turn causes HD pathology. Other mechanisms, however, have not been ruled out. Interactions between RNA and RNA-binding proteins have previously been shown to play a role in the expression of several eukaryotic genes. Herein, we report the association of cytoplasmic proteins with normal length and extended CAG repeats, using gel shift and LJV crosslinking assays. Cytoplasmic protein extracts from several rat brain regions, including the striatum and cortex, sites of neuronal degeneration in HD, contain a 63-kD RNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with these CAG-repeat sequences. These protein-RNA interactions are dependent on the length of the CAG repeat, with longer repeats binding substantially more protein. Two CAG repeat-binding proteins are present in human cortex and striatum; one comigrates with the rat protein at 63 kD, while the other migrates at 49 kD. These data suggest mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins may be involved in the pathological course of trinucleotide repeat-associated neurological diseases. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Repeatability Evaluation of Finger Tapping Device with Magnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    We tested the repeatability of a finger tapping device with magnetic sensors to determine its reliability. This device, which was developed to assist in the diagnosis of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and strokes, measures the distance between the first and index fingers during finger tapping movements (opening and closing the fingers repeatedly). We evaluated three types of repeatability based on ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) and Welch's test (test for equal means in a oneway layout): repeatability when measured at different times, when using different devices, and when using different measurers. We calculated these three types for three finger tapping tasks on both hands for 21 characteristics calculated from finger tapping waveforms. Results demonstrated that the repeatability when using different devices is high regardless of the task or hand. The repeatability when measuring at different times and when using different measurers is high at some tasks, but not all. One of the finger tapping tasks (finger tapping movement with the largest amplitude and highest velocity), which is used in a conventional PD diagnosis method (UPDRS), does not have enough repeatability, while other tasks show high repeatability. Results also showed that five characteristics have the highest repeatability (ICC ≥ 0.5 or significance probability of Welch's test ≥ 5% in all tasks): “total moving distance,” “average of local minimum acceleration in opening motion,” “average of local minimum acceleration in closing motion,” “average of local maximum distance” and “average of local minimum velocity”. These results clearly demonstrate the strong repeatability of this device and lead to more precise diagnosis of movement disorders.

  2. Strategy When Faced with Failure: Persistence and Degree Attainment of Course Repeaters versus Non-Repeaters. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Kathleen S.

    Graduation and persistence rates were compared for 184 students, 92 of whom had repeated multiple courses or at least 1 course 3 times. A control group of 92 nonrepeating students was drawn from the remaining 303 students of the entire 1996 cohort. There was no difference between the graduation rate of repeaters and nonrepeaters. The persistence…

  3. Force Modulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better

  4. Force Feedback Joystick

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    I-FORCE, a computer peripheral from Immersion Corporation, was derived from virtual environment and human factors research at the Advanced Displays and Spatial Perception Laboratory at Ames Research Center in collaboration with Stanford University Center for Design Research. Entrepreneur Louis Rosenberg, a former Stanford researcher, now president of Immersion, collaborated with Dr. Bernard Adelstein at Ames on studies of perception in virtual reality. The result was an inexpensive way to incorporate motors and a sophisticated microprocessor into joysticks and other game controllers. These devices can emulate the feel of a car on the skid, a crashing plane, the bounce of a ball, compressed springs, or other physical phenomenon. The first products incorporating I-FORCE technology include CH- Products' line of FlightStick and CombatStick controllers.

  5. ASEAN Combined Forces Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-03

    nation building and the restoration of the democratic system through the general election which took place in March 1992. Malaysia. In West Malaysia’s...This problem is a result of different concepts for building the nation’s democratic system . I believe they will eventually solve it. Sinaapore...people, not only the armed forces. This organization is once more threatening to the democratic system of the country. By the next election, it is

  6. Ultrasonic Force Microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Oleg; Briggs, Andrew

    Ultrasonic Force Microscopy, or UFM, allows combination of two apparently mutually exclusive requirements for the nanomechanical probe—high stiffness for the efficient indentation and high mechanical compliance that brings force sensitivity. Somewhat inventively, UFM allows to combine these two virtues in the same cantilever by using indention of the sample at high frequency, when cantilever is very rigid, but detecting the result of this indention at much lower frequency. That is made possible due to the extreme nonlinearity of the nanoscale tip-surface junction force-distance dependence, that acts as "mechanical diode" detecting ultrasound in AFM. After introducing UFM principles, we discuss features of experimental UFM implementation, and the theory of contrast in this mode, progressing to quantitative measurements of contact stiffness. A variety of UFM applications ranging from semiconductor quantum nanostructures, graphene, very large scale integrated circuits, and reinforced ceramics to polymer composites and biological materials is presented via comprehensive imaging gallery accompanied by the guidance for the optimal UFM measurements of these materials. We also address effects of adhesion and topography on the elasticity imaging and the approaches for reducing artifacts connected with these effects. This is complemented by another extremely useful feature of UFM—ultrasound induced superlubricity that allows damage free imaging of materials ranging from stiff solid state devices and graphene to biological materials. Finally, we proceed to the exploration of time-resolved nanoscale phenomena using nonlinear mixing of multiple vibration frequencies in ultrasonic AFM—Heterodyne Force Microscopy, or HFM, that also include mixing of ultrasonic vibration with other periodic physical excitations, eg. electrical, photothermal, etc. Significant section of the chapter analyzes the ability of UFM and HFM to detect subsurface mechanical inhomogeneities, as well as

  7. Joint Forces Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    for countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in space. The Space Operations Center ( SPOC ), USSPACECOM is the single point...of contact for assessing space capabilities. Combatant commanders, subordinate JFCs, and Services can access this information from the SPOC via the...special operations forces SPOC Space Operations Center SSBN fleet ballistic missile submarine SST space support team UJTL Universal Joint Task List UN

  8. Concepts of force

    CERN Document Server

    Jammer, Max

    2011-01-01

    Both historical treatment and critical analysis, this work by a noted physicist takes a fascinating look at a fundamental of physics, tracing its development from ancient to modern times. Kepler's initiation of scientific conceptualization, Newton's definition, post-Newtonian reinterpretation - contrasting concepts of Leibniz, Boscovich, Kant with those of Mach, Kirchhoff, Hertz. In-depth analysis of contemporary trend toward eliminating force from conceptual scheme of physics. ""An excellent presentation."" - Science. 1962 edition.

  9. Force Employment Study (FES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    E-2 E-6 Snow Removal, Providence .. ....... ...........E-2 E-7 Tornado, Hopkinville, KY .. ....... ...........E-2 E-8 Volcano , Mt...Del Valle. The National Assembly met late on 25 Feb and replaced Del Valle with a Noriega-supported president, Solis- Palma . On 16 March, there was a... volcano eruption. Force composition: See Figure 3-18 Component: Active Army Man-day expenditure: 426 soldiers; 8,086 man-days Mode of deployment

  10. Tour de force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mervyn Miles; Massimo Antognozzi; Heiko Haschke; Jamie Hobbs; Andrew Humphris; Terence McMaster

    2003-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is capable of imaging synthetic polymers and biomolecular systems at sub-molecular resolution, without the need for staining or coating, in a range of environments including gas and liquid, so offering major advantages over other forms of microscopy. However, there are some limitations, which could be alleviated by (i) reducing the force interaction between the probe and specimen and (ii) increasing the rate of imaging. New developments in instrumentation from ...

  11. Is Gravity Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjia Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available If we assume that the source of thermodynamic system, ρ and p, are also the source of gravity, then either thermal quantities, such as entropy, temperature, and chemical potential, can induce gravitational effects, or gravity can induce thermal effects. We find that gravity can be seen as entropic force only for systems with constant temperature and zero chemical potential. The case for Newtonian approximation is discussed.

  12. Air Force Power Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-24

    2 Outline • Our Recent Heritage – MEA • Our Plan – HiPAC • HiPAC Technologies • Summary Powering the United States Air Force NASA AI R FO RC E NA VY...Aircraft i l i Munitions / UAV i i / Micro-Mini Platforms i i i l HiPAC Technical Program Areas • High Temperature Power System Components • High

  13. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  14. ``Force,'' ontology, and language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2009-06-01

    We introduce a linguistic framework through which one can interpret systematically students’ understanding of and reasoning about force and motion. Some researchers have suggested that students have robust misconceptions or alternative frameworks grounded in everyday experience. Others have pointed out the inconsistency of students’ responses and presented a phenomenological explanation for what is observed, namely, knowledge in pieces. We wish to present a view that builds on and unifies aspects of this prior research. Our argument is that many students’ difficulties with force and motion are primarily due to a combination of linguistic and ontological difficulties. It is possible that students are primarily engaged in trying to define and categorize the meaning of the term “force” as spoken about by physicists. We found that this process of negotiation of meaning is remarkably similar to that engaged in by physicists in history. In this paper we will describe a study of the historical record that reveals an analogous process of meaning negotiation, spanning multiple centuries. Using methods from cognitive linguistics and systemic functional grammar, we will present an analysis of the force and motion literature, focusing on prior studies with interview data. We will then discuss the implications of our findings for physics instruction.

  15. 199 Multiple Concussions in Young Athletes: Identifying Patients at Risk for Repeat Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Meghan; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Daniel Levi; Maloney, Patrick R; Gates, Marcus J; Bydon, Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    Concussion diagnosis and management is a topic of interest for health care, education, and government professionals. Given the evidence concerning the association of long-term effects and cumulative insult of multiple concussions, we sought to identify risk factors in young athletes for repeat injury. This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of our institution's series of pediatric sports related concussions. Patient demographics, characteristics, and clinical features of concussion were analyzed in an unadjusted fashion. Bivariate analysis examined these variables in relation to occurrence of subsequent concussion. Multivariable analysis was then used to evaluate for predictors of repeat injury. One hundred ninety-one patients with a mean age of 13.5 years were included for analysis. Relative to patients whose injury was associated with football, patients playing soccer (odds ratio [OR], 5.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-24.5), ice hockey/skating (OR, 6.97; 95% CI, 1.60-30.37), and basketball (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 1.23-29.07) were associated with a significant increased odds of having a subsequent concussion. History of prior concussion was also significantly associated with an increased odds of repeat injury following the index concussion, defined as the first concussion evaluated at our institution (OR, 12.54; 95% CI, 3.78-41.62). Relative to a concussion resulting from a mechanism involving blunt force to the head, patients with a concussion in the setting of a fall were significantly less likely to experience a subsequent concussion (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.71). Efforts to protect young athletes are of immeasurable value given the potential life years at risk for productivity and quality of life. With the identification of specific sports, prior injury, and mechanism influencing risk of repeat injury, clinicians are more informed to assess and discuss both risk and potential consequences of concussions with young athletes and their families.

  16. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance.

  17. Adding Value to Force Diagrams: Representing Relative Force Magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Nearly all physics instructors recognize the instructional value of force diagrams, and this journal has published several collections of exercises to improve student skill in this area.1-4 Yet some instructors worry that too few students perceive the conceptual and problem-solving utility of force diagrams,4-6 and over recent years a rich variety of approaches has been proposed to add value to force diagrams. Suggestions include strategies for identifying candidate forces,6,7 emphasizing the distinction between "contact" and "noncontact" forces,5,8 and the use of computer-based tutorials.9,10 Instructors have suggested a variety of conventions for constructing force diagrams, including approaches to arrow placement and orientation2,11-13 and proposed notations for locating forces or marking action-reaction force pairs.8,11,14,15

  18. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues.

  19. Repeating earthquakes recorded by Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-tong; WU Zhong-liang; JIANG Chang-sheng; LI Guang-ping

    2008-01-01

    In the list of 'repeating pairs' or 'doublets' of earthquakes in China identified by Schaff and Richards using tele-seismic waveform cross-correlation, there were 23 repeating pairs located in Liaoning Province. In this study the waveforms of these events were cross-correlated using records from Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network (LRSN), and the 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation were obtained. The result was compared with that of Schaff and Richards and was used for the assessment of the seismic phase picking and event location practice of LRSN. The result shows that 'repeating events' in the sense of teleseismic waveform cross-correlation and those in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation have significant difference, al-though with some overlap. However, the overall assessment of the location accuracy and the phase pick errors of LRSN by using these two sets of 'repeating events', respectively, provides similar results, while 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation seem to be better performing in such an assessment. With the assumption that the separation between the 'repeaters' be less than 1 km, the uncertainty in routine earthquake location of LRSN is estimated to be below 5 km, with the average of 2 km. In the observational bulletins of LRSN the time error in phase picking is estimated to be within±Is for 94% Pg readings and for 88% Sg readings.

  20. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Saraswat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding in buffaloes was evaluated in terms of incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. The incidence of repeat breeding is low in buffaloes however in different studies the incidence varied from 0.70% to 30%. Because of seasonal suppression of fertility repeat breeding in buffaloes should be limited to the breeding season. Spring and winter calving, first parity, peri-parturient disease and lactation are significant risk factors for repeat breeding in buffaloes. The etiologies of repeat breeding in buffaloes can be failure of fertilization and early embryonic deaths. Only a few of causes of failure of fertilization have been identified in buffaloes. Ovulatory disturbances and ovarian cysts are uncommon in buffaloes and cysts have poor clinical manifestation. Endometritis is the common female cause of fertilization failures in buffaloes whereas poor semen quality and improper insemination are the bull side factors for fertilization failures. Early embryonic deaths are common in buffaloes mated/inseminated during the end of the breeding season due to a low luteal progesterone however embryonic deaths occur late (<25 days in buffaloes. Diagnostic approaches for repeat breeding include vaginoscopic and transrectal examination and uterine cytology for genital health. More precise evaluations of the ovarian and uterine function can be obtained by ultrasonographic and hysteroscopic examinations performed sequentially however, precise diagnosis of the cause of repeat breeding seems difficult.

  1. Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T J; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Huang, Po-Ssu; Bhabha, Gira; Ekiert, Damian C; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hura, Greg L; Tainer, John A; Baker, David

    2015-12-24

    A central question in protein evolution is the extent to which naturally occurring proteins sample the space of folded structures accessible to the polypeptide chain. Repeat proteins composed of multiple tandem copies of a modular structure unit are widespread in nature and have critical roles in molecular recognition, signalling, and other essential biological processes. Naturally occurring repeat proteins have been re-engineered for molecular recognition and modular scaffolding applications. Here we use computational protein design to investigate the space of folded structures that can be generated by tandem repeating a simple helix-loop-helix-loop structural motif. Eighty-three designs with sequences unrelated to known repeat proteins were experimentally characterized. Of these, 53 are monomeric and stable at 95 °C, and 43 have solution X-ray scattering spectra consistent with the design models. Crystal structures of 15 designs spanning a broad range of curvatures are in close agreement with the design models with root mean square deviations ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Å. Our results show that existing repeat proteins occupy only a small fraction of the possible repeat protein sequence and structure space and that it is possible to design novel repeat proteins with precisely specified geometries, opening up a wide array of new possibilities for biomolecular engineering.

  2. Force-distance curves by atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cappella, Bruno; Dietler, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance curves have become a fundamental tool in several fields of research, such as surface science, materials engineering, biochemistry and biology. Furthermore, they have great importance for the study of surface interactions from a theoretical point of view. Force-distance curves have been employed for the study of numerous materials properties and for the characterization of all the known kinds of surface forces. Since 1989, several techniques of acqu...

  3. Proximal arm kinematics affect grip force-load force coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Vermillion, Billy C.; Lum, Peter S; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    During object manipulation, grip force is coordinated with load force, which is primarily determined by object kinematics. Proximal arm kinematics may affect grip force control, as proximal segment motion could affect control of distal hand muscles via biomechanical and/or neural pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of proximal kinematics on grip force modulation during object manipulation. Fifteen subjects performed three vertical lifting tasks that involved distinct...

  4. Optical Fiber Grating Sensor for Force Measurement of Anchor Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Desheng; FU Jinghua; LIU Shengchun; SUI Lingfeng; FU Rong

    2006-01-01

    The development of the sensor suitable for measuring large load stress to the anchor cable becomes an important task in bridge construction and maintenance. Therefore, a new type of optical fiber sensor was developed in the laboratory - optical fiber grating sensor for force measurement of anchor cable (OFBFMAC). No similar report about this kind of sensor has been found up to now in China and other countries. This sensor is proved to be an effective way of monitoring in processes of anchor cable installation, cable cutting, cable force regulation, etc, with the accurate and repeatable measuring results. Its successful application in the tie bar cable force safety monitoring for Wuhan Qingchuan bridge is a new exploration of optical fiber grating sensing technology in bridge tie bar monitoring system.

  5. ACCA phosphopeptide recognition by the BRCT repeats of BRCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Hind; Moreau, Karen; Dizin, Eva; Callebaut, Isabelle; Venezia, Nicole Dalla

    2006-06-16

    The tumour suppressor gene BRCA1 encodes a 220 kDa protein that participates in multiple cellular processes. The BRCA1 protein contains a tandem of two BRCT repeats at its carboxy-terminal region. The majority of disease-associated BRCA1 mutations affect this region and provide to the BRCT repeats a central role in the BRCA1 tumour suppressor function. The BRCT repeats have been shown to mediate phospho-dependant protein-protein interactions. They recognize phosphorylated peptides using a recognition groove that spans both BRCT repeats. We previously identified an interaction between the tandem of BRCA1 BRCT repeats and ACCA, which was disrupted by germ line BRCA1 mutations that affect the BRCT repeats. We recently showed that BRCA1 modulates ACCA activity through its phospho-dependent binding to ACCA. To delineate the region of ACCA that is crucial for the regulation of its activity by BRCA1, we searched for potential phosphorylation sites in the ACCA sequence that might be recognized by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using sequence analysis and structure modelling, we proposed the Ser1263 residue as the most favourable candidate among six residues, for recognition by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using experimental approaches, such as GST pull-down assay with Bosc cells, we clearly showed that phosphorylation of only Ser1263 was essential for the interaction of ACCA with the BRCT repeats. We finally demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of ACCA in cells, that the whole BRCA1 protein interacts with ACCA when phosphorylated on Ser1263.

  6. Predictability of Forced Lorenz Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baosheng; Ding, Ruiqiang; Li, Jianping; Zhong, Quanjia

    2017-04-01

    Based on the nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent (NLLE) approach, the influences of external forcing on the predictability are studied in the Lorenz systems with constant and quasi-periodic forces in this paper. The results indicate that for the Lorenz systems with constant and quasi-periodic forces, their predictability limits increase with the forcing strength. With the same magnitude and different directions, the constant or quasi-periodic forcing shows different effects on the predictability limit in the Lorenz system, and these effects become significant with the increase of the forcing strength. Generally speaking, the positive forcing leads to a higher predictability limit than the negative forcing. Therefore, when we think about the effects of positive and negative elements and phases in the atmosphere and ocean research, the predictability problems driven by different phases should be considered separately. In addition, the influences of constant and quasi-periodic forces on the predictability are different in the Lorenz system. The effect of the constant forcing on the predictability is mainly reflected in the linear phase of error growth, while the nonlinear phase should also be considered for the situation of the quasi-periodic forcing. The predictability limit of the system under constant forcing is longer than the system under quasi-periodic forcing. These results based on simple chaotic model could provide insight into the studies of the actual atmosphere predictability.

  7. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jensen, Rigmor; Gard, Gunvor; Skov, Liselotte; Hallström, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children. Twenty-five healthy children, 9 to 18 years of age, participated in test-retest procedures within a 1-week interval. A computerized padded force transducer was used for testing. The tests included the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness of neck flexion and extension, and the isometric maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force of the dominant shoulder. Pericranial tenderness was recorded by means of standardized manual palpation, and a submaximal cycle ergometer test predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). The measurements were evaluated in steps, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); changes in the mean between the two test occasions; the levels of agreement, visualized in Bland-Altman Plots; and by quantifying the variability. The results showed an acceptable test-retest repeatability of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (ICC 0.90-0.97). The force steadiness measurements revealed a trend of systematic changes in the direction of neck flexion and need further examination in both healthy and ill children. The rate of force development, Total Tenderness Score, and prediction of VO2 max showed repeatability, with ICC 0.80-0.87. The measurements of strength capacity, aerobic power, and tenderness provide acceptable repeatability, suitable for research in children.

  8. Instrumented Footwear Inserts: A New Tool for Measuring Forces and Biomechanical State Changes During Dynamic Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    1 Instrumented Footwear Inserts: A New Tool For Measuring Forces and Biomechanical State Changes During Dynamic Movements Joe Lacirignola1...bones and joints are repeatedly subjected to aggressive movements and high forces. The ability to measure these elements during training would be a...critical enabler for prevention of injury and development of more quantitative training procedures that focus on ambulatory mobility and agility. It

  9. A Multifunctional Frontloading Approach for Repeated Recycling of a Pressure-Controlled AFM Micropipette.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Roder

    Full Text Available Fluid force microscopy combines the positional accuracy and force sensitivity of an atomic force microscope (AFM with nanofluidics via a microchanneled cantilever. However, adequate loading and cleaning procedures for such AFM micropipettes are required for various application situations. Here, a new frontloading procedure is described for an AFM micropipette functioning as a force- and pressure-controlled microscale liquid dispenser. This frontloading procedure seems especially attractive when using target substances featuring high costs or low available amounts. Here, the AFM micropipette could be filled from the tip side with liquid from a previously applied droplet with a volume of only a few μL using a short low-pressure pulse. The liquid-loaded AFM micropipettes could be then applied for experiments in air or liquid environments. AFM micropipette frontloading was evaluated with the well-known organic fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the AlexaFluor647-labeled antibody goat anti-rat IgG as an example of a larger biological compound. After micropipette usage, specific cleaning procedures were tested. Furthermore, a storage method is described, at which the AFM micropipettes could be stored for a few hours up to several days without drying out or clogging of the microchannel. In summary, the rapid, versatile and cost-efficient frontloading and cleaning procedure for the repeated usage of a single AFM micropipette is beneficial for various application situations from specific surface modifications through to local manipulation of living cells, and provides a simplified and faster handling for already known experiments with fluid force microscopy.

  10. A Multifunctional Frontloading Approach for Repeated Recycling of a Pressure-Controlled AFM Micropipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Phillip; Hille, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Fluid force microscopy combines the positional accuracy and force sensitivity of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with nanofluidics via a microchanneled cantilever. However, adequate loading and cleaning procedures for such AFM micropipettes are required for various application situations. Here, a new frontloading procedure is described for an AFM micropipette functioning as a force- and pressure-controlled microscale liquid dispenser. This frontloading procedure seems especially attractive when using target substances featuring high costs or low available amounts. Here, the AFM micropipette could be filled from the tip side with liquid from a previously applied droplet with a volume of only a few μL using a short low-pressure pulse. The liquid-loaded AFM micropipettes could be then applied for experiments in air or liquid environments. AFM micropipette frontloading was evaluated with the well-known organic fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the AlexaFluor647-labeled antibody goat anti-rat IgG as an example of a larger biological compound. After micropipette usage, specific cleaning procedures were tested. Furthermore, a storage method is described, at which the AFM micropipettes could be stored for a few hours up to several days without drying out or clogging of the microchannel. In summary, the rapid, versatile and cost-efficient frontloading and cleaning procedure for the repeated usage of a single AFM micropipette is beneficial for various application situations from specific surface modifications through to local manipulation of living cells, and provides a simplified and faster handling for already known experiments with fluid force microscopy.

  11. Secure quantum network coding for controlled repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Li, Jiao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-07-01

    To realize efficient quantum communication based on quantum repeater, we propose a secure quantum network coding scheme for controlled repeater networks, which adds a controller as a trusted party and is able to control the process of EPR-pair distribution. As the key operations of quantum repeater, local operations and quantum communication are designed to adopt quantum one-time pad to enhance the function of identity authentication instead of local operations and classical communication. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can defend against active attacks for quantum communication and realize long-distance quantum communication with minimal resource consumption.

  12. Instability of trinucleotidic repeats during chromatin remodeling in spermatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Olivier; Grégoire, Marie-Chantal; Arguin, Mélina; Brazeau, Marc-André; Leduc, Frédéric; Marois, Isabelle; Richter, Martin V; Boissonneault, Guylain

    2014-11-01

    Transient DNA breaks and evidence of DNA damage response have recently been reported during the chromatin remodeling process in haploid spermatids, creating a potential window of enhanced genetic instability. We used flow cytometry to achieve separation of differentiating spermatids into four highly purified populations using transgenic mice harboring 160 CAG repeats within exon 1 of the human Huntington disease gene (HTT). Trinucleotic repeat expansion was found to occur immediately following the chromatin remodeling steps, confirming the genetic instability of the process and pointing to the origin of paternal anticipation observed in some trinucleotidic repeats diseases.

  13. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  14. Frequency Bandwidth of Half-Wave Impedance Repeater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dvorsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article brings in the second part general information about half-wave impedance repeater. The third part describes the basic functional principles of the half-wave impedance repeater using Smith chart. The main attention is focused in part four on the derivation of repeater frequency bandwidth depending on characteristics and load impedance of unknown feeder line. Derived dependences are based on the elementary features of the feeder lines with specific length. The described functionality is proved in part 4.3 by measurement of transformed impedance using vector several unbalanced feeder lines and network analyzer VNWA3+.

  15. Urethral catheter insertion forces: a comparison of experience and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K. Canales

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the insertion forces utilized during simulated placement of a urethral catheter by healthcare individuals with a variety of catheter experience. Materials and Methods: A 21F urethral catheter was mounted to a metal spring. Participants were asked to press the tubing spring against a force gauge and stop when they met a level of resistance that would typically make them terminate a catheter placement. Simulated catheter insertion was repeated fives times, and peak compression forces were recorded. Healthcare professionals were divided into six groups according to their title: urology staff, non-urology staff, urology resident/ fellow, non-urology resident/ fellow, medical student, and registered nurse. Results: A total of fifty-seven healthcare professionals participated in the study. Urology staff (n = 6 had the lowest average insertion force for any group at 6.8 ± 2.0 Newtons (N. Medical students (n = 10 had the least amount of experience (1 ± 0 years and the highest average insertion force range of 10.1 ± 3.7 N. Health care workers with greater than 25 years experience used significantly less force during catheter insertions (4.9 ± 1.8 N compared to all groups (p < 0.01. Conclusions: We propose the maximum force that should be utilized during urethral catheter insertion is 5 Newtons. This force deserves validation in a larger population and should be considered when designing urethral catheters or creating catheter simulators. Understanding urethral catheter insertion forces may also aid in establishing competency parameters for health care professionals in training.

  16. Are buckling force measurements reliable in nocturnal penile tumescence studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, E A; Fasiczka, A L; Thase, M E; Reynolds, C F; Frank, E; Jennings, J R; Garamoni, G L; Matzzie, J V; Kupfer, D J

    1993-02-01

    The study of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) is frequently used to evaluate male erectile dysfunction. Buckling force, a measure of rigidity, is an important part of this evaluation, but its reliability is unknown. Accordingly, we studied the reliability of buckling force measurement and the stability of "maximum buckling force" between consecutive NPT series repeated in the same subject. For individual subjects, we correlated buckling forces for separate episodes of sleep-related tumescence that were of comparable fullness (0-100%) as rated by a technician's visual estimates. For healthy control subjects, test-retest correlations were > 0.8 both within-night and across study series separated by an average of 70 weeks. In depressed men, correlations within nights were > 0.9, but fell to 0.64 across study series separated by an average of 21 weeks. Despite the high reliability of buckling force measurement, we found little stability of "maximum buckling force" between NPT series for individual subjects. Considerable variability in the maximum degree of penile rigidity was seen over time despite a constant level of reported daytime erectile function. We conclude that although penile rigidity is one of the more important variables in the assessment of male erectile dysfunction and can be measured reliably, the instability of maximum rigidity during sleep-related erections suggests that it is, at best, an imprecise correlate of daytime erectile function.

  17. Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrmann Gregory P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces. The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements.

  18. Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Woźny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation The concepts of motion and force are both extensively discussed in cognitive linguistics literature. But they are discussed separately. The first usually in the context of ‘motion situations’ (Talmy, Slobin, Zlatev, the other as part of the Force Dynamics framework, which was developed by Talmy. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to argue that the concepts of force and motion should not be isolated but considered as two inseparable parts of force-motion events. The second goal is to prove that the modified Force Dynamics (force-motion framework can be used for precise characterization of the verb complementation patterns. To this end, a random sample of 50 sentences containing the verb ‘went’ is analyzed, demonstrating the differences between the categories of intensive and intransitive complementation with respect to the linguistically coded parameters of force and motion.

  19. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  20. High-Speed Digital Signal Processing Method for Detection of Repeating Earthquakes Using GPGPU-Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Taiki; Okubo, Kan; Uchida, Naoki; Takeuchi, Nobunao; Matsuzawa, Toru

    2013-04-01

    detailed analysis of repeating earthquakes. This method gives us the correlation between two seismic data at each frequency. Then, we evaluate the effectiveness of these methods. Moreover, we also examined the GPGPU acceleration technique for these methods. We compare the execution time between GPU (NVIDIA GeForce GTX 580) and CPU (Intel Core i7 960) processing. The parameters of both analyses are on equal terms. In case of band limited phase only correlation, the obtained results indicate that single GPU is ca. 8.0 times faster than 4-core CPU (auto-optimization with OpenMP). On the other hand, GPU is times as fast as CPU. And in case of coherence function using three components, GPU is 12.7 times as fast as CPU. This study examines the high-speed signal processing of huge seismic data using the GPU architecture. It was found that both band-limited Fourier phase correlation and coherence function using three orthogonal components are effective, and that the GPGPU-based acceleration for the temporal signal processing is very useful. We will employ the multi-GPU computing, and expand the GPGPU-based high-speed signal processing framework for the detection of repeating earthquakes in the future.

  1. Muscle force recovery in relation to muscle oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufland, Pierre; Lapole, Thomas; Ahmaidi, Said; Buchheit, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of human muscle reoxygenation on force recovery following a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Ten athletes (22·9 ± 4·0 years) executed a plantar-flexion sequence including two repeated MVCs [i.e. a 30-s MVC (MVC(30)) followed by a 10-s MVC (MVC(10))] separated by 10, 30, 60, 120 or 300 s of passive recovery. A 10-min passive recovery period was allowed between each MVC sequence. This procedure was randomly repeated with two different recovery conditions: without (CON) or with (OCC) arterial occlusion of the medial gastrocnemius. During OCC, the occlusion was maintained from the end of MVC(30) to the end of MVC(10). Muscle oxygenation (Near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, [Hb(diff) ]) was continuously measured during all MVC sequences and expressed as a percentage of the maximal changes in optical density observed during MVC(30). Maximal Torque was analysed at the start of each contraction. Torque during each MVC(10) was expressed as a percentage of the Torque during the previous MVC(30). Torque recovery was complete within 300 s after MVC(30) during CON (MVC(10) = 101·8 ± 5·0%); 88·6 ± 8·9% of the Torque was recovered during OCC (P = 0·005). There was also a moderate correlation between absolute level of muscle oxygenation and Torque (r = 0·32 (90% CI, 0·09;0·52), P = 0·02). Present findings confirm the role of human muscle oxygenation in muscular force recovery during repeated-maximal efforts. However, the correlation between absolute muscle oxygenation and force level during recovery is only moderate, suggesting that other mechanisms are likely involved in the force recovery process.

  2. Calorimetry Task Force Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Banerjee, Sunanda; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bhatti, Anwar; Chlebana, Frank; Cossutti, Fabio; Hirschauer, James; Ivanchenko, V; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Kunori, Shuichi; Kroeger, Rob; Liu, Yanwen; Moeller, Anthony; Paulini, Manfred; Piperov, Stefan; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rovelli, Chiara; Safronov, Grigory; Sharma, Seema; Spiropulu, Maria; Yetkin, Taylan

    2010-01-01

    In this note we summarize the progress made by the calorimeter simulation task force (CaloTF) over the past year. The CaloTF was established in February 2008 in order to understand and reconcile the discrepancies observed between the CMS calorimetry simulation and test beam data recorded during 2004 and 2006. The simulation has been significantly improved by using a newer version of Geant4 and an improved physics list for the full CMS detector simulation. Simulation times have been reduced by introducing flexible parameterizations to describe showering in the calorimeter (using a Gflash-like approach) which have been tuned to the test beam data.

  3. Force sensor free teleoperated robotic surgery : Interaction force estimation for realistic force feedback without force sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Nærum, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    List of papers. The papers are removed from the thesis due to copyright restrictions. Paper I E. Naerum, J. Cornellà and O.J. Elle. Wavelet networks for estimation of coupled friction in robotic manipulators Proc. IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, Pasadena, CA, USA, May 2008, pp. 862-867. doi:10.1109/ROBOT.2008.4543313 Paper II E. Naerum, J. Cornellà and O.J. Elle. Contact force estimation for backdrivable robotic manipulators with coupled friction IE...

  4. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  5. Dynamics of forced biopolymer translocation

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtola, V V; Kaski, K; 10.1209/0295-5075/85/58006

    2009-01-01

    We present results from our simulations of biopolymer translocation in a solvent which explain the main experimental findings. The forced translocation can be described by simple force balance arguments for the relevant range of pore potentials in experiments and biological systems. Scaling of translocation time with polymer length varies with pore force and friction. Hydrodynamics affects this scaling and significantly reduces translocation times.

  6. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  7. Highly Informative Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers for Fingerprinting Hazelnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite markers have many applications in breeding and genetic studies of plants, including fingerprinting of cultivars and investigations of genetic diversity, and therefore provide information for better management of germplasm collections. They are repeatab...

  8. On the role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, L; Dür, W; Kraus, B

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory, and (ii) introducing two new operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e. without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an o...

  9. Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Genomes of Rhizobia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-mei; HAN Yi-qiang; TANG Hui; SUN Dong-mei; WANG Yan-jie; WANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, as genetic markers, are ubiquitous in genomes of various organisms. The analysis of SSR in rhizobia genome provides useful information for a variety of applications in population genetics of rhizobia. We analyzed the occurrences, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs, the most common in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti, and Sinorhizobium meliloti genomes se-quenced in the microorganisms tandem repeats database, and SSRs in the three species genomes were compared with each other. The result showed that there were 1 410, 859, and 638 SSRs in B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti genomes, respectively. In the genomes of B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti, tetranucleotide, pentanucleotide, and hexanucleotide repeats were more abundant and indicated higher mutation rates in these species. The least abundance was mononucleotide repeat. The SSRs type and distribution were similar among these species.

  10. simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in genetic analysis of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 ... mean (UPGMA) with each cluster representing a particular Vigna species. ..... were reported to be more frequent than the compound.

  11. Study of simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism for biotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... back cross breeding; SSRs, simple sequence repeats; PIC, polymorphism ..... PIC values were reported in barley wheat and rice (Gu et ... doubled-haploid rice population. Theor. ... Grover A, Aishwarya V, Sharma PC (2007).

  12. Markerless modification of trinucleotide repeat loci in BACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzow, Kellie A; Koob, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Transcription and splicing of human genes are regulated by nucleotide sequences encoded across large segments of our genome, and trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations can have both profound and subtle effects on these processes. In the course of our work to understand the impact of the Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 8 (SCA8) CTG repeat expansion on the transcription and splicing of the RNAs encoded near the SCA8 locus, we have developed a set of reagents and protocols for modifying large genomic BAC clones of this region. We describe the two-step procedure that allows us to precisely replace unexpanded trinucleotide repeats with expanded variants of these repeat sequences without leaving any exogenous sequences in the final constructs, and we discuss how this approach can be adapted to make other desired sequence changes to these genomic clones.

  13. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  14. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Joris; Klugkist, I.G.; Schoot, Rens van de; Meeus, W.H.J.; Selfhout, Maarten; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between

  15. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823031; Klugkist, I.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/27330089X; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; van Zalk, M.H.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836214; Hoijtink, H.J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075184427

    2009-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between groups,

  16. Correct use of repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunsik; Cho, Meehye; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2009-02-01

    In biomedical research, researchers frequently use statistical procedures such as the t-test, standard analysis of variance (ANOVA), or the repeated measures ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest. There are frequently some misuses in applying these procedures since the conditions of the experiments or statistical assumptions necessary to apply these procedures are not fully taken into consideration. In this paper, we demonstrate the correct use of repeated measures ANOVA to prevent or minimize ethical or scientific problems due to its misuse. We also describe the appropriate use of multiple comparison tests for follow-up analysis in repeated measures ANOVA. Finally, we demonstrate the use of repeated measures ANOVA by using real data and the statistical software package SPSS (SPSS Inc., USA).

  17. Modeling of forced vibration phenomenon by making an electrical analogy with ANSYS finite element software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rocío Pallares Muñoz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing mechanical systems which are submitted to vibration requires calculation methods which are very different to those u-sed in other disciplines because, when this occurs, the magnitude of the forces becomes secondary and the frequency with which the force is repeated becomes the most important aspect. It must be taken care of, given that smaller periodic forces can prompt disasters than greater static forces. The article presents a representative problem regarding systems having forced vibration, the mathematical treatment of differential equations from an electrical and mechanical viewpoint, an electrical analogy, numerical modeling of circuits using ANSYS finite element software, analysis and comparison of numerical modeling results compared to test values, the post-processing of results and conclusions regarding electrical analogy methodology when analysing forced vibra-tion systems.

  18. Interfacial forces between silica surfaces measured by atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Jinming

    2009-01-01

    Colloidal particle stability and some other interfacial phenomena are governed by interfacial force interactions. The two well known forces are van der Waals force and electrostatic force, as documented by the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Moreover, advances in modern instrumentation and colloid science suggested that some short-ranged forces or structure forces are important for relevant colloidal systems. The interfacial and/or molecular forces can be measured as a resultant force as function of separation distance by atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloid probe. This article presents a discussion on AFM colloid probe measurement of silica particle and silica wafer surfaces in solutions with some technical notifications in measurement and data convolution mechanisms. The measured forces are then analyzed and discussed based on the 'constant charge' and 'constant potential' models of DLVO theory. The difference between the prediction of DLVO theory and the measured results indicates that there is a strong short-range structure force between the two hydrophilic surfaces, even at extremely low ionic concentration, such as Milli-Q water purity solution.

  19. Reconstructing the distributed force on an atomic force microscope cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan; Killgore, Jason

    2017-03-01

    A methodology is developed to reconstruct the force applied to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever given the shape in which it vibrates. This is accomplished by rewriting Bernoulli–Euler beam theory such that the force on the cantilever is approximated as a linear superposition of the theoretical cantilever eigenmodes. The weighting factors in this summation are calculated from the amplitude and phase measured along the length of the cantilever. The accuracy of the force reconstruction is shown to depend on the frequency at which the measurement is performed, the number of discrete points measured along the length of the cantilever, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured signal. In contrast to other AFM force reconstruction techniques, this method can reconstruct the distribution of force applied over the length of the AFM cantilever. However, this method performs poorly for localized forces applied to the cantilever, such as is typical of most tip–sample interaction forces. Proof of concept experiments are performed on an electrostatically excited cantilever and the expected force distribution is recovered. This force reconstruction technique offers previously unavailable insight into the distributed forces experienced by an AFM cantilever.

  20. Interfacial forces between silica surfaces measured by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jinming

    2009-01-01

    Colloidal particle stability and some other interfacial phenomena are governed by interfacial force interactions. The two well known forces are van der Waals force and electrostatic force, as documented by the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Moreover, advances in modern instrumentation and colloid science suggested that some short-ranged forces or structure forces are important for relevant colloidal systems. The interfacial and/or molecular forces can be measured as a resultant force as function of separation distance by atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloid probe. This article presents a discussion on AFM colloid probe measurement of silica particle and silica wafer surfaces in solutions with some technical notifications in measurement and data convolution mechanisms. The measured forces are then analyzed and discussed based on the 'constant charge' and 'constant potential' models of DLVO theory. The difference between the prediction of DLVO theory and the measured results indicates that there is a strong short-range structure force between the two hydrophilic surfaces, even at extremely low ionic concentration, such as Milli-Q water purity solution.