WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeated one-page adr

  1. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  2. Improving Marketing Students' Writing Skills Using a One-Page Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Newell D.; Larsen, Val

    2016-01-01

    Employers of marketing graduates view good writing as a core marketing skill, but many marketing students are weak writers. The improvement of student writing should therefore be an important objective in a well-designed marketing curriculum. One-page papers combine the effective teaching of marketing concepts with writing instruction while…

  3. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  4. Market segmentation: venezuelan adrs

    OpenAIRE

    Urbi Garay; Maximiliano González

    2012-01-01

    The foreign exchange controls imposed by Venezuela in 2003, constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that, although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, shares in the firm CANTV were, through its American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the ...

  5. Comparative evaluation of adverse drug reaction reporting forms for introduction of a spontaneous generic ADR form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshi Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite comprehensive and stringent phases of clinical trials and surveillance efforts, unexpected and serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs repeatedly occur after the drug is marketed. ADR reporting is an important aspect of an efficient and effective pharmacovigilance program. Although Medwatch, Yellow Card, CDSCO form, etc. are the protocol forms of ADR collection and reports, a number of countries design and use their respective ADR forms. This review compares similarities and dissimilarities of 13 ADR forms of countries representing their geographical location. This study extracted 73 data elements mentioned in 13 different ADR forms. Only 13 elements were common. An ADR form of Malaysia and Canada covers the highest number of data 43, while Brazil falls to the opposite end with a number of 17 data elements in lieu with the Generic ADR Form. The result of this review highlights 58 data elements of the proposed generic ADR form which ensures that requisite reporting information essential for correct causality assessment of ADRs are included. The proposed "Generic ADR form" could be adopted worldwide mandatorily for reporting any/all ADRs associated with marketed drugs.

  6. Colombian ADRs: Why so few?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano González

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the question of why Colombian companies have had such a limited presence in the American Depositary Receipts (ADRs market. Traditional explanations state that weak investor protection and the degree of economic and financial development in Colombia increase the cost of entry in the ADR market. However, in the case of Colombia these explanations do not suffice because in these respects Colombia is no different from other Latin American countries. Using a theoretical model, we show that additional factors such as drug trafficking and armed conflict better explain why Colombian firms have moved away from the ADRs market

  7. The One-Page Project Manager Comunicate and Manage Any Project With a Single Sheet of Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Clark A

    2007-01-01

    The One-Page Project Manager shows you how to boil down any project into a simple, one-page document that can be used to communicate all essential details to upper management, other departments, suppliers, and audiences. This practical guide will save time and effort, helping you identify the vital parts of a project and communicate those parts and duties to other team members.

  8. Shielded ADR Magnets For Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II program will concentrate on manufacturing of qualified low-current, light-weight, 10K ADR magnets for space application. Shielded ADR solenoidal magnets...

  9. The One-Page Project Manager for Execution Drive Strategy and Solve Problems with a Single Sheet of Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Clark A

    2010-01-01

    Execution â€" getting things done -made easy and effective with simple, proven project management tools. Following on the huge success of the author's previous works, The One-Page Project Manager for Execution gives business leaders the means they seek for greater success. This helpful guide cuts through red tape and procedural hurdles to provide tools, templates, and teachings for rapid implementation by both the novice and seasoned practitioner. These methods communicate and align company strategy, as well as drive engagement and problem solving.: Offers the latest refinement on Toyota manag

  10. Information about ADRs explored by pharmacovigilance approaches: a qualitative review of studies on antibiotics, SSRIs and NSAIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite surveillance efforts, unexpected and serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) repeatedly occur after marketing. The aim of this article is to analyse ADRs reported by available ADR signal detection approaches and to explore which information about new and unexpected ADRs these approaches have detected. Methods We selected three therapeutic cases for the review: antibiotics for systemic use, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAID) and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI). These groups are widely used and represent different therapeutic classes of medicines. The ADR studies were identified through literature search in Medline and Embase. The search was conducted in July 2007. For each therapeutic case, we analysed the time of publication, the strengths of the evidence of safety in the different approaches, reported ADRs and whether the studies have produced new information about ADRs compared to the information available at the time of marketing. Results 79 studies were eligible for inclusion in the analysis: 23 antibiotics studies, 35 NSAID studies, 20 SSRI studies. Studies were mainly published from the end of the 1990s and onwards. Although the drugs were launched in different decades, both analytical and observational approaches to ADR studies were similar for all three therapeutic cases: antibiotics, NSAIDs and SSRIs. The studies primarily dealt with analyses of ADRs of the type A and B and to a lesser extent C and D, cf. Rawlins' classification system. The therapeutic cases provided similar results with regard to detecting information about new ADRs despite different time periods and organs attacked. Approaches ranging higher in the evidence hierarchy provided information about risks of already known or expected ADRs, while information about new and previously unknown ADRs was only detected by case reports, the lowest ranking approach in the evidence hierarchy. Conclusion Although the medicines were launched in different

  11. Shielded ADR Magnets For Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An important consideration of the use of superconducting magnets in ADR applications is shielding of the other instruments in the vicinity of the superconducting...

  12. Drought tolerance established by enhanced expression of the CC-NBS-LRR gene, ADR1, requires salicylic acid, EDS1 and ABI1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Andrea; Grant, John J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Loake, Gary J

    2004-06-01

    An activation-tagged allele of activated disease resistance 1 (ADR1) has previously been shown to convey broad spectrum disease resistance. ADR1 was found to encode a coiled-coil (CC)-nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein, which possessed domains of homology with serine/threonine protein kinases. Here, we show that either constitutive or conditional enhanced expression of ADR1 conferred significant drought tolerance. This was not a general feature of defence-related mutants because cir (constitutive induced resistance)1, cir2 and cpr (constitutive expressor of PR genes)1, which constitutively express systemic acquired resistance (SAR), failed to exhibit this phenotype. Cross-tolerance was not a characteristic of adr1 plants, rather they showed increased sensitivity to thermal and salinity stress. Hence, adr1-activated signalling may antagonise some stress responses. Northern analysis of abiotic marker genes revealed that dehydration-responsive element (DRE)B2A but not DREB1A, RD (response to dehydration)29A or RD22 was expressed in adr1 plant lines. Furthermore, DREB2A expression was salicylic acid (SA) dependent but NPR (non-expressor of PR genes)1 independent. In adr1/ADR1 nahG (naphthalene hydroxylase G), adr1/ADR1 eds (enhanced disease susceptibility)1 and adr1/ADR1 abi1 double mutants, drought tolerance was significantly reduced. Microarray analyses of plants containing a conditional adr1 allele demonstrated that a significant number of the upregulated genes had been previously implicated in responses to dehydration. Therefore, biotic and abiotic signalling pathways may share multiple nodes and their outputs may have significant functional overlap.

  13. Founding an adverse drug reaction (ADR) network: a method for improving doctors spontaneous ADR reporting in a general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lee Hilary; Berlin, Maya; Saliba, Walid; Elias, Mazen; Berkovitch, Matitiyahu

    2013-11-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are underreported by doctors despite numerous efforts. We aimed to determine if establishing an "ADR reporting doctor's network" within a hospital would increase the quantity of ADRs reported by hospital doctors. One hundred hospital doctors joined the network. Email reminders were sent to network members during the 1 year study period, conveying information about ADRs reported, amusingly and pleasantly reminding them to report ADRs in minimal detail, by phone, email, text message or mail to the Clinical Pharmacology Unit, who would further complete the report. A total of 114 ADRs were reported during the study period in comparison to 48, 26, and 17 in the previous 3 years (2008, 2009, 2010, respectively). In the 3 years prior, doctors reported 41.7% of the reported ADRs whereas in the study period, doctors reported 74.3% of ADRs (P reports. Ninety seven percent of doctors' reports were of ADR network members. Thirty-four (34%) network members reported an ADR during the study period and 31 of the 34 reporters had never reported ADRs before becoming network members. Establishing an ADR network of doctors substantially increases ADR reporting amongst its members.

  14. 49 CFR 1109.3 - Confidentiality in ADR Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality in ADR Matters 1109.3 Section 1109... PROCEEDINGS AND THOSE IN WHICH THE BOARD IS A PARTY § 1109.3 Confidentiality in ADR Matters In all ADR matters involving the Board, whether under the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act or not, the confidentiality...

  15. MT-ADRES: Multithreading on Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan;

    2007-01-01

    -ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl’s law, this paper proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (Multi-Threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned in multiple...... smaller arrays that can execute threads in parallel. Because the partition can be changed dynamically, this extension provides more flexibility than a multi-core approach. This article presents details of the enhanced architecture and results obtained from an MPEG-2 decoder implementation that exploits...... a mix of thread-level parallelism and instruction-level parallelism....

  16. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) in space applications, it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density...

  17. Gynecomastia: An ADR due to drug interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Umme

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia results from conditions that cause an imbalance of estrogenic and androgenic effects on the breast, resulting in an increased or unopposed estrogen action on breast tissue. Approximately 4 to 10% cases of gynecomastia are due to drugs. Both Digoxin and Furosemide are also reported to cause the same condition. Although, chances of gynecomastia could be more if these two drugs are coadministered, but no case report of this adverse effect is ever reported when both are prescribed concurrently. Here we report a case of gynecomastia suspected to have resulted from the coadministation of both the drugs. Probability of the adverse effect due to drug interaction was evaluated by DIPS, which suggests that the adverse drug reaction (ADR due to DI is "Possible."

  18. iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

    2012-12-01

    Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined.

  19. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators(ADR's) for space it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density superconducting wires...

  20. ADR Magnets Operating at 30-40K Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program is designed to achieve high operational efficiency for superconducting ADR magnets in space, and to meet space launch requirements. The overall...

  1. Discontinuation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) as a potential marker for adverse drug reactions (ADRs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pour, Seyed Hamidreza Mahmoud; De Keyser, Catherine E.; Souverein, Patrick C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/243074948; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; De Boer, Anthonius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Maitland-Van Der Zee, Anke-Hilse|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/255164688

    2014-01-01

    Background: ACEI-induced ADRs are the main reason to discontinue ACEI treatment. In prescription databases, information on ADRs is not available; therefore it is necessary to identify proxies for ADRs in such databases to study risk factors for ADRs. Objectives: To study prescription patterns for AC

  2. Application of Reinforced HTS 2212 Wires in ADR Magnets Operating at 30K-40K Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are considered for operations in many space missions. At the heart of an ADR is a magnet that produces the background...

  3. Enforcing consumer rights through ADR at the detriment of consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is seen by the European legislator as a key instrument for the enforcement of consumer rights. To further ADR, the EU has adopted the ADR Directive, which was to be implemented by the Member States by 9 July 2015. This article shows that the Directive has

  4. iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

    2012-01-01

    Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the developm...

  5. ADR KSHARSUTRA KIT: A BREAKTHROUGH IN THE STANDARDIZATION OF KSHARSUTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi Amarprakash P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Ksharsutra’ can be defined as an Ayurvedic medicated thread coated with herbal alkaline drugs. ‘Ksharasutra therapy’ has been described as a treatment of choice for the treatment of fistula-in-ano due to low recurrence rate. However, Ksharsutra procedure is not yet globally accepted basically due to lack of standardization and poor acceptability by modern surgeons due to lack of training and fear of complications. Standardization of ‘Ksharsutra’ requires standardization in preparation process and quality standards including its packaging, storage, labeling and developing scientific parameters for maintaining its uniform coating, pH, microbial check etc. To overcome all these limitations, ‘ADR- Ksharsutra Kit’ which is a disposable, non traumatic ‘Ksharsutra Carrier cum Application device’ made up of High Density Poly Ethelene was invented by me. The Ksharsutra prepared as per ICMR guidelines after UV treatment, is embedded in the instrument and is kept in airtight silver foil sachet and sealed. The method of ‘ADR-Ksharsutra’ application is simple and time conserving. The tip of the ‘ADR-Ksharsutra Carrier cum Application device’ is introduced in the external opening and allowed to follow the track up to the internal opening situated in the anal canal. Once the tip comes out through the internal opening, cap is removed and the Ksharsutra is held and then instrument is withdrawn from outside opening. By doing this, the embedded Ksharsutra is automatically placed in the fistula track whose two ends are tied together. ‘ADR-Ksharsutra’ has truly made the entire procedure very smooth. No probe is required in the procedure and Ksharsutra kept in the instrument remains sterile as well. Hence, this ‘Ksharsutra carrier cum application device’ will be helpful in Globalization of Ksharsutra technique for fistula ablation.

  6. One-Page Multimedia Interactive Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Maiellaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of local knowledge in cultural heritage is by now acknowledged. It helps to determine many community-based projects by identifying the material to be digitally maintained in multimedia collections provided by communities of volunteers, rather than for-profit businesses or government entities. Considering that the search and browsing of texts, images, video, and 3D models related to places is more essential than using a simple text-based search, an interactive multimedia map was implemented in this study. The map, which is loaded on a single HyperText Markup Language (HTML page using AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, with a client-side control mechanism utilising jQuery components that are both freely available and ad-hoc developed, is updated according to user interaction. To simplify the publication of geo-referenced information, the application stores all the data in a Geographic JavaScript Object Notation (GeoJSON file rather than in a database. The multimedia contents—associated with the selected Points of Interest (PoIs—can be selected through text search and list browsing as well as by viewing their previews one by one in a sequence all together in a scrolling window (respectively: “Table”, “Folder”, and “Tile” functions. PoIs—visualised on the map with multi-shape markers using a set of unambiguous colours—can be filtered through their categories and types, accessibility status and timeline, thus improving the system usability. The map functions are illustrated using data collected in a Comenius project. Notes on the application software and architecture are also presented in this paper.

  7. ADR Effects on Domestic Latin American Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mendiola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to revisit and extend previous research work that examines the ADR-listing effects on the trading process of all the domestically-listed stocks in the main Latin American exchanges. The most important result is consistent with the idea of a greater isolation (from global markets of the singly-listed stocks in the post-cross-listing period. These results persist over the cross-listing months. As expected, the cross-listed stocks become more integrated in the post-cross listing period.

  8. A Kinematic, Kevlar(registered) Suspension System for an ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their bolometer detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar@ suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists or two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill. The resulting assembly constrains each degree of freedom only once, yielding a kinematic, tensile structure.

  9. MT-ADRES: multi-threading on coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan;

    2008-01-01

    -ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl's law, this article proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (multi-threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned...... in multiple smaller arrays that can execute threads in parallel. Because the partition can be changed dynamically, this extension provides more flexibility than a multi-core approach. This article presents details of the enhanced architecture and results obtained from an MPEG-2 decoder implementation...... that exploits a mix of thread-level parallelism and instruction-level parallelism....

  10. Mechanical Design of a 4-Stage ADR for the PIPER mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bryan L.; Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.; Jackson, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.The four 1,280 bolometer detector arrays that will fly on the balloon borne PIPER mission will be cooled by a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). Two of the three mechanically independent ADR assemblies provide thermal isolation to their salt pills through Kevlar suspensions while the other provides thermal isolation to its salt pill through the use of bellows and Vespel material. The ADR integrates with the detector arrays and it sits in a large bucket Dewar containing superfluid liquid helium. This paper will describe the complex mechanical design of the PIPER ADR, and summarize the mechanical analysis done to validate the design.

  11. Parametric time-to-onset (TTO) modelling of common ADRs in patients using antidiabetic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, Joep H.G.; Van De Ven, Peter M.; Van Puijenbroek, Eugène P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although the time-to-onset (TTO) is an important aspect in causality assessment of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), limited information about it is available in publicly available literature. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the TTO of common ADRs of antidiabeti

  12. An Evaluation of the use of ADR in the Nigerian Public Construction Project Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falilat Olubunmi Idowu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s construction projects are becoming more complex and more capital intensive. Governments of developing countries of the world are responsible for the provision of infrastructural facilities to its citizenry. Many researchers have however found that these projects are delivered late by contractors and disputes have been found as a major cause of such late deliveries. Disputes have also been found as a cause of cost overruns on construction projects. Therefore the use of ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution in resolving construction disputes cannot be over emphasized. This study examines the issues which militate against the use of ADR as well as the ADR techniques which give satisfaction to disputants in terms of cost, time and maintenance and sustainability of relationship. The study gathered information from both primary and secondary sources. Data from primary sources were collected from fifty seven construction and legal practitioners in the public and contracting organisations with the use of questionnaires. The sampling technique that was employed was stratified simple random sampling and data was analysed with the use of SPSS. The study found Lack of awareness of ADR as one of the factors that militate against the use of ADR. The ADR techniques which give satisfaction to disputants in terms of cost, time and maintenance and sustainability of relationship are adjudication and negotiation respectively. The study recommends that awareness of ADR techniques in resolving construction dispute should be increased in order to maximize the full benefit of the use of ADR in construction projects.

  13. Using text-mining techniques in electronic patient records to identify ADRs from medicine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrer, Pernille; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Juhl-Jensen, Lars; Aagaard, Lise

    2012-05-01

    This literature review included studies that use text-mining techniques in narrative documents stored in electronic patient records (EPRs) to investigate ADRs. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts without restrictions from origin until July 2011. We included empirically based studies on text mining of electronic patient records (EPRs) that focused on detecting ADRs, excluding those that investigated adverse events not related to medicine use. We extracted information on study populations, EPR data sources, frequencies and types of the identified ADRs, medicines associated with ADRs, text-mining algorithms used and their performance. Seven studies, all from the United States, were eligible for inclusion in the review. Studies were published from 2001, the majority between 2009 and 2010. Text-mining techniques varied over time from simple free text searching of outpatient visit notes and inpatient discharge summaries to more advanced techniques involving natural language processing (NLP) of inpatient discharge summaries. Performance appeared to increase with the use of NLP, although many ADRs were still missed. Due to differences in study design and populations, various types of ADRs were identified and thus we could not make comparisons across studies. The review underscores the feasibility and potential of text mining to investigate narrative documents in EPRs for ADRs. However, more empirical studies are needed to evaluate whether text mining of EPRs can be used systematically to collect new information about ADRs.

  14. Structures and processes in spontaneous ADR reporting systems: a comparative study of Australia and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Lise; Stenver, Doris Irene; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-10-01

    To explore the organisational structure and processes of the Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems with a view to how information is generated about new ADRs. The Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems. Qualitative analyses of documentary material, descriptive interviews with key informants, and observations were made. We analysed the organisational structure of the Danish and Australian ADR reporting systems with respect to structures and processes, including information flow and exchange of ADR data. The analysis was made based on Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's diamond model, with the components: goals/tasks, social structure, technology and participants, within a surrounding environment. The main differences between the systems were: (1) PARTICIPANTS: Outsourcing of ADR assessments to the pharmaceutical companies complicates maintenance of scientific skills within the Danish Medicines Agency (DKMA), as it leaves the handling of spontaneous ADR reports purely administrative within the DKMA, and the knowledge creation process remains with the pharmaceutical companies, while in Australia senior scientific staff work with evaluation of the ADR report; (2) Goals/tasks: In Denmark, resources are targeted at evaluating Periodic Safety Update Reports (PSUR) submitted by the companies, while the resources in Australia are focused on single case assessment resulting in faster and more proactive medicine surveillance; (3) Social structure: Discussions between scientific staff about ADRs take place in Australia, while the Danish system primarily focuses on entering and forwarding ADR data to the relevant pharmaceutical companies; (4) Technology: The Danish system exchanges ADR data electronically with pharmaceutical companies and the other EU countries, while Australia does not have a system for electronic exchange of ADR data; and (5) ENVIRONMENT: The Danish ADR system is embedded in the routines of cooperation within European

  15. Adverse drug reaction (ADR reporting in India: a long way to go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D. Patil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New drugs are regularly introduced for treatment, diagnosis or prevention of diseases. Adverse drug reactions (ADR can be seen in clinical practice with both new as well as marketed medicines. Spontaneous reporting of ADR is commonly practiced method for monitoring of ADR. Healthcare practitioners have an important role in pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting. Many studies have been conducted to understand the knowledge, attitude and practice of ADR reporting among healthcare practitioners in India. The population surveyed in these studied ranged between 90-1200. One large study4 included population of 1200 physicians across India out of which 1000 were contacted for study participation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 846-848

  16. [Drug resistance reversal of HL-60/ADR cells by simultaneous suppression of XIAP and MRP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Chun; Qin, You-Wen; Yan, Shi-Ke; Gao, Yan-Rong

    2006-12-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanisms of drug resistance of HL-60/ADR cells and to compare the reversal drug-resistance effects of antisense oligonucleotides (AS ODN) of XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and AS ODNs of MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein) by use alone or in combination. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot were applied to detect the expression of XIAP, BCL-2, MRP and MDR1 in mRNA and protein levels of HL-60 cells and HL-60/ADR cells, respectively. Fully phosphorothioated AS ODN of XIAP and MRP was delivered into HL-60/ADR cells with Lipofectamine 2000 in the form of liposome-ODN complexes alone or in combination. CCK-8 cell viability assay was used to determine the effect of AS ODN of XIAP and MRP used alone or in combination on the chemotherapy sensitivity of HL-60/ADR cells to daunorubicin (DNR). Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot were applied to examine the changes of XIAP, MRP in mRNA and protein levels respectively. The results showed that MRP and XIAP were both significantly higher in HL-60/ADR cells than those in HL-60 cells. AS ODN of XIAP and MRP down-regulated the expression of XIAP and MRP in HL-60/ADR cells and increased the sensitivity of HL-60/ADR cells to DNR, respectively. AS ODN of XIAP + MRP did not enhance the inhibition expression of XIAP in HL-60/ADR cells but increased the sensitivity of HL-60/ADR cells to DNR significantly as compared with AS ODN of XIAP (P MRP did not increase the concentration of DNR nor enhanced the inhibition expression of MRP in HL-60/ADR cells but increased the sensitivity of HL-60/ADR cells to DNR significantly (P MRP. It is concluded that both XIAP and MRP may be involved in the drug resistance mechanisms of HL-60/ADR cells. Drug-resistance of HL-60/ADR cells can be reversed significantly when antisense oligonucleotides of XIAP and MRP were used in combination.

  17. [Reversing effects of emodin on multidrug resistance in resistant HL-60/ADR cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yu; Li, Jing; Hu, Jian-Da; Zheng, Jing; Zheng, Zhi-Hong; Zhu, Liang-Fang; Chen, Xin-Ji; Lin, Zhen-Xing

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the reversing effects of emodin on multidrug resistance (MDR) in resistant HL-60/ADR cells, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The MTT assay was used to assess the chemoresistance of HL-60/ADR cells to emodin and 8 chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in clinic. The reversal effects of emodin on MDR of HL-60/ADR cells were also evaluated by MTT method. DNA ploidy analysis and DNA Ladder assay were used to detect apoptosis-induced effects on HL-60/ADR cells via the adriamycin (ADR) and emodin combination. The expression changes of the drug resistance-associated genes and proteins were detected by RT-PCR and Western Blot respectively. The intracellular accumulation and subcellular distribution of ADR and DNR were measured by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results showed that emodin inhibited HL-60/ADR cell proliferation with an average IC50 value of 24.09 ± 1.72 µmol/L, which was similar to that of the parental HL-60 cells (average IC50 = 23.18 ± 0.87 µmol/L). HL-60/ADR cells were resistant to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, such as ADR, DNR, VP16, VCR,Ara-C, HHT, MTZ and THP. The reversal multiple were between 1.58 and 4.12 after the treatment with low concentration of emodin combined with the above mentioned different agents. The combination of ADR with emodin showed the best reversal effects, and the typical hypodiploid peak (apoptotic peak) and DNA ladder could be detected after the co-treatment.In addition, emodin down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of MRP1, TOPOIIβ, GST π and BCL-2. Furthermore, the addition of emodin enhanced ADR and DNR intracellular accumulation and subcellular distribution in HL-60/ADR cells in dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that the emodin shows reversing effects on the multidrug resistant HL-60/ADR cells, possibly via decreasing the expression levels of drug resistance-associated genes, increasing the intracellular accumulation of

  18. A revisit on the current practice of dispute resolution and ADR in the Malaysian construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Suhaimi Mohd Danuri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current dispute resolution procedures available in the Malaysian construction industry are mainly litigation and arbitration. In addition, the alternative dispute resolutions (ADR, namely mediation and adjudication, have also been introduced as the other methods for resolving disputes. The objective of this study is to examine the current practice of dispute resolution and ADR available in the Malaysian construction industry. The aim of this paper is two-fold: to report the current practice of dispute resolution and ADR, and identify the attributes of successful implementation of both mechanisms based on the perceptions of the Malaysian construction industry players. From the jurisprudence point of view, this study looks into the law as it is, in relation to the current practice of dispute resolution and ADR, by showing how those findings can be used to explain why improvement is needed to promote a successful and well received dispute resolution and ADR, and what lessons can be learnt, towards the formulation of a more viable methods for the Malaysian construction industry. NVivo software has been used to manage and organise the complete interview transcripts and facilitate the data analysis process for this study. Literature review reveals a continuous development of dispute resolution and ADR in the Malaysian construction industry, while, globally the industry has not only embraced ADR but also spearheaded the development of innovative forms of dispute avoidance mechanism. The findings of interviews show that locally, apart from litigation, the common types of ADR are arbitration, mediation and ad hoc mechanism. The findings also lead to the discovery of the following attributes: faster, less procedural, cost effective and enforceable; regulation and government's support; professionalism and ethic; training; and facility, that may promote a successful implementation of dispute resolution and ADR in Malaysia.

  19. Low-Frequency, All Digital Radar (ADR) for Biomass and Ice-sheet Investigations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low-Frequency, All Digital Radar (ADR) can be a key component for NASA Phased-array and tomographic Radar systems spanning multiple earth-science measurement...

  20. Low Heat-Leak YBCO Leads for Satellite-Borne ADR Magnets Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future satellite missions carrying X-ray spectrometers will be cooled to milliKelvin temperatures by multi-stage Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR),...

  1. Development of an End-to-End Active Debris Removal (ADR) Mission Strategic Plan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the majority of the potential ADR targets are large (>meters) upper stages and payloads between 800 and 1100 km altitude, they are relatively bright, with...

  2. International reporting on adverse drug reactions: the CIOMS project. CIOMS ADR Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faich, G A; Castle, W; Bankowski, Z

    1990-04-01

    A method for standardized postapproval adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting has been developed and implemented by seven multinational pharmaceutical manufacturers and six regulatory authorities. This is based on a set of uniform definitions, procedures and a single reporting form, and has been demonstrated to be useful and effective. When regulators and manufacturers develop requirements and systems for ADR reporting they should consider adapting this method.

  3. Rough-set-based ADR signaling from spontaneous reporting data with missing values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Lan, Lin; Huang, Feng-Hsiung; Wang, Min-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous reporting systems of adverse drug events have been widely established in many countries to collect as could as possible all adverse drug events to facilitate the detection of suspected ADR signals via some statistical or data mining methods. Unfortunately, due to privacy concern or other reasons, the reporters sometimes may omit consciously some attributes, causing many missing values existing in the reporting database. Most of research work on ADR detection or methods applied in practice simply adopted listwise deletion to eliminate all data with missing values. Very little work has noticed the possibility and examined the effect of including the missing data in the process of ADR detection. This paper represents our endeavor towards the exploration of this question. We aim at inspecting the feasibility of applying rough set theory to the ADR detection problem. Based on the concept of utilizing characteristic set based approximation to measure the strength of ADR signals, we propose twelve different rough set based measuring methods and show only six of them are feasible for the purpose. Experimental results conducted on the FARES database show that our rough-set-based approach exhibits similar capability in timeline warning of suspicious ADR signals as traditional method with missing deletion, and sometimes can yield noteworthy measures earlier than the traditional method.

  4. Interaction and sonodynamic damage activity of acridine red (AD-R) to bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dandan; Xie, Jinhui; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Ping; Wang, Jun, E-mail: wangjun888tg@126.com

    2015-04-15

    The sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has become an attractive antitumor treatment method in recent years, but the selection of sonosensitizer, mechanism of damage biomolecule and kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during sonodynamic process have not been investigated in detail. In this paper, the acridine red (AD-R), as a sonosensitizer, combining with ultrasonic irradiation to damage bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. At first, the interaction of AD-R to BSA molecules in aqueous solution was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. As judged from the experimental results, the quenching mechanism of BSA fluorescence belongs to a static process. Synchronous fluorescence spectra demonstrate that the binding and damage sites to BSA molecules are mainly on the tryptophan residues. The generation and kind of generated ROS were also estimated by the method of oxidation and extraction photometry. This paper may offer some valuable references for the study of the sonodynamic activity and application of AD-R in SDT for tumor treatment. - Highlights: ●Acridine red (AD-R) is used to study interaction with BSA. ●Spectroscopy is used to study sonodynamic damage activity of AD-R to BSA. ●Generation of ROS caused by AD-R under ultrasonic irradiation was determined.

  5. The pharmacodynamics experiment of XinHua injection protect action of ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; DU Jia-lin; LI Xin-hua; XIANG Shao-jie; JIA Dong; BAO Yu-long; LI Kun

    2008-01-01

    Objective The experiment is to study the protective effects of Xinkang Injection on ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice. Methods The test of Xinkang Injection on ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice. Firstly, the animal of obnormal, weight and death rate. Secondly, the influnences of cardiogram of ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice. Thirdly, the influnences of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminasw (GOT) of ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice. Fouthly, the influnences of changes of cardioc pathological mechanism of ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice. Fifthly, the influnces of the caidioc ultrastructural of ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice. Results Firstly, to ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice, the weight of middle dose and high dose of Xinkang injection had declined obviosly which contrast with the constraction model mice team. In the mean time, the weight of Xinkang injection team had obviosly changde which contrast with contrastion mice team(P<0.01 ). Secondly, to ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice, the middle dose and high dose of Xinkang injection have obviosly withstand Q abnormal cardiogram, in the meantime, Xinkang injection team had obviosly changde contrast with the contrastion model mice (P<0.01 ). Thirdly, to ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice, The activity of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH),creatine kinase (CK) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminasw (GOT) were differently measured. The middle dose and high dose of Xinkang injection team can obviously declined the activity of LDH and CK (P<0.01). Fouthly, to ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice, the low dose, the middle dose and high dose of Xinkang injection team can contrast w, ith injured on toxic myocarditisin mice cardioc. Fifthly, to ADR-induced toxin myocarditisin mice, the low dose , the middle dose and high dose of Xinkang injection team have effect of allevite the injection of the cardioc ulteasteuctural of ADR-induced toxin

  6. Knowledge, attitude and perception/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners in India towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkar, Mala; Bowalekar, Suresh

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude and perceptions/practices (KAP) of medical practitioners (MPs) in India towards Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting. A questionnaire was designed for assessment of KAP of medical practitioners in India toward ADR reporting. This questionnaire was administered to 2-3 medical practitioners from each zone prior to administering final questionnaire which was approved by Disha Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai. 1200 medical practitioners (about 300 from each zone) from India were selected randomly. 1000 medical practitioners out of 1200 (90%), selected at random were approached. A total of 870 provided responses to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 73% of 1200 selected randomly. A total of 47.5% respondents reported that they were aware of Government ADR centers. A total of 59.2% reported that they are familiar with the procedure of reporting ADRs to Government centers. However, only 18.5% of MPs have reported the observed ADRs to Government ADR centers. As against this relatively large number of MPs (87.9%) have reported ADRs observed during their routine practice to medical representatives of pharmaceutical company and NGOs (non-Govt. Organizations). A total of 80.5% of respondents agreed that safety plays an important role and 96% reported that ADR centers are useful. However, only 55.6% of respondents have reported that there is a need for ADR centers. The study reveals that practitioners are aware of ADR reporting; their perception toward ADR reporting is right but it is not reflected when it comes to the act of reporting of ADRs. In our sample of 870 respondents only 18.5 % reported ADRs to some organizations. Only 5% of respondents recorded the details of ADR and reported to the manufacturer and 1% of respondents to government health ministry. Thus, medical practitioners in India appear to have a good knowledge about ADR reporting, the right perception toward ADR reporting. However, as far as

  7. Adr1 and Cat8 mediate coactivator recruitment and chromatin remodeling at glucose-regulated genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon K Biddick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adr1 and Cat8 co-regulate numerous glucose-repressed genes in S. cerevisiae, presenting a unique opportunity to explore their individual roles in coactivator recruitment, chromatin remodeling, and transcription. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the individual contributions of Cat8 and Adr1 on the expression of a cohort of glucose-repressed genes and found three broad categories: genes that need both activators for full derepression, genes that rely mostly on Cat8 and genes that require only Adr1. Through combined expression and recruitment data, along with analysis of chromatin remodeling at two of these genes, ADH2 and FBP1, we clarified how these activators achieve this wide range of co-regulation. We find that Adr1 and Cat8 are not intrinsically different in their abilities to recruit coactivators but rather, promoter context appears to dictate which activator is responsible for recruitment to specific genes. These promoter-specific contributions are also apparent in the chromatin remodeling that accompanies derepression: ADH2 requires both Adr1 and Cat8, whereas, at FBP1, significant remodeling occurs with Cat8 alone. Although over-expression of Adr1 can compensate for loss of Cat8 at many genes in terms of both activation and chromatin remodeling, this over-expression cannot complement all of the cat8Delta phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, at many of the glucose-repressed genes, Cat8 and Adr1 appear to have interchangeable roles and promoter architecture may dictate the roles of these activators.

  8. SCREENING OF DRUG RESISTANCE-RELATED GENES FROM HUMAN OVARIAN CANCER CELL LINE OC3/ADR BY DD-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田方; 程国均; 周海胜; 王宏; 肖凤君

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To screen novel genes related to adriamycin (Adr) resistance from human ovarian cancer resistance cell line OC3/Adr. Methods: Multidrug resistant ovarian cancer cell line OC3/Adr was induced by intermittent treatment of the human parent cell line OC3 with high concentration Adr. The difference of gene expression was screened by using different display analysis to the acquired Adr-resistance subline OC3/Adr and its parent cell line OC3. Results: OC3/Adr cell line was obtained which was more resistance to Adr than the parent cell line OC3 with the resistance index (RI) of 15.4. The OC3/Adr cell line also showed cross-resistance to other anti-cancer drugs (VP16, CDDP,5FU ). It grew slowly and exhibited changes of cell cycle. A number of differentially expressed ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags, ESTs) were identified at mRNA level between the OC3/Adr and OC3. Four of 18 different ESTs were sequenced. The 431/432 base pair S1 was homologous to human sperm zona pellucida binding protein, while the other two ESTs, S3 and S4, were new gene segments, which were registered to GenBank with the number of AF 117656 and AF 126507 respectively. Particularly, the expression of S2 sequence increased in all the drug-resistance cell lines and S3 sequence overexpressed in human ovarian cancer tissues as compared with benign ovarian tumors. Adr in ovarian cancer OC3/Adr is involved with changes of multiple gene expressions.

  9. Performance Testing of the Astro-H Flight Model 3-stage ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Bialas, Thomas G.

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments that will be flown on the Japanese Astro-H satellite, planned for launch in late 2015/early 2016. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band using a 6x6 array of silicon microcalorimeters operated at 50 mK, cooled by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). NASA/GSFC is providing the detector array and ADR, and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. is providing the remainder of the cryogenic system (superfluid helium dewar (cryocoolers and a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler). The ADR is unique in that it is designed to use both the liquid helium and the JT cryocooler as it heat sink. The flight detector and ADR assembly have successfully undergone vibration and performance testing at GSFC, and have now undergone initial performance testing with the flight dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. in Japan. This paper summaries the performance of the flight ADR in both cryogen-based and cryogen-free operating modes.

  10. Performance Testing of the Engineering Model Astro-H 3-stage ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese Astro-H mission will include the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument provided by NASA/GSFC. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band using a 6x6 array of silicon microcalorimeters operated at 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR), which is configured to use either a 1.3 K superfluid helium tank or a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cryocooler as a heat sink. At present, the engineering model SXS, including the detectors and ADR, has been performance tested at GSFC and integrated with the EM dewar in Japan. The flight model SXS is currently being fabricated. This paper presents test results of the EM ADR and changes that will be implemented in the flight version.

  11. Operation of an ADR using helium exchange gas as a substitute for a failed heat switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, P.; DiPirro, M.; Kimball, M.; Sneiderman, G.; Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C.; Kelley, R.; Fujimoto, R.; Yoshida, S.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.

    2014-11-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments on the Japanese Astro-H mission, which is currently planned for launch in late 2015. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV) using a 6 × 6 pixel array of microcalorimeters cooled to 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that rejects heat to either a superfluid helium tank (at 1.2 K) or to a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Four gas-gap heat switches are used in the assembly to manage heat flow between the ADR stages and the heat sinks. The engineering model (EM) ADR was assembled and performance tested at NASA/GSFC in November 2011, and subsequently installed in the EM dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Japan. During the first cooldown in July 2012, a failure of the heat switch that linked the two colder stages of the ADR to the helium tank was observed. Operation of the ADR requires some mechanism for thermally linking the salt pills to the heat sink, and then thermally isolating them. With the failed heat switch unable to perform this function, an alternate plan was devised which used carefully controlled amounts of exchange gas in the dewar's guard vacuum to facilitate heat exchange. The process was successfully demonstrated in November 2012, allowing the ADR to cool the detectors to 50 mK for hold times in excess of 10 h. This paper describes the exchange-gas-assisted recycling process, and the strategies used to avoid helium contamination of the detectors at low temperature.

  12. Operation of an ADR Using Helium Exchange Gas as a Substitute for a Failed Heat Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, P.; DiPirro, M.; Kimball, M.; Sneiderman, G.; Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C.; Kelley, R.; Fujimoto, R.; Yoshida, S.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments on the Japanese Astro-H mission, which is currently planned for launch in late 2015. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft X-ray band (0.3-12 keV) using a 6 6 pixel array of microcalorimeters cooled to 50 mK. The detectors are cooled by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that rejects heat to either a superfluid helium tank (at 1.2 K) or to a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Four gas-gap heat switches are used in the assembly to manage heat flow between the ADR stages and the heat sinks. The engineering model (EM) ADR was assembled and performance tested at NASA/GSFC in November 2011, and subsequently installed in the EM dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Japan. During the first cooldown in July 2012, a failure of the heat switch that linked the two colder stages of the ADR to the helium tank was observed. Operation of the ADR requires some mechanism for thermally linking the salt pills to the heat sink, and then thermally isolating them. With the failed heat switch unable to perform this function, an alternate plan was devised which used carefully controlled amounts of exchange gas in the dewar's guard vacuum to facilitate heat exchange. The process was successfully demonstrated in November 2012, allowing the ADR to cool the detectors to 50 mK for hold times in excess of 10 h. This paper describes the exchange-gas-assisted recycling process, and the strategies used to avoid helium contamination of the detectors at low temperature.

  13. OpenADR Open Source Toolkit: Developing Open Source Software for the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Demand response (DR) is becoming an increasingly important part of power grid planning and operation. The advent of the Smart Grid, which mandates its use, further motivates selection and development of suitable software protocols to enable DR functionality. The OpenADR protocol has been developed and is being standardized to serve this goal. We believe that the development of a distributable, open source implementation of OpenADR will benefit this effort and motivate critical evaluation of its capabilities, by the wider community, for providing wide-scale DR services

  14. The proportion of patient reports of suspected ADRs to signal detection in the Netherlands : case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hunsel, Florence; Talsma, Attje; van Puijenbroek, Eugène; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; van Grootheest, Kees

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the contribution of patients' adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports to signals detection, through a study of the signals sent by Lareb to the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board. Methods The percentage of patient's ADR reports contributing to generate signals of adverse drug reactions wa

  15. Thermodynamic Performance of the 3-Stage ADR for the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theodore; DiPirro, Michael J.; Bialas, Thomas G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument[1] on Astro-H[2] will use a 3-stage ADR[3] to cool the microcalorimeter array to 50 mK. In the primary operating mode, two stages of the ADR cool the detectors using superfluid helium at =1.20 K as the heat sink[4]. In the secondary mode, which is activated when the liquid helium is depleted, the ADR uses a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cooler as its heat sink. In this mode, all three stages operate together to continuously cool the (empty) helium tank and singleshot cool the detectors. The flight instrument - dewar, ADR, detectors and electronics - were integrated in 2014 and have since undergone extensive performance testing. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the ADR's operation, including cooling capacity, heat rejection to the heat sinks, and various measures of efficiency.

  16. Using text-mining techniques in electronic patient records to identify ADRs from medicine use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrer, Pernille; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2012-01-01

    This literature review included studies that use text-mining techniques in narrative documents stored in electronic patient records (EPRs) to investigate ADRs. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts without restrictions from origin until July 2011. W...

  17. Ações de empresas brasileiras e suas ADRs: uma nota sobre datas ex-dividend

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Procianoy, Jairo Laser

    2007-01-01

    ... são negociadas, em média, com um prêmio em relação as suas respectivas ações. This work analyses the performance of the Brazilian ADRs and their underlying stocks around the 1º ex-dividend day...

  18. Optimization Strategies for Single-Stage, Multi-Stage and Continuous ADRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) have many advantages that are prompting a resurgence in their use in spaceflight and laboratory applications. They are solid-state coolers capable of very high efficiency and very wide operating range. However, their low energy storage density translates to larger mass for a given cooling capacity than is possible with other refrigeration techniques. The interplay between refrigerant mass and other parameters such as magnetic field and heat transfer points in multi-stage ADRs gives rise to a wide parameter space for optimization. This paper first presents optimization strategies for single ADR stages, focusing primarily on obtaining the largest cooling capacity per stage mass, then discusses the optimization of multi-stage and continuous ADRs in the context of the coordinated heat transfer that must occur between stages. The goal for the latter is usually to obtain the largest cooling power per mass or volume, but there can also be many secondary objectives, such as limiting instantaneous heat rejection rates and producing intermediate temperatures for cooling of other instrument components.

  19. 26 CFR 12.4 - Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range... Election of Class Life Asset Depreciation Range System (ADR). (a) Elections filed before February 1, 1972... tax return in accordance with § 1.167(a)-11 of this chapter (relating to depreciation allowances...

  20. PA01.15. ADR Kshasutra Kit - A Breakthrough in the Standardization of Ksharasutra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Amarprakash; Patil, D. Y.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Ksharsutra’ can be defined as an Ayurvedic medicated thread (Cutting Seton) coated with herbal alkaline drugs. ‘Ksharasutra therapy’ has been described as a treatment of choice for the treatment of fistula in ano due to low recurrence rate (up to 3%). However, this unique para surgical procedure is not yet globally accepted basically due to lack of standardization in the Ksharsutra preparation process and poor acceptability by Modern surgeons due to lack of training& fear of Complications. Need for Standardization of Ksharsutra: Standardization of ‘Ksharsutra’ requires standardization in preparation process and quality standards including packaging, storage, labeling and developing scientific parameters for maintaining its uniform coating, pH, microbial check etc. What is ‘ADR Ksharsutra Kit‘?‘ADR Ksharsutra Kit’ is a disposable ‘Ksharsutra Applicator’ made up of HDPE. This Ksharsutra embedded device after UV treatment is kept in Airtight silver foil sachet. The Physico chemical Characters of Ksharsutra, its indication, manufacturing details along with its expiry date, etc. are labeled properly. Method of ‘ADR Ksharsutra’ Application: The tip of the ‘ADR Ksharsutra Applicator’ is introduced in the external opening and allowed to follow the track upto the internal opening situated in the anal canal. Once the tip comes out through the internal opening, cap is removed and the Ksharsutra is firmly held with artery forceps. After this, applicator’ is withdrawn (taken back) from outside opening. By doing this, the embedded Ksharsutra is automatically placed in the fistula track whose two ends are tied together. ‘ADR Ksharsutra’ has truly made the entire procedure very smooth and will be helpful in Globalization of Ksharsutra technique for fistula ablation & acceptable to modern surgeons.

  1. My Car Is a Lemon! Use of the Better Business Bureau's Auto Line[R] Program as a Pedagogical Model of ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steslow, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is normally included as part of an introductory business law/legal environment course. While some business schools offer stand-alone ADR courses, the majority do not. As a result, a business student's only exposure to ADR processes may be through a Legal Studies in Business course. Several scholars have created…

  2. Arbitrage with ADRs: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile Arbitraje con ADRs: un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Mora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research continues the paper “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de casosectorial para empresas de Colombia, Mexico, Brasil y Chile” [ADRs generalities: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile]. It is organizedin two sections. The first one covers the unique price theory and the efficient markets hypothesis. In the second one, arbitrage conditions with ADRs are empirically evaluated. The objective is to prove the existence of price differentials between stocks and ADRs, which would allow investors to obtain a risk free return.El presente artículo es la continuación del artículo “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile” y al igual que este, es un subproducto de la investigación “Arbitraje con ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, México, Brasil y Chile”. El artículo se divide en dos partes, en la primera se trata la teoría sobre la ley del precio único y la hipótesis de los mercados eficientes, y en la segunda parte se abarca el tema de arbitraje con activos financieros desde la práctica, haciendo un ejercicio econométrico de arbitraje con ADRs. El objetivo de esta investigación es comprobar la existencia de diferenciales de precio entre las acciones y sus respectivos ADRs, lo que permitiría a los inversionistas obtener una ganancia libre de riesgo.Abstract This research continues the paper “Generalidades de los ADRs: Un estudio de caso sectorial para empresas de Colombia, Mexico, Brasil y Chile” [ADRs generalities: a sectorial case study for companies in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil and Chile]. It is organized in two sections. The first one covers the unique price theory and the efficient markets hypothesis. In the second one, arbitrage conditions with ADRs are empirically evaluated. The objective is to prove the existence of price differentials between stocks and ADRs, which would allow

  3. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing options such as fixed rates through retail access for their electricity supply. Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) based information exchange model that communicates price and reliability information. It allows customers to evaluate hourly prices and provide demand response in an automated fashion to minimize electricity costs. This document shows how OpenADR can support MHP and facilitate price responsive demand for large commercial customers in New York City.

  4. Statistical arbitrage and FX exposure with South American ADRs listed on the NYSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadie Broumandi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An American Depositary Receipt (ADR represents ownership in the shares of a foreign company trading in US financial markets. We test a pair trading rule based on the mean reversion assumption for six South American stocks and their ADR counterparts on the NYSE. In our opinion, such a strategy should separate the spread risk from the currency risk. This paper aims to challenge the positive results found in similar settings. The main achievement is to show that isolating FX exposure turns such strategies that were presented as profitable to unprofitable and abnormal returns are just due to an appreciation in the home currencies versus the USD. Hence the results in some of literature should be revised.

  5. Documentation and evaluation of adverse drug reactions (ADR)--contribution from a poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, C; Hentschel, H; Hippius, M; Balogh, A

    2002-03-01

    The Department of Clinical Pharmacology in Jena is a pharmacovigilance center in a study on intensified spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting. Physicians specialized in clinical pharmacology screen admissions to the Department of Internal Medicine for possible adverse drug reactions. Because of the collaboration between the Pharmacology Department and the nearby Poison Information Center (PIC) in Erfurt the question occurred whether the latter might contribute to adverse drug reaction monitoring. We compared the ADR registered by the intensified spontaneous reporting system in 1999 with those of the PIC during the same period. Each symptom observed was regarded as 1 case. Every suspected drug was also treated separately. The symptoms were classified using adverse reaction terminology. The drugs were classified according to the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification index. The causality assessment was based upon bibliographic data and the method of Bégaud et al. [1985]. Only possible, probable or very probable ADR were compared. The PIC registered mainly psychiatric and nervous system disorders sedation and extrapyramidal disorders were the most frequent reactions - unlike the pharmacovigilance study which registered primarily gastrointestinal and heart rate disorders. The PIC registered mainly drugs used in the therapy of disorders of the central nervous system, i.e. mostly psycholeptics and drugs acting on the alimentary tract, mostly anticholinergics. Drugs for the therapy of sensory organs disorders were frequent owing to the systemic and local adverse drug effects of anticholinergic mydriatics. The PIC and pharmacovigilance centers can benefit from co-operation. The PIC provides easy access to qualified drug information and is thus a useful tool in ADR evaluation. Although the number of adverse reactions assessed was small, their evaluation revealed problems in drug usage which would not otherwise be reported. The evaluation has

  6. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  7. A 10 Kelvin 3 Tesla Magnet for Space Flight ADR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Jim; Shirron, Peter; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael; Riall, Sara; Pourrahimi, Shahin

    2003-01-01

    Many future space flight missions are expected to use adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs) to reach detector operating temperatures well below one Kelvin. The goal is to operate each ADR with a mechanical cooler as its heat sink, thus avoiding the use of liquid cryogens. Although mechanical coolers are being developed to operate at temperatures of 6 Kelvin and below, there is a large efficiency cost associated with operating them at the bottom of their temperature range. For the multi-stage ADR system being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, the goal is to operate with a 10 Kelvin mechanical cooler heat sink. With currently available paramagnetic materials, the highest temperature ADR stage in such a system will require a magnetic field of approximately three Tesla. Thus the goal is to develop a small, lightweight three Tesla superconducting magnet for operation at 10 Kelvin. It is important that this magnet have a low current/field ratio. Because traditional NbTi magnets do not operate safely above about six Kelvin, a magnet with a higher Tc is required. The primary focus has been on Nb3Sn magnets. Since standard Nb3Sn wire must be coated with thick insulation, wound on a magnet mandrel and then reacted, standard Nb,Sn magnets are quite heavy and require high currents Superconducting Systems developed a Nb3Sn wire which can be drawn down to small diameter, reacted, coated with thin insulation and then wound on a small diameter coil form. By using this smaller wire and operating closer to the wire s critical current, it should be possible to reduce the mass and operating current of 10 Kelvin magnets. Using this "react-then-wind" technology, Superconducting Systems has produced prototype 10 Kelvin magnets. This paper describes the development and testing of these magnets and discusses the outlook for including 10 Kelvin magnets on space-flight missions.

  8. Chaetominine reduces MRP1-mediated drug resistance via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway in K562/Adr human leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jingyun; Wei, Xing [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center for Biomanufacturing Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai (China); Lu, Yanhua, E-mail: luyanhua@ecust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center for Biomanufacturing Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai (China)

    2016-05-13

    Drug resistance limits leukemia treatment and chaetominine, a cytotoxic alkaloid that promotes apoptosis in a K562 human leukemia cell line via the mitochondrial pathway was studied with respect to chemoresistance in a K562/Adr human resistant leukemia cell line. Cytotoxicity assays indicated that K562/Adr resistance to adriamycin (ADR) did not occur in the presence of chaetominine and that chaetominine increased chemosensitivity of K562/Adr to ADR. Data show that chaetominine enhanced ADR-induced apoptosis and intracellular ADR accumulation in K562/Adr cells. Accordingly, chaetominine induced apoptosis by upregulating ROS, pro-apoptotic Bax and downregulating anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. RT-PCR and western-blot confirmed that chaetominine suppressed highly expressed MRP1 at mRNA and protein levels. But little obvious alternation of another drug transporter MDR1 mRNA was observed. Furthermore, inhibition of MRP1 by chaetominine relied on inhibiting Akt phosphorylation and nuclear Nrf2. In summary, chaetominine strongly reverses drug resistance by interfering with the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling, resulting in reduction of MRP1-mediated drug efflux and induction of Bax/Bcl-2-dependent apoptosis in an ADR-resistant K562/Adr leukemia cell line. - Highlights: • Chaetominine enhanced chemosensitivity of ADR against K562/Adr cells. • Chaetominine increased intracellular ADR levels via inhibiting MRP1. • Chaetominine induced apoptosis of K562/Adr cells through upregulation of ROS and modulation of Bax/Bcl-2. • Inhibition of MRP1 and Nrf2 by chaetominine treatment was correlative with blockade of PI3K/Akt signaling.

  9. Active Debris Removal (ADR) System Architecture Analysis Tool (SAAT) Prototype for Orbital Debris Stabilization and Removal Architecture Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is critically important that a physics based ADR SAAT prototype be developed that can be refined and used across the community to study and analyze various remote...

  10. Cryogen-Free Ultra-Low Temperature Cooling using a Continuous ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter; DiPirro, Michael; Jirmanus, Munir; Zhao, Zu-Yu; Shields, Bill

    2003-01-01

    The development of a continuous adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (CADR) has progressed to the point where we have demonstrated a 4-stage system that provides continuous cooling at 50 mK and below, while rejecting heat to a 4.2 K helium bath. Since temperature control and cycling of the ADR is fully automated, the system is simple to operate and stable. Temperature fluctuations of the cold tip are typically less than 10 microKelvin rms (at 100 mK). The ADR s cooling power of 2 1 microwatts at 100 mK is comparable to that of small dilution refrigerators, but because its efficiency is so much higher (50% of Carnot), the peak heat rejection rate is less than 10 mW. This is significant in allowing the ADR to be cooled by relatively low-power cryocoolers. In addition to commercial pulse-tube and Gifford McMahon (GM) coolers, this potentially includes small GM systems that run on 120 V power and do not need water cooling. The present focus is to design and fabricate a small dewar to house the CADR and a cryocooler, in anticipation of making a cryogen-free, low cost CADR commercially available. Performance of the prototype CADR and the complete system will be discussed.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Known pulsars identified in the TGSS ADR (Frail+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frail, D. A.; Jagannathan, P.; Mooley, K. P.; Intema, H. T.

    2016-11-01

    The GMRT was used to carry out a radio continuum survey at a frequency of 150MHz using a total of 2000hr of observations. The entirety of these data have recently been reprocessed (Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) 150MHz all-Sky radio Survey; TGSS ADR, Intema+ 2016arXiv160304368I), creating high-quality images of approximately 90% of the entire sky. The TGSS ADR achieves a median rms noise level of 3.5mJy/beam and an angular resolution of 25" for decl.>19°, and 25"x25"/cos(decl.-19°) for more southern decl. LOFAR has carried out a search for pulsed emission from all northern radio pulsars (Bilious+ 2016A&A...591A.134B; Kondratiev+ 2016A&A...585A.128K). This census was primarily conducted with the LOFAR high-band antennas (HBAs) between 110 and 188MHz, with 400 channels each of 0.195MHz in width, or a bandwidth of 78MHz. We find 92 pulsars commonly detected in both the LOFAR and TGSS ADR surveys (Tables 1 and 2). (3 data files).

  12. Preliminary Design of the Continuous ADRs for the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Dipirro, Michael James; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    PIXIE is a recently proposed middle-class explorer mission designed to produce full-sky maps of polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). PIXIEs challenging science goals require not only measuring the extremely faint b-modes of the CMB, but distinguishing between true CMB signatures and 1) polarized light reflecting off local dust, and 2) signals arising from within the instrument. PIXIEs detectors will operate at 100 mK in order to achieve the required sensitivity. Instrument errors will be minimized in part by operating the telescope and optics at an average temperature close to that of the CMB (2.72 K) and systematically varying the temperature of various components by a small amount (10-20 mK). Signals appearing at the frequency of those variations can then be subtracted out. For this to be successful at the level required, it is necessary for the pattern of temperatures to be stable over very long time frames. Consequently, cooling of the detectors and telescope will be done using two 3-stage ADR assemblies that will produce continuous cooling, one at 100 mK and the other at approximately 2.65 K. The latter will act as the heat sink for 100 mK ADR and establish a base temperature from which the telescope and optics will be regulated. Its heat sink is a 4.5 K cryocooler. The design and operation of the ADRs will be discussed.

  13. Effects of autophagy on multidrug resistance of drug resistant LoVo/Adr cells of colon carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang MA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of autophagy on multidrug resistance (MDR of drug resistant LoVo/Adr cells of colon carcinoma. Methods The formation of autophagosomes was monitored with transmission electron microscopy, and autophagy rate was measured with the aid of MDC staining and flow cytometry. IC50 value of adriamycin (ADR on colon carcinoma cells was detected by MTT assay. The mRNA level of MDR1 gene was measured by RT-PCR, and P-gp protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Results The sporadic autophagosomes or green epoptic dots were found to distribute in LoVo/Adr cells with an autophagy rate of 3.1%±0.5%. A large number of autophagosomes were seen after being treated with ADR or rapamycin (RAPA with the autophagy rates of 33.6%±5.1% and 45.2%±6.1%, respectively (P<0.05. After being treated with ADR combining RAPA, autophagosomes appeared abundantly with an autophagy rate of 76.2%±7.4%, which was significantly higher than that when treated with ADR or RAPA alone (P<0.05. The IC50 value of LoVo/Adr cells on ADR was 3.05±0.52mg/L, which decreased to 1.12±0.21mg/L after being treated with RAPA (P<0.01. RAPA could reverse MDR with a reversal ratio of 2.26. High expression of mRNA and protein of MDR1 gene were observed in LoVo/Adr cells. When treated with RAPA, the expression of MDR1 mRNA decreased from 1.42±0.31 to 0.54±0.20 (P<0.05, and the expression of P-gp protein also decreased significantly from 0.67±0.14 to 0.15±0.08 (P<0.01. Conclusion MDR LoVo/Adr cell shows a low autophagic activity, and RAPA can reverse MDR by increasing autophagy activity. The reversal path might be related with the increase of cell autophagic death and the decrease in MDR1 gene expression in LoVo/Adr cells. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.007

  14. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Chalcone from Hops, Inhibits the Viability and Stemness of Doxorubicin-Resistant MCF-7/ADR Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Liu; Hua Yin; Xiaokun Qian; Jianjun Dong; Zhonghua Qian; Jinlai Miao

    2016-01-01

    Xanthohumol is a unique prenylated flavonoid in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer. Xanthohumol has been shown to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. There is little research on its effect on doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR) and the cancer stem-like cells exiting in this cell line. In the present study, we investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the viability and stemness of MCF-7/ADR cells. Xanthohumol inhibits viability, induces apoptosis, and arrests the ...

  15. Characterization of rickettsial adhesin Adr2 belonging to a new group of adhesins in α-proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellaiswamy, Manohari; Kowalczewska, Malgorzata; Merhej, Vicky; Nappez, Claude; Vincentelli, Renaud; Renesto, Patricia; Raoult, Didier

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia prowazekii is the etiological agent of epidemic typhus and is an obligate intracellular bacterium that grows as a parasite freely within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic host cell. Previous studies have shown that rOmpA and rOmpB which belong to the family of rickettsial cell surface antigens are involved in vitro in the adhesion of Rickettsiae to epithelial cells. Recently, two putative rickettsial adhesins have been identified using high resolution 2D-PAGE coupled with mass spectrometry. In this study, we further characterize and describe the adhesin Adr2 from R. prowazekii. Using an overlay assay coupled with mass spectrometry two adhesins, Adr1 (RP827) and Adr2 (RP828), were identified from the R. prowazekii proteome Recombinant R. prowazekii Adr2 was expressed through fusion with Dsbc in Escherichia coli, purified and concentrated, thus allowing production of specific monoclonal antibodies, as confirmed by western blot assays. Finally, inhibition of rickettsiae-induced cytotoxicity with monoclonal anti-Adr2 antibody has showed a greatest impact on bacterial cell entry at 8 h post-infection (ca50%) and then decreased progressively to attempt 18% of inhibition at day 7. These, correlated to the inhibition of rickettsiae-induced cytotoxicity with monoclonal anti-rOmpB antibody. Thus, Adr2 is sufficient to mediate R. prowazekii entry into the cell at early stage of mammalian cell infection. Our results suggest that R. prowazekii Adr2 could be the main actor promoting the entry of rickettsiae into the host cells. The present study opens the framework for future investigations for better understanding of the Adr2 -mediated mechanisms involved in adhesion/invasion or intracellular survival of R. prowazekii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of knowledge, attitude and perception of healthcare workers about ADR, a pre- and post-clinical pharmacists' interventional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Niayesh; Hendoiee, Narjes; Keshtkar, Abbas-Ali; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Healthcare workers have a main role in detection, assessment and spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and improvement of their related knowledge, attitude and perception is essential. The goal of this study was evaluation of clinical pharmacists' interventions in improvement of knowledge, attitude and perception of healthcare workers about ADRs in a teaching referral hospital, Tehran, Iran. Method Changes in knowledge, attitude and perception of healthcare workers of Imam teaching hospital about ADRs were evaluated before and after clinical pharmacists' interventions including workshops, meetings and presentations. Results From the 100 participated subjects, 82 of them completed the study. 51% of the health workers have been aware of the Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center at the ministry of health before intervention and after that all the participants knew this centre. About awareness and detection of ADRs in patients, 69 (84.1%) healthcare workers recognised at least one, and following interventions, it was improved to 73 (89%). Only seven (8.5%) subjects have reported ADRs in before intervention phase that were increased significantly to 18 (22%) after intervention. Conclusion Clinical pharmacists' interventions were successful in improvement of healthcare workers' knowledge, attitude and perception about ADRs and spontaneous reporting in our hospital. PMID:22246555

  17. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  18. The contribution of direct patient reported ADRs to drug safety signals in the Netherlands from 2010 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hunsel, Florence; de Waal, Susan; Härmark, Linda

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of patient reports to signals sent by the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb to the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board and to determine if there are certain types of signals where patient report add a distinct contribution. All signals from 2010 until 2015 were included. First, we investigated how many patient reports were present in the signals and the characteristics of these reports compared to the health care professional and marketing authorization holders' reports. In addition to source, the analysis included ATC code of the drug, MedDRA® system organ class and preferred term for the adverse drug reaction (ADR), seriousness of the ADR, and 7 other factors like reports on over-the-counter medication, and how often an ADR listed in the important medical event terms list was present. Secondly, we determined the proportion of reports submitted by the individual groups to signals, in a cross-sectional manner. A total of 150 signals were included, including 1691 ADR reports. Our results show that 26.3% of all ADR reports in Dutch drug safety signals were reported by patients, and 30.5% of the patient reports in the signals contained one or more terms listed as important medical events. The proportion of reports by patients which were included the signals was 2% and 3.9% for health care professional reports and 0.2% for marketing authorization holders reports. Patients had an important contribution to signals overall, but especially for ADRs related to generic drug substitution and psychiatric ADRs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. ADR-IPO latinoamericanos registrados en la Bolsa de Comercio de Nueva York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Parisi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el desempeño de corto y largo plazo de los retornos accionarios de las empresas latinoamericanas que realizaron una oferta inicial de acciones (IPO por medio de American Depositary Receipts (ADR en la Bolsa de Comercio de Nueva York (NYSE. Los resultados señalan una subvaloración estadísticamente significativa de 9,22% para las ADR-IPOs que componen la cartera, y un rendimiento al finalizar el tercer año de 3,75%, estadísticamente significativo. Ambos comportamientos fueron confirmados por la metodología Block Bootstrap, y obtuvieron -en promedio- 11,33% para la subvaloración inicial y 3,92% para el tercer año posregistro. Estos resultados son esperados y de acuerdo a lo indicado por la bibliografía financiera internacional. Al estudiar estos activos latinoamericanos, comparando su rentabilidad con las carteras de mercado locales, la subvaloración inicial es de –0,51% y de 2,95% al cabo de tres años, ambos resultados no son estadísticamente significativos. Por lo anterior, los inversionistas estadounidenses son los que se ven más beneficiados con este tipo de emisión por sobre los inversionistas locales. Llama la atención que los ADR-IPOs no presenten un rendimiento anormal negativo al cabo de tres años de la emisión, hecho que es contrario a lo indicado por la bibliografía financiera.

  20. Thermal domain stability of advanced digital recording (ADR) thin film heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, M. D.; Draaisma, E. A.; Eisenberg, M.; Toonen, L.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper the thermal domain stability of electroplated Nickel-Iron flux guides is studied. During the thin film deposition process of ADR magnetic heads these magnetic structures are heated up to about 300°C on a few occasions and it is shown that this has a pronounced effect on the stress state of the deposited flux-guide layers. Domain observations are carried out on both NiFe strips of varying widths as well as on as-deposited test structures and annealed NiFe on product level of a data head.

  1. Kinematic Kevlar suspension system for the HAWC and SAFIRE ADR salt pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-03-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar® suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists of two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill.

  2. [International reporting of adverse drug reactions. Final report of CIOMS ADR Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, R J; Benichou, C

    1991-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, a working group composed of representatives of seven multinational pharmaceutical manufacturers and six regulatory authorities developed and implemented a standardized method for reporting post-approval adverse drug reactions (ADR). The method is based on a set of uniform definitions and procedures and a single reporting form, and has been demonstrated to be feasible and effective. Regulators and manufacturers, in establishing requirements and systems for reporting of adverse drug reactions, should consider adopting this method.

  3. Development of a Cryogen-Free Continuous ADR for the Constellation-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter; Canavan, Ed; DiPirro, Michael; Francis, John; Jackson, Michael; Tuttle, James; King, Todd; Grabowski, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Constellation-X is a multi-satellite x-ray astronomy mission presently being planned for launch in the 2010 time frame. Each of 4 identical satellites will contain a telescope and instruments for imaging and spectroscopic analysis of both hard and soft x-rays. The X- ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) instrument will use arrays of microcalorimeters to detect X-rays with energies from 0.2 to 6 keV. The technologies under development for this instrument include Transition-Edge Sensors (TES) with multiplexed SQUID readouts and NTD-Ge detectors with JFET readouts. Both will be operated at temperatures in the 50-60 mK range and both have a projected cooling power requirement of approximately 5 microwatts. In addition, in order to meet the lifetime requirement of 6 years (with a goal of 10 years), a mechanical cryocooler will be used to provide a heat sink for the low temperature cooler. The required performance is 20 mW at 6 K, with a goal of 4 K operation. In this paper we present the development status of an adiabatic demagnetization refigerator (ADR) that meets the cooling requirements of the X M S instrument. At present we have demonstrated a 4-stage ADR that operates continuously at 50 mK using a 4.2 K helium bath as a heat sink. The cooling power is 21 microwatts at 100 mK and 6 microwatts at 50 mK. Its efficiency when operating at 50 mK is 1 1 % of Carnot (accounting for all dissipation at 4.2 K and below, but not including power dissipation in the room temperature electronics), but this is expected to rise to 25% in the next generation system in which active gas-gap heat switches are replaced with passive devices. This will reduce the peak heat rejection rate of the ADR to less than 7 mW at 6 K. Details of the ADR s design and operation, as well as the development program leading up to a flight-qualified instrument, will be discussed.

  4. Educational intervention to improve physician reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in a primary care setting in complementary and alternative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostermann Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that adverse drug reactions (ADRs are underreported. This may be particularly true of ADRs associated with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Data on CAM-related ADRs, however, are sparse. Objective was to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention and monitoring programme designed to improve physician reporting of ADRs in a primary care setting. Methods A prospective multicentre study with 38 primary care practitioners specialized in CAM was conducted from January 2004 through June 2007. After 21 month all physicians received an educational intervention in terms of face-to-face training to assist them in classifying and reporting ADRs. The study centre monitored the quantity and quality of ADR reports and analysed the results. To measure changes in the ADR reporting rate, the median number of ADR reports and interquartile range (IQR were calculated before and after the educational intervention. The pre-intervention and post-intervention quality of the reports was assessed in terms of changes in the completeness of data provided for obligatory items. Interrater reliability between the physicians and the study centre was calculated using Cohen's kappa with a 95% confidence interval (CI. We used Mann Whitney U-test for testing continuous data and chi-square test was used for categorical data. The level of statistical significance was set at P Results A total of 404 ADRs were reported during the complete study period. An initial 148% increase (P = 0.001 in the number of ADR reports was observed after the educational intervention. Compared to baseline the postinterventional number of ADR reportings was statistically significant higher (P P Conclusion The results of the present study demonstrate that an educational intervention can increase physician awareness of ADRs. Participating physicians were able to incorporate the knowledge they had gained from face-to-face training into their

  5. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Chalcone from Hops, Inhibits the Viability and Stemness of Doxorubicin-Resistant MCF-7/ADR Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthohumol is a unique prenylated flavonoid in hops (Humulus lupulus L. and beer. Xanthohumol has been shown to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. There is little research on its effect on doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR and the cancer stem-like cells exiting in this cell line. In the present study, we investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the viability and stemness of MCF-7/ADR cells. Xanthohumol inhibits viability, induces apoptosis, and arrests the cell cycle of MCF-7/ADR cells in a dose-dependent manner; in addition, xanthohumol sensitizes the inhibition effect of doxorubicin on MCF-7/ADR cells. Interestingly, we also find that xanthohumol can reduce the stemness of MCF-7/ADR cells evidenced by the xanthohumol-induced decrease in the colony formation, the migration, the percentage of side population cells, the sphere formation, and the down-regulation of stemness-related biomarkers. These results demonstrate that xanthohumol is a promising compound targeting the doxorubicin resistant breast cancer cells and regulating their stemness, which, therefore, will be applied as a potential candidate for the development of a doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer agent and combination therapy of breast cancer.

  6. Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Chalcone from Hops, Inhibits the Viability and Stemness of Doxorubicin-Resistant MCF-7/ADR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Hua; Qian, Xiaokun; Dong, Jianjun; Qian, Zhonghua; Miao, Jinlai

    2016-12-28

    Xanthohumol is a unique prenylated flavonoid in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer. Xanthohumol has been shown to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. There is little research on its effect on doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR) and the cancer stem-like cells exiting in this cell line. In the present study, we investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the viability and stemness of MCF-7/ADR cells. Xanthohumol inhibits viability, induces apoptosis, and arrests the cell cycle of MCF-7/ADR cells in a dose-dependent manner; in addition, xanthohumol sensitizes the inhibition effect of doxorubicin on MCF-7/ADR cells. Interestingly, we also find that xanthohumol can reduce the stemness of MCF-7/ADR cells evidenced by the xanthohumol-induced decrease in the colony formation, the migration, the percentage of side population cells, the sphere formation, and the down-regulation of stemness-related biomarkers. These results demonstrate that xanthohumol is a promising compound targeting the doxorubicin resistant breast cancer cells and regulating their stemness, which, therefore, will be applied as a potential candidate for the development of a doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer agent and combination therapy of breast cancer.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of the 3-Stage ADR for the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter; Kimball, Mark; DiPirro, Michael; Bialas, Tom; Sneiderman, Gary; Porter, Scott; Kelley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument on Astro-H will use a 3-stage ADR to cool the microcalorimeter array to 50 mK. In the primary operating mode, two stages of the ADR cool the detectors using superfluid helium at 1.20 K as the heat sink. In the secondary mode, which is activated when the liquid helium is depleted, two of the stages continuously cool the (empty) helium tank using a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cooler as the heat sink, and the third stage cools the detectors. In the design phase, a high-fidelity model of the ADR was developed in order to predict both the cooling capacity and heat rejection rates in both operating modes. The primary sources of heat flow are from the salt pills, hysteresis heat from the magnets and magnetic shields, and power dissipated by the heat switches. The flight instrument dewar, ADR, detectors and electronics were integrated in mid-2014 and have since undergone extensive performance testing, in part to validate the performance model. This paper will present the thermodynamic performance of the ADR, including cooling capacity, heat rejection to the heat sinks, and various measures of efficiency.

  8. Thermodynamic performance of the 3-stage ADR for the Astro-H Soft-X-ray Spectrometer instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theodore; DiPirro, Michael J.; Bialas, Thomas G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2016-03-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument (Mitsuda et al., 2010) [1] on Astro-H (Takahashi et al., 2010) [2] will use a 3-stage ADR (Shirron et al., 2012) to cool the microcalorimeter array to 50 mK. In the primary operating mode, two stages of the ADR cool the detectors using superfluid helium at ⩽1.20 K as the heat sink (Fujimoto et al., 2010). In the secondary mode, which is activated when the liquid helium is depleted, the ADR uses a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cooler as its heat sink. In this mode, all three stages operate together to continuously cool the (empty) helium tank and single-shot cool the detectors. The flight instrument - dewar, ADR, detectors and electronics - were integrated in 2014 and have since undergone extensive performance testing. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the ADR's operation, including cooling capacity, heat rejection to the heat sinks, and various measures of efficiency.

  9. Operating Modes and Cooling Capabilities of the Flight ADR for the SXS Instrument on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter; Kimball, Mark; DiPirro, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The microcalorimeter array on the Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument on Astro-H requires cooling to 50 mK, which will be accomplished by a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR is surrounded by a cryogenic system consisting of a superfluid helium tank, a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler, and additional 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers that pre-cool the JT cooler and radiation shields within the cryostat. The unique ADR design allows the instrument to meet all of its science requirements using either the stored cryogen or the JT cryocooler as its heat sink, giving the instrument an unusual degree of tolerance for component failures or degradation in the cryogenic system. The flight detector assembly, ADR and dewar were integrated in early 2014, and have since been extensively characterized and calibrated. At present, the four instruments are being integrated with the spacecraft in preparation for an early 2016 launch. This presentation summarizes the operation and performance of the ADR in all of its operating modes.

  10. 50 mK cooling solution with an ADR precooled by a sorption cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchier, N.; Duval, J. M.; Duband, L.; Camus, P.; Donnier-Valentin, G.; Linder, M.

    2010-09-01

    CEA/SBT is currently developing a 2.5 K-50 mK cooling solution composed of a small demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) precooled by a sorption cooler, equivalent to the high temperature stage of a two-stage ADR system. Thanks to the use of this dual technology, a low weight cooler able to reach 50 mK with a heat sink up to 2.5 K can be designed. Because the sorption cooler is probably the lightest solution to produce sub-Kelvin temperatures, these developments allow us to propose a solution to face the drastic reduction in the mass budget of space missions like SPICA or IXO. The European Space Agency (ESA) is funding the development of an engineering model able to produce 1 μW net heat lift at 50 mK. It is sized so that the sorption cooler provides an additional 10 μW at 300 mK. The ESA main requirements are an autonomy of more than 24 h and a recycling time smaller than 8 h. We present the design of the system able to meet these requirements as well as the expected performances and preliminary measurements.

  11. 补骨脂素对MCF-7/ADR耐药细胞内ADR及Ca2+浓度的影响%Effects of Psoralen on ADR Multidrug Resistance and Ca2+ Concentration in MCF-7/ADR Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡天革; 蔡宇; 余绍蕾; 冯笑珍

    2007-01-01

    Objective To research the reversal effects of psoralen on multidrug resistant action and its influence on intracellular Ca2+ concentration in MCF-7/ADR cells and to explore its possible mechanisms of reversing multidrug resistance (MDR). Methods The inhibitory effects of psoralen on the viability of MCF-7/ADR cells were determined with MTT assay, intracellular adriamycin (ADR) concentration was assayed with HPLC and the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in different incubative duration were detected with confocal microscope. Results Psoralen from 1 to 20 μmol/L reduced the value of IC50 of ADR in MCF-7/ADR cells, enhanced accumulation of ADR and influenced Ca2+ concentration with a negative correlation in different duration (24 h, 48 h and 96 h). Conclusion Psoralen can reverse MDR in MCF-7/ADR cells and its mechanism may be related to the increase of the intracellular accumulation of ADR by enhancing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration.%目的 研究补骨脂素对MCF-7/ADR耐药细胞逆转作用及对耐药细胞内Ca2+浓度影响,探讨其可能作用机制.方法 采用MTT法测定补骨脂素对细胞增殖抑制作用,高效液相色谱法检测细胞内ADR的浓度,激光共聚焦显微镜测定细胞内不同时段的Ca2+浓度.结果 补骨脂素在1~20 μmol/L浓度下能不同程度降低ADR对MCF-7/ADR细胞的IC50,并不同程度提高细胞内ADR浓度;1~20 μmol/L补骨脂素在不同作用时段(24、48、96 h)对MCF-7/ADR细胞内Ca2+浓度与作用时间呈负相关.结论 补骨脂素能逆转MCF-7/ADR细胞的MDR,其作用机制与影响耐药细胞内Ca2+浓度,故而增加细胞内ADR浓度有关.

  12. Educational intervention to improve physician reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in a primary care setting in complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabali, Manuela; Jeschke, Elke; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Witt, Claudia M; Willich, Stefan N; Ostermann, Thomas; Matthes, Harald

    2009-07-31

    Recent studies have shown that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are underreported. This may be particularly true of ADRs associated with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Data on CAM-related ADRs, however, are sparse.Objective was to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention and monitoring programme designed to improve physician reporting of ADRs in a primary care setting. A prospective multicentre study with 38 primary care practitioners specialized in CAM was conducted from January 2004 through June 2007. After 21 month all physicians received an educational intervention in terms of face-to-face training to assist them in classifying and reporting ADRs. The study centre monitored the quantity and quality of ADR reports and analysed the results.To measure changes in the ADR reporting rate, the median number of ADR reports and interquartile range (IQR) were calculated before and after the educational intervention. The pre-intervention and post-intervention quality of the reports was assessed in terms of changes in the completeness of data provided for obligatory items. Interrater reliability between the physicians and the study centre was calculated using Cohen's kappa with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used Mann Whitney U-test for testing continuous data and chi-square test was used for categorical data. The level of statistical significance was set at P educational intervention. Compared to baseline the postinterventional number of ADR reportings was statistically significant higher (P educational intervention. The quality of ADR reports increased from kappa 0.15 (95% CI: 0.08; 0.29) before to 0.43 (95% CI: 0.23; 0.63) after the intervention. The results of the present study demonstrate that an educational intervention can increase physician awareness of ADRs. Participating physicians were able to incorporate the knowledge they had gained from face-to-face training into their daily clinical practice. However, the effects of the intervention

  13. Operating Modes and Cooling Capabilities of the 3-Stage ADR Developed for the Soft-X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theo; DiPirro, Michael J.; Letmate, Richard V.; Sampson, Michael A.; Bialas, Tom G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is used on the Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument on Astro-H to cool a 6x6 array of x-ray microcalorimeters to 50 mK. The ADR is supported by a cryogenic system consisting of a superfluid helium tank, a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler, and additional 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers that pre-cool the JT cooler and cool radiation shields within the cryostat. The ADR is configured so that it can use either the liquid helium or the JT cryocooler as its heat sink, giving the instrument an unusual degree of tolerance for component failures or degradation in the cryogenic system. The flight detector assembly, ADR and dewar were integrated into the flight dewar in early 2014, and have since been extensively characterized and calibrated. This paper summarizes the operation and performance of the ADR in all of its operating modes

  14. REVERSAL EFFECTS OF MIFEPRISTONE ON MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE(MDR) IN DRUG-RESISTANT BREAST CANCER CELL LINE MCF7/ADR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大强; 潘丽华; 邵志敏

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the reversal effect of mifepristone on multidrug resistance (MDR) in drug-resistant human breast cancer cell line MCF7/ADR and its mechanisms. Methods: Expression of MDR1 and MDR-associated protein(MRP) mRNA in MCF7/ADR cells was detected using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Western blotting was used to assay the protein levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MRP. Intracellular rhodamine 123 retention and [3H]vincristine (VCR) accumulation were measured by flow cytometry and liquid scintillation counter, respectively. MTT reduction assay was used to determine the sensitivity of cells to the anticancer agent, adriamycin (ADR). Additionally, a MCF7/ADR cell xenograft model was established to assess the reversal effect of mifeprisone on MDR in MCF7/ADR cells in vivo. Results: Miferpristone dose-dependently down- regulated the expression of MDR1 and MRP mRNA in MCF7/ADR cells, accompanied by a significant decrease in the protein levels of P-gp and MRP. After exposure to 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L mifepristone, MCF7/ADR cells showed a 3.87-, 5.81-, and 7.40-fold increase in the accumulation of intracellular VCR(a known substrate of MRP), and a 2.14-, 4.39-, and 5.53-fold increase in the retention of intracellular rhodamine 123(an indicator of P-gp function), respectively. MTT analysis showed that the sensitivity of MCF7/ADR cells to ADR was enhanced by 7.23-, 13.62-, and 20.96-fold after incubation with mifepristone as above-mentioned doses for 96 h. In vivo, mifepristone effectively restored the chemosensitivity of MCF7/ADR cells to ADR. After 8 weeks of administration with ADR(2 mg·kg-1·d-1) alone or in combination with mifepristone(50 mg·kg-1·d-1), the growth inhibitory rate of xenografted tumors in nude mice was 8.08% and 37.25%, respectively. Conclusion: Mifepristone exerts potent reversal effects on MDR in MCF7/ADR cells in vitro and in vivo through down- regulation of MDR1/P-gp and MRP expression and inhibition of P

  15. What Level of Bowel Prep Quality Requires Early Repeat Colonoscopy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Preparation Quality on Adenoma Detection Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian T.; Rustagi, Tarun; Laine, Loren

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Current guidelines recommend early repeat colonoscopy when bowel preparation quality is inadequate, defined as inability to detect polyps > 5 mm, but no data link specific bowel preparation categories or scores to this definition. Nevertheless, most physicians use a shortened screening/surveillance interval in patients with intermediate-quality preparation. We determined whether different levels of bowel preparation quality are associated with differences in adenoma detection rates (ADRs: proportion of colonoscopies with ≥1 adenoma) to help guide decisions regarding early repeat colonoscopy—with primary focus on intermediate-quality preparation. METHODS MEDLINE and Embase were searched for studies with adenoma or polyp detection rate stratified by bowel preparation quality. Preparation quality definitions were standardized on the basis of Aronchick definitions (excellent/good/fair/poor/insufficient), and primary analyses of ADR trichotomized bowel preparation quality: high quality (excellent/good), intermediate quality (fair), and low quality (poor/insufficient). Dichotomized analyses of adequate (excellent/good/fair) vs. inadequate (poor/insufficient) were also performed. RESULTS Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The primary analysis, ADR with intermediate- vs. high-quality preparation, showed an odds ratio (OR) of 0.94 (0.80–1.10) and absolute risk difference of −1% (−3%, 2%). ADRs were significantly higher with both intermediate-quality and high-quality preparation vs. low-quality preparation: OR = 1.39 (1.08–1.79) and 1.41 (1.21–1.64), with absolute risk increases of 5% for both. ADR and advanced ADR were significantly higher with adequate vs. inadequate preparation: OR = 1.30 (1.19–1.42) and 1.30 (1.02–1.67). Studies did not report other relevant outcomes such as total adenomas per colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS ADR is not significantly different with intermediate-quality vs. high-quality bowel preparation. Our results confirm

  16. Predicting the Risk of Adverse Drug Reactions in Older Inpatients: External Validation of the GerontoNet ADR Risk Score Using the CRIME Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Mirko; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; van der Cammen, Tischa; Onder, Graziano

    2017-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older people are often preventable, indicating that screening and prevention programs aimed at reducing their rate are needed in this population. The aim of this study was to externally validate the GerontoNet ADR risk score and to assess its validity in specific subpopulations of older inpatients. Data from the prospective CRIteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients (CRIME) cohort were used. Dose-dependent and predictable ADRs were classified as type A, probable or definite ADRs were defined according to the Naranjo algorithm, and diagnostic accuracy was tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for a cut-off point of 4. The mean age of the 1075 patients was 81.4 years (standard deviation 7.4) and the median number of drugs was 10 (range 7-13). At least one ADR was observed in 70 patients (6.5%); ADRs were classified as type A in 50 patients (4.7%) and defined as probable or definite in 41 patients (3.8%). Fair diagnostic accuracy to predict both type A and probable or definite ADRs was found in subpopulations aged 18.5 kg/m(2)) and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of >24/30 points, as well as in patients with osteoarthritis. The cut-off point of 4 points yielded very good sensitivity but poor specificity results in these subpopulations. This study suggests that the GerontoNet ADR risk score might represent a pragmatic approach to identifying specific subpopulations of older inpatients at increased risk of an ADR with a fair to good diagnostic accuracy.

  17. The GMRT 150 MHz all-sky radio survey. First alternative data release TGSS ADR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intema, H. T.; Jagannathan, P.; Mooley, K. P.; Frail, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first full release of a survey of the 150 MHz radio sky, observed with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) between April 2010 and March 2012 as part of the TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS) project. Aimed at producing a reliable compact source survey, our automated data reduction pipeline efficiently processed more than 2000 h of observations with minimal human interaction. Through application of innovative techniques such as image-based flagging, direction-dependent calibration of ionospheric phase errors, correcting for systematic offsets in antenna pointing, and improving the primary beam model, we created good quality images for over 95 percent of the 5336 pointings. Our data release covers 36 900 deg2 (or 3.6 π steradians) of the sky between -53° and +90° declination (Dec), which is 90 percent of the total sky. The majority of pointing images have a noise level below 5 mJy beam-1 with an approximate resolution of 25''×25'' (or 25''×25''/ cos(Dec-19°) for pointings south of 19° declination). We have produced a catalog of 0.62 Million radio sources derived from an initial, high reliability source extraction at the seven sigma level. For the bulk of the survey, the measured overall astrometric accuracy is better than two arcseconds in right ascension and declination, while the flux density accuracy is estimated at approximately ten percent. Within the scope of the TGSS alternative data release (TGSS ADR) project, the source catalog, as well as 5336 mosaic images (5°×5°) and an image cutout service, are made publicly available at the CDS as a service to the astronomical community. Next to enabling a wide range of different scientific investigations, we anticipate that these survey products will provide a solid reference for various new low-frequency radio aperture array telescopes (LOFAR, LWA, MWA, SKA-low), and can play an important role in characterizing the epoch-of-reionisation (EoR) foreground. The TGSS ADR project aims at

  18. Automated Price and Demand Response Demonstration for Large Customers in New York City using OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-10-01

    Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR), an XML-based information exchange model, is used to facilitate continuous price-responsive operation and demand response participation for large commercial buildings in New York who are subject to the default day-ahead hourly pricing. We summarize the existing demand response programs in New York and discuss OpenADR communication, prioritization of demand response signals, and control methods. Building energy simulation models are developed and field tests are conducted to evaluate continuous energy management and demand response capabilities of two commercial buildings in New York City. Preliminary results reveal that providing machine-readable prices to commercial buildings can facilitate both demand response participation and continuous energy cost savings. Hence, efforts should be made to develop more sophisticated algorithms for building control systems to minimize customer's utility bill based on price and reliability information from the electricity grid.

  19. Performance of the Micropower Voltage Reference ADR3430 Under Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Electronic systems designed for use in space exploration systems are expected to be exposed to harsh temperatures. For example, operation at cryogenic temperatures is anticipated in space missions such as polar craters of the moon (-223 C), James Webb Space Telescope (-236 C), Mars (-140 C), Europa (-223 C), Titan (-178 C), and other deep space probes away from the sun. Similarly, rovers and landers on the lunar surface, and deep space probes intended for the exploration of Venus are expected to encounter high temperature extremes. Electronics capable of operation under extreme temperatures would not only meet the requirements of future spacebased systems, but would also contribute to enhancing efficiency and improving reliability of these systems through the elimination of the thermal control elements that present electronics need for proper operation under the harsh environment of space. In this work, the performance of a micropower, high accuracy voltage reference was evaluated over a wide temperature range. The Analog Devices ADR3430 chip uses a patented voltage reference architecture to achieve high accuracy, low temperature coefficient, and low noise in a CMOS process [1]. The device combines two voltages of opposite temperature coefficients to create an output voltage that is almost independent of ambient temperature. It is rated for the industrial temperature range of -40 C to +125 C, and is ideal for use in low power precision data acquisition systems and in battery-powered devices. Table 1 shows some of the manufacturer s device specifications.

  20. Fluxo de Caixa, ADRs e Restrições de Crédito no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano M. Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Seguindo Almeida, Campello e Weisbach (2003, usamos a relação entre restrição de crédito e a demanda por liquidez para mensurar o efeito das restrições crédito sobre as políticas das empresas brasileiras. O efeito da restrição de crédito pode ser capturado via propensão à poupança de fundos líquidos extraordinários. Enquanto empresas que enfrentam restrições de crédito deveriam apresentar uma sensibilidade positiva à entrada de recursos extraordinários em seu fluxo de caixa, as empresas irrestritas não apresentariam qualquer relação neste sentido. Utilizando o método 2SLS, estimamos a sensibilidade do fluxo de caixa à receitas extraordinárias usando uma amostra de empresas brasileiras entre 1995 e 2007 e, utilizando o acesso ao mercado financeiro internacional através de ADRs, verificamos que as empresas restritas financeiramente apresentam uma sensibilidade positiva do fluxo de caixa à recursos extraordinários, enquanto as empresas irrestritas não se comportam da mesma forma.

  1. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM VALUE IN EMERGING MARKETS AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF ADR ISSUING EMERGING MARKET FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Ficici

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the value implications of good corporate governance for a sample of 54 ADR issuing emerging market firms (EMFs from 9 countries primarily located in the regions of Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America and the and employs recently constructed company composite corporate governance metric along with some alternative corporate governance measures associated with the origin of the issuing firm. Although the ADR literature primarily focuses on the impact of subscription to US disclosure requirements we contend that company and country specific corporate governance standards play a significant role in the risk reduction and ensuing value capture.  The fundamental inquiry in this study has the following foci: The primary focus is on the impact of corporate governance structures on firm performance as to whether adherence to standards creates market value for ADR issuing EMFs.  Do good corporate governance practices affect the value of EMFs? The secondary focus is concerned with whether the impact of corruption level and legal system in a firm’s home country affect the corporate structures of EMFs thus affecting the market value of firms.  In this study, we utilize Tobin’s q as the measure of firm performance/market value.  Our findings suggest that there is a significant correlation between corporate governance structures of ADR issuing EMFs and their market values and/or performances.  The results also indicate that the level of corruption and legal structures in home countries of EMFs strongly impact the corporate governance structures of these firms and sequentially affect their market values. Therefore, this research further contributes to the scholarly findings and suppositions that corporate structures of firms do create consequences on firm value.

  2. Development of a combined system for identification and classification of adverse drug reactions: Alerts Based on ADR Causality and Severity (ABACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yvonne; Yap, Chun Wei; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2010-01-01

    Currently, adverse drug reaction (ADR) causality and severity are assessed using different systems but there is no standard method to combine the results. In this work, a combined ADR causality and severity assessment system, including an online version, was developed. Logical rules were defined to translate the score obtained from the system into three alert zones: green, amber, and red. The alert zones are useful for triaging ADR cases as they help define the seriousness of the ADR and the urgency of the responses required. This new scoring system may be useful for clinicians, investigators, and regulators seeking information on the likelihood of a drug causing an adverse reaction, and whether an adverse reaction is sufficiently dangerous for the drug to be withheld or undergo further investigation.

  3. Flavopiridol诱导耐阿霉素尤文肉瘤细胞株VH-64/ADR 凋亡及作用机制的研究%Apoptosis of VH-64/ADR cells induced by flavopiridol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范姝丽; 李旭; 林杰; 白小涓

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effect of flavopiridol on human Ewing Sarcoma VH-64/ADR cell and its mechanism in vitro. Methods: The proliferation of VH-64 and VH-64/ADR cells was determined by using MTT method.Cell cycle progression and apoptosis ratio were determined by flow cytometry.The expression of bcl-2,cleaved-PARP,casepase-3 were detected by western blot. Results:After exposure to flavopiridol,the growth of VH-64/ADR cells were inhibited in a both time-dependent and dose-dependent manner(P<0.05).Apoptosis rate of VH-64/ADR was higher than that of control group(P<0.05).The expression of bcl-2 and pro-casepase-3 were down-regulated,and the expression of active-form PARP was up-regulated. Conclusion: The apoptosis of VH-64/ADR cells induced by flavopiridol might be via mitochondrial pathway.%目的:探讨细胞周期蛋白酶抑制剂flavopiridol(FP)对耐阿霉素尤文肉瘤细胞增殖抑制及凋亡诱导的作用机制.方法:采用MTT法测定阿霉素(ADM)及falvopiridol对VH-64/ADR细胞的半数抑制浓度(IC50),计算耐药倍数;流式细胞计数仪(FCM)检测falvopiridol给药后VH-64/ADR细胞周期的变化;Western-blotting方法检测细胞中Bcl-2、pro-caspase-3、活化型多聚ADP核糖多聚酶(PARP-85)蛋白的表达.结果:flavopiridol可抑制尤文肉瘤耐阿霉素细胞株VH/ADR的细胞增殖,其效果呈时间及浓度相关性(P<0.05).flavopiridol给药后,耐药细胞株VH-64/ADR的细胞凋亡率明显高于对照组(P<0.05);bcl-2、pro-casepase-3表达下调,而活性型PARP表达上调. 结论:FP可有效诱导VH-64/ADR细胞发生凋亡,其机制可能与线粒体信号传导途径有关.

  4. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  5. Analysis of 155 reports of ADR Induced by Quinolones%155例喹诺酮类药品不良反应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晗; 刘晓琰; 崔敏; 苏颖杰

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究喹诺酮类药物在临床治疗中发生的不良反应(ADR)情况,寻找应对该类药物ADR的临床策略.方法 采用回顾性研究方法,对我院2004~2011年上报的喹诺酮类药物ADR进行系统分析.结果 155例ADR报表中涉及9种喹诺酮类药物,左氧氟沙星ADR例次最多(105例次).主要不良反应表现为过敏反应(40.4%)和消化系统症状(27.1%).结论 对喹诺酮类药物的临床应用需加强监测,促进合理用药.%Objective To determine adverse drug reaction (ADR) occurrence associated with quinolones in clinical practices. Methods 155 reports of quinolones-induced ADR from 2010 to 2011 were analyzed. Results Nine drugs of quinolones were involved in 155 ADR reports, among which levofloxacin resulted in ADR most frequently(105 cases). The ADRs manifestations mainly covered allergies(40.4%) and digestive system disease symptoms(27.1%). Conclusion It is necessary to monitor clinical application of quinolones, therefore promote rational use of drug.

  6. Demonstration of automated price response in large customers in New York City using Auto-DR and OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Demand response (DR) – allowing customers to respond to reliability requests and market prices by changing electricity use from their normal consumption pattern – continues to be seen as an attractive means of demand-side management and a fundamental smart-grid improvement that links supply and demand. From October 2011 to December 2013, the Demand Response Research Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, and partners Honeywell and Akuacom, have conducted a demonstration project enabling Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) in large commercial buildings located in New York City using Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) communication protocols. In particular, this project focuses on demonstrating how the OpenADR platform, enabled by Akuacom, can automate and simplify interactions between buildings and various stakeholders in New York State and enable the automation of customers’ price response to yield bill savings under dynamic pricing. In this paper, the cost control opportunities under day-ahead hourly pricing and Auto-DR control strategies are presented for four demonstration buildings; present the breakdown of Auto-DR enablement costs; summarize the field test results and their load impact; and show potential bill savings by enabling automated price response under Consolidated Edison’s Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP) tariff. For one of the sites, the potential bill savings at the site’s current retail rate are shown. Facility managers were given granular equipment-level opt-out capability to ensure full control of the sites during the Auto-DR implementation. The expected bill savings ranged from 1.1% to 8.0% of the total MHP bill. The automation and enablement costs ranged from $70 to $725 per kW shed. The results show that OpenADR can facilitate the automation of price response, deliver savings to the customers and opt-out capability of the implementation retains control of the

  7. Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen subtype adr in an epidemic of papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki,Susumu

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (PAC has recently been reported to be associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg subtype ayw. Between September, 1978, and June, 1979, we saw 14 patients with PAC in a small epidemic occurring in Iwakuni City, Japan. HBsAg was detected in sera from all patients. Subtyping of HBsAg in 11 patients showed that 8 had a determinant adr and 3 had no detectable determinant because of low antigen titers. The result suggests that factors other than the specific HBsAg subtype contribute to the development of PAC.

  8. Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen subtype adr in an epidemic of papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, S; Kanda, S; Terada, K; Nohno, S; Kumano, K; Narahara, K; Hayashi, H; Kimoto, H

    1981-12-01

    Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (PAC) has recently been reported to be associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) subtype ayw. Between September, 1978, and June, 1979, we saw 14 patients with PAC in a small epidemic occurring in Iwakuni City, Japan. HBsAg was detected in sera from all patients. Subtyping of HBsAg in 11 patients showed that 8 had a determinant adr and 3 had no detectable determinant because of low antigen titers. The result suggests that factors other than the specific HBsAg subtype contribute to the development of PAC.

  9. Conserved regulation of the Hansenula polymorpha MOX promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals insights in the transcriptional activation by Adr1p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G G; Hollenberg, C P

    1996-05-15

    The Hansenula polymorpha MOX gene encodes a peroxisomal enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the highly specialized methanol metabolism. MOX is strongly transcribed in cells growing in methanol and completely repressed in glucose. We show here that the MOX promoter confers a glucose-repressible expression upon a lacZ reporter gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an unrelated yeast species that lacks the methanol metabolism. Repression was mediated by a 200-bp region of the MOX promoter, termed MOX-B, and was counteracted by Adr1p, a transcription factor involved in the derepression of S. cerevisiae genes encoding peroxisomal proteins, the class to which MOX belongs. Binding of Adr1p to MOX-B was demonstrated by gel retardation and DNaseI-footprinting, and Adr1p was shown to interact with a DNA region containing only a half of the putative Adr1p consensus binding site. Our findings suggest that Adr1p is a conserved regulator for genes encoding peroxisomal proteins at least in other yeast species, and that its interaction with the DNA is dependent on the promoter context.

  10. Operating modes and cooling capabilities of the 3-stage ADR developed for the Soft-X-ray Spectrometer instrument on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theodore; DiPirro, Michael J.; Letmate, Richard V.; Sampson, Michael A.; Bialas, Tom G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2016-03-01

    A 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) (Shirron et al., 2012) is used on the Soft X-ray Spectrometer instrument (Mitsuda et al., 2010) on Astro-H (Takahashi et al., 2010) [3] to cool a 6 × 6 array of X-ray microcalorimeters to 50 mK. The ADR is supported by a cryogenic system (Fujimoto et al., 2010) consisting of a superfluid helium tank, a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler, and additional 2-stage Stirling cryocoolers that pre-cool the JT cooler and cool radiation shields within the cryostat. The ADR is configured so that it can use either the liquid helium or the JT cryocooler as its heat sink, giving the instrument an unusual degree of tolerance for component failures or degradation in the cryogenic system. The flight detector assembly, ADR and dewar were integrated into the flight dewar in early 2014, and have since been extensively characterized and calibrated. This paper summarizes the operation and performance of the ADR in all of its operating modes.

  11. 我院开展药品不良反应监测工作的探讨%Discussion of ADR monitoring in our hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洁娜

    2009-01-01

    Objective :To strengthen the monitoring of adverse drug reactions (ADR) in hospital, streamline the managerial system of adverse drug reactions(ADR). Methods: EstabLish a monitoring network on adverse drug reactions;better monitor and report system on adverse drug reactions; improve reports in quality and quantity. Results: Increasing quantity in ADR reports, huge improvement on quality of reports. Conclusion: Effective ADR monitoring system and measures enable smooth development in hospital ADR working progress.%目的:加强医院药品不良反应的监测,规范药品不良反应管理制度.方法:建立药品不良反应监测网络,完善药品不良反应监测和报告的工作制度,提高报表的质量和数量.结果:ADR报表数量上升,报表质量大幅提高.结论:有效的ADR监测制度和措施,能促进医院ADR工作的顺利开展.

  12. The dsRBP and Inactive Editor ADR-1 Utilizes dsRNA Binding to Regulate A-to-I RNA Editing across the C. elegans Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Michael C. Washburn; Boyko Kakaradov; Balaji Sundararaman; Emily Wheeler; Shawn Hoon; Gene W. Yeo; Heather A. Hundley

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate adenosine-to-inosine editing of noncoding regions occurs in disease but is often uncorrelated with ADAR levels, underscoring the need to study deaminase-independent control of editing. C. elegans have two ADAR proteins, ADR-2 and the theoretically catalytically inactive ADR-1. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing of wild-type and adr mutant worms, we expand the repertoire of C. elegans edited transcripts over 5-fold and confirm that ADR-2 is the only active deaminase in vivo. Despi...

  13. Involvement of CD147 on multidrug resistance through the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in K562/ADR leukemic cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoranit Somno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between P-gp and CD147 in the regulation of MDR in leukemic cells has not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between CD147 and P-gp in the regulation of drug resistance in the K562/ADR leukemic cell line. The results showed that drug-resistant K562/ADR cells expressed significantly higher P-gp and CD147 levels than drug-free K562/ADR cells. To determine the regulatory effect of CD147 on P-gp expression, anti-CD147 antibody MEM-M6/6 significantly decreased P-gp and CD147 mRNA and protein levels. This is the first report to show that CD147 mediates MDR in leukemia through the regulation of P-gp expression.

  14. Transfer of p14ARF gene in drug-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/Adr cells inhibits proliferation and reduces doxorubicin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the effect of p14ARF gene on multidrug-resistant tumor cells. Methods: We transferred a p14ARF cDNA into p53-mutated MCF-7/Adr human breast cancer cells. Results: In this report we demonstrated for the first time that p14ARF expression was able to greatly inhibit the MCF-7/Adr cell proliferation. Furthermore, p14ARF expression resulted in decreases in MDR1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein production, which linked with the reducing resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells to doxorubicin. Conclusion: These results imply that drug resistance might be effectively reversed with the wild-type p14ARF expression in human breast cancer cells.

  15. Is it Code Imperfection or 'garbage in Garbage Out'? Outline of Experiences from a Comprehensive Adr Code Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    ADR equation describes many physical phenomena of interest in the field of water quality in natural streams and groundwater. In many cases such as: density driven flow, multiphase reactive transport, and sediment transport, either one or a number of terms in the ADR equation may become nonlinear. For that reason, numerical tools are the only practical choice to solve these PDEs. All numerical solvers developed for transport equation need to undergo code verification procedure before they are put in to practice. Code verification is a mathematical activity to uncover failures and check for rigorous discretization of PDEs and implementation of initial/boundary conditions. In the context computational PDE verification is not a well-defined procedure on a clear path. Thus, verification tests should be designed and implemented with in-depth knowledge of numerical algorithms and physics of the phenomena as well as mathematical behavior of the solution. Even test results need to be mathematically analyzed to distinguish between an inherent limitation of algorithm and a coding error. Therefore, it is well known that code verification is a state of the art, in which innovative methods and case-based tricks are very common. This study presents full verification of a general transport code. To that end, a complete test suite is designed to probe the ADR solver comprehensively and discover all possible imperfections. In this study we convey our experiences in finding several errors which were not detectable with routine verification techniques. We developed a test suit including hundreds of unit tests and system tests. The test package has gradual increment in complexity such that tests start from simple and increase to the most sophisticated level. Appropriate verification metrics are defined for the required capabilities of the solver as follows: mass conservation, convergence order, capabilities in handling stiff problems, nonnegative concentration, shape preservation, and

  16. ADR case reports of cardiovascular drugs%我院心血管系统药物不良反应报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔薇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the adverse drug reactions ( ADR ) of cardiovas-cular drugs occurring in First people's Hospital so as to provide reference for the rational use of medication in clinics. Methods 315 cases of ADR report had been collected, which were reported in national adverse drug reactions monitor network from April 2004 to April 2011 in Hefei First People s Hospital. Results 315 ADR cases involved 47 cardiovascular drugs. Among the cardiovascular drugs, antihypertensive drugs accounted for the highest proportion. Skin and its accessories damage accounted for the highest percentage of ADR of cardiovascular drugs. Conclusion We should attach greater importance to ADR monitoring, strengthen the clinical management of the rational use of antibiotics and reduce the incidence of adverse drug reactions.%目的 分析该院心血管系统药物不良反应(ADR)的相关因素,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法 对该院2004年4月~2011年4月收集并上报于全国药物不良反应监测网络的315例心血管系统药物不良反应报告进行统计分析.结果 315例ADR报表中涉及的药物品种共有47个,其中发生率最高的是降压药;ADR累及皮肤及及其附件损害最多.结论 应提高对药品不良反应监测工作重要性的认识,加强临床心血管系统药物合理使用的管理,避免或减少其ADR的发生.

  17. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  18. O impacto da Lei Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX na qualidade do lucro das empresas brasileiras que emitiram ADRs The impact of Sarbanes-Oxley on earnings quality of Brazilian ADR issuers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Miranda de Mendonça

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva analisar o impacto da Lei Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX na qualidade do lucro das empresas brasileiras que emitiram ADR antes de 2002. Os escândalos contábeis de companhias como Enron e WorldCom reduziram a confiança dos investidores sobre a veracidade das demonstrações financeiras. A SOX surgiu com o propósito de proteger os investidores pela melhora na precisão e na confiabilidade na divulgação das demonstrações das empresas. Para medir a qualidade dos lucros, foram utilizados o Modelo de Basu (1997 e os modelos apresentados em Ball e Shivakumar (2005, estimados com dados em painel. Esperava-se que o aumento da regulamentação implicasse em maior grau de qualidade dos lucros nas empresas no período pós-SOX. Os resultados encontrados não são significativos nos modelos de Reversão à média das variações dos lucros e Cash Flow de Ball e Shivakumar (2005, mas os resultados do Modelo de Basu (1997 sugerem indício de aumento do conservadorismo contábil após a SOX, nas empresas brasileiras que emitiram ADR antes de 2002. Contudo, esse aumento do conservadorismo pelo Modelo de Basu (1997 também foi observado para todas as empresas brasileiras. Portanto, os resultados aqui apresentados sugerem indícios de aumento do conservadorismo brasileiro a partir de 2002, mas por outros motivos econômicos que não ocasionados pelo efeito SOX.This study analyzes the impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX on earnings quality of Brazilian companies qualified as ADR issuers before 2002. The accounting scandals involving firms like Enron and WorldCom reduced investors confidence in the reliability of financial statements. SOX arose to protect investors by mandating more precise and reliable financial disclosure by firms. To measure earnings quality, we used the models by Basu (1997 and Ball and Shivakumar (2005, estimated with panel data. We expected that the enhanced legal framework would imply greater earnings quality in the

  19. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  20. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  1. Saikosaponin A, an active glycoside from Radix bupleuri, reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells and HepG2/ADM cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rui-Ping; Chen, Zhen-Dong

    2017-02-01

    1. The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR). Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Radix Bupleuri. This study was mainly designed to understand effects of SSA on MDR in MCF-7/ADR and HepG2/ADM cells. 2. MDR reversal was examined as the alteration of cytotoxic drugs IC50 in resistant cells in the presence of SSA by MTT assay, and was compared with the non-resistant cells. Apoptosis and uptake of P-gp substrates in the tumor cells were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to assay the expression of P-gp. 3. Our results demonstrate SSA could increase the chemosensitivity of P-gp overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine (VCR) and paclitaxel. SSA promoted apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells in the presence of DOX. Moreover, it could also increase the retention of P-gp substrates DOX and rhodamine 123 in MCF-7/ADR cells, and decrease digoxin efflux ratio in Caco-2 cell monolayer. Finally, a mechanistic study showed that SSA reduced P-gp expression without affecting hydrolytic activity of P-gp. 4. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SSA could be further developed for sensitizing resistant cancer cells and used as an adjuvant therapy together with anticancer drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacies.

  2. 喹诺酮类药物的严重不良反应及合理应用%Serious ADRs of Quinolones and TheirRational Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付铁梅; 田丽娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 促进喹诺酮类药物的合理使用,减少药品不良反应和耐药性的发生.方法 通过查阅文献等,对喹诺酮类药物的严重不良反应及产生原因进行分析,并提出合理使用的对策建议.结果 与结论随着喹诺酮类药物临床使用量不断增加,其严重药品不良反应的发生也越来越多.临床用药,一定要增强合理用药意识,确保患者用药安全有效.%Objective To promote the rational use of quinolones to reduce serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and occurrence of resistance to qmnolones. Methods The literature review was conducted to analyze the serious ADRs of quinolones and their causes, and the countermeasures of their rational use were proposed. Results and Conclusion As the clinical use of quinolones increasing, serious ADRs occur more and more, Both doctors and patients should enhance Erie awareness of rational use of quinolones to reduce the serious ADRs and ensure lhe safe and effective drug use m patients.

  3. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions and the Expression of Twist in MCF-7/ADR,Human Multidrug-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Zhang; Yurong Shi; Lin Zhang; Bin Zhang; Xiyin Wei; Yi Yang; RUi Wang; Ruifang Niu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the expression levels of Twist and epithelialmesenchymal transitions in multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells,and to study the relationship between multidrug resistance (MDR) and metastatic potential of the cells.METHODS RT-PCR,immunohislochemical and Western blotting methods were used to examine the changes of expression levels of the transcription factor Twist.E-cadherin and N-cadherin in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and its multidrug-resistant variant.MCF-7/ADR.RESULTS In MCF-7 cells,the expression of E-cadherin can be detected,but there is no expression of Twisl or N-cadherin.In MCF-7/ADR cells,E-cadherin expression is lost.bul the expression of two other genes was significantly positive.CONCLUSION Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions induced by Twist,may have a relationship with enhanced invasion and metastatic potential during the development of multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells.

  4. The effect of exposure misclassification in spontaneous ADR reports on the time to detection of product-specific risks for biologicals : A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, Niels S.; Ebbers, Hans C.; Straus, Sabine M J M; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Egberts, Toine C G; De Bruin, Marie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The availability of accurate product-specific exposure information is essential in the pharmacovigilance of biologicals, because differences in the safety profile may emerge between products containing the same active substance. In spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) re

  5. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  6. Categorias de Riscos Evidenciadas nos Relatórios da Administração de Empresas Brasileiras com ADRsRisk Categories Disclosed in the Administration Reports of Brazilian Companies with ADRsCategorías de Riesgos Constatadas en los Informes de Administración de Empresas Brasileñas con ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZONATTO, Vinícius Costa da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO estudo objetiva identificar as categorias de riscos evidenciadas no Relatório da Administração (RA, relativa ao ano de 2007, das empresas brasileiras com emissão de American Depositary Receipt (ADRs. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como descritiva, realizada por meio de análise documental. A amostra compreende 28 empresas brasileiras com emissão de ADRs na Bolsa de Valores de Nova Iorque (EUA. Consideraram-se sete categorias de riscos corporativos, identificadas a partir da metodologia do Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO, 2004: riscos estratégicos, riscos de mercado, riscos de crédito, riscos de liquidez, riscos operacionais, riscos legais e riscos de imagem. Os resultados da pesquisa mostram que, em geral, não há uma padronização quanto aos tipos de riscos evidenciados pelas empresas. Ao todo foram identificados 14 tipos de riscos. A categoria predominante na evidenciação foi risco operacional, com 20,72% das observações. Não foi encontrada evidenciação de riscos de imagem nos RA das empresas pesquisadas. Constatou-se que 19 empresas evidenciam algum tipo de risco a que a empresa está exposta, o que representa 67,86% da amostra. Por outro lado, nove empresas (32,14% não evidenciaram nenhum tipo de risco.ABSTRACTThe study aims to find the categories of risks disclosed in the Administration Reports of Brazilian companies with the issuance of ADR's. The research is characterized as descriptive, accomplished through documentary analysis. The sample includes 28 Brazilian companies with the issuance of American Depositary Receipt (ADR's in the Stock Exchange of New York (USA. We have tried to identify the categories of risk, presented by the companies surveyed in the Administration Reports (AR of 2007. Seven categories of corporate risks were considered, identified through COSO (2004 methodology: strategic risks, market risks, credit risks, liquidity risks, operational risks, legal risks

  7. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  8. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  9. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  10. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  11. Development of a Space-Flight ADR Providing Continuous Cooling at 50 mK with Heat Rejection at 10 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Jim; Canavan, Ed; DeLee, Hudson; Dipirro, Michael; Jahromi, Amir; Kimball, Mark; Shirron, Peter; Sullivan, Dan; Switzer, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Future astronomical instruments will require sub-Kelvin detector temperatures to obtain high sensitivity. In many cases large arrays of detectors will be used, and the associated cooling systems will need performance surpassing the limits of present technologies. NASA is developing a compact cooling system that will lift heat continuously at temperatures below 50 mK and reject it at over 10 K. Based on Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs), it will have high thermodynamic efficiency and vibration-free operation with no moving parts. It will provide more than 10 times the current flight ADR cooling power at 50 mK and will also continuously cool a 4 K stage for instruments and optics. In addition, it will include an advanced magnetic shield resulting in external field variations below 5 T. We describe the cooling system here and report on the progress in its development.

  12. Rare-earth garnets and perovskites for space-based ADR cooling at high T and low H

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. T.; Rowlett, B. A.; Ramirez, R. A.; Shirron, P. J.; Canavan, E. R.; Dipirro, M. J.; Panek, J. S.; Tuttle, J. G.; Shull, R. D.; Fry, R. A.

    2002-05-01

    Future NASA satellite detector systems must be cooled to the 0.1 K temperature range to meet the stringent energy resolution and sensitivity requirements demanded by mid-term astronomy missions. The development of adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration (ADR) materials that can efficiently cool from the passive radiative cooling limit of ~30 K down to sub-Kelvin under low magnetic fields (Hperovskites. Various compositions within the gadolinium gallium iron garnet solid solution series (GGIG, Gd3Ga5-XFeXO12, 0.00perovskite (GAP, GdAlO3) have been synthesized via an organometallic complex approach and confirmed with powder x-ray diffraction. The magnetization of the GGIG and GAP materials has been measured as a function of composition (0.005 K. For GAP, ΔSmag was similar to that of GGIG, X=0.00, both in terms of magnitude and temperature dependence at T>10 K. However, the ΔSmag of GAP at T<10 K was less than the endmember GGIG composition, X=0.00, and exhibited maximum ~5 K. .

  13. Diatrizoate, Iopromide and Iotrolan Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Daunorubicin in Multidrug Resistant K562/adr Cells: Impaired the Mitochondrial and Inhibited the P-Glycoprotein Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaya S.N. Ayudhya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance was an obstacle in cancer chemotherapy because the cells decreased their intracellular drug accumulation by energy-dependent compounds efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp. This study observed some iodinated radiographic contrast media, diatrizoate, iopromide and iotrolan affected the cellular energetic state and the kinetics of P-gp in drug-sensitive K562 and drug resistant K562/adr cell lines using spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer. By colorimetric MTT assay, it was found that contrast media (0-3500 µM had no effect on both K562 and K562/adr cell viabilities, but in co-treatment with daunorubicin (DNR, diatrizoate decreased cell viability in K562/adr cells by decreasing ICso of DNR from 610.7 ±74.5 nM to 360±108.9 nM. The change in cellular energetic state was studied using rhodamine B as a probe to estimate mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm. The results showed that 3500 µM diatrizoate decreased ΔΨm from 162.2±0.3 mV to 86.9±9.9 mV in K562/adr cells. The kinetics of P-gp-mediated efflux of DNR could be reduced by diatrizoate from 0 (no inhibition to 0.65±0.11. This inhibition could be partially prevented in co-incubation with 20 nM concanamycin A or 10 µM cytochalasin B. Among the three molecules, diatrizoate showed the best efficiency. It could be proposed for further studies that diatrizoate could be used as MDR identification or MDR imaging and also acted as MDR sensitizing agent in cancer treatments.

  14. CIAPIN1 confers multidrug resistance through up-regulation of MDR-1 and Bcl-L in LoVo/Adr cells and is independent of p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Fei; Li, Xiao-Hua; Shi, Yong-Quan; Wu, Yu-Yun; Li, Ning; He, Qiang; Ji, Qing; Wang, Rong-Quan; Yang, Shi-Ming; Fang, Dian-Chun

    2011-04-01

    Recent investigations discovered that CIAPIN1 might be another drug resistance-associated molecule in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of CIAPIN1-related multidrug resistance (MDR) remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the role and possible mechanisms of CIAPIN1 in MDR of human colon carcinoma LoVo/Adr cells which express the wild-type p53 gene. By using small interference RNA and gene transfection techniques, we found that knockdown of CIAPIN1 expression re-sensitized LoVo/Adr cells to anti-cancer drugs and up-regulation of CIAPIN1 in sensitive LoVo cells resulted in a distinct MDR phenotype. We further revealed that CIAPIN1 conferred the MDR phenotype in LoVo/Adr cells through up-regulating expression of MDR-1 (P-gp) and Bcl-xL. Finally, by analyzing the effect of inactivation of wild-type p53 on CIAPIN1-induced up-regulation of P-gp and Bcl-xL, we determined that CIAPIN1 could exhibit its MDR-related function independently of the p53 signaling pathway. Overall, the results presented here further suggest that over-expression of CIAPIN1 is an important mechanism of drug resistance in human cancers, even if not the sole one.

  15. Decursin in Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) Enhances Doxorubicin Chemosensitivity in NCI/ADR-RES Ovarian Cancer Cells via Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeong Sim; Cho, Sung-Gook; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kim, Min Soo; Moon, Seung Hee; Kim, Il Hwan; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN, Korean Dang-gui) is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Here, we investigated multidrug-resistant phenotype-reversal activities of AGN and its compounds (decursin, ferulic acid, and nodakenin) in doxorubicin-resistant NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed that a combination of doxorubicin with either AGN or decursin inhibited a proliferation of NCI/ADR-RES cells. These combinations increased the number of cells at sub-G1 phase when cells were stained with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate. We also found that these combinations activated caspase-9, caspase-8, and caspase-3 and increased cleaved PARP level. Moreover, an inhibition of P-glycoprotein expression by either AGN or decursin resulted in a reduction of its activity in NCI/ADR-RES cells. Therefore, our data demonstrate that decursin in AGN inhibits doxorubicin-resistant ovarian cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in the presence of doxorubicin via blocking P-glycoprotein expression. Therefore, AGN would be a potentially novel treatment option for multidrug-resistant tumors by sensitizing to anticancer agents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. An in vitro demonstration of overcoming drug resistance in SKOV3 TR and MCF7 ADR with targeted delivery of polymer pro-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Prashant; Vance, Dylan; Hatefi, Arash; Khaw, Ban An

    2017-01-05

    Drug resistance is a common phenomenon that occurs in cancer chemotherapy. Delivery of chemotherapeutic agents as polymer pro-drug conjugates (PPDCs) pretargeted with bispecific antibodies could circumvent drug resistance in cancer cells. To demonstrate this approach to overcome drug resistance, Paclitaxel (Ptxl)-resistant SKOV3 TR human ovarian- and doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant MCF7 ADR human mammary-carcinoma cell lines were used. Pre-targeting over-expressed biotin or HER2/neu receptors on cancer cells was conducted by biotinylated anti-DTPA or anti-HER2/neu affibody - anti-DTPA Fab bispecific antibody complexes. The targeting PPDCs are either D-Dox-PGA or D-Ptxl-PGA. Cytotoxicity studies demonstrate that the pretargeted approach increases cytotoxicity of Ptxl or Dox in SKOV3 TR or MCF7 ADR resistant cell lines by 5.4 and 27 times, respectively. Epifluorescent microscopy - used to track internalization of D-Dox-PGA and Dox in MCF7 ADR cells - shows that the pretargeted delivery of D-Dox-PGA resulted in a 2- to 4-fold increase in intracellular Dox concentration relative to treatment with free Dox. The mechanism of internalization of PPDCs is consistent with endocytosis. Enhanced drug delivery and intracellular retention following pretargeted delivery of PPDCs resulted in greater tumor cell toxicity in the current in vitro studies.

  17. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  18. The reversal effects of 3-bromopyruvate on multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo derived from human breast MCF-7/ADR cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wu

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein mediated efflux is one of the main mechanisms for multidrug resistance in cancers, and 3-Bromopyruvate acts as a promising multidrug resistance reversal compound in our study. To test the ability of 3-Bromopyruvate to overcome P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and to explore its mechanisms of multidrug resistance reversal in MCF-7/ADR cells, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo modulatory activity of this compound.The in vitro and in vivo activity was determined using the MTT assay and human breast cancer xenograft models. The gene and protein expression of P-glycoprotein were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and the Western blotting technique, respectively. ABCB-1 bioactivity was tested by fluorescence microscopy, multi-mode microplate reader, and flow cytometry. The intracellular levels of ATP, HK-II, and ATPase activity were based on an assay kit according to the manufacturer's instructions.3-Bromopyruvate treatment led to marked decreases in the IC50 values of selected chemotherapeutic drugs [e.g., doxorubicin (283 folds, paclitaxel (85 folds, daunorubicin (201 folds, and epirubicin (171 folds] in MCF-7/ADR cells. 3-Bromopyruvate was found also to potentiate significantly the antitumor activity of epirubicin against MCF-7/ADR xenografts. The intracellular level of ATP decreased 44%, 46% in the presence of 12.5.25 µM 3-Bromopyruvate, whereas the accumulation of rhodamine 123 and epirubicin (two typical P-glycoprotein substrates in cells was significantly increased. Furthermore, we found that the mRNA and the total protein level of P-glycoprotein were slightly altered by 3-Bromopyruvate. Moreover, the ATPase activity was significantly inhibited when 3-Bromopyruvate was applied.We demonstrated that 3-Bromopyruvate can reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux in MCF-7/ADR cells. Multidrug resistance reversal by 3-Bromopyruvate occurred through at least three approaches, namely, a decrease in the

  19. Analysis of ADR Reports in Our Hospital before and after Clinical Pharmacist Intervention%临床药师干预前后我院药品不良反应报告情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红程; 王芬; 刘华强; 孙福生

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析临床药师干预前、后我院药品不良反应(ADR)报告情况,探讨临床药师干预对ADR监测工作的影响.方法:将我院2008年(临床药师干预前)和2009年(临床药师干预后)上报的ADR报告,按报告人、给药途径、患者的年龄与性别、引起ADR的药品品种等进行分析、评价、比较.结果:2008年共上报ADR报告697份,其中新的严重的ADR 98例,药师上报395例,临床医师上报92例,引起ADR最常见的药物为抗感染药,共375例,其中喹诺酮类药物113例;2009年共上报ADR报告599例,其中新的严重的ADR 155例,药师上报327例,临床医师上报102例,引起ADR最常见的药物为抗感染药,共314例,其中喹诺酮类药物59例.结论:ADR监测工作可以促进临床安全、合理用药;临床药师在ADR监测工作中发挥着重要作用.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze ADR reports in our hospital before and after clinical pharmacist intervention, and to explore the impact of clinical pharmacist intervention on ADR monitoring. METHODS: ADR reports of our hospital in 2008 (before intervention) and 2009 (after intervention) were analyzed and evaluated comparatively in respects of reporter, route of administration, patient's age, sex and ADR-inducing drugs. RESULTS: A total of 697 ADR cases were submitted in 2008, including 98 new/ serious ADR reports, 395 cases reported by pharmacists, 92 cases reported by clinician; the most common ADR-inducing drug was anti-infective drag, a total of 375 cases, of which 113 cases by quinolones. A total of 599 ADR cases were reported in 2009, including 155 new/serious ADR reports, 327 cases reported by pharmacists, 102 cases reported by clinician; the most common ADR-inducing drug was anti-infective drag, a total of 314 cases, of which 59 cases by quinolones. CONCLUSION: ADR monitoring can promote the rational safe use of drugs in the clinic; clinical pharmacists play an important role in ADR monitoring.

  20. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  1. ADR Cases Reported in Our Hospital:Analysis of 617 Cases in 2010%2010年我院617例药品不良反应报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹云; 洪滟; 朱雅艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics and regularity of adverse drug reaction! ADR )occurred in our hospital. Methods 617 ADR cases reported in our hospital in 2010 were analyzed statistically in respect of patients sex and age,routes of administration,use of drugs, organs and systems involved in ADR and its clinical manifestations, etc. Results Of 617 ADR cases, 267 cases and 70 cases were caused by anti - infectious agent and traditional Chinese medicine. The most common manifestation of ADR cases were injury of lesion of skin( 237 cases Accounting for 38.41% , followed by digestive system and its appendants( 125 cases Accounting for 20. 0%. There were new ADR of 88cases, severe ADR of 62 cases and new severe ADR of 8 cases. Conclusion Great importance should be attached to ADR monitoring in order to reduce the incidence of ADR.%目的 探讨医院药品不良反应(ADH)发生的特点及一般规律.方法 对2010年收集到的617例药品不良反应报告,分别从患者性别、年龄、给药途径、用药情况、药品不良反应累及器官或系统及临床表现等方面进行统计、分析.结果 引发药品不良反应最常见的药物为抗感染药物(267例)与中药制剂(70例).所累及的器官或系统以皮肤及其附件损害最常见,有237例(38.41%);其次为消化系统损害125例(20.26%).新的药品不良反应88例,严重的药品不良反应62例,其中新的、严重的药品不良反应8例.结论 临床应重视药品不良反应监测工作,以减少或避免药品不良反应发生.

  2. Rare-Earth Garnets and Perovskites for Space-Based ADR Cooling at High T and Low H

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. T.; Rowlett, B. A.; Ramirez, R. A.; Shirron, P. J.; Canavan, E. R.; DiPirro, M. J.; Panek, J. S.; Tuttle, J. G.; Shull, R. D.; Fry, R. A.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA satellite detector systems must be cooled to the 0.1 K temperature range to meet the stringent energy resolution and sensitivity requirements demanded by mid-term astronomy missions. The development of adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration (ADR) materials that can efficiently cool from the passive radiative cooling limit of approx. 30 K down to sub-Kelvin under low magnetic fields (H less than or equal to 3 T) would represent a significant improvement in space-based cooling technology. Governed by these engineering goals, our efforts have focused on quantifying the change in magnetic entropy of rare-earth garnets and perovskites. Various compositions within the gadolinium gallium iron garnet solid solution series (GGIG, Gd3Ga(5-x)Fe(x)O12, 0.00 less than or equal to X less than or equal to 5.00) and gadolinium aluminum perovskite (GAP, GdAlO3) have been synthesized via an organometallic complex approach and confirmed with powder x-ray diffraction. The magnetization of the GGIG and GAP materials has been measured as a function of composition (0.00 less than or equal to X less than or equal to 5.00), temperature (2 K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 30 K) and applied magnetic field (0 T less than or equal to H less than or equal to 3 T). The magnetic entropy change (DeltaS(sub mag)) between 0 T and 3 T was determined from the magnetization data. In the GGIG system, DeltaS(sub mag) was compositionally dependent; Fe(sup 3+) additions up to X less than or equal to 2.44 increased DeltaS(sub mag) at T > 5 K. For GAP, DeltaS(sub mag) was similar to that of GGIG, X = 0.00, both in terms of magnitude and temperature dependence at T > 10 K. However, the DeltaS(sub mag) of GAP at T < 10 K was less than the endmember GGIG composition, X = 0.00, and exhibited maximum approx. 5 K.

  3. Diguanylate Cyclases AdrA and STM1987 Regulate Salmonella enterica Exopolysaccharide Production during Plant Colonization in an Environment-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kimberly N; Willis, David K; Engel, Tyler N; Jones, Jeffrey B; Barak, Jeri D

    2015-12-11

    Increasing evidence indicates that despite exposure to harsh environmental stresses, Salmonella enterica successfully persists on plants, utilizing fresh produce as a vector to animal hosts. Among the important S. enterica plant colonization factors are those involved in biofilm formation. S. enterica biofilm formation is controlled by the signaling molecule cyclic di-GMP and represents a sessile lifestyle on surfaces that protects the bacterium from environmental factors. Thus, the transition from a motile, planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle may represent a vital step in bacterial success. This study examined the mechanisms of S. enterica plant colonization, including the role of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the enzymes involved in cyclic di-GMP metabolism. We found that two biofilm components, cellulose and curli, are differentially required at distinct stages in root colonization and that the DGC STM1987 regulates cellulose production in this environment independent of AdrA, the DGC that controls the majority of in vitro cellulose production. In addition, we identified a new function for AdrA in the transcriptional regulation of colanic acid and demonstrated that adrA and colanic acid biosynthesis are associated with S. enterica desiccation tolerance on the leaf surface. Finally, two PDEs with known roles in motility, STM1344 and STM1697, had competitive defects in the phyllosphere, suggesting that regulation of motility is crucial for S. enterica survival in this niche. Our results indicate that specific conditions influence the contribution of individual DGCs and PDEs to bacterial success, perhaps reflective of differential responses to environmental stimuli. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Estimation of dose rate of a package ({sup 223+}Ra) and evaluation of transport index; Dosisleistungsabschaetzung bei einem Versandstueck ({sup 223+}Ra) und Ermittlung der Transportkennzahl nach ADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Michael [TUEV SUED Industrie Services GmbH, Region Nordost, Leipzig (Germany). Anlagensicherheit/Strahlenschutz; Richter, Jens [TUEV SUED Industrie Services GmbH, Region Nordost, Dresden (Germany). Anlagensicherheit/Strahlenschutz

    2016-08-01

    The transport index of a package is to be determined according to provisions of the ADR. It is directly related to the maximum radiation level in mSv/h at a distance of 1 m from the external surface of the package or pallet. To evaluate the existing distribution of the dose equivalent outside the package or pallet calculations of photon dose rates are required. For Monte-Carlo simulations with MCNP5 a three-dimensional model of a package containing Xofigo trademark was created, which contains all relevant sources from {sup 223}Ra and its decay chain.

  5. ADR Caused by Quinolones: Analysis of 199 Cases in Our Hospital%我院199例喹诺酮类药不良反应报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杰; 谢诚; 缪丽燕

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADR) caused by quinolones in our hospital and to promote their rational use in clinic. METHODS: By a retrospective review, a total of 199 quinolones - induced ADR cases collected from May 2004 to December 2007 in our hospital were analyzed statistically in respect of patients' gender and age, drug species involved, past ADR history, route of administration, clinic manifestations, etc. RESULTS: A total of 9 kinds of quinolones involved in the 199 ADR cases, of which, 118 cases were induced by levofloxacin, 16.1% had past ADR history, 93.5% of the ADR cases were induced via intravenous drip, and most common presentations of the ADR were lesions of skin and its appendants as well as digestive system. There were 7 serious ADR cases. CONCLUSION: The indications of quinolones should be controlled strictly, which should be preferably administered orally and monitoring of its administration should be emphasized in clinical practice to decrease and avoid the occurrence of ADR.%目的:了解我院喹诺酮类药不良反应发生的特点,促进临床合理用药.方法:采用回顾性调查方法,对我院2004年5月~2007年12月收集到的喹诺酮类药所致的199例不良反应报告表,分别从患者性别、年龄、涉及药品、既往不良反应史、给药途径、临床表现等方面进行统计、分析.结果:199例不良反应涉及9种喹诺酮类药,其中左氧氟沙星引起的不良反应118例;既往有不良反应史者占16.1%;93.5%的患者通过静脉滴注给药;临床表现主要以皮肤及其附件和消化系统损害最为常见,严重不良反应7例.结论:应严格掌握药物使用适应证,尽可能采用口服给药方式,重视用药监护,以减少和避免不良反应的发生.

  6. [Effect of different heating methods combined with neferine on the expressions of γH2AX and mdr-1/P-gp in MCF-7/Adr breast cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenghui; Cao, Peiguo; Xie, Zhaoxia; Zhu, Hong

    2011-04-01

    To determine the effect of different heating Methods combined with neferine(Nef) on the proliferation and expressions of γH2AX and mdr-1/P-gp in MCF-7/Adr breast cancer cells. MTT assay was used to determine block heating, water submerged heating, medium heating, and oven heating combined with 10 μg/mL Nef on adriamycin cultured MCF-7/Adr cell proliferation. The mdr-1mRNA expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. γH2AX and P-gp expressions were detected by Western blot. The absorbance values of MCF-7/Adr cells in different heating groups at 42 degree and 45 degree were significantly decreased, the mdr-1/P-gp expression was decreased, and γH2AX expression was upregulated compared with those of the 37 degree control group (all Pcombined with 10 μg/mL Nef group than those of 10 μg/mL Nef group and hyperthermia group in MCF-7/Adr cells. The water submerged heating group had the lowest P-gp expression and the highest γH2AX expression among different heating groups at 42 degree and 45 degree in MCF-7/Adr cells (Pheating methods. Combined treatment of hyperthermia with Nef can increase the sensitivity in adriamycin chemotherapy.

  7. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  8. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  9. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  10. Analysis of 935 ADR reports in our hospital from 2010 to 2014%2010-2014年我院935例药品不良反应报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟佳; 高勇; 梁少龙; 吴雪

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解我院药品不良反应(ADR)的发生规律及特点,总结经验以促进患者用药安全、有效。方法:采用回顾性分析方法,收集我院2010–2014年共计935例ADR监测报告,对患者性别、年龄、药品种类、给药途径、累及系统/器官及主要临床表现、转归等进行分析。结果:我院ADR报告的数量、质量逐步提高,935例报告中新的及严重的ADR 110例(11.76%),其中严重的ADR 36例(3.85%);男性患者436例(46.63%),女性患者499例(53.37%),21~50岁患者构成比(49.63%)最高;主要累及的系统/器官为皮肤及附件(43.84%);引起ADR频次最高的药物为抗感染药物(40.64%),给药途径中以静脉给药的构成比最高(78.50%)。结论:我院ADR监测工作在以患者为中心的基础上,监管部门高度重视,多措并举,特别是鼓励全体药师积极参与之后,该工作水平逐步提高,促进了患者用药的安全、有效。%Objective: To analyze and sum up the experience of adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring in our hospital, and promote the patient's medication safety and effectiveness.Methods:A total of 935 ADR reports in our hospital from 2010 to 2014 were collected retrospectively. The data in respect of age and gender of patients, categories of drugs, route of administration, systems and organs involved in ADR, clinical manifestations and prognosis were analyzed statistically.Results: The quantity and quality of ADR reports in our hospital improved gradually. Among 935 ADR reports, there were 110 cases (11.76%) of new and severe ADR, and 36 cases (3.85%) were severe ADR; 436 cases (46.63%) were male and 499 cases (53.37%) were female; patients aged from 21 to 50 years accounted for the largest proportion (49.63%); skin and appendages damage was the most frequent ADR (43.84%); the most frequency in suspected drugs was anti-infective drugs (40.64%); the main administration

  11. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  12. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  13. Amiodarone-induced ADR reports in Anhui from 2005~2009%安徽省2005~2010年胺碘酮药品不良反应报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树强; 叶根深

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the condition and analyze the related factors of amiodarone-induced adverse drug reactions( ADR ) in An-hui province. Methods Amiodarone-related ADR reports reported in Anhui province from Jan 1,2005 to Nov 31,2010 were searched, from which a total of 120 qualified amiodarone-induced ADR reports were screened out and analyzed statistically. Results Amiodarone-induced ADR occurred more in males, aged from 40 to 80, most of which were not serious. They were majorly induced by oral administration, and majorly occurred within 1 to 7 days. They might involve multi-organs or systems, and their clinical manifestations were chiefly nausea,vomiting or constipation. Most were relatively mild,and subsided after amiodarone withdrawal. Conclusion Medical staffs should pay much attention to amiodarone -induced ADR,and ADR monitoring should be more strengthened.%目的 调查安徽省胺碘酮致药品不良反应(ADR)情况并分析相关因素.方法 检索安徽省2005年1月1日~2010年11月31日呈报的与胺碘酮相关的ADR报告表,筛选合格报告表120例,进行统计分析.结果 ADR多发生在40~80岁,男性多于女性;以一般不良反应居多.主要由口服途径给药引起,多发生于给药后1~7 d内;可累及多个系统/器官,多为恶心、呕吐或便秘;多数较轻微,停药或/和对症处理后可好转、治愈.结论 医务人员应重视胺碘酮所致ADR,并进一步加强ADR监测.

  14. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  15. Analysis of 105 Docetaxel Related ADR Reports in Our Hospital%我院105例多西紫杉醇不良反应报告分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江彦; 傅彦妍; 宋洪涛

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the characteristics and influential factors of adverse drug reactions(ADRs)of docetax-el in our hospital,and to provide suggestions for clinical rational drug use and individualized administration. METHODS:Medical records of patients receiving anti-tumor chemotherapy were extracted from hospital information system(HIS)of our hospital during Apr. 2014 and Oct. 2015,and Docetaxel related ADR reports were collected and comprehensively analyzed by retrospective classi-fied statistics. RESULTS:Among 417 cases,105 cases of docetaxel related ADR were reported. There were 69 patients aged 50-69 with highest ADR frequency. The ADR incidence of female patients was higher than that of male patients (29.29% vs. 19.66%). The incidence of docetaxel related ADR and arrest of bone marrow increased as the increase of drug dosage;the incidence of breast cancer ADR was the highest (46.03%),followed by lung cancer (37.25%) and gastric cancer (25.00%). The incidence of docetaxel+platinum chemotherapy plan ADR was the highest (35.10%). Main organs/system involved in ADR was hematological system (55.65%). CONCLUSIONS:The individual difference of docetaxal related ADR are great and affected by several factors. Individual physical condition of patients should be taken into consideration as early as possible,which can reduce the incidence of ADR and promote clinical rational drug use.%目的:了解我院多西紫杉醇不良反应(ADR)发生的特点及其影响因素,为临床合理用药及个体化给药提供参考。方法:通过医院信息系统(HIS)导出我院2014年4月-2015年10月所有使用多西紫杉醇进行抗肿瘤化疗患者的病历,从中调取多西紫杉醇相关ADR报告,通过回顾性分类统计法对ADR报告进行综合分析。结果:417份病例中,有105份多西紫杉醇相关ADR报告,其中50~69岁年龄段的患者有69例次,ADR发生频次最高;女性患者的ADR发生率高于男性患者(29

  16. 三氧化二砷逆转人胃癌细胞SGC7901/ADR耐药性的作用机制%Reversal mechanism of arsenic trioxide in the drug resistance of human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/ADR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reversal effect of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on the multidrug resistance of human gastric tumor SGC7901/ADR cell line to adriamycin (ADM) and its reversal mechanisms. Methods: The non-cytotoxic concentration of As2O3 and the sensitivity of SGC7901/ADR cells to ADM were detected by MTT assay. The drug concentration and P-gp function of SGC7901/ADR cells were measured with flow cytometry (FCM), and the impacts of As2O3 on the GST-π and TopoⅡ expressions of SGC7901/ADR cells were analyzed by immunohistochemical method. Results: As2O3 at 0.4 to 0.8 μmol/Lconcentrations were not significantly cytotoxic to SGC7901/ADR cells. As2O3 at 0.8 μmol/L could improve the sensitivity of SGC7901/ADR cells to ADM via inhibiting P-gp function, down-regulating GST-π expression and increasing the intracellular accumulation of ADM in SGC7901/ADR cells. Conclusion: As2O3 can reverse partly the drug-resistance of SGC7901/ADR cells to ADM, which may be related with inhibiting the P-gp function and down-regulating GST-π expression.

  17. The effect of exposure misclassification in spontaneous ADR reports on the time to detection of product-specific risks for biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Ebbers, Hans C; Straus, Sabine M J M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The availability of accurate product-specific exposure information is essential in the pharmacovigilance of biologicals, because differences in the safety profile may emerge between products containing the same active substance. In spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR......) reports, drug exposure may, however, be misclassified, that is, attributed to the incorrect product. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of exposure misclassification on the time to detection of product-specific risks in spontaneous reporting systems. METHODS: We used data simulations...... reports may result in a delayed detection of product-specific risks, particularly in the detection of weak drug-event associations. Our findings can help inform the future implementation and refinement of product-specific and batch-specific signal detection procedures....

  18. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  19. Influence of the Calmodulin Antagonist EBB on Cyclin B1 and Cdc2-p34 in Human Drug-resistant Breast Cancer MCF-7/ADR Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Shi; Huifang Zhu; Yanhong Cheng; Linglin Zou; Dongsheng Xiong; Yuan Zhou; Ming Yang; Dongmei Fan; Xiaohua Dai; Chunzheng Yang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the influence of O-(4-ethoxyl-butyl)-berbamine (EBB) on the expression of cyclin B1 and cdc2-p34 in the human drug-resistant breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cell line.METHODS The MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of EBB. Different levels of EBB were added to different cell lines at series of time points solely or combined with doxorubicin (DOX)to detect the effect on the expression of cyclinB1 and cdc2-p34 by Western blots, cdc2-p34 tyrosine phosphorylation was detected by immunoprecipitation. In addition, apoptosis and cytoplastic Ca2+concentrations were systematically examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM).RESULTS EBB showed little inhibitory activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304), whereas EBB inhibited cell growth (IC50 range, 4.55~15.74 μmol/L) in a variety of sensitive and drug-resistance cell lines. EBB also down-regulated the expression of cyclin B1 and cdc2-p34 in a concentration and time dependent manner, which was an important reason for the G2/M phase arrest. EBB was shown to induce apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells while increasing the level of cytoplastic Ca2+.CONCLUSION The low cytotoxicity of EBB suggests it may be useful as a rational reversal agent. The effect of EBB on cell cycle arrest and related proteins, apoptosis, and cytoplastic Ca2+ concentration may be involved in reversing multidrug resistance.

  20. A smart tumor targeting peptide-drug conjugate, pHLIP-SS-DOX: synthesis and cellular uptake on MCF-7 and MCF-7/Adr cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qin; Chuan, Xingxing; Chen, Binlong; He, Bing; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer drug for the treatment of tumors, but the poor specificity and multi-drug resistance (MDR) on tumor cells have restricted its application. Here, a pH and reduction-responsive peptide-drug conjugate (PDC), pHLIP-SS-DOX, was synthesized to overcome these drawbacks. pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) is a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) with pH-dependent transmembrane ability. And because of the unique cell membrane insertion pattern, it might reverse the MDR. The cellular uptake study showed that on both drug-sensitive MCF-7 and drug-resistant MCF-7/Adr cells, pHLIP-SS-DOX obviously facilitated the uptake of DOX at pH 6.0 and the uptake level on MCF-7/Adr cells was similar with that on MCF-7 cells, indicating that pHLIP-SS-DOX had the ability to target acidic tumor cells and reverse MDR. In vitro cytotoxicity study mediated by GSH-OEt demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of pHLIP-SS-DOX was reduction responsive, with obvious cytotoxicity at pH 6.0; while it had poor cytotoxicity at pH 7.4, no matter with or without GSH-OEt pretreatment. This illustrated that pHLIP could deliver DOX into tumor cells with acidic microenvironment specifically and could not deliver drugs into normal cells with neutral microenvironment. In summary, pHLIP-SS-DOX is a promising strategy to target drugs to tumors and provides a possibility to overcome MDR.

  1. Resveratrol Increases Anti-Proliferative Activity of Bestatin Through Downregulating P-Glycoprotein Expression Via Inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway in K562/ADR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Changyuan; Jia, Yongming; Liu, Zhihao; Shu, Xiaohong; Liu, Kexin

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in the clinical therapy of hematological malignancies. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression results in reduction of intracellular drug concentration with a consequence that the cytotoxicity of anti-tumor drugs is decreased, which leads to MDR in K562/ADR cells. In this study, we found that resveratrol enhanced the anti-proliferative activity of bestatin in K562/ADR cells. Co-treatment with resveratrol, IC50 values of bestatin in K562/ADR cells significantly decreased and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 increased, which indicated that resveratrol potentiated bestatin-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol increased the intracellular concentration of bestatin through inhibiting P-gp function and downregulating P-gp expression at mRNA and protein levels, which increased anti-proliferative activity of bestatin in K562/ADR cells. Resveratrol decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR but did not affect the phosphorylations of JNK or ERK1/2. These results demonstrated that resveratrol could increase the anti-proliferative activity of bestatin through downregulating P-gp expression via suppressing the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

  2. Literature Analysis of 44 ADR Cases Induced by Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride%盐酸莫西沙星致不良反应44例文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳小青; 蔡德; 林燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨盐酸莫西沙星致不良反应(ADR)的类型及特点,为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:对2002年1月-2010年8月以来国内公开发行的医药期刊报道的盐酸莫西沙星致ADR,共计44例进行分类统计、分析.结果:ADR临床主要表现为中枢及外周神经系统损害(17.4%)、交感副交感神经系统损害(11.8%)、呼吸系统损害(10.4%)、皮肤及其附件损害(9.0%)、胃肠系统损害(8.3%)等;有基础疾病的中老年人ADR发生率高;ADR治愈16例(36.4%),好转26例(59.1%),有后遗症2例(4.5%).结论:临床应重视盐酸莫西沙星的ADR,坚持合理用药.%OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the type and characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADR) induced by oxifloxacin hydrochloride, and to provide reference for rational use of drugs in the clinic. METHODS: 44 moxifloxacin hydrochloride-inducing ADR cases reported in domestic publication medicine periodicals since 2002.1.-2010.8. were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The clinical main manifestations were central and perpheral nervous system disorders (17.4%), sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system disorders (11.8%), respiration system disorder (10.4%), lesion of skin and appendants (9.0%), gastro-intestinal system disorders (8.3%), the incidence of ADR in middle and old aged people was high, 16 cases were cured (36.4%), 26 cases were improved (59.1%), 2 cases suffered from sequelae (4.5%). CONCLUSION: Great importance should be attached to ADR induced by moxifloxacin hydrochloride and rational use of drugs.

  3. Effect of TSA on the drug-resistance reversion in SGC7901/ADR%曲古霉素A对SGC7901/ADR细胞系耐药逆转机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 孙红坤; 唐青; 杨晓丹; 乔文

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察组蛋白去乙酰酶抑制剂曲古霉素A(trichostain,TSA)对体外培养胃癌耐药细胞SGC7901/ADR是否具有逆转耐药的作用,并对其作用机制进行探讨. 方法 ①MTT法计算出胃癌耐药细胞SGC7901/ADR的耐药倍数及TSA作用后的逆转倍数.②分空白组、1.5 nmol/L TSA组和12 nmol/L TSA组,依次作用48 h和72 h,用流式细胞仪检测胃癌耐药细胞内阿霉素(adriacin,ADR)浓度.RT-PCR法检测耐药细胞内MDR1(multidrug resistance)基因表达. 结果 TSA对胃癌耐药细胞SGC7901/ADR有明显逆转作用,MTT法计算出SG C7901/ADR细胞的耐药倍数是29.51倍,TSA作用后逆转倍数约为1.95倍,流式细胞仪检测TSA作用后胃癌耐药细胞内阿霉素浓度明显增加,且呈时间剂量依赖性,RT-PCR法检测TSA作用后耐药细胞内MDR1基因表达明显降低. 结论 TSA对胃癌耐药细胞SGC7901/ADR具有明显逆转作用,可能是通过下调MDR1的表达,增加细胞内ADR浓度实现的.%Objective To investigate the reversal effect of trichostain A (TSA) , a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in the gastric cancer in vitro,and to explore its mechanism. Methods ①MTT assay was used to calculate the drug-resistance index of the SGC7901/ADR and the reversion drug-resistance index after giving TSA. ②The cells were divided into blank group, 1. 5 nmol/L TSA group, and 12 nmol/L TSA group. The cells were treated respectively for 48 h and 72 h. Then the flow cytometer was used to detect the adriacin (ADR) density in the SGC7901/ADR. RT-PCR was employed to detect the MDR1 gene expression in the SGC7901. Results TSA exerted obvious reversion effects on the SGC7901/ADR. The drug-resistance index obtained by MTT method was 29.51 ,and the reversion drug-resistance index after giving TSA was 1.95. Flow cytometry results showed that the adriacin density in the SGC7901/ADR obviously increased after giving TSA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR results showed that the MDR1 gene

  4. 我院2005-2014年药品不良反应报告回顾性分析%Retrospective Analysis of ADR Reports from 2005 - 2014 in Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭峰; 王咏梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the characteristics and regularity of ADRs in our hospital and promote the rational drug use in the clinical practice.Methods:About 1 488 cases of ADR reports in our hospital network from 2005 to 2014 were collected. The relevant data was classified and statistically analyzed by Excel 2003 according to age, gender, ADR involved organs, drugs, and route of drug administration.Results:The quantity and quality of ADR reports from 2005 to 2014 in our hospital increased year by year. Among 1 488 cases of ADR, 772 cases(51.88%)were male and 716 cases(48.12%)were female. The most ADR cases occurred in the age groups of under 10 years old(262 cases)and above 60 years old(407 cases)accounting for 17.61% and 27.35% respectively. Among the varieties of drugs involved in ADRs, 58.20% ADR cases of the total ADR were caused by antibacterial agents, cardiovascular medicines and Chinese medicine injections. The main clinical manifestations were lesion of skin and digestive system injury. About 962 cases(64.65%)were induced by intravenous administration.Conclusion:More importance has been attached to ADR collection and reporting work in clinical practice, and the selection of appropriate route of drug administration should be strengthened and more pharmaceutical care should be given to the key groups of people such as infants and over 60 years old people.%目的:分析我院药品不良反应(ADR)的特点与规律,促进临床合理用药。方法:收集我院2005-2014年网络直报的1488例ADR报表,利用Excel 2003按年龄、性别、ADR涉及的器官、药品、给药途径等关联性数据分类进行统计分析。结果:我院2005-2014年上报的ADR数量、质量呈逐年上升趋势。1488例ADR中,男性772例(51.88%),女性716例(48.12%)。10岁以下及60岁以上病例占ADR报告第1,2位,分别为262例(17.61%)和407例(27.35%)。 ADR所涉药品品种较多,以抗菌药物和心血管药物及中药

  5. Analysis of ADR Reports in a Hospital in 2014%某院2014年191例药品不良反应监测报告情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽萍; 王国俊

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析某院药品不良反应( ADR )的发生和监测报告的特点及规律,为临床安全用药、合理用药提供参考。方法对某院2014年ADR报告191例进行分类、统计和分析。结果191例ADR中,以60岁及以上年龄段发生率最高(59.16%);给药途径以静脉给药最多(60.73%);ADR涉及药品113种,以抗肿瘤药物及抗感染药物为主;ADR累及器官或系统多为胃肠系统损害(47例)及皮肤附件损害(43例);新的或严重的ADR 22例(11.52%)。结论医务人员应重视ADR监测工作,尤应加强新的一般和严重类型ADR的监测,选择适宜给药途径,特别关注特殊人群如60岁以上年龄的患者。应提高甄别能力和处置水平,避免或减少ADR的发生,保障患者用药安全。%Objective To analyze the characteristics and regularity of ADRs in a hospital and to promote the rational drug use in the clinical practice. Methods 191 cases of ADR reports in the hospital in 2014 were collected. The relevant data was classified and sta-tistically analyzed according to age, gender, ADR involved organs, drugs, and route of drug administration. Results Among the 191 cases of ADR, the most ADR cases occurred in the age group of above 60 years old, accounting for 59. 16%;about 60. 73% were induced by intravenous administration;among the 113 varieties of drugs involved in ADRs were anticancer drugs and anti-infective drugs. The main clinical manifestations were digestive system injury ( 47 cases ) and lesion of skin ( 43 cases );new or serious ADR were 22 cases ( 11. 52% ) . Conclusion More importance should be attached to ADR collection and reporting work in clinical practice, and the selec-tion of appropriate route of drug administration should be strengthened and more pharmaceutical care should be given to the key groups of people such as over 60 years old people.

  6. Phenylpropanoid glycosides reversing effect on multidrug resistance of colon carcinoma LoVo/Adr cells%苯丙素甙化合物逆转大肠癌LoVo/Adr细胞多药耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马强; 张方信; 吕志诚

    2009-01-01

    目的:以大肠癌LoVo/Adr耐药株为实验对象,观察苯丙素甙(PPG)化合物逆转多药耐药(MDR)作用及可能机制.方法:采用M1Tr法检测PPG对LoVo细胞和l~Vo/Adr细胞增殖的影响.用PPG小于ICl0(存活率>90%)的剂量进行耐药逆转试验,确定半数抑制浓度(IC50)并计算逆转倍数.流式细胞术检测PIG对LoVo/Adr细胞阿无系霉素(ADR)的摄入影响;荧光显微镜观察PPG对ADR在细胞中分布的影响.结果:当PPG浓度为80,160 ms/L时,LoVo细胞存活率分别为(69.34±3.48)%,(30.15±1.86)%;LoVo/Adr细胞分别为(67.89±2.87)%,(34.96±2.14)%,提示PPG具有抑制细胞增殖作用且具有一定的量效关系(P<0.05).当PPG浓度小于加40mg/L时,LoVo/Adr,LoVo细胞存活率均大于90%;PPG浓度为20,40 ms/L时,逆转倍数分别为5.24,9.78.ADR 主要分布在LoVo/Adr细胞胞质区,加用PPG后,胞质区荧光强度从2.04±0.70升至2.35±0.87,摄入能力显著增强(P<0.05).结论:PPG具有抗肿瘤、逆转耐药作用,PPG通过增加LoVo/Adr细胞对ADR的摄入及细胞胞质区积聚是其逆转耐药机制之一.%AIM: To investigate the effect of phenylpropanoid glycosides ( PPG) on reversing multidrug resistance ( MDR) of colon carcinoma LoVo/Adr cells and its possible mechanism. METHODS: The effects of PPG on proliferation of LoVo and LoVo/ Adr cells were examined by MTT. The reversing test of PPG on MDR was identified when its IC10 was < 10% ; its IC_50, and rever sal fold was subsequently calculated. Flow cytometry technique was applied to determine the influence of PPG on the uptake of ad riamycin( ADR). The subcellular distribution of ADR in the cells was observed by fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: At a con centration of 80 and 160 mg/L of PPG, the survival rate of LoVo cells was(69.34 ±3.48)% and(30. 15 ± 1. 86)% , respectively; while the survival rate of LoVo/Adr cells was (67. 89 ±2. 87) % and(34.96 ±2. 14)% , respectively. Therefore, PPG significantly inhibited proliferation of

  7. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  8. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  9. Investigation on the ADR Reporting Entities in Shaanxi and Sichuan Province%陕西省和四川省药品不良反应报告单位调查研究Δ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪梅; 郭佳栋; 冯变玲; 杨世民

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To understand the present situation of ADR reporting entities in Shaanxi and Sichuan province,and provide evidence for the improvement of ADR monitoring. METHODS:Getting the overview of ADR monitoring at home and abroad by reading a lot of literature,the ADR monitoring entities(drug manufacturers,drug distributors and medical institutions) in Shaanxi and Sichuan province were selected as subject for cluster sampling,questionnaires were sent out and descriptive statis-tics analysis was adopted to processing and analyze the results. RESULTS:Totally 198 questionnaires were received,100 for Shaanxi province and 98 for Sichuan province. In Shaanxi and Sichuan province,there are 61 and 63 investigated subjects had es-tablished ADR monitoring departments,98.0% and 100% had had personnel for the ADR work;ADR monitoring work mostly be-longed to the quality control department in drug manufacturers and drug distributors,and belonged to pharmacy department in medi-cal institutions;most of them were equipped with computer,printer and other basic office equipment;however,the major duty of most was not clearly;13 and 23 subjects had special budget for ADR monitoring;87 and 89 subjects had communication with lo-cal ADR monitoring center,however,the information feedback was not very ideal;training the workers accounted for 80.0% and 83.0%,respectively;in terms of system construction,the standard operation procedure was relatively good,and the other related was not ideal;reporting quickly when finding ADR was 89.0% and 96.9%,88.0% and 96.9% of which had backup records for ADR reporting,it was mainly network report;Shaanxi province was better than Sichuan province about the satisfaction evaluation of ADR work. CONCLUSIONS:According to the results,it is suggested to adjust the structure of workers,buy related software re-source,improve the responsibilities and strengthen the financial support to promote the implementation of ADR monitoring.%目的:了解陕西和四川两

  10. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  11. 63例我院儿童药品不良反应报告分析%An Analysis on 6 3 Reports on Child's ADR in Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦梦春

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the report on child's adverse drug reaction in some hospital during the period from 2013 to 2014 and find out its characteristics and laws .Methods:According to criteria specified by national ADR monitoring center,an analysis was made on the 6 3 reports on child's adverse drug reaction col-lected during the period from January 2013 to September 2014.Results:In all the 63 reports on child's ADR, the incidence rate of ADR resulted from intravenous administration was the highest ,and was up to 82.54%;the proportion of ADR resulted from antibacterial drug was the highest of all,it was up to 68.25%,and ceph-alosporins was the commonest;the commonest clinical features was the damage in skin and other accessories. Conclusion:It is necessary to strengthen ADR monitoring and report work and promote reasonable pharmacy.%目的::分析某院2013年~2014年儿童药品不良反应(ADR)发生的特点与规律,为儿科临床合理、安全用药提供参考。方法:按照国家 ADR监测中心制定的标准,对某院2013年1月~2014年12月收集到的63例儿童药品不良反应报告进行分析。结果:63例儿童不良反应报告中,静脉给药途径致 ADR发生率最高,占82.54%;抗菌药物致 ADR发生率最高,占68.25%,以头孢菌素类多见;最常见 ADR临床表现为皮肤级其附件损害。结论:加强某院 ADR监测和上报工作,促进我院合理用药。

  12. 醒脑静注射液致不良反应20例文献分析%LITERATURE ANALYSIS OF 20 ADR CASES INDUCED BY XINGNAOJING INJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄娜

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the clinical application of Xingnaojing injection and the types and number of adverse drug reactions (ADR) in order to provide reference for rational application of Xingnaojing injection in the clinic. [Methods] 20 Xingnaojing injection-inducing ADR cases reported in domestic publication medicine periodicals since 2000.1.-2011.2. Were analyzed statistically. [Results] The clinical main manifestations were respiration system disorder (33.0%), cardiology system disorder (17.0%), lesion of skin and appendants (13.2%), whole body disorder (12.3%), sympathetic and parasympathelic nervous system disorders (12.3%), central and perpheral nervous system disorders (6.6%), gastro-intestinal system disorders (3.8%), and other types (1.9%). [Conclusion] The literature study is able to find new type of ADR induced by Xingnaojing injection after the listing, great importance should be attached to ADR induced by Xingnaojing injection and rational use of drugs.%[目的]研究醒脑静注射液在临床的使用情况及发生不良反应的类型和数量,为醒脑静注射液的临床合理应用提供参考.[方法]对2000年1月~2011年2月以来,国内公开发行的医药期刊报道的醒脑静注射液致ADR,共计20例进行分类统计、分析. [结果] ADR临床主要表现为呼吸系统损害(33.0%)、心血管系统一般性损害(17.0%)、皮肤及其附件损害(13.2%)、全身性损害(12.3%)、交感副交感神经系统损害(12.3%)、中枢和外周神经系统损害(6.6%)、胃肠系统损害(3.8%)、其他类型约占(1.9%).[结论]文献研究法能发现醒脑静注射液上市后的新不良反应,临床应重视醒脑静注射液的ADR,坚持合理用药.

  13. 2009-2014年军队医院5099例儿童药品不良反应报告分析%Analysis on 5099 ADR reports occurred in children in military hospitals from 2009 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢婷婷; 郭代红; 赵粟裕; 马亮; 赵靓; 徐元杰; 朱曼; 赵鹏芝; 郭俊荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the characteristics and general pattern of adverse drug reaction (ADR) occurred in children, and provide reference for clinical rational drug use.Methods:With the retrospective method, a total of 5099 ADR reports occurred in children were collected from 2009 to 2014 in the database of PLA ADR monitoring center. The data in respect of age and gender of patients, categories of drugs, route of administration, dosage form, systems and organs involved in ADR and clinical manifestations, relevance evaluation and prognosis were analyzed statistically.Results:Among 5099 ADR reports, new and severe ADR reports were 261 cases (5.11%), the male to female ratio was 1.56 : 1, the average age of the patients was (5.12 ± 2.55) years, the incidence of ADR was the highest in the childeren of 1 – 3 years old (28.85%). Intravenous infusion and injection type were the main administration route and dosage form, respectively. The ADRs were related to 16 kinds of drug categories. The top 3 drug categories involved in ADRs were anti-infection drugs (54.17%), Chinese patent medicine (8.16%), electrolyte and acid-base balance and nutrition drugs (7.79%), respectively. These children's ADRs involved multiple systems and organs (7046 frequencies), the most common clinical manifestation was skin and its accessories damage (3458 frequencies, 49.08%), followed by gastrointestinal system damage (1547 frequencies, 21.96%) and systemic damage (595 frequencies, 8.44%).Conclusion:We should strengthen the risk prevention work on children's drugs and the rational use of drugs in pediatrics. ADR monitoring and drug consulting work need to be paid more attention to, in order to reduce or avoid the occurrence of ADR.%目的:了解儿童药品不良反应(ADR)发生的特点及一般规律,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法:采用回顾性方法,收集2009–2014年军队药品不良反应监测管理系统中儿童药品不良反应报告5099例,对患者

  14. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  15. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  16. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  17. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  18. Sistemas de Resolución Alternativa de Conflictos (ADR en derecho tributario español y comparado. Propuestas para Latinoamérica y España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Andrés Aucejo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En línea con la opinión del Departamento de Derechos de los Ciudadanos y Asuntos Constitucionales del Parlamento Europeo (2014, en este artículo se aboga por la inclusión de los sistemas alternativos de resolución de conflictos (ADR como sistemas absolutamente cooperantes a la reducción de la litigiosidad en aquellos países como España y muchos Estados de Latinoamérica donde desafortunadamente la litigiosidad tributaria es un hecho de difícil erradicación. Tras ser analizados los principales referentes mundiales internacionales de ADR en derecho tributario comparado legislados en Estados Unidos, Alemania, Francia, Reino Unido, Italia, Holanda, Suecia y otros países, este artículo realiza una propuesta de política fiscal para su aplicación en España y Latinoamérica, consistente en legislar tres paquetes de medida de adr arbitrables en los tres estadios siguientes: a con antelación a la fase administrativa, b en la fase administrativa, c en la fase contencioso administrativa.

  19. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  20. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  2. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  3. Near-infrared triggered co-delivery of doxorubicin and quercetin by using gold nanocages with tetradecanol to maximize anti-tumor effects on MCF-7/ADR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhipeng; Xu, Shaohui; Wang, Yun; Yu, Yanna; Li, Fangzhou; Zhu, Hao; Shen, Yuanyuan; Huang, Shengtang; Guo, Shengrong

    2017-09-01

    Previously, combination chemotherapy of doxorubicin (DOX) and quercetin (QUR) was developed to improve antitumor effects and reverse multidrug resistance and several biocompatible nanocarriers, such as liposomes and micelles, were validated for their targeted delivery. In this study, we report a near-infrared (NIR)-responsive drug delivery system based on DOX and QUR co-loaded gold nanocages (AuNCs) with biotin modification. The system was simply fabricated by filling the hollow interiors of AuNCs with tetradecanol (TD), a phase-change material with a melting point of 39°C, to control the drug release. The main cause of multidrug resistance (MDR) of DOX is the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which can be inhibited by QUR. Thus the combination chemotherapy of DOX and QUR may provide a promising strategy for MDR. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DOX and QUR at several fixed mass ratios was carried out and showed that the combination index (CI) was the smallest at the ratio of 1:0.2, indicating that the best synergistic effect was achieved. The resultant nanocomplex (abbreviated as BPQD-AuNCs) exhibited fast release (80% released in 20min) and strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7/ADR cells (IC50, 1.5μg/mL) under NIR irradiation. Additionally, BPQD-AuNCs were found to generate a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), to inhibit P-gp expression and ATP activity. Taken together, the results show that BPQD-AuNC is a prospective nano-delivery system for overcoming multidrug-resistant cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  6. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  7. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  8. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  9. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  10. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  11. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  12. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  13. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  14. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  15. Preliminary studies of reversing K562/ADR cell effects of abnormal savda munziq total flavonoids%维药异常黑胆质成熟剂总黄酮逆转K562/ADR细胞株作用机制初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉; 古丽巴哈·买买提; 严媚; 王学梅

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo probe and analyses whether the abnormal savda munziq total flavonoids (ASMq) has a reverse effect on K562/ADR, the resistant strain to human leukemia doxorubicin. Methods First cultivated K562 and K562/ADR cells, and Chose the cytotoxicity-free dose of ASMq which had a cell inhibition rate less than 10%. Resistance index=IC50(K562/ADR)/IC50(K562)=3.075/ 0.069=44.565 22. Then determined two doses for measuring the reverse multiple. At last, calculated the IC50 of K562, K562/ADR cells and K562/ADR+ASMq cells influenced by ADR.Results IC50(K562)= 0.06, IC50(K562/ADR)=3.075, IC50(K562/ADR+X1)=3.146, IC50(K562/ADR+X2)=3.274. Result fold reversal=IC50(K562/ADR)/IC50(K562/ADR+ASMq). X1 fold reversal=IC50(K562/ADR)/IC50(K562/ ADR+X1)=3.075/3.146=0.977 432, X2 fold reversal=0.939 218. According to the results, the impact of ASMq wasn't evident among the groups.ConclusionsASMq in a small dose doesn’t have an evident impact on reversion of multidrug resistance to K562/ADR. The deeper research need to be done about whether a large dose can make a difference.%目的:探讨维药异常黑胆质成熟剂总黄酮(ASMq)是否对人白血病阿霉素耐药株K562/ADR有逆转作用。方法首先对K562及K562/ADR细胞进行培养,选择对K562细胞抑制率<10%的药物浓度为 ASMq 的非细胞毒性剂量,耐药倍数=IC50(K562/ADR)/IC50(K562)=3.075/0.069=44.56522,再确定两个剂量用于逆转倍数的测定(X1,X2)。计算ADR对K562、K562/ADR细胞和K562/ADR+ASMq细胞的IC50。结果 IC50(K562)=0.069,IC50(K562/ADR)=3.075, IC50(K562/ADR+X1)=3.146,IC50(K562/ADR+X2)=3.274。逆转倍数=IC50(K562/ADR)/IC50(K562/ADR+ASMq)。X1逆转倍数=IC50(K562/ADR)/IC50(K562/ADR+X1)=3.075/3.146=0.977432,X2逆转倍数=0.939218。由K562、K562/ADR、K562/ADR+X1、K562/ADR+X2的IC50和计算出的逆转倍数得出,ASMq在各组之间的作用不明显。结论低剂量的ASMq对K562/ADR

  16. Conservadorismo contábil e timeliness: evidências empíricas nas demonstrações contábeis de empresas Brasileiras com ADRs negociados na bolsa de Nova Iorque Accounting conservatism and timeliness: empirical evidence in financial statements of Brazilian companies with ADRs traded on the New York stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sérgio Ribeiro dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga o nível de utilização do conservadorismo e da oportunidade (timeliness da informação contábil nas demonstrações contábeis de empresas brasileiras com ADRs negociados na Bolsa de Nova Iorque. Essas empresas apresentam suas demonstrações contábeis tanto conforme o modelo contábil brasileiro quanto segundo o norte-americano, atendendo às exigências da Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC. Os dados foram coletados compreendendo o período de 1999 a 2004 e aplicou-se o modelo de Basu (BASU, 1997 para a avaliação da oportunidade e do conservadorismo da informação contábil. Os resultados encontrados indicam que (1 não há diferenças no nível de utilização do conservadorismo e (2 o lucro contábil segundo o modelo brasileiro seria mais oportuno do que o norte-americano. Assim, as evidências contribuem para o atual debate sobre a inserção do Brasil no atual estágio de convergência de demonstrações contábeis.This study investigates the timeliness and the degree of conservatism in fi nancial statements disclosed by Brazilian companies with ADRs traded on the New York Stock Exchange. According to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC, those companies must disclose accounting information according to the Brazilian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (BR GAAP as well as the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. The data were collected between 1999 and 2004 and the Basu Model (BASU, 1997 was applied to evaluate earnings timeliness and conservatism. The results are: (1 there is no difference in earnings conservatism and (2 earnings according to the BR GAAP are more timely than those according to the US GAAP. The evidence contributes to the current debate about the role of Brazil in the current stage of the convergence process.

  17. Adræt Virksomhedsudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Hans; Riis, Jens Ove

    fra Industriens Realkredit Fond og Center for Industriel Produktion (CIP) har muliggjort gennemførelse af et projekt om Agile Project Portfolio Management, som har omfattet en sammenfattende og struktureret fremstilling af de to begreber og deres anvendelse inden for virksomhedsudvikling. Case...

  18. 盐酸千金藤碱逆转K562/ADR细胞多药耐药性及其机制%Correlation between reversing effect of cepharanthine hydrochloride on multidrug resistance and P-glycoprotein expression and function of K562/ADR cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭有梅; 王宁; 王亚峰; 韩立; 张艳; 江金花; 周玉冰; 王庆端

    2012-01-01

    研究盐酸千金藤碱(cepharanthine hydrochloride,CH)逆转K562/ADR细胞多药耐药性及其机制.采用MTT法检测多柔比星(adriamycin,ADR)单用及分别与CH、维拉帕米(verapamil,VER)合用的细胞毒作用;采用流式细胞仪,测定CH对细胞内ADR蓄积、罗丹明123 (Rho123)蓄积和泵出及P糖蛋白(P-gp)表达的影响.结果表明,CH(4 μmol·L-1)使K562/ADR细胞对ADR的敏感性增加7.43倍,逆转活性是VER的3.19倍,但对K562敏感株基本无影响.同时CH浓度依赖性地增加K562/ADR细胞内ADR和Rho123的蓄积,减少Rho123的泵出,抑制P糖蛋白的表达,但对K562细胞均无明显影响.CH在体外逆转肿瘤细胞多药耐药性的作用可能与其抑制P糖蛋白的功能和表达有关.%In this study, cepharanthine hydrochloride (CH) was tested for its potential ability to modulate the expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the multidmg-resistant human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562/ADR. Cytotoxicity of adriamycin (ADR) alone or in combination with CH or verapamil (VER) in K562 and K562/ADR cells was determined by MTT assay. Based on flow cytometric technology, the effect of CH or VER on the uptake and efflux of rhodaminel23 (Rhol23) and the accumulation of ADR in these cells was detected by measuring Rhol23 or ADR-associated mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). The effects of CH and VER on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in K562 and K562/ADR cells were also measured using a flow cytometry with PE-conjugated P-glycoprotein antibody. The results show that CH significantly enhanced the sensitivity of K562/ADR cells to ADR, 4 μmol·L"1 of CH enhanced the sensitivity of K562/ADR cells to ADR by 7.43 folds, the reversal activity was 3.19 times higher than that of verapamil. However, CH had no effect on drug-sensitive K562 cells (P < 0.05). CH increased Rhol23 and ADR accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner (2-8 umol·L-1) and inhibited the efflux of Rhol23 from these cells, but

  19. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  20. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  1. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  2. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  3. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  4. EVIDENCIAÇÃO DA GESTÃO DE RISCOS DO COSO (2004 NOS RELATÓRIOS DA ADMINISTRAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS BRASILEIRAS COM ADRs [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20100902001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Costa da Silva Zonatto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Diego M. Coraiola 12.00 Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE RESUMO O estudo objetiva analisar o conteúdo de evidenciação da gestão de riscos, tendo como referência a metodologia do Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO (2004, nos relatórios da administração das empresas brasileiras com emissão de American Depositary Receipt (ADRs na Bolsa de Valores de Nova York (NYSE. Estudo descritivo foi realizado por meio de pesquisa documental, utilizando-se da técnica da análise de conteúdo nos relatórios da administração de 28 empresas, tendo como unidade de registro o termo risco. Foram identificados 400 termos relacionados à gestão de riscos em ambientes de controle. O ambiente que apresenta maior evidenciação de termos relacionados à gestão de riscos é o ambiente de controle, e o menor, resposta ao risco. Conclui-se que não há uniformidade nas informações divulgadas pelas empresas a respeito das práticas de gestão de riscos. Em geral, divulgam ações relativas às atividades de controle e identificação de riscos, mas não indicam como respondem a estes riscos.   Palavras-Chave Evidenciação; gestão de riscos; coso; relatório da administração; empresas com adrs.     RISK MANAGEMENT OF COSO (2004 DISCLOSED ON THE ADMINISTRATION REPORTS OF BRAZILIAN COMPANIES ISSUING ADRs   ABSTRACT The goal of this study is analyze the content of the risk management disclosed, having as reference the methodology of Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO (2004, disclosed on the administration reports of Brazilian companies issuing American Depositary Receipts (ADRs in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE.  A descriptive study was conducted through documental research, using the technique of content analysis on the administration reports of 28 companies, having as unit record the term risk. Were identified 400 terms related to risk management in control

  5. Literature Analysis of 65 Cases of ADR in Cardiovascular System Induced by β-Lactam Antibiotics%65例β-内酰胺类药物致心血管不良反应的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧; 王金华; 刘璐; 李丹露; 李希娜

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对β-内酰胺类药物致心血管不良反应的文献进行分析,探讨其引起心血管系统不良反应的规律,为临床合理应用β-内酰胺类药物提供参考.方法 以“β-内酰胺类”、“青霉素”、“头孢”、“不良反应”等关键词对1987年~2012年中国知网(CNKI)数据库文献进行检索,对其中涉及β-内酰胺类药物致心血管不良反应 的43篇文献中报道的65例病例报告进行统计与分析.结果 引起心血管不良反应 的β-内酰胺类药物共涉及16个品种,其中报道最多的是青霉素,其次为头孢唑林和头孢拉定;心血管不良反应 的表现以心律失常为最多(73.85%);其次为急性心力衰竭(23.08%);不良反应多呈速发型,尤其多发于用药10min以内(53.85%).结论 应重视β-内酰胺类药物的心血管不良反应,在应用过程中注意观察,做到及早发现、正确处理.%Objective To study the features of adverse drug reaction(ADR) in cardiovascular system induced by β-lactam antibiotics through literature analysis and provide reference for clinical rational use of β-lactam antibiotics. Methods To collect literatures from 1987 to 2012 reported in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) with "β-lactam antibiotics""、penicillin"、"cef-/ceph-" "ADR" as key words, and to analyze statistically the 65 ADR cases, involved in 43 articles of β-lactam antibiotics in cardiovascular system. Results Totally there were 16 varieties involved. Penicillin was most frequently reported. Cefazolin and cefradine were the second. Arrhythmia was the most common manifestation of cardiac toxicity(73.85%), followed by acute heart failure(23.08%). Most ADR appeared as fast-type, especially occurred during the first 10 minutes(53.85%). Conclusion We should pay more attention to the ADR of β-lactam antibiotics in cardiovascular system. It needs to observe closely during application, in order to detect earlier and deal correctly.

  6. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  7. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  8. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  9. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  10. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  11. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  12. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  13. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  14. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  16. Ajustes aos US-GAAPS: estudo empírico sobre sua relevância para empresas brasileiras com ADRs negociados na bolsa de Nova Iorque Adjustments to US-GAAPS: empirical study on their relevance for brazilian companies with ADR traded on the New York exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Moraes da Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A relevância das informações disponibilizadas ao mercado por empresas brasileiras com American Depositary Recepts (ADRs negociados na Bolsa de Nova Iorque foi avaliada neste trabalho. Essas empresas devem atender à exigência da Securities and Exchange Commission e elaborar suas demonstrações contábeis de acordo com os United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US-GAAP até 30 de junho, anualmente. Diante desse fato, dois conjuntos de informações estão disponíveis, promovendo a base de dados para o estudo da relevância das variáveis lucro líquido e patrimônio líquido para o período entre 1999 e 2003. Após a utilização do modelo desenvolvido por Ohlson (1995 e de seus desdobramentos posteriores, os resultados evidenciam que (1 as informações elaboradas segundo os princípios de contabilidade geralmente aceitos no Brasil são relevantes; (2 as informações em US-GAAP disponibilizadas em junho possuem menor ou igual relevância do que as divulgadas em abril e (3 os ajustes aos US-GAAP efetuados no patrimônio líquido são relevantes para o mercado de capitais brasileiro.This study evaluated the value-relevance of the information disclosed by Brazilian companies with American Depositary Receipts traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Those companies must comply with the requirement of the Securities and Exchange Commission and elaborate their financial statements according to the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US-GAAP until 30th of June, annually. Thus, two sets of information are available, providing data to evaluate the value-relevance of the variables net income and stockholders’ equity, from 1999 to 2003. After applying the model Ohlson developed in 1995 and its further developments, results indicate that (1 the information elaborated according to the generally accepted accounting principles in Brazil are value-relevant; (2 the relevance of the information in US-GAAP made available

  17. 高胰岛素对MCF-7/ADR细胞化疗敏感性的影响%Effects of high insulin on chemotherapeutic sensitivity in MCF-7/ADR cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱楠楠; 穆兰; 李代清

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effects of high insulin on the expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and preliminarily investigate the influence of insulin on chemotherapeutic sensitivity in MCF-7/ADR cells. Methods MCF-7/ADR cells were cultured with different concentrations of insulin(0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1μmol/L). Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of P-gp mRNA. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression level of P-gp. Rhodamine 123 was used to detect the efflux function level of P-gp. Cell viability and chemotherapeutic sensitivity were detected by MTT assay. Results High concentration of insulin (0.1 μmol/L) promoted the proliferation of MCF-7/ADR cells. The concentration of insulin (0.05 and 0.1 μmol/L) accelerated P-gp mRNA and protein expression, which also augmented the efflux function of P-glycoprotein and reduced the chemotherapeutic sensitivity to epirubicin. Conclusion High concentration of insulin may influence the drug resistance of breast cancer cells by promoting the expression and function of P-glycoprotein of MCF-7/ADR cells.%目的:分析高胰岛素对MCF-7/ADR细胞P-糖蛋白(P-gp)表达和功能的影响,并初步探讨胰岛素对MCF-7/ADR细胞化疗敏感性的影响。方法用不同胰岛素浓度(0.001、0.005、0.01、0.05、0.10μmol/L)的全细胞培养基干预MCF-7/ADR细胞,分别采用Real-time PCR法检测细胞中P-gp mRNA表达,Western Blot法检测细胞中P-gp蛋白表达水平,罗丹明123荧光实验测定P-gp的外排功能变化,MTT法检测MCF-7/ADR细胞活性及化疗敏感性。结果0.10μmol/L的胰岛素可促进MCF-7/ADR细胞增殖,0.05及0.10μmol/L浓度的胰岛素可增加MCF-7/ADR细胞P-gp mRNA及蛋白水平表达,并能增加P-gp的外排功能,降低MCF-7/ADR细胞对表阿霉素的化疗敏感性。结论高浓度胰岛素可能通过促进MCF-7/ADR细胞P-gp的表达和功能,增加乳腺癌细胞化疗耐药性,从而降低MCF-7

  18. 报告比值比法挖掘富马酸替诺福韦二吡呋酯不良反应信号%ADR Signals of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Mined by Reporting Odds Ratio Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 饶友义; 郭军; 余江平

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过对富马酸替诺福韦二吡呋酯(TDF)不良反应进行分析及信号挖掘,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法:对美国不良事件报告系统(AERS)2013年第三季度至2014年第二季度收集到的TDF不良反应事件报告进行分析,同时采用报告比值比(ROR)法对信号进行挖掘。结果:TDF的不良反应主要集中于消化系统、肾和泌尿系统、神经系统、皮肤和皮下组织系统、肌肉骨骼和结缔组织等,同时可以影响实验室检查的结果;共挖掘出TDF可疑不良反应危险信号42个,其中6个说明书尚未提及,且其中氨基酸尿不良反应信号强度较强。结论:TDF致消化道功能障碍虽较多,但大多数表现并不严重,其致肾功能损害数量较多,但后果严重;此外,氨基酸尿信号强度较强,且说明书未提及,故值得进一步研究。%OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for clinical rational drug use through analyzing ADR of tenofovir disoproxil fu-marate (TDF) and mining warning signals. METHODS:The ADR of TDF in Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) for the United States,from the third quarter of 2013 to the second quarter of 2014,were analyzed. And the warning signals of adverse drug reactions were mined by Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) method. RESULTS:The ADR of TDF often involved the system of gastrointestinal,renal,urinary,nervous,skin and subcutaneous tissue,musculoskeletal and connective tissue,etc,the drug could also affect laboratory examination. 42 warning signals by TDF were obtained,6 of which being not mentioned by the instruc-tion. Among all ADR of TDF,the signal intensity of minoaciduria was the highest. CONCLUSIONS:TDF-induced digestioe tract dysfunction are large in quantities but most of them are not severe;TDF-induced renal function damge are larqe in quantities and severe.

  19. EVIDENCIAÇÃO DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS BÁSICAS RECOMENDADAS PELO COSO (2004 PARA A GESTÃO DE RISCOS EM AMBIENTES DE CONTROLE NO RELATÓRIO DA ADMINISTRAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS BRASILEIRAS COM ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Costa da Silva Zonatto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine whether the basic characteristics recommended by COSO (2004 to establish a control environment are being widely disclosed as established by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the administration report of Brazilian companies issuing ADRs. Descriptive research was carried out through the analysis of the administration reports of 2007 of a sample of 28 Brazilian companies issuing American Depositary Receipts. The survey results show that all components or environments of COSO model or (2004 were identified in the administration report, but not all of the basic characteristics of the components or environments were disclosed by the companies. It was concluded that companies’ efforts are still necessary so as to have all the basic characteristics recommended by COSO (2004 to establish a control environment widely disclosed in the administration reports. Motivation for this non-disclosure leads to empirical research on these companies.

  20. Desenvolvimento e Teste Preliminar da Estabilidade de formulações cosméticas acrescidas de extrato comercial de Trichilia catigua Adr. Juss (e Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V.R. VELASCO

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo apresenta etapas de desenvolvimento de emulsões cosméticas, contendo 5% do extrato comercial de Trichilia catigua Adr. Juss (e Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham. Desenvolveramse 14 formulações-teste e avaliou-se a obtenção de emulsões macroscopicamente estáveis, com valores de viscosidade aparente variados, pH compatível com o da pele e características organolépticas adequadas, por meio dos Testes de Estabilidade Preliminar e Acelerada. Estas formulações foram divididas em dois grupos: um com emulsões fluidas e outro com emulsões mais viscosas. Após análise, oito formulações-teste foram consideradas aptas para serem submetidas ao Teste de Estabilidade Preliminar. Após os ensaios, cinco formulações-teste foram selecionadas para o Teste de Estabilidade Acelerada. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em condições de armazenamento, de luminosidade e de temperatura extremas. Ao final do estudo, duas formulações-teste foram consideradas aprovadas por apresentarem os perfis mais estáveis durante o estudo, sendo ambas, emulsões fluidas constituídas de ceras auto-emulsionantes e 0,3% p/p de um polímero natural, e uma delas adicionada também de 2,0% lecitina de soja. Palavras-chave: estabilidade de emulsões cosméticas; desenvolvimento de emulsões; Trichilia catigua Adr. Juss (e Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham

  1. Measurements in international units of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen(anti-HBs) after immunization with a yeast-derived, subtype adr hepatitis B vaccine are considerably different between chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio

    2006-04-01

    The worldwide consensus of the minimum protective anti-HBs level against HBV infection is 10 mIU/mL on assays standardized by the World Health Organization (WHO) reference preparations. To investigate whether this value could be applied to recipients of yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine containing the major surface protein of subtype adr (Bimmugen, Astellas Pharmaceutical, Tokyo), we compared anti-HBs measurements between chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect Ausab, Abbott Japan, Tokyo) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse Forte, Fujirebio, Tokyo) in given serum samples obtained from the vaccinees. The vaccine and the two assay methods are currently in a wide use in Japan. The study included 300 medical students who completed a standard vaccination course (0, 1 and 6 months). Serum samples obtained 1 month or 13 months after completing the vaccination were simultaneously tested for anti-HBs by CLIA and CLEIA. In 147 samples with quantifiable values on both CLIA and CLEIA (10 to 1000 mIU/mL) the geometric mean titer on CLEIA (225.0 mIU/mL) was significantly higher than that on CLIA (94.5 mIU/mL) (p anti-HBs measurements compared to CLIA and discordance in determining critical anti-HBs level of 10 mIU/mL was observed in more than half the samples. This suggests that the minimum HBV-protective anti HBs titer of 10 mIU/mL is difficult to be introduced to Japan where subtype adr-HB vaccines or -HBV infection are prevalent, unless characteristics of assay methods are carefully evaluated.

  2. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  3. Establishment of multi-drug resistance human B-cell lymphoma cell line BJAB/ADR and preliminary research of its drug-resistance mechanism%人类B细胞淋巴瘤耐药细胞株BJAB/ADR的建立及其耐药机制的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍世琦; 姜琳琳; 张晓龙; 李真真; 邵晓枫; 齐怀丰; 杨雨琪; 熊冬生

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立人类淋巴瘤B JAB多药耐药细胞株BJAB/ADR,并初步研究其耐药机制.方法 采用多柔比星浓度梯度递增法建立人类B细胞淋巴瘤耐药细胞模型BJAB/ADR,观察其生长规律并绘制细胞生长曲线;用四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法鉴定耐药细胞株对多种化疗药物的耐药性并计算耐药指数;提取耐药细胞株RNA,实时定量聚合酶链反应(PCR)法检测相关耐药基因MDR1 mRNA的表达;流式细胞术检测细胞表面P糖蛋白(Pgp)的表达;通过罗丹明外排实验,检测Pgp功能.结果 成功建立B细胞淋巴瘤耐药细胞模型BJAB/ADR,并在160 ng/ml多柔比星溶液中稳定生长,耐药细胞较敏感细胞生长缓慢,细胞形态无明显变化.MTT检测结果表明BJAB/ADR细胞对多柔比星的耐药指数为43倍,同时对柔红霉素、依托泊苷、高三尖杉酯碱(HHT)及米托蒽醌(MX)也具有一定的耐药性.实时定量PCR结果表明,耐药细胞BJAB/ADR MDRl mRNA明显高于药物敏感细胞BJAB(P< 0.01).流式细胞术检测结果显示,耐药细胞表面Pgp高表达;罗丹明外排实验表明Pgp对多柔比星具有外排功能,使B JAB/ADR细胞获得耐药特性.结论 建立了人类B细胞淋巴瘤的耐药细胞株BJAB/ADR,其对多柔比星耐药性稳定,并呈现多药耐药细胞的基本生物学特性,为进一步研究肿瘤多药耐药发生的机制及逆转耐药提供有利的模型.%Objective To establish human multi-drug resistance (MDR) B-cell lymphoma cell line BJAB/ADR and investigate its biological characteristics.Methods Human B-cell lymphoma MDR cell line BJAB/ADR was induced by exposure to increasing dose of adriamycin.The growing features of BJAB/ADR were observed and cell growth was measured,IC50 of antitumor agents was evaluated by MTT assay.The expression of MDR1 mRNA was determined with real-time PCR,FACS was applied to study the expression of MDR protein P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and Rhodamine 123R efflux assay was used to

  4. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  5. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  6. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  7. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  8. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  9. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  10. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  11. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  12. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  13. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, prepeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  14. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  15. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  16. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  17. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  18. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  19. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  20. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  1. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  2. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiji eNageshwaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasised following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA in 1991. In this review we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  3. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  4. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species

  5. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  6. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  7. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  8. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  9. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...

  10. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  11. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  12. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  13. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  14. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  15. Effects of c-fos Down-regulation via shRNA on P-gp-mediated Multidrug Resistance in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7/ADR Cells%shRNA抑制c-fos表达对P-gp介导的乳腺癌多药耐药的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师锐赞; 胡晓玲; 范彦英

    2012-01-01

    多药耐药(multidrug resistance,MDR)是导致化疗失败的重要原因,多药耐药基因(multidrug resistance gene,mdr1)产物P-糖蛋白(P-glycoprotein,P-gp)过表达是最主要的耐药机制.原癌基因c-fos在肿瘤MDR中的作用渐受重视.主要选用人乳腺癌敏感株MCF-7和阿霉素(adriamycin,ADR)筛选的、mdr1/P-gp高表达的耐药株MCF-7/ADR,探讨c-fos在P-gp介导的乳腺癌MDR中的作用.相对于MCF-7,c-fos在MCF-7/ADR高表达.采用shRNA法下调c-fos表达后,MCF-7/ADR对ADR的敏感性大大增强,且mdr1/P-gp表达减少、P-gp外排功能降低.c-fos表达下调可逆转对P-gp介导的乳腺癌MDR的实验结果,为c-fos成为逆转肿瘤耐药诊断和治疗的新靶标,对实现耐药乳腺癌的分子靶向治疗提供了理论基础.%Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main reason of chemotherapy failure. The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) , encoded by the multidrug resistance (mdrl) gene, is thought to be the major cause of MDR phenotype. Since much attention has been paid to the role of proto-oncogene c-fos in MDR, adriamycin (ADR)-selected resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR) with mdrl/P-gp overexpression and parental drug-sensitive cells ( MCF-7) were chosen to analyze the role of c-fos in P-gp-mediated MDR. Elevated c-fos expression is observed in MCF-7/ADR compared to MCF-7 cells. Down-regulation of c-fos expression via shRNA resulted in sensitization of MCF-7/ADR cells to ADR and decreased the expression of mdrl/P-gp and efflux function of P-gp. Based on these results, c-fos may represent a potential molecular target for resistant cancer therapy, and suppressing c-fos gene expression may therefore be an effective means for targeted molecular therapy.

  16. β-榄香烯对人胃癌SGC7901/Adr细胞ERK通路的活化和GST-π表达的影响%Treatment with β-elemene inhibits ERK activation and down-regulates GST-π expression in human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/Adr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晔; 曲秀娟; 刘云鹏; 侯科佐; 刘静

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of treatment with β-elemene on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and expression of glutathione transferase-π (GST-π) in human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/Adr.METHODS: After SGC7901/Adr cells were treated with different concentrations of β-elemene for different durations, cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, and protein expression was detected by Western blot. All experimental data were analyzed with the SPSS 13.0 software package.RESULTS: β-elemene inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901/Adr cells in a time-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of β-elemene at 24, 48, and 72 h in SGC7901/Adr cells were 53.48, 28.78 and 14.78 mg/L, respectively. In untreated control cells, ERK was basically phosphorylated. Treatment with β-elemene (50 mg/L) for 24 h significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated ERK and GST-π in SGC7901/Adr cells.CONCLUSION: β-elemene could inhibit the activation of the ERK signaling pathway and thereby down-regulate the expression of GST-π in SGC7901/Adr cells.%目的:探讨β-榄香烯对人胃癌细胞SGC7901/Adr细胞外信号调节激酶(ERK)通路的活化和谷胱甘肽转移酶π(GST-π)表达的影响.方法:MTT法检测细胞的药物敏感性,Western blot检测蛋白表达,应用SPSS13.0进行统计学分析.结果:β-榄香烯以时间依赖的方式抑制SGC7901/Adr细胞增殖,24、48和72 h的IC50浓度分别为53.48、28.78和14.78 mg/L.对照组即有ERK的磷酸化,50 mg/L的β-榄香烯处理SGC7901/Adr细胞24 h,明显下调了ERK的磷酸化水平,同时GST-π蛋白的表达显著下调.结论:β-榄香烯通过抑制胃癌细胞SGC7901/Adr中ERK信号转导通路的活化,进而下调了GST-π蛋白的表达.

  17. Us gaap x normas brasileiras: mensuração do impacto das diferenças de normas no lucro duplamente reportado pelas empresas brasileiras emissoras de adrs na nyse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Santana Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A falta de um conjunto único de normas contábeis válido para todos os países pode conduzir a resultados conflitantes. Por exemplo, entre as emissoras brasileiras de ADRs (American Depositary Receipts na NYSE (New York Stock Exchange, a CEMIG apresentou em 2002 um prejuízo de R$ 12 milhões conforme as normas americanas (US GAAP e, sob as normas brasileiras, um prejuízo de R$ 1 bilhão (ou seja, 83 vezes maior. Também a CSN apresentou no mesmo ano um lucro de R$ 6 milhões conforme os US GAAP (United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, contra um prejuízo de R$ 218 milhões conforme as normas brasileiras (ou seja, 30 vezes maior. Este estudo objetiva verificar se diferenças entre as normas contábeis brasileira e norte-americana (US GAAP geram impacto significativo no resultado duplamente reportado no Formulário 20F pelas 30 emissoras brasileiras de ADRs na NYSE. Para mensurar o efeito dessas diferenças normativas no resultado foi utilizado o “Índice de Conservadorismo” (IC de Gray, que mede o quanto um sistema contábil nacional gera lucros menores (“é conservador” ou maiores (“é otimista” em relação aos US GAAP. A média e a mediana do IC no período 2001 a 2005 indicaram conservadorismo das normas brasileiras, não confirmado pelo teste t-Student, mas corroborado pelo teste de Wilcoxon a 10% de significância. Dividindo-se em dois subperíodos, obteve-se um IC médio de 1,2 para 2001-2002 (significativo a 3,3% e de 0,86 para 2003-2005 (significativo a 3%, indicando uma disparidade de comportamento: a contabilidade brasileira mostra-se mais otimista que os US GAAP até 2002, passando a mais conservadora a partir de 2003 até 2005.

  18. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  19. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  20. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  1. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  2. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  3. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  4. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  5. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  6. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  7. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  8. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  9. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  10. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  11. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  12. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  13. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  14. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  15. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions f...

  16. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiji eNageshwaran; Richard eFestenstein

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions fr...

  17. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  18. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  19. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  20. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  1. Jūgendstila lietojums modernās rūpniecības produkcijas reklāmās Rīgas adrešu grāmatās (1906─1910)

    OpenAIRE

    Balandina, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt, vai jūgendstila elementi tiek lietoti modernās rūpniecības reklāmās laika posmā no 1906. līdz 1910.gadam Rīgas adrešu grāmatās. Teorētiskajā daļā ir sniegts ieskats reklāmas attīstībā Eiropā un Krievijā 19.gadsimta beigās un 20.gadsimta sākumā, aprakstīts jūgendstils, rūpniecības attīstība Rīgā 19.gadsimta beigās un 20.gadsimta sākumā un reklāmas nozīme Latvijas teritorijā 20.gadsimta sākumā. Sniegts arī ieskats izmantotajās pētniecības metodēs. Anal...

  2. Conservadorismo condicional na divulgação de lucros em companhias abertas brasileiras: diferenças entre emissoras e não emissoras de ADR e entre sistemas contábeis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Dias Coelho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina as diferenças, em termos de qualidade informacional (conservadorismo condicional, das demonstrações contábeis de companhias brasileiras de capital aberto emissoras e não emissoras de ADR. Também são examinadas as demonstrações publicadas nos dois sistemas contábeis (PCAB e USGAAP. As hipóteses propõem que não há diferenças nos graus de conservadorismo condicional entre as firmas em razão das similaridades contratuais e institucionais, da inexistência de incentivos para alterar o comportamento dos gestores pelo processo de cross-listing e da insuficiência de motivação pela aplicação de princípios contábeis diversos. Os modelos de componentes transitórios nos lucros (BASU, 1997 e de associação entre apropriações contábeis e fluxos de caixa (BALL; SHIVAKUMAR, 2005 foram utilizados para os testes. Para estimar os coeficientes de associação dos dois modelos, utilizou-se análise de dados em painel. Os resultados confirmaram as hipóteses.

  3. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  4. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (psprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  6. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  7. REPEAT facility. Report for May, June, July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, C. B.

    1981-08-01

    The construction of the REPEAT facility, a test facility for passive and hybrid solar heating systems is reported. The development of a simulation program for envelope type passive solar systems, constructing an envelope test cell, collecting data to validate the program, and application of the program to determine the best envelope type design are discussed. A low cost monitoring system using a dedicated microprocessor system, an inexpensive, high accuracy A/D converter, and minimum system hardware is developed. A method to determine the average temperature and the average daily temperature variation inside a passively heated solar building is presented.

  8. Cataractogenesis after Repeat Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been the unsubstantiated clinical impression that laser refractive surgery accelerates cataract development along with solid experimental data about the cataractogenic effects of excimer laser treatment. We present the first documented case of significant cataract formation in a young myope after repeat excimer laser ablation necessitating phacoemulsification with a posterior chamber implant. Proposed explanations include focusing of the ablation wave on the posterior capsule (acoustic wave lens epithelial damage, photooxidative stress of the lens (ultraviolet and inflammatory oxidative stress, and corticosteroid-induced cataract (lens toxicity.

  9. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  10. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Delhomel, Gregory; Brughelli, Matt; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effects of explosive strength (ExpS) vs. repeated shuttle sprint (RS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in young elite soccer players, 15 elite male adolescents (14.5 ± 0.5 years) performed, in addition to their soccer training program, RS (n = 7) or ExpS (n = 8) training once a week for a total of 10 weeks. RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 × 15- to 20-m repeated shuttle sprints interspersed with 14 seconds of passive or 23 seconds of active recovery (≈2 m·s⁻¹); ExpS training consisted of 4-6 series of 4-6 exercises (e.g., maximal unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs), calf and squat plyometric jumps, and short sprints). Before and after training, performance was assessed by 10 and 30 m (10 and 30 m) sprint times, best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test, a CMJ, and a hopping (Hop) test. After training, except for 10 m (p = 0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all p's repeated shuttle sprint test were only observed after RS training, whereas CMJ height was only increased after ExpS. Because RS and ExpS were equally efficient at enhancing maximal sprinting speed, RS training-induced improvements in RSA were likely more related to progresses in the ability to change direction.

  11. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  12. Comparative genomics and molecular dynamics of DNA repeats in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck; Kerrest, Alix; Dujon, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Repeated elements can be widely abundant in eukaryotic genomes, composing more than 50% of the human genome, for example. It is possible to classify repeated sequences into two large families, "tandem repeats" and "dispersed repeats." Each of these two families can be itself divided into subfamilies. Dispersed repeats contain transposons, tRNA genes, and gene paralogues, whereas tandem repeats contain gene tandems, ribosomal DNA repeat arrays, and satellite DNA, itself subdivided into satellites, minisatellites, and microsatellites. Remarkably, the molecular mechanisms that create and propagate dispersed and tandem repeats are specific to each class and usually do not overlap. In the present review, we have chosen in the first section to describe the nature and distribution of dispersed and tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes in the light of complete (or nearly complete) available genome sequences. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the fast evolution of two specific classes of tandem repeats: minisatellites and microsatellites. Given that a growing number of human neurological disorders involve the expansion of a particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, a large part of the recent experimental work on microsatellites has focused on these particular repeats, and thus we also review the current knowledge in this area. Finally, we propose a unified definition for mini- and microsatellites that takes into account their biological properties and try to point out new directions that should be explored in a near future on our road to understanding the genetics of repeated sequences.

  13. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  14. The Perpetual Repeater: an Educative Musical Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Skriagina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Music Undergraduate Program of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (National Pedagogic University, two musical events were planned: an original work written for choir, soloists and symphonic band, and an opera for children. As a result, the cantata ‘The Perpetual Repeater” has been created as an adaptation of a work named “50 Milions de Segons” (50 Millions of Seconds, staged by the CATANIA project of the Barcelona Servei Educatiu de L’Auditori. This work tells the story of those school teachers who, paradoxically enough repeat the same course year after year. After visiting L’Auditori of Barcelona to participate in the pedagogic musical work carried out with school children, we considered the possibility of developing an analogous project, in a similar sociocultural and educational environment, within our Music Undergraduate Program. So, this article deals with two fundamental moments which are essential to understand the educational work implemented with the ISPA students of sixth degree, as well as with a group of the program’s students: The Purpose, which describes in detail the planning of the musical work for children, and The Experience, in which the way the process of The Perpetual Repeater Cantatawas carried out is described.

  15. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  16. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  17. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  18. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  19. Repeat-induced gene silencing in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, D; Fiering, S; Martin, D I; Whitelaw, E

    1998-01-01

    In both plants and Drosophila melanogaster, expression from a transgenic locus may be silenced when repeated transgene copies are arranged as a concatameric array. This repeat-induced gene silencing is frequently manifested as a decrease in the proportion of cells that express the transgene, resulting in a variegated pattern of expression. There is also some indication that, in transgenic mammals, the number of transgene copies within an array can exert a repressive influence on expression, with several mouse studies reporting a decrease in the level of expression per copy as copy number increases. However, because these studies compare different sites of transgene integration as well as arrays with different numbers of copies, the expression levels observed may be subject to varying position effects as well as the influence of the multicopy array. Here we describe use of the lox/Cre system of site-specific recombination to generate transgenic mouse lines in which different numbers of a transgene are present at the same chromosomal location, thereby eliminating the contribution of position effects and allowing analysis of the effect of copy number alone on transgene silencing. Reduction in copy number results in a marked increase in expression of the transgene and is accompanied by decreased chromatin compaction and decreased methylation at the transgene locus. These findings establish that the presence of multiple homologous copies of a transgene within a concatameric array can have a repressive effect upon gene expression in mammalian systems.

  20. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  1. 47 CFR 90.247 - Mobile repeater stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile repeater stations. 90.247 Section 90.247... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.247 Mobile repeater stations. A... repeater to extend the communications range of hand-carried units subject to the following: (a)...

  2. Polymorphic GGC repeat differentially regulates human reelin gene expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, A M; Levitt, P; Pimenta, A F

    2006-10-01

    The human gene encoding Reelin (RELN), a pivotal protein in neurodevelopment, includes a polymorphic GGC repeat in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). CHO cells transfected with constructs encompassing the RELN 5'UTR with 4-to-13 GGC repeats upstream of the luciferase reporter gene show declining luciferase activity with increasing GGC repeat number (P autism.

  3. CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene: Size matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Willemsen (Ralph); G.J. Levenga (Josien); B.A. Oostra (Ben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe FMR1 gene contains a CGG repeat present in the 5'-untranslated region which can be unstable upon transmission to the next generation. The repeat is up to 55 CGGs long in the normal population. In patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a repeat length exceeding 200 CGGs (full

  4. Repeat Testing Effects on Credentialing Exams: Are Repeaters Misinformed or Uninformed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Raymond, Mark R.; Haist, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate security concerns and unfair score gains, credentialing programs routinely administer new test material to examinees retesting after an initial failing attempt. Counterintuitively, a small but growing body of recent research suggests that repeating the identical form does not create an unfair advantage. This study builds upon and…

  5. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  6. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  7. Potential of repeated polymer well treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Munkacsi, I.; Troemboeczki, S.

    1993-11-01

    This paper analyzes field results obtained by routine application of a polymer/silicate well treatment technique at the Algyo-2 field in Hungary. First, the reservoir is described briefly; then, the basic concept of the method is outlined. Reference is made to the multifunctioning chemical mechanism of gelation and the favorable rheological properties of the treating fluids that jointly result in a highly selective placement and an efficient permeability reduction in the target reservoir space. Application of the method 17 times in 16 producing wells yielded more than 90,000 Mg of incremental oil production. Typical well behaviors also are illustrated. Finally, the potential of repeated treatments is discussed, taking laboratory and field results into account.

  8. Quantum repeaters using continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Josephine; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum optical states are fragile and can become corrupted when passed through a lossy communication channel. Unlike for classical signals, optical amplifiers cannot be used to recover quantum signals. Quantum repeaters have been proposed as a way of reducing errors and hence increasing the range of quantum communications. Current protocols target specific discrete encodings, for example quantum bits encoded on the polarization of single photons. We introduce a more general approach that can reduce the effect of loss on any quantum optical encoding, including those based on continuous variables such as the field amplitudes. We show that in principle the protocol incurs a resource cost that scales polynomially with distance. We analyze the simplest implementation and find that while its range is limited it can still achieve useful improvements in the distance over which quantum entanglement of field amplitudes can be distributed.

  9. Statistical Properties of repeating FRB 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals possibly occurring at cosmological distances. However the physical model of FRBs is mystery, many models have been proposed. Here we study the frequency distributions of peak flux, fluence, duration and waiting time for repeating FRB 121102. The cumulative distributions of peak flux, fluence and duration show power-law forms. The waiting time distribution also shows power-law distribution, and is consistent with a non-stationary Poisson process. We also use the statistical results to test the proposed models for FRBs. Comparing with the model predications, we find that the theoretical models proposed by Dai et al. (2016) and Katz (2016) are favored. These distributions are consistent with the predications from avalanche models of driven systems.

  10. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vattipally B Sreenu; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are the repetitive nucleotide sequences of motifs of length 1–6 bp. They are scattered throughout the genomes of all the known organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. Microsatellites undergo mutations in the form of insertions and deletions (INDELS) of their repeat units with some bias towards insertions that lead to microsatellite tract expansion. Although prokaryotic genomes derive some plasticity due to microsatellite mutations they have in-built mechanisms to arrest undue expansions of microsatellites and one such mechanism is constituted by post-replicative DNA repair enzymes MutL, MutH and MutS. The mycobacterial genomes lack these enzymes and as a null hypothesis one could expect these genomes to harbour many long tracts. It is therefore interesting to analyse the mycobacterial genomes for distribution and abundance of microsatellites tracts and to look for potentially polymorphic microsatellites. Available mycobacterial genomes, Mycobacterium avium, M. leprae, M. bovis and the two strains of M. tuberculosis (CDC1551 and H37Rv) were analysed for frequencies and abundance of SSRs. Our analysis revealed that the SSRs are distributed throughout the mycobacterial genomes at an average of 220–230 SSR tracts per kb. All the mycobacterial genomes contain few regions that are conspicuously denser or poorer in microsatellites compared to their expected genome averages. The genomes distinctly show scarcity of long microsatellites despite the absence of a post-replicative DNA repair system. Such severe scarcity of long microsatellites could arise as a result of strong selection pressures operating against long and unstable sequences although influence of GC-content and role of point mutations in arresting microsatellite expansions can not be ruled out. Nonetheless, the long tracts occasionally found in coding as well as non-coding regions may account for limited genome plasticity in these genomes.

  11. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  12. The excess of small inverted repeats in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses have shown that there is a large excess of perfect inverted repeats in many prokaryotic genomes but not in eukaryotic ones. This difference could be due to a genuine difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes or to differences in the methods and types of data analyzed--full genome versus protein coding sequences. We used simulations to show that the method used previously tends to underestimate the expected number of inverted repeats. However, this bias is not large and cannot explain the excess of inverted repeats observed in real data. In contrast, our method is unbiased. When both methods are applied to bacterial protein coding sequences they both detect an excess of inverted repeats, which is much lower than previously reported in whole prokaryotic genomes. This suggests that the reported large excess of inverted repeats is due to repeats found in intergenic regions. These repeats could be due to transcription factor binding sites, or other types of repetitive DNA, on opposite strands of the DNA sequence. In contrast, the smaller, but significant, excess of inverted repeats that we report in protein coding sequences may be due to sequence-directed mutagenesis (SDM). SDM is a process where one copy of a small, imperfect, inverted repeat corrects the other copy via strand misalignment, resulting in a perfect repeat and a series of mutations. We show by simulation that even very low levels of SDM, relative to the rate of point mutation, can generate a substantial excess of inverted repeats.

  13. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  14. Role of DNA Polymerases in Repeat-Mediated Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik A. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of simple DNA repeats cause numerous hereditary diseases in humans. We analyzed the role of DNA polymerases in the instability of Friedreich’s ataxia (GAAn repeats in a yeast experimental system. The elementary step of expansion corresponded to ∼160 bp in the wild-type strain, matching the size of Okazaki fragments in yeast. This step increased when DNA polymerase α was mutated, suggesting a link between the scale of expansions and Okazaki fragment size. Expandable repeats strongly elevated the rate of mutations at substantial distances around them, a phenomenon we call repeat-induced mutagenesis (RIM. Notably, defects in the replicative DNA polymerases δ and ∊ strongly increased rates for both repeat expansions and RIM. The increases in repeat-mediated instability observed in DNA polymerase δ mutants depended on translesion DNA polymerases. We conclude that repeat expansions and RIM are two sides of the same replicative mechanism.

  15. REPdenovo: Inferring De Novo Repeat Motifs from Short Sequence Reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chu

    Full Text Available Repeat elements are important components of eukaryotic genomes. One limitation in our understanding of repeat elements is that most analyses rely on reference genomes that are incomplete and often contain missing data in highly repetitive regions that are difficult to assemble. To overcome this problem we develop a new method, REPdenovo, which assembles repeat sequences directly from raw shotgun sequencing data. REPdenovo can construct various types of repeats that are highly repetitive and have low sequence divergence within copies. We show that REPdenovo is substantially better than existing methods both in terms of the number and the completeness of the repeat sequences that it recovers. The key advantage of REPdenovo is that it can reconstruct long repeats from sequence reads. We apply the method to human data and discover a number of potentially new repeats sequences that have been missed by previous repeat annotations. Many of these sequences are incorporated into various parasite genomes, possibly because the filtering process for host DNA involved in the sequencing of the parasite genomes failed to exclude the host derived repeat sequences. REPdenovo is a new powerful computational tool for annotating genomes and for addressing questions regarding the evolution of repeat families. The software tool, REPdenovo, is available for download at https://github.com/Reedwarbler/REPdenovo.

  16. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  17. Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki eMatsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.

  18. Modelling repeatedly flaring delta-sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Active regions (AR) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into $\\alpha$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the $\\delta$-sunspots are known to be super-active and produce the most X-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin sub-photospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux-tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic $\\delta$-sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  19. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  20. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Olsen, Peter D; Marshall, Helen C; Lizamore, Catherine A; Elliot, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using "top-up" sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1-3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second "top-up" intervention (Post 4-5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: -1.8 ± 1.6%, -1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: -2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: -2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: -1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: -1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3-5 (-2.0 ± 2.4%, -2.2 ± 2.4%, -1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13-37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of "top-up" training after intervention 1, had little effect on either group. Repeat-sprint training in

  1. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Olsen, Peter D.; Marshall, Helen C.; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Elliot, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using “top-up” sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1–3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second “top-up” intervention (Post 4–5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: −1.8 ± 1.6%, −1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: −2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: −2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: −1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: −1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3–5 (−2.0 ± 2.4%, −2.2 ± 2.4%, −1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13–37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of “top-up” training after intervention 1, had little effect on either

  2. JSC Simulations of ADR Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital debris in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is an international problem that threatens the success of all future Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space and exploration...

  3. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-08-26

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the -1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded repeats with more than 35 consecutive CAG codons. An atypical +1 shift site, UUC C at the 5' end of CAG repeats, which has some resemblance to the influenza A virus shift site, triggers the +1 frameshifting and is enhanced by the increased propensity of the expanded CAG repeats to form a stem-loop structure. The +1 trans-frame-encoded product can directly influence the aggregation of the parental Htt exon 1.

  4. Repeats in transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Seema

    2013-06-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins (TACC1, 2, and 3) are essential proteins associated with the assembly of spindle microtubules and maintenance of bipolarity. Dysregulation of TACCs is associated with tumorigenesis, but studies of microsatellite instability in TACC genes have not been extensive. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat instability is known to cause many types of cancer. The present in silico analysis of SSRs in human TACC gene sequences shows the presence of mono- to hexa-nucleotide repeats, with the highest densities found for mono- and di-nucleotide repeats. Density of repeats is higher in introns than in exons. Some of the repeats are present in regulatory regions and retained introns. Human TACC genes show conservation of many repeat classes. Microsatellites in TACC genes could be valuable markers for monitoring numerical chromosomal aberrations and or cancer.

  5. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  6. Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats for High-Level Microsatellite Instability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Buhard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability.

  7. Zinc-finger directed double-strand breaks within CAG repeat tracts promote repeat instability in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, David; Moye, Christopher; Morton, Jason; Sykoudis, Kristen; Lin, Yunfu; Carroll, Dana; Wilson, John H

    2009-06-16

    Expanded triplet repeats have been identified as the genetic basis for a growing number of neurological and skeletal disorders. To examine the contribution of double-strand break repair to CAG x CTG repeat instability in mammalian systems, we developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that recognize and cleave CAG repeat sequences. Engineered ZFNs use a tandem array of zinc fingers, fused to the FokI DNA cleavage domain, to direct double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a site-specific manner. We first determined that the ZFNs cleave CAG repeats in vitro. Then, using our previously described tissue culture assay for identifying modifiers of CAG repeat instability, we found that transfection of ZFN-expression vectors induced up to a 15-fold increase in changes to the CAG repeat in human and rodent cell lines, and that longer repeats were much more sensitive to cleavage than shorter ones. Analysis of individual colonies arising after treatment revealed a spectrum of events consistent with ZFN-induced DSBs and dominated by repeat contractions. We also found that expressing a dominant-negative form of RAD51 in combination with a ZFN, dramatically reduced the effect of the nuclease, suggesting that DSB-induced repeat instability is mediated, in part, through homology directed repair. These studies identify a ZFN as a useful reagent for characterizing the effects of DSBs on CAG repeats in cells.

  8. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  9. Neuropathological diagnosis and CAG repeat expansion in Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Xuereb, J H; MacMillan, J C; Snell, R; Davies, P.; Harper, P S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To correlate the degree of CAG repeat expansion with neuropathological findings in Huntington's disease. METHODS--The CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a large series of brain samples from 268 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease in which full neuropathological data was available. RESULTS--Analysis by polymerase chain reaction was successful in 63% of samples (169 of 268). Repeat expansions were detected in 152 of 153 (99%) samples with a neuropathologic...

  10. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of rep...

  11. Repeated fecal microbiota transplantation in a child with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Arai, Katsuhiro; Abe, Jun; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshioka, Takako; Hosoi, Kenji; Kuroda, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy, who was subsequently treated successfully with repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The patient was steroid dependent despite several infliximab treatments, and colectomy was proposed to improve quality of life. After repeated FMT, she was able to maintain remission with on minimal dose of steroid. Although her fecal microbiota was dysbiotic before FMT, it was restored to a similar pattern as the donor after repeated FMT.

  12. Artificial leucine rich repeats as new scaffolds for protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baabur-Cohen, Hemda; Dayalan, Subashini; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2011-04-15

    The leucine rich repeat (LRR) motif that participates in many biomolecular recognition events in cells was suggested as a general scaffold for producing artificial receptors. We describe here the design and first total chemical synthesis of small LRR proteins, and their structural analysis. When evaluating the tertiary structure as a function of different number of repeating units (1-3), we were able to find that the 3-repeats sequence, containing 90 amino acids, folds into the expected structure.

  13. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  14. Mononucleotide repeats are asymmetrically distributed in fungal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaff Leo H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic analyses of sequence features have resulted in a better characterisation of the organisation of the genome. A previous study in prokaryotes on the distribution of sequence repeats, which are notoriously variable and can disrupt the reading frame in genes, showed that these motifs are skewed towards gene termini, specifically the 5' end of genes. For eukaryotes no such intragenic analysis has been performed, though this could indicate the pervasiveness of this distribution bias, thereby helping to expose the selective pressures causing it. Results In fungal gene repertoires we find a similar 5' bias of intragenic mononucleotide repeats, most notably for Candida spp., whereas e.g. Coccidioides spp. display no such bias. With increasing repeat length, ever larger discrepancies are observed in genome repertoire fractions containing such repeats, with up to an 80-fold difference in gene fractions at repeat lengths of 10 bp and longer. This species-specific difference in gene fractions containing large repeats could be attributed to variations in intragenic repeat tolerance. Furthermore, long transcripts experience an even more prominent bias towards the gene termini, with possibly a more adaptive role for repeat-containing short transcripts. Conclusion Mononucleotide repeats are intragenically biased in numerous fungal genomes, similar to earlier studies on prokaryotes, indicative of a similar selective pressure in gene organization.

  15. Huntington's disease as caused by 34 CAG repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, Jürgen; Arning, Larissa; Wieczorek, Stefan; Kraus, Peter H; Gold, Ralf; Saft, Carsten

    2008-04-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polymorphic stretch of CAG repeats in the coding 5' part of the HD gene on chromosome 4p. Expansions of CAG blocks beyond 35 repeats are associated with the clinical presentation of HD. There is an intermediate range of rare alleles between 27 and 35 CAG repeats with a higher risk for further expansion in subsequent generations. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with clinical features of HD and 34 CAG repeat units.

  16. Intragenic tandem repeat variation between Legionella pneumophila strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarraud Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genomes harbour a large number of tandem repeats, yet the possible phenotypic effects of those found within the coding region of genes are only beginning to be examined. Evidence exists from other organisms that these repeats can be involved in the evolution of new genes, gene regulation, adaptation, resistance to environmental stresses, and avoidance of the immune system. Results In this study, we have investigated the presence and variability in copy number of intragenic tandemly repeated sequences in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Within the genome of the Philadelphia strain, we have identified 26 intragenic tandem repeat sequences using conservative selection criteria. Of these, seven were "polymorphic" in terms of repeat copy number between a large number of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. These strains were collected from a wide variety of environments and patients in several geographical regions. Within this panel of strains, all but one of these seven genes exhibited statistically different patterns in repeat copy number between samples from different origins (environmental, clinical, and hot springs. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that intragenic tandem repeats could play a role in virulence and adaptation to different environments. While tandem repeats are an increasingly popular focus of molecular typing studies in prokaryotes, including in L. pneumophila, this study is the first examining the difference in tandem repeat distribution as a function of clinical or environmental origin.

  17. The effect of PG to the expression of p170 on the K562/ADR cells%裴氏升血颗粒含药血清对K562/ADR细胞p170表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉强; 薛文翰

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察裴氏升血颗粒(PG)含药血清对人白血病细胞株K562/ADR细胞p170蛋白表达水平的影响。方法:采用MTT法测定不同浓度含药血清对K562细胞系的细胞毒作用,用流式细胞仪检测非细胞毒性浓度含药血清处理后K562/ADR细胞膜表面p170表达变化。结果:不同浓度含药血清对K562/ADR细胞无明显细胞毒作用,非细胞毒性含药血清能明显下调K562/ADR细胞p170蛋白的表达。结论:裴氏升血颗粒能够提高化疗疗效,其机制可能与下调p170蛋白表达有关。%Objective:To investigate the effect of PG herbal serum to the expression level of p170 protein on the human leukemia K562/ADR cells. Methods: Testing the cytotoxic effect of different herbal serum to K562/ADR cells line by MTT method, using Flow cytometry to determine the expressive and functional changes of p170 on K562/ADR cells membrane dealed with the herbal serum at non-cytotoxic concentration. Results:Different herbal serum had no obvious cytotoxic effect to K562/A02 cells, non-cytotoxic concentration of herbal serum can significantly lowered the expression of p170 protein on the K562/ADR cells. Conclusion: PG could improve the curative effect of chemotherapy, and its mechanism may be related to descend the expression of p170.

  18. Genus-specific protein binding to the large clusters of DNA repeats (short regularly spaced repeats) present in Sulfolobus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Shen, Biao

    2003-01-01

    Short regularly spaced repeats (SRSRs) occur in multiple large clusters in archaeal chromosomes and as smaller clusters in some archaeal conjugative plasmids and bacterial chromosomes. The sequence, size, and spacing of the repeats are generally constant within a cluster but vary between clusters...... that are identical in sequence to one of the repeat variants in the S. solfataricus chromosome. Repeats from the pNOB8 cluster were amplified and tested for protein binding with cell extracts from S. solfataricus. A 17.5-kDa SRSR-binding protein was purified from the cell extracts and sequenced. The protein is N...... terminally modified and corresponds to SSO454, an open reading frame of previously unassigned function. It binds specifically to DNA fragments carrying double and single repeat sequences, binding on one side of the repeat structure, and producing an opening of the opposite side of the DNA structure. It also...

  19. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  20. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia

    2017-01-01

    Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in

  1. Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vural, B; Poda, M; Atlioglu, E;

    1998-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals.......Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals....

  2. PILER-CR: Fast and accurate identification of CRISPR repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of prokaryotic genomes has recently revealed the presence of CRISPR elements: short, highly conserved repeats separated by unique sequences of similar length. The distinctive sequence signature of CRISPR repeats can be found using general-purpose repeat- or pattern-finding software tools. However, the output of such tools is not always ideal for studying these repeats, and significant effort is sometimes needed to build additional tools and perform manual analysis of the output. Results We present PILER-CR, a program specifically designed for the identification and analysis of CRISPR repeats. The program executes rapidly, completing a 5 Mb genome in around 5 seconds on a current desktop computer. We validate the algorithm by manual curation and by comparison with published surveys of these repeats, finding that PILER-CR has both high sensitivity and high specificity. We also present a catalogue of putative CRISPR repeats identified in a comprehensive analysis of 346 prokaryotic genomes. Conclusion PILER-CR is a useful tool for rapid identification and classification of CRISPR repeats. The software is donated to the public domain. Source code and a Linux binary are freely available at http://www.drive5.com/pilercr.

  3. Repeatable mechanochemical activation of dynamic covalent bonds in thermoplastic elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imato, Keiichi; Kanehara, Takeshi; Nojima, Shiki; Ohishi, Tomoyuki; Higaki, Yuji; Takahara, Atsushi; Otsuka, Hideyuki

    2016-08-18

    Repeated mechanical scission and recombination of dynamic covalent bonds incorporated in segmented polyurethane elastomers are demonstrated by utilizing a diarylbibenzofuranone-based mechanophore and by the design of the segmented polymer structures. The repeated mechanochemical reactions can accompany clear colouration and simultaneous fading.

  4. PCR-free digital minisatellite tandem repeat genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuchao; Seo, Tae Seok

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated a proof-of-concept for novel minisatellite tandem repeat typing, called PCR-free digital VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) typing, which is composed of three steps: a ligation reaction instead of PCR thermal cycling, magnetic bead-based solid-phase capture for purification, and an elongated sample stacking microcapillary electrophoresis (μCE) for sensitive digital coding of repeat number. We designed a 16-bp fluorescently labeled ligation probe which is complementary to a repeat unit of a biotinylated synthetic template mimicking the human D1S80 VNTR locus and is randomly hybridized with the minisatellite tandem repeats. A quick isothermal ligation reaction was followed to link the adjacent ligation probes on the DNA templates, and then the ligated products were purified by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. After a denaturing step, a large amount of ligated products whose size difference was equivalent to the repeat unit were released and recovered. Through the elongated sample stacking μCE separation on a microdevice, the fluorescence signal of the ligated products was generated in the electropherogram and the peak number was directly counted which was exactly matched with the repeat number of VNTR locus. We could successfully identify the minisatellite tandem repeat number with only 5 fmol of DNA template in 30 min.

  5. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  6. Vocabulary Learning through Assisted and Unassisted Repeated Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effects of unassisted and assisted repeated reading has primarily focused on how each approach may contribute to improvement in reading comprehension and fluency. Incidental learning of the form and meaning of unknown or partially known words encountered through assisted and unassisted repeated reading has yet…

  7. Impact of Inclusion or Exclusion of Repeaters on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including or excluding repeaters on the equating process and results. New forms of two tests were equated to their respective old forms using either all examinees or only the first timer examinees in the new form sample. Results showed that for both tests used in this study, including or excluding repeaters in the…

  8. Effect of Repeated Simulations by Standardized Patients on Intercase Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study using five Southern Illinois University senior medical school classes (n=350 students) investigated whether having a standardized patient simulate a case repeatedly in postclerkship medical student evaluation affects the measure's reliability. Results suggest that repeated simulation had little or no effect on intercase reliability of…

  9. Analysis of CR1 Repeats in the Zebra Finch Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bird species have smaller genomes and fewer repeats than mammals. Chicken Repeat 1 (CR1 repeat is one of the most abundant families of repeats, ranging from ~133,000 to ~187,000 copies accounting for ~50 to ~80% of the interspersed repeats in the zebra finch and chicken genomes, respectively. CR1 repeats are believed to have arisen from the retrotransposition of a small number of master elements, which gave rise to multiple CR1 subfamilies in the chicken. In this study, we performed a global assessment of the divergence distributions, phylogenies, and consensus sequences of CR1 repeats in the zebra finch genome. We identified and validated 34 CR1 subfamilies and further analyzed the correlation between these subfamilies. We also discovered 4 novel lineage-specific CR1 subfamilies in the zebra finch when compared to the chicken genome. We built various evolutionary trees of these subfamilies and concluded that CR1 repeats may play an important role in reshaping the structure of bird genomes.

  10. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain : Effects on Emotional Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrillo, Maria; Migliorati, Filippo; Bruls, Rune; Han, Yingying; Heinemans, Mirjam; Pruis, Ilanah; Gazzola, V.; Keysers, C.

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar

  11. Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2014-03-01

    We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.

  12. CTG trinucleotide repeat "big jumps": large expansions, small mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions are the genetic cause of numerous human diseases, including fragile X mental retardation, Huntington disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Disease severity and age of onset are critically linked to expansion size. Previous mouse models of repeat instability have not recreated large intergenerational expansions ("big jumps", observed when the repeat is transmitted from one generation to the next, and have never attained the very large tract lengths possible in humans. Here, we describe dramatic intergenerational CTG*CAG repeat expansions of several hundred repeats in a transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1, resulting in increasingly severe phenotypic and molecular abnormalities. Homozygous mice carrying over 700 trinucleotide repeats on both alleles display severely reduced body size and splicing abnormalities, notably in the central nervous system. Our findings demonstrate that large intergenerational trinucleotide repeat expansions can be recreated in mice, and endorse the use of transgenic mouse models to refine our understanding of triplet repeat expansion and the resulting pathogenesis.

  13. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  14. Monotone missing data and repeated controls of fallible authors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Chapters 2 and 3 focus on repeated audit controls with categorical variables. Chapter 4 and 5 introduce and analyse a very general multivariate regression model for (monotone) missing data. In the final Chapter 6 the previous chapters are combined into a more realistic model for repeated audit contr

  15. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  16. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used ... social sigma24, repeat abortion may be as well, perhaps even .... 0.1198. aIncludes hostess, cleaner, waitress, housemaid, commercial sex worker, and cook ..... be made to support the process by strengthening.

  17. Witness recall across repeated interviews in a case of repeated abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; La Rooy, David

    2014-02-01

    In this illustrative case study we examine the three forensic interviews of a girl who experienced repeated sexual abuse from ages 7 to 11. She disclosed the abuse after watching a serialized television show that contained a storyline similar to her own experience. This triggered an investigation that ended in successful prosecution of the offender. Because this case involved abuse that was repeated on a weekly basis for 4 years we thus investigated the degree to which the child's narrative reflected specific episodes or generic accounts, and both the interviewer's and child's attempts to elicit and provide, respectively, specific details across the 3 interviews collected in a 1 month period. Across the 3 interviews, the child's account was largely generic, yet on a number of occasions she provided details specific to individual incidents (episodic leads) that could have been probed further. As predicted: earlier interviews were characterized more by episodic than generic prompts and the reverse was true for the third interview; the child often responded using the same style of language (episodic or generic) as the interviewer; and open questions yielded narrative information. We discuss the importance of adopting children's words to specify occurrences, and the potential benefits of permitting generic recall in investigative interviews on children's ability to provide episodic leads. Despite the fact that the testimony was characterized by generic information about what usually happened, rather than specific episodic details about individual occurrences, this case resulted in successful prosecution.

  18. Effects of 3-repeat tau on taxol mobility through microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Fygenson, Deborah; Kim, Mahn Won

    2005-03-01

    Both the anti-cancer drug taxol and the microtubule-associated protein tau suppress dynamics of microtubules (MT). We have observed taxol mobility with full-length 3-repeat tau, one of six tau isoforms, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on MTs and compare with earlier results on recombinant full-length adult 4-repeat tau. Taxol mobility becomes highly sensitive to taxol concentration in the presence of 3-repeat tau (up to 1:1 molar ratio) as it does in the presence of 4-repeat tau, but is 2 to 3 times faster at low taxol concentrations. Fitting to a mean-field binding reaction model [J.L. Ross et.al, PNAS 101:12910-5 (2004)] suggests that the presence of 3-repeat tau enhances taxol movement through pores in the MT walls.

  19. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  20. CAG trinucleotide RNA repeats interact with RNA-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, B.A.; Eberwine, J.; Spencer, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Genes associated with several neurological diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormally long trinucleotide repeat sequence. By way of example, Huntington`s disease (HD), is characterized by selective neuronal degeneration associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract. Normally, this CAG tract is comprised of 11-34 repeats, but in HD it is expanded to >37 repeats in affected individuals. The mechanism by which CAG repeats cause neuronal degeneration is unknown, but it has been speculated that the expansion primarily causes abnormal protein functioning, which in turn causes HD pathology. Other mechanisms, however, have not been ruled out. Interactions between RNA and RNA-binding proteins have previously been shown to play a role in the expression of several eukaryotic genes. Herein, we report the association of cytoplasmic proteins with normal length and extended CAG repeats, using gel shift and LJV crosslinking assays. Cytoplasmic protein extracts from several rat brain regions, including the striatum and cortex, sites of neuronal degeneration in HD, contain a 63-kD RNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with these CAG-repeat sequences. These protein-RNA interactions are dependent on the length of the CAG repeat, with longer repeats binding substantially more protein. Two CAG repeat-binding proteins are present in human cortex and striatum; one comigrates with the rat protein at 63 kD, while the other migrates at 49 kD. These data suggest mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins may be involved in the pathological course of trinucleotide repeat-associated neurological diseases. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Repeatability Evaluation of Finger Tapping Device with Magnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    We tested the repeatability of a finger tapping device with magnetic sensors to determine its reliability. This device, which was developed to assist in the diagnosis of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and strokes, measures the distance between the first and index fingers during finger tapping movements (opening and closing the fingers repeatedly). We evaluated three types of repeatability based on ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) and Welch's test (test for equal means in a oneway layout): repeatability when measured at different times, when using different devices, and when using different measurers. We calculated these three types for three finger tapping tasks on both hands for 21 characteristics calculated from finger tapping waveforms. Results demonstrated that the repeatability when using different devices is high regardless of the task or hand. The repeatability when measuring at different times and when using different measurers is high at some tasks, but not all. One of the finger tapping tasks (finger tapping movement with the largest amplitude and highest velocity), which is used in a conventional PD diagnosis method (UPDRS), does not have enough repeatability, while other tasks show high repeatability. Results also showed that five characteristics have the highest repeatability (ICC ≥ 0.5 or significance probability of Welch's test ≥ 5% in all tasks): “total moving distance,” “average of local minimum acceleration in opening motion,” “average of local minimum acceleration in closing motion,” “average of local maximum distance” and “average of local minimum velocity”. These results clearly demonstrate the strong repeatability of this device and lead to more precise diagnosis of movement disorders.

  2. Strategy When Faced with Failure: Persistence and Degree Attainment of Course Repeaters versus Non-Repeaters. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Kathleen S.

    Graduation and persistence rates were compared for 184 students, 92 of whom had repeated multiple courses or at least 1 course 3 times. A control group of 92 nonrepeating students was drawn from the remaining 303 students of the entire 1996 cohort. There was no difference between the graduation rate of repeaters and nonrepeaters. The persistence…

  3. Schisandrin B reverses multidrug resistance due to MDR1-mediated human osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS/ADR%五味子乙素对 MDR1介导的人骨肉瘤细胞 U-2 OS/ADR所致多药耐药性的逆转研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋萍; 盖亚男

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究五味子乙素(schisandrin B,SchB)对人骨肉瘤细胞阿霉素耐药株U-2 OS/ADR多药耐药的逆转效果及逆转机制。方法采用浓度梯度递增法构建U-2 OS阿霉素耐药株U-2 OS/ADR;使用MTT法测定Sch B对于U-2 OS多药耐药逆转的影响,实时荧光定量PCR( Q-PCR)检测SchB对MDR1基因转录的影响,流式细胞术检测细胞膜表面MDR1蛋白的表达,流式细胞术检测五味子乙素对罗丹明123外排和蓄积的影响,Western Blotting检测五味子乙素对PI3K/AKT通路的影响。结果五味子乙素能逆转U-2 OS/ADR细胞的多药耐药,并且能抑制MDR1基因的转录,降低膜表面MDR1蛋白的表达,增加细胞内罗丹明123的蓄积、减少外排,抑制U-2 OS/ADR细胞中PI3K/AKT通路的激活。结论五味子乙素具有强大的逆转人骨肉瘤细胞U-2 OS多药耐药的效果,其机制和下调耐药株的MDR1基因和蛋白水平,抑制PI3K/AKT通路激活有关。%Objective To study the reversal effect of schisandrin B on doxorubicin induced drug-fast human osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS/ADR.Methods U-2 OS/ADR was established by increasing the concentration gradient of doxorubicin in a stepwise manner ;deter-mine the effects of SchB on reversal of multidrug resistance by MTT , test the effect of SchB on the Gene transcription of MDR 1 by quantitative real-time PCR, test the expression of MDR1 on the cell membrane as well as the influence of SchB on the excretion and ac-cumulation of Luo Danming123 by the method of flow cytometry , test schisandrin B'effect on PI3K/AKT signal pathway by western blotting.Results Schisandrin B showed potent reversal effect on multidrug resistance (MDR) of U-2 OS/ADR cell and has the func-tion of inhibiting the transcription of MDR1 gene, reducing the expression of MDR1 on cell membrane, increasing the accumulation and decreasing the excretion of Luo Danming 123 inside of the cell, as well as inhibiting the

  4. Repeating earthquakes recorded by Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-tong; WU Zhong-liang; JIANG Chang-sheng; LI Guang-ping

    2008-01-01

    In the list of 'repeating pairs' or 'doublets' of earthquakes in China identified by Schaff and Richards using tele-seismic waveform cross-correlation, there were 23 repeating pairs located in Liaoning Province. In this study the waveforms of these events were cross-correlated using records from Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network (LRSN), and the 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation were obtained. The result was compared with that of Schaff and Richards and was used for the assessment of the seismic phase picking and event location practice of LRSN. The result shows that 'repeating events' in the sense of teleseismic waveform cross-correlation and those in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation have significant difference, al-though with some overlap. However, the overall assessment of the location accuracy and the phase pick errors of LRSN by using these two sets of 'repeating events', respectively, provides similar results, while 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation seem to be better performing in such an assessment. With the assumption that the separation between the 'repeaters' be less than 1 km, the uncertainty in routine earthquake location of LRSN is estimated to be below 5 km, with the average of 2 km. In the observational bulletins of LRSN the time error in phase picking is estimated to be within±Is for 94% Pg readings and for 88% Sg readings.

  5. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Saraswat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding in buffaloes was evaluated in terms of incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. The incidence of repeat breeding is low in buffaloes however in different studies the incidence varied from 0.70% to 30%. Because of seasonal suppression of fertility repeat breeding in buffaloes should be limited to the breeding season. Spring and winter calving, first parity, peri-parturient disease and lactation are significant risk factors for repeat breeding in buffaloes. The etiologies of repeat breeding in buffaloes can be failure of fertilization and early embryonic deaths. Only a few of causes of failure of fertilization have been identified in buffaloes. Ovulatory disturbances and ovarian cysts are uncommon in buffaloes and cysts have poor clinical manifestation. Endometritis is the common female cause of fertilization failures in buffaloes whereas poor semen quality and improper insemination are the bull side factors for fertilization failures. Early embryonic deaths are common in buffaloes mated/inseminated during the end of the breeding season due to a low luteal progesterone however embryonic deaths occur late (<25 days in buffaloes. Diagnostic approaches for repeat breeding include vaginoscopic and transrectal examination and uterine cytology for genital health. More precise evaluations of the ovarian and uterine function can be obtained by ultrasonographic and hysteroscopic examinations performed sequentially however, precise diagnosis of the cause of repeat breeding seems difficult.

  6. Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T J; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Huang, Po-Ssu; Bhabha, Gira; Ekiert, Damian C; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hura, Greg L; Tainer, John A; Baker, David

    2015-12-24

    A central question in protein evolution is the extent to which naturally occurring proteins sample the space of folded structures accessible to the polypeptide chain. Repeat proteins composed of multiple tandem copies of a modular structure unit are widespread in nature and have critical roles in molecular recognition, signalling, and other essential biological processes. Naturally occurring repeat proteins have been re-engineered for molecular recognition and modular scaffolding applications. Here we use computational protein design to investigate the space of folded structures that can be generated by tandem repeating a simple helix-loop-helix-loop structural motif. Eighty-three designs with sequences unrelated to known repeat proteins were experimentally characterized. Of these, 53 are monomeric and stable at 95 °C, and 43 have solution X-ray scattering spectra consistent with the design models. Crystal structures of 15 designs spanning a broad range of curvatures are in close agreement with the design models with root mean square deviations ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Å. Our results show that existing repeat proteins occupy only a small fraction of the possible repeat protein sequence and structure space and that it is possible to design novel repeat proteins with precisely specified geometries, opening up a wide array of new possibilities for biomolecular engineering.

  7. Analysis of 253 Cases of ADR/AE Induced by Lianbizhi Injection%253例莲必治注射液不良反应/事件文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫彬; 王兴文; 于江泳; 荆志伟; 王忠; 曹俊岭; 江锋

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨莲必治注射液致不良反应/事件(ADR/AE)发生的发生类型、特点及相关风险因素,为临床安全用药提供参考.方法检索中国期刊全文数据库、万方数据、维普医药信息资源系统等期刊数据库(1978年1月~2012年3月),以"莲必治注射液"、"不良反应"、"治疗"、"病例报道"等为检索词,检索文献全文136篇,纳入分析的文献36篇,进行统计学分析.结果该药不良反应可累积多个系统-器官,以皮肤损害、过敏反应、胃肠道损害最为常见,严重者可致过敏性休克,急性肾功能衰竭;男女比例各占53.23%、41.94%,19~60岁占比为43.48%,不良反应发生在30分钟以内的占45.05%,1小时内占51.37%,联合用药时占70.36%,结论莲必治注射液的不良反应以速发型为主兼具迟发型,多发于青壮年,并且联合用药时不良反应发生率较高.%Objective To analyse the types and risk factors of adverse reactions of Lianbizhi injection in order to provide the reference for safe use of this drug. Methods We used "Lianbizhi Injection", "adverse reaction", "treatment", " care report", ect. as the , downloaded the original case reports from Chinese Journal Full-text Database (1978.1~2012.3), CNKI and VIP. 36 literatures were picked up from the whole 136 results. Results Adverse drug reactions can be accumulated and prompted several organ systems to skin damage, such as allergic reactions and gastrointestinal damage, ect. The adverse drug reaction was abrupt and usually occured within 30 minutes and it also could be delayed a few days. The severe cases can cause anaphylactic shock and acute renal failure. Conclusion Lianbizhi injection can cause varies type of adverse drug reactions, it happens mainly to the young adults and those use the combination of Lianbizhi Injection and other drugs at the same time.

  8. ACCA phosphopeptide recognition by the BRCT repeats of BRCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Hind; Moreau, Karen; Dizin, Eva; Callebaut, Isabelle; Venezia, Nicole Dalla

    2006-06-16

    The tumour suppressor gene BRCA1 encodes a 220 kDa protein that participates in multiple cellular processes. The BRCA1 protein contains a tandem of two BRCT repeats at its carboxy-terminal region. The majority of disease-associated BRCA1 mutations affect this region and provide to the BRCT repeats a central role in the BRCA1 tumour suppressor function. The BRCT repeats have been shown to mediate phospho-dependant protein-protein interactions. They recognize phosphorylated peptides using a recognition groove that spans both BRCT repeats. We previously identified an interaction between the tandem of BRCA1 BRCT repeats and ACCA, which was disrupted by germ line BRCA1 mutations that affect the BRCT repeats. We recently showed that BRCA1 modulates ACCA activity through its phospho-dependent binding to ACCA. To delineate the region of ACCA that is crucial for the regulation of its activity by BRCA1, we searched for potential phosphorylation sites in the ACCA sequence that might be recognized by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using sequence analysis and structure modelling, we proposed the Ser1263 residue as the most favourable candidate among six residues, for recognition by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using experimental approaches, such as GST pull-down assay with Bosc cells, we clearly showed that phosphorylation of only Ser1263 was essential for the interaction of ACCA with the BRCT repeats. We finally demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of ACCA in cells, that the whole BRCA1 protein interacts with ACCA when phosphorylated on Ser1263.

  9. Secure quantum network coding for controlled repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Li, Jiao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-07-01

    To realize efficient quantum communication based on quantum repeater, we propose a secure quantum network coding scheme for controlled repeater networks, which adds a controller as a trusted party and is able to control the process of EPR-pair distribution. As the key operations of quantum repeater, local operations and quantum communication are designed to adopt quantum one-time pad to enhance the function of identity authentication instead of local operations and classical communication. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can defend against active attacks for quantum communication and realize long-distance quantum communication with minimal resource consumption.

  10. Instability of trinucleotidic repeats during chromatin remodeling in spermatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Olivier; Grégoire, Marie-Chantal; Arguin, Mélina; Brazeau, Marc-André; Leduc, Frédéric; Marois, Isabelle; Richter, Martin V; Boissonneault, Guylain

    2014-11-01

    Transient DNA breaks and evidence of DNA damage response have recently been reported during the chromatin remodeling process in haploid spermatids, creating a potential window of enhanced genetic instability. We used flow cytometry to achieve separation of differentiating spermatids into four highly purified populations using transgenic mice harboring 160 CAG repeats within exon 1 of the human Huntington disease gene (HTT). Trinucleotic repeat expansion was found to occur immediately following the chromatin remodeling steps, confirming the genetic instability of the process and pointing to the origin of paternal anticipation observed in some trinucleotidic repeats diseases.

  11. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  12. Frequency Bandwidth of Half-Wave Impedance Repeater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dvorsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article brings in the second part general information about half-wave impedance repeater. The third part describes the basic functional principles of the half-wave impedance repeater using Smith chart. The main attention is focused in part four on the derivation of repeater frequency bandwidth depending on characteristics and load impedance of unknown feeder line. Derived dependences are based on the elementary features of the feeder lines with specific length. The described functionality is proved in part 4.3 by measurement of transformed impedance using vector several unbalanced feeder lines and network analyzer VNWA3+.

  13. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  14. Highly Informative Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers for Fingerprinting Hazelnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite markers have many applications in breeding and genetic studies of plants, including fingerprinting of cultivars and investigations of genetic diversity, and therefore provide information for better management of germplasm collections. They are repeatab...

  15. On the role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, L; Dür, W; Kraus, B

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory, and (ii) introducing two new operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e. without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an o...

  16. Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Genomes of Rhizobia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-mei; HAN Yi-qiang; TANG Hui; SUN Dong-mei; WANG Yan-jie; WANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, as genetic markers, are ubiquitous in genomes of various organisms. The analysis of SSR in rhizobia genome provides useful information for a variety of applications in population genetics of rhizobia. We analyzed the occurrences, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs, the most common in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti, and Sinorhizobium meliloti genomes se-quenced in the microorganisms tandem repeats database, and SSRs in the three species genomes were compared with each other. The result showed that there were 1 410, 859, and 638 SSRs in B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti genomes, respectively. In the genomes of B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti, tetranucleotide, pentanucleotide, and hexanucleotide repeats were more abundant and indicated higher mutation rates in these species. The least abundance was mononucleotide repeat. The SSRs type and distribution were similar among these species.

  17. simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in genetic analysis of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 ... mean (UPGMA) with each cluster representing a particular Vigna species. ..... were reported to be more frequent than the compound.

  18. Study of simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism for biotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... back cross breeding; SSRs, simple sequence repeats; PIC, polymorphism ..... PIC values were reported in barley wheat and rice (Gu et ... doubled-haploid rice population. Theor. ... Grover A, Aishwarya V, Sharma PC (2007).

  19. Markerless modification of trinucleotide repeat loci in BACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzow, Kellie A; Koob, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Transcription and splicing of human genes are regulated by nucleotide sequences encoded across large segments of our genome, and trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations can have both profound and subtle effects on these processes. In the course of our work to understand the impact of the Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 8 (SCA8) CTG repeat expansion on the transcription and splicing of the RNAs encoded near the SCA8 locus, we have developed a set of reagents and protocols for modifying large genomic BAC clones of this region. We describe the two-step procedure that allows us to precisely replace unexpanded trinucleotide repeats with expanded variants of these repeat sequences without leaving any exogenous sequences in the final constructs, and we discuss how this approach can be adapted to make other desired sequence changes to these genomic clones.

  20. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  1. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Joris; Klugkist, I.G.; Schoot, Rens van de; Meeus, W.H.J.; Selfhout, Maarten; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between

  2. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823031; Klugkist, I.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/27330089X; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; van Zalk, M.H.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836214; Hoijtink, H.J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075184427

    2009-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between groups,

  3. Correct use of repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunsik; Cho, Meehye; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2009-02-01

    In biomedical research, researchers frequently use statistical procedures such as the t-test, standard analysis of variance (ANOVA), or the repeated measures ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest. There are frequently some misuses in applying these procedures since the conditions of the experiments or statistical assumptions necessary to apply these procedures are not fully taken into consideration. In this paper, we demonstrate the correct use of repeated measures ANOVA to prevent or minimize ethical or scientific problems due to its misuse. We also describe the appropriate use of multiple comparison tests for follow-up analysis in repeated measures ANOVA. Finally, we demonstrate the use of repeated measures ANOVA by using real data and the statistical software package SPSS (SPSS Inc., USA).

  4. The Pathogenic Role of Low Range Repeats in SCA17.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwan Shin

    Full Text Available SCA17 is an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with expansion of the CAG/CAA trinucleotide repeats in the TATA-binding protein (TBP gene. SCA17 can have various clinical presentations including parkinsonism, ataxia, chorea and dystonia. SCA17 is diagnosed by detecting the expanded CAG repeats in the TBP gene; however, in the literature, pathologic repeat numbers as low as 41 overlap with normal repeat numbers.The subjects in this study included patients with involuntary movement disorders such as cerebellar ataxia, parkinsonism, chorea and dystonia who visited Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2006 and Apr. 2014 and were screened for SCA17. Those who were diagnosed with other genetic diseases or nondegenerative diseases were excluded. DNA from healthy subjects who did not have a family history of parkinsonism, ataxia, psychiatric symptoms, chorea or dystonia served as the control. In total, 5242 chromosomes from 2099 patients and 522 normal controls were analyzed.The total number of patients included in the analysis was 2099 (parkinsonism, 1706; ataxia, 345; chorea, 37; and dystonia, 11. In the normal control, up to 44 repeats were found. In the 44 repeat group, there were 7 (0.3% patients and 1 (0.2% normal control. In 43 repeat group, there were 8 (0.4% patients and 2 (0.4% normal controls. In the 42 repeat group, there were 16 (0.8% patients and 3 (0.6% normal controls. In 41 repeat group, there were 48 (2.3% patients and 8 (1.5% normal controls. Considering the overlaps and non-significant differences in allelic frequencies between the patients and the normal controls with low-expansions, we could not determine a definitive cutoff value for the pathologic CAG repeat number of SCA17.Because the statistical analysis between the normal controls and patients with low range expansions failed to show any differences so far, we must consider that clinical cases with low range expansions could be idiopathic movement disorders showing

  5. Evaluation of Mammalian Interspersed Repeats to investigate the goat genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the repeated sequences present in most eukaryotic genomes, SINEs (Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements are widely used to investigate evolution in the mammalian order (Buchanan et al., 1999. One family of these repetitive sequences, the MIR (Mammalian Interspersed Repeats; Jurka et al., 1995, is ubiquitous in all mammals.MIR elements are tRNA-derived SINEs and are identifiable by a conserved core region of about 70 nucleotides.

  6. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. PMID:22414427

  7. The evolution of filamin-a protein domain repeat perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DSR-Based Selective Repeat ARQ Protocol in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全新; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    The efficient route algorithms involved in mobile ad hoc network(MANET) are studied. An arrangement of a combination of the traditional dynamic source routing(DSR) protocol is put forward and the selective repeat ARQ protocol is put forward by analyzing and studying them in detail and providing the scheme. In networks, especially in wireless networks, the nodes are capable to process data much faster than transmission, the DSR-based selective repeat ARQ protocol has real meanings in MANET.

  9. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  10. A note on renegotiation in repeated Bertrand duopolies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2007-01-01

    Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome......Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome...

  11. Repeated nondiagnostic result of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiańska, Klaudia; Kopczyński, Janusz; Kowalska, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most accurate and cost-effective method to evaluate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules, but approximately 1-24% of FNABs generate a nondiagnostic result (ND-FNAB). The aim of this study was to determine the predictive factors of a repeated nondiagnostic result of FNAB. A total of 4018 FNABs performed in a territorial referral centre were analysed, of which 288 (7.17%) were nondiagnostic. Medical records were available for 245 biopsies performed in 228 patients. The retrospective analysis of factors that may influence a repeat ND-FNAB, including demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics, was performed. A repeat FNAB was performed in 159 nodules giving a diagnostic result in 79.2% of cases. The time between the biopsies ranged from 1 to 611 days (mean 154.4, median 119). The timing of a repeat FNAB did not significantly alter the diagnostic output (p = 0.29). In the univariate analysis, significant predictors of a repeat ND-FNAB were older patient age (p = 0.02), L-thyroxine supplementation (p = 0.05), and a history of (131)I therapy (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, only a history of (131)I therapy was a statistically significant risk factor for a repeat ND-FNAB (p = 0.002). Patients with a history of (131)I therapy and ND-FNAB should undergo periodic ultrasonographic assessment rather than a repeat biopsy. The interval between repeated FNABs recommended by guidelines does not affect the diagnostic output.

  12. Linking SNPs to CAG repeat length in Huntington's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanzhao; Kennington, Lori A; Rosas, H Diana; Hersch, Steven; Cha, Jang-Ho; Zamore, Phillip D; Aronin, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Allele-specific silencing using small interfering RNAs targeting heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a promising therapy for human trinucleotide repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease. Linking SNP identities to the two HTT alleles, normal and disease-causing, is a prerequisite for allele-specific RNA interference. Here we describe a method, SNP linkage by circularization (SLiC), to identify linkage between CAG repeat length and nucleotide identity of heterozygous SNPs using Huntington's disease patient peripheral blood samples.

  13. Failure Characteristic of Laser Cladding Samples on Repeated Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-hong; ZHENG Qi-guang; FU Ge-yan; ZHANG Jin-ping

    2004-01-01

    Using self-made impact fatigue test instruments and related analytic devices,the mechanical components with laser cladding layer have been attempted.It is found that,on repeated impact force,several failure modes of the components include the surface cracks,surface plastic deformation,corrosive pitting and coat collapse,etc.The paper reported the test method and initial analysis conclusions about the unique failure characteristics of the mechanical components on repeated impact load.

  14. Memory-based quantum repeater in quantum information communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiang-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the quantum repeater in quantum information communication. We propose to introduce the photon buffer mechanism for storing photons, which uses fibre delay loops as photon memories and a programmable 1 × N switcher for distributing photon delay time. Meanwhile, we also consider entanglement purification and entanglement swapping restoration at an entanglement purification or entanglement swapping failure and introduce a protection link mechanism that allows the photonic quantum repeater of a broken connection to initiate a connection restoration process.

  15. Quantum repeater based on cavity QED evolutions and coherent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonţa, Denis; van Loock, Peter

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of cavity QED, we propose a quantum repeater scheme that uses coherent light and chains of atoms coupled to optical cavities. In contrast to conventional repeater schemes, in our scheme there is no need for an explicit use of two-qubit quantum logical gates by exploiting solely the cavity QED evolution. In our previous work (Gonta and van Loock in Phys Rev A 88:052308, 2013), we already proposed a quantum repeater in which the entanglement between two neighboring repeater nodes was distributed using controlled displacements of input coherent light, while the produced low-fidelity entangled pairs were purified using ancillary (four-partite) entangled states. In the present work, the entanglement distribution is realized using a sequence of controlled phase shifts and displacements of input coherent light. Compared to previous coherent-state-based distribution schemes for two-qubit entanglement, our scheme here relies only upon a simple discrimination of two coherent states with opposite signs, which can be performed in a quantum mechanically optimal fashion via a beam splitter and two on-off detectors. For the entanglement purification, we employ a method that avoids the use of extra entangled ancilla states. Our repeater scheme exhibits reasonable fidelities and repeater rates providing an attractive platform for long-distance quantum communication.

  16. Considerations on repeated repairing of weldments in Inconel 718 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. O.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcilwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of repeated weld repairs on the metallurgical characteristics, high cycle fatigue (HCF), and tensile properties of Inconel 718 butt weld joints were determined. A 1/4 in thick plate and a 1/2 in thick plate were used as well as tungsten inert gas welding, and Inconel 718 filler wire. Weld panels were subjected to 2, 6, and 12 repeated repairs and were made in a highly restrained condition. Post weld heat treatments were also conducted with the welded panel in the highly restrained condition. Results indicate that no significant metallurgical anomaly is evident as a result of up to twelve repeated weld repairs. No degradation in fatigue life is noted for up to twelve repeated repairs. Tensile results from specimens which contained up to twelve repeated weld repairs revealed no significant degradation in UTS and YS. However, a significant decrease in elongation is evident with specimens (solution treated and age hardened after welding) which contained twelve repeated repairs. The elongation loss is attributed to the presence of a severe notch on each side (fusion line) of the repair weld bead reinforcement.

  17. Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA repeats from Phaseolus beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tiago; Dos Santos, Karla G B; Richard, Manon M S; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Geffroy, Valérie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) subtelomeres are highly enriched for khipu, the main satellite DNA identified so far in this genome. Here, we comparatively investigate khipu genomic organization in Phaseolus species from different clades. Additionally, we identified and characterized another satellite repeat, named jumper, associated to khipu. A mixture of P. vulgaris khipu clones hybridized in situ confirmed the presence of khipu-like sequences on subterminal chromosome regions in all Phaseolus species, with differences in the number and intensity of signals between species and when species-specific clones were used. Khipu is present as multimers of ∼500 bp and sequence analyses of cloned fragments revealed close relationship among khipu repeats. The new repeat, named jumper, is a 170-bp satellite sequence present in all Phaseolus species and inserted into the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rDNA in the P. vulgaris genome. Nevertheless, jumper was found as a high-copy repeat at subtelomeres and/or pericentromeres in the Phaseolus microcarpus lineage only. Our data argue for khipu as an important subtelomeric satellite DNA in the genus and for a complex satellite repeat composition of P. microcarpus subtelomeres, which also contain jumper. Furthermore, the differential amplification of these repeats in subtelomeres or pericentromeres reinforces the presence of a dynamic satellite DNA library in Phaseolus.

  18. Quantum key distribution with two-segment quantum repeaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters represent one possible way to achieve long-distance quantum key distribution. One way of improving the repeater rate and decreasing the memory coherence time is the usage of multiplexing. Motivated by the experimental fact that long-range connections are practically demanding, we extend the analysis of the quantum repeater multiplexing protocol to the case of short-range connections. We derive formulas for the repeater rate and we show that short-range connections lead to most of the benefits of a full-range multiplexing protocol. A less demanding QKD-protocol without quantum memories was recently introduced by Lo et al. We generalize this measurement-device-independent quantum key Distribution protocol to the scenario where the repeater Station contains also heralded quantum memories. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decay states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. We give formulas in terms of device imperfections i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate.

  19. Ising Model Reprogramming of a Repeat Protein's Equilibrium Unfolding Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millership, C; Phillips, J J; Main, E R G

    2016-05-08

    Repeat proteins are formed from units of 20-40 aa that stack together into quasi one-dimensional non-globular structures. This modular repetitive construction means that, unlike globular proteins, a repeat protein's equilibrium folding and thus thermodynamic stability can be analysed using linear Ising models. Typically, homozipper Ising models have been used. These treat the repeat protein as a series of identical interacting subunits (the repeated motifs) that couple together to form the folded protein. However, they cannot describe subunits of differing stabilities. Here we show that a more sophisticated heteropolymer Ising model can be constructed and fitted to two new helix deletion series of consensus tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (CTPRs). This analysis, showing an asymmetric spread of stability between helices within CTPR ensembles, coupled with the Ising model's predictive qualities was then used to guide reprogramming of the unfolding pathway of a variant CTPR protein. The designed behaviour was engineered by introducing destabilising mutations that increased the thermodynamic asymmetry within a CTPR ensemble. The asymmetry caused the terminal α-helix to thermodynamically uncouple from the rest of the protein and preferentially unfold. This produced a specific, highly populated stable intermediate with a putative dimerisation interface. As such it is the first step in designing repeat proteins with function regulated by a conformational switch. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  1. Repeated measurement sampling in genetic association analysis with genotyping errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Renzhen; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2007-02-01

    Genotype misclassification occurs frequently in human genetic association studies. When cases and controls are subject to the same misclassification model, Pearson's chi-square test has the correct type I error but may lose power. Most current methods adjusting for genotyping errors assume that the misclassification model is known a priori or can be assessed by a gold standard instrument. But in practical applications, the misclassification probabilities may not be completely known or the gold standard method can be too costly to be available. The repeated measurement design provides an alternative approach for identifying misclassification probabilities. With this design, a proportion of the subjects are measured repeatedly (five or more repeats) for the genotypes when the error model is completely unknown. We investigate the applications of the repeated measurement method in genetic association analysis. Cost-effectiveness study shows that if the phenotyping-to-genotyping cost ratio or the misclassification rates are relatively large, the repeat sampling can gain power over the regular case-control design. We also show that the power gain is not sensitive to the genetic model, genetic relative risk and the population high-risk allele frequency, all of which are typically important ingredients in association studies. An important implication of this result is that whatever the genetic factors are, the repeated measurement method can be applied if the genotyping errors must be accounted for or the phenotyping cost is high.

  2. DNA methylation and triplet repeat stability: New proposals addressing actual questions on the CGG repeat of fragile X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehrle, D.; Schwemmle, S.; Steinbach, P. [Univ. of Ulm (Germany)

    1996-08-09

    Methylation of expanded CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene may well have different consequences. One is that methylation, extending into upstream regulatory elements, could lead to gene inactivation. Another effect of methylation, which we have obtained evidence for, could be stabilization of the repeat sequence and even prevention of premutations from expansion to full mutation. The full mutation of the fragile X syndrome probably occurs in an early transitional stage of embryonic development. The substrate is a maternally inherited premutation. The product usually is a mosaic pattern of full mutations detectable in early fetal life. These full mutation patterns are mitotically stable as, for instance, different somatic tissues of full mutation fetuses show identical mutation patterns. This raised the following questions: What triggers repeat expansion in that particular stage of development and what causes subsequent mitotic stability of expanded repeats? 21 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Filamin repeat segments required for photosensory signalling in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Afsar U

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamin is an actin binding protein which is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and its basic structure is well conserved – an N-terminal actin binding domain followed by a series of repeated segments which vary in number in different organisms. D. discoideum is a well established model organism for the study of signalling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton and as such makes an excellent organism in which to study filamin. Ddfilamin plays a putative role as a scaffolding protein in a photosensory signalling pathway and this role is thought to be mediated by the unusual repeat segments in the rod domain. Results To study the role of filamin in phototaxis, a filamin null mutant, HG1264, was transformed with constructs each of which expressed wild type filamin or a mutant filamin with a deletion of one of the repeat segments. Transformants expressing the full length filamin to wild type levels completely rescued the phototaxis defect in HG1264, however if filamin was expressed at lower than wild type levels the phototaxis defect was not restored. The transformants lacking any one of the repeat segments 2–6 retained defective phototaxis and thermotaxis phenotypes, whereas transformants expressing filaminΔ1 exhibited a range of partial complementation of the phototaxis phenotype which was related to expression levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that filamin lacking any of the repeat segments still localised to the same actin rich areas as wild type filamin. Ddfilamin interacts with RasD and IP experiments demonstrated that this interaction did not rely upon any single repeat segment or the actin binding domain. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that wild type levels of filamin expression are essential for the formation of functional photosensory signalling complexes and that each of the repeat segments 2–6 are essential for filamins role in phototaxis. By contrast, repeat segment 1 is not essential provided the mutated

  4. REPEATED RHYME AND REPEATED REDIF IN GAZELS / GAZELDE İKİLEME REDİF VE İKİLEME KAFİYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yaşar AYDEMİR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Meter and rhyme are indispensable elements forClassical Turkish poem. Usually rhyme together withredif (repeated voice/ word after the rhyme is used inClassical Turkish poem. One of the way of using rhymeand redif is "repeated rhyme and repeated redif" in poem.In this paper, "repeated rhyme and repeatedredif" was studied.

  5. Who Repeats Algebra I, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated? REL 2015-059

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony B.; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This REL West study explores the prevalence of students repeating Algebra I, who is most likely to repeat the course, and the level of improvement for students who repeat. Using six years of data from a cohort of 3,400 first-time seventh grade students in a California school district, authors found that 44 percent of students repeated algebra I.…

  6. Germ-line CAG repeat instability causes extreme CAG repeat expansion with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Ek, Jakob; Duno, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by dominant inheritance, progressive cerebellar ataxia and diverse extracerebellar symptoms. A subgroup of the ataxias is caused by unstable CAG-repeat expansions in their respective ...... of paternal germ-line repeat sequence instability of the expanded SCA2 locus.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 October 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.231....

  7. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  8. Automated Detection of Trinucleotide Repeats in Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan; Tynan; Fenwick; Leon

    1997-12-01

    Background: The conventional method for diagnosis of fragile X syndrome has been amplification of the trinucleotide repeat region of the FMR-1 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analysis to detect full expansion and hypermethylation. "Stuttering" resulting from incomplete amplification is still observed in the PCR products despite the use of reagents that reduce the secondary structure of the GC-rich template. In addition, PCR products can be detected by autoradiography only after 1 to 2 days of exposure. By combination of a recently reported amplification protocol with fluorescence detection of PCR products in an automated DNA sequencer, the PCR protocol for amplification of trinucleotide repeats was simplified. This modified protocol is highly reproducible, more accurate, and less costly than the conventional protocol because of the elimination of radioisotopes from the PCR. Methods and Results: PCRs were conducted with betaine and Pfu DNA polymerase. This improved PCR protocol allowed immediate detection of PCR products in agarose gels containing ethidium bromide. Stuttering was completely eliminated and fragments of up to 1kb ( approximately 250 repeats) were visible in agarose gels. PCR products were automatically detected by laser fluorescence in an automated DNA sequencer by inclusion of a fluorescently-labeled primer in the PCR reaction. A short electrophoresis run of 100 minutes in denaturing acrylamide gels was sufficient to give high resolution of fragments with higher accuracy and sensitivity than conventional detection by autoradiography. Conclusions: A simple, nonradioactive protocol that is more rapid and less expensive than the conventional PCR protocol for the detection of trinucleotide repeats has been developed. By use of this detection protocol, fragment sizes containing up to 100 repeats could be detected, alleles differing by one trinucleotide repeat were clearly resolved, and heterogeneous repeat patterns such as those

  9. Intra-genomic variation in the ribosomal repeats of nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M Bik

    Full Text Available Ribosomal loci represent a major tool for investigating environmental diversity and community structure via high-throughput marker gene studies of eukaryotes (e.g. 18S rRNA. Since the estimation of species' abundance is a major goal of environmental studies (by counting numbers of sequences, understanding the patterns of rRNA copy number across species will be critical for informing such high-throughput approaches. Such knowledge is critical, given that ribosomal RNA genes exist within multi-copy repeated arrays in a genome. Here we measured the repeat copy number for six nematode species by mapping the sequences from whole genome shotgun libraries against reference sequences for their rRNA repeat. This revealed a 6-fold variation in repeat copy number amongst taxa investigated, with levels of intragenomic variation ranging from 56 to 323 copies of the rRNA array. By applying the same approach to four C. elegans mutation accumulation lines propagated by repeated bottlenecking for an average of ~400 generations, we find on average a 2-fold increase in repeat copy number (rate of increase in rRNA estimated at 0.0285-0.3414 copies per generation, suggesting that rRNA repeat copy number is subject to selection. Within each Caenorhabditis species, the majority of intragenomic variation found across the rRNA repeat was observed within gene regions (18S, 28S, 5.8S, suggesting that such intragenomic variation is not a product of selection for rRNA coding function. We find that the dramatic variation in repeat copy number among these six nematode genomes would limit the use of rRNA in estimates of organismal abundance. In addition, the unique pattern of variation within a single genome was uncorrelated with patterns of divergence between species, reflecting a strong signature of natural selection for rRNA function. A better understanding of the factors that control or affect copy number in these arrays, as well as their rates and patterns of evolution

  10. Diagnosis of repeated/intermittent failures in discrete event systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, H. E.; Jiang, S.; Kumar, R.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the notion of repeated failure diagnosability for diagnosing the occurrence of a repeated number of failures in discrete event systems. This generalizes the earlier notion of diagnosability that was used to diagnose the occurrence of a failure, but from which the information regarding the multiplicity of the occurrence of the failure could not be obtained. It is possible that in some systems the same type of failure repeats a multiple number of times. It is desirable to have a diagnoser which not only diagnoses that such a failure has occurred but also determines the number of times the failure has occurred. To aide such analysis we introduce the notions of K-diagnosability (K failures diagnosability), [1,K]-diagnosability (1 through K failures diagnosability), and [1,1]-diagnosability (1 through 1 failures diagnosability). Here the rst (resp., last) notion is the weakest (resp., strongest) of all three, and the earlier notion of diagnosability is the same as that of K-diagnosability or that of [1,K]- diagnosability with K = 1. We give polynomial algorithms for checking these various notions of repeated failure diagnosability, and also present a procedure of polynomial complexity for the on-line diagnosis of repeated failures.

  11. Value of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greloni, G; Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Lancioni, E; Quiroz, C; Zacariaz, J; De la Iglesia Niveyro, P; Christiansen, S; Pierangelo, M A; Varela, C F; Rosa-Diez, G J; Catoggio, L J; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Renal flares are common in lupus nephritis (LN), and class switch is thought to be characteristic. There is no agreement on indications for performing a repeat renal biopsy. Our objective was to retrospectively review patients who had more than one renal biopsy performed on clinical indications, and analyse clinical, pathological and treatment changes after successive biopsies. Methods Forty-five patients with LN and one or more repeat renal biopsies were included, with a total of 116 biopsies. Results Of the 71 repeat biopsies, pathological transition occurred in 39 (54.9%). When having a previous biopsy with a proliferative lesion, class switch occurred in 55.6%, with 24.4% evolving into non-proliferative classes. When previous biopsy was class V, transition to other classes occurred in 58.3% and changes were all into proliferative classes. Conversion from one pure proliferative form to another (class III to class IV or vice versa) happened in 11.3% of the rebiopsies, with 62 rebiopsies (87.3%) leading to a change in the treatment regimen. Conclusions Histological transformations were common, and they occurred when the previous biopsy had non-proliferative lesions as well as when lesions were proliferative. Treatments were modified after repeat renal biopsy in the majority of patients. In this experience, kidney repeat biopsies were useful in guiding treatment of LN flares. PMID:25396056

  12. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  13. Discrepancy variation of dinucleotide microsatellite repeats in eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huan; Cai, Shengli; Yan, Binlun; Chen, Baiyao; Yu, Fei

    2009-01-01

    To address whether there are differences of variation among repeat motif types and among taxonomic groups, we present here an analysis of variation and correlation of dinucleotide microsatellite repeats in eukaryotic genomes. Ten taxonomic groups were compared, those being primates, mammalia (excluding primates and rodentia), rodentia, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles, insects, molluscs, plants and fungi, respectively. The data used in the analysis is from the literature published in the Journal of Molecular Ecology Notes. Analysis of variation reveals that there are no significant differences between AC and AG repeat motif types. Moreover, the number of alleles correlates positively with the copy number in both AG and AC repeats. Similar conclusions can be obtained from each taxonomic group. These results strongly suggest that the increase of SSR variation is almost linear with the increase of the copy number of each repeat motif. As well, the results suggest that the variability of SSR in the genomes of low-ranking species seem to be more than that of high-ranking species, excluding primates and fungi.

  14. Physiological consequences of repeated exposures to conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Strong, Paul V; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-06-01

    Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days) to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT). Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing) and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction). Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  15. Physiological Consequences of Repeated Exposures to Conditioned Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Thompson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT. Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction. Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  16. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  17. Age, CAG repeat length, and clinical progression in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam; Kumar, Brahma V; Mo, Alisa; Welsh, Claire S; Margolis, Russell L; Ross, Christopher A

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to further explore the effect of CAG repeat length on the rate of clinical progression in patients with Huntington's disease. The dataset included records for 569 subjects followed prospectively at the Baltimore Huntington's Disease Center. Participants were seen for a mean of 7.1 visits, with a mean follow-up of 8.2 years. Subjects were evaluated using the Quantified Neurologic Examination and its Motor Impairment subscale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Huntington's disease Activities of Daily Living Scale. By itself, CAG repeat length showed a statistically significant but small effect on the progression of all clinical measures. Contrary to our previous expectations, controlling for age of onset increased the correlation between CAG repeat length and progression of all variables by 69% to 159%. Graphical models further supported the idea that individuals with smaller triplet expansions experience a more gradual decline. CAG repeat length becomes an important determinant of clinical prognosis when accounting for age of onset. This suggests that the aging process itself influences clinical outcomes in Huntington's disease. Inconsistent results in prior studies examining CAG repeat length and progression may indeed reflect a lack of age adjustment.

  18. Repeat Sequences and Base Correlations in Human Y Chromosome Palindromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neng-zhi Jin; Zi-xian Liu; Yan-jiao Qi; Wen-yuan Qiu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of information theory and statistical methods, we use mutual information, n-tuple entropy and conditional entropy, combined with biological characteristics, to analyze the long range correlation and short range correlation in human Y chromosome palindromes. The magnitude distribution of the long range correlation which can be reflected by the mutual information is P5>P5a>P5b (P5a and P5b are the sequences that replace solely Alu repeats and all interspersed repeats with random uncorrelated sequences in human Y chromosome palindrome 5, respectively); and the magnitude distribution of the short range correlation which can be reflected by the n-tuple entropy and the conditional entropy is P5>P5a>P5b>random uncorrelated sequence. In other words, when the Alu repeats and all interspersed repeats replace with random uncorrelated sequence, the long range and short range correlation decrease gradually. However, the random uncorrelated sequence has no correlation. This research indicates that more repeat sequences result in stronger correlation between bases in human Y chromosome. The analyses may be helpful to understand the special structures of human Y chromosome palindromes profoundly.

  19. Tracking a closing volcanic system using repeating earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, H.; West, M. E.; Grapenthin, R.

    2011-12-01

    Repeating, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes were recorded at the end of the explosive phase of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. The events cluster into several families which exhibit cross-correlation values greater than 0.8 and are distributed between 0-10 km below the edifice. The earthquake magnitudes decline gradually with time, and the events also appear to shallow as the sequence progresses. This activity continued for over 2 months and accompanied steady dome growth, which halted around the same time that the last of the repeating VTs were recorded. The repetitive nature of these earthquakes, their relatively deep locations and their occurrence following 3 weeks of major explosive eruptions suggest that they are related to changes around the conduit system and/or the magma storage area as the last of the magma was removed from the mid-crustal storage area. Geodetic data indicate that the deflation of the edifice, which had been continuous throughout the explosive activity, ceased coincident with the onset of the repeating VT earthquakes. We use evidence from earthquake relocations and earthquake focal mechanisms to investigate the source for the repeating VT earthquakes. We propose a model in which the repeating earthquakes are closely related to the adjustment of the conduit system and mid crustal storage area in response to the last of the ascending magma.

  20. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Ladd, Thaddeus D.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network.

  1. Positional Repeatability Measurements Of Stepper Motors At Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Hall, Michael S.; Bartko, Frank; Houck, James R.

    1983-08-01

    Stepper motors operating at liquid helium temperature have multiple applications in cryogenically-cooled telescopes such as the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). These SIRTF applications include driving cryogen flow valves, operating the Multiple Instrument Chamber (MIC) beam splitter mechanism, and operating filters and grating wheel mechanisms in the scientific instruments. The positional repeatability of the beam splitter drive mechanism is especially critical since it feeds the optical beam to the scien-tific instruments. Despite these important applications, no significant data on the positional repeatability of stepper motors at cryogenic temperatures has been available. Therefore, we conducted a series of measurements to determine the positional repeatability of a modified, off-the-shelf Berger/Lahr stepper motor (model RDM 253/25, step angle 3.6°) which had demonstrated excellent performance in previous endurance testing at LHe temperature. These test results indicated that the positional repeatability of the motor was excellent at all temperatures, with somewhat better performance at cryogenic temperatures. Another important result was that the motor could be repeatedly turned off and on while still accurately retaining its rotor position.

  2. The diversity and evolution of Wolbachia ankyrin repeat domain genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Siozios

    Full Text Available Ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes are common in the eukaryotic and viral domains of life, but they are rare in bacteria, the exception being a few obligate or facultative intracellular Proteobacteria species. Despite having a reduced genome, the arthropod strains of the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia contain an unusually high number of ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes ranging from 23 in wMel to 60 in wPip strain. This group of genes has attracted considerable attention for their astonishing large number as well as for the fact that ankyrin proteins are known to participate in protein-protein interactions, suggesting that they play a critical role in the molecular mechanism that determines host-Wolbachia symbiotic interactions. We present a comparative evolutionary analysis of the wMel-related ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes present in different Drosophila-Wolbachia associations. Our results show that the ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes change in size by expansion and contraction mediated by short directly repeated sequences. We provide examples of intra-genic recombination events and show that these genes are likely to be horizontally transferred between strains with the aid of bacteriophages. These results confirm previous findings that the Wolbachia genomes are evolutionary mosaics and illustrate the potential that these bacteria have to generate diversity in proteins potentially involved in the symbiotic interactions.

  3. Research on the Resistance of Four Polyamidoamine Dendrimers Formula-tion in Reversing Human Breast Carcinoma MCF-7/ADR Cells to Adriacin%四种聚酰胺-胺树状大分子制剂逆转人乳腺癌MCF-7/ADR细胞对阿霉素耐药性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冬妮; 牛垒

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨带有不同电荷及配体的树状大分子(PAMAM)对逆转人乳腺癌MCF-7/ADR细胞多药耐药(MDR)的影响。方法以阿霉素为模型药,比较了四种载药大分子(G 3.5/DOX,G 4.0/DOX,PEG-G 4.0/DOX,FA-G 4.0/DOX)对MCF-7/ADR细胞的细胞毒作用。结果四种大分子制剂的细胞毒均高于DOX溶液,FA-G 4.0(6.74滋g/mL)最强,其逆转倍数达到5.07。与大分子制剂孵育2 h后,MCF-7/ADR细胞中阿霉素浓度大小为FA-G 4.0/DOX 跃 G 4.0/DOX抑 G 3.5/DOX跃PEG-G 4.0/DOX跃DOX溶液。结论四种大分子制剂均可一定程度地克服MCF/ADR细胞的耐药性,G 3.5/DOX、G 4.0/DOX、PEG-G 4.0/DOX对MDR的影响没有显著区别,FA-G 4.0/DOX克服MDR的效果最好。%Objective To study the effect of dendrimers with different charges and ligands on the multidrug resistance of re-versing human breast carcinoma MCF-7/ADR cells. Methods The cytotoxic effects of four drug loaded macromoleculars (G 3.5/DOX, G 4.0/DOX, PEG-G 4.0/DOX, FA-G 4.0/DOX) on the MCF-7/ADR cell were compared by taking adriacin as model drugs. Results The cellular poison formulated by four macromoleculars was higher than DOX solution, and FA-G 4.0 (6.74 μg/mL) was the strongest, and its reversal index reached 5.07, after 2h incubation of macromolecular formulation, the adriacin concentration in MCF-7/ADR cell was FA-G 4.0/DOX >G 4.0/DOX- G 3.5/DOX >PEG-G 4.0/DOX>DOX so-lution. Conclusion Four macromolecular formulations can overcome the resistance of MCF/ADR cells to a certain degree, and there is no obvious difference in the effect of G 3.5/DOX, G 4.0/DOX, PEG-G 4.0/DOX on MDR, and the effect of FA-G 4.0/DOX in overcoming MDR is the best.

  4. Presença de excipientes com potencial para indução de reações adversas em medicamentos comercializados no Brasil The presence of pharmaceutical excipients as possible cause of adverse drug reactions (ADR - situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicios Alves da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os excipientes farmacêuticos podem ser os responsáveis por inúmeras Reações Adversas a Medicamentos (RAM. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar a presença de possíveis excipientes indutores de RAM em medicamentos comercializados no Brasil. Foram listados os 12 produtos mais vendidos no mercado brasileiro para análise. A detecção dos excipientes ocorreu a partir da consulta à composição da fórmula farmacêutica dos produtos, realizada de Agosto a Setembro/04, no Dicionário de Especialidades Farmacêuticas, sites SAC do laboratório produtor, e ficha técnica disponível no site da ANVISA. A identificação dos excipientes, possíveis causadores de RAM, foi realizada a partir de consulta à literatura. Foram identificadas 35 apresentações farmacêuticas, 26 classificadas como medicamentos de venda livre (71,4% e 15 de uso pediátrico (42,8%. Entre os excipientes identificados (n=100, nove eram possíveis causadores de RAM: metilparabeno, propilparabeno, corante amarelo tartrazina, bissulfito de sódio, benzoato de sódio, lactose, cloreto de benzalcônio, sorbitol e álcool benzílico, sendo identificados em sete apresentações de uso pediátrico (18,9% e doze de venda livre (32,4%. Os resultados demonstram a necessidade de maior atenção por parte dos profissionais de saúde, dos usuários de medicamentos e da avaliação pelos sistemas de farmacovigilância, da presença de excipientes como possíveis indutores de RAM.Pharmaceutical excipients can be responsible for many ADR. The objectives of this study were to identify the presence of possible excipients as cause of ADR in drugs commercialized in Brazil. Twelve medicines with high indices of sales in Brazil, were selected to analysis. The bibliographic research about the Pharmaceutical Preparations (PP was carried from August to September/04. The sources of information used were Pharmaceutical Specialties Dictionary, web sites and customer services from the manufacturers

  5. DNA profiling of extended tracts of primitive DNA repeats: Direct identification of unstable simple repeat loci in complex genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogaeva, E.A.; Korovaitseva, G.; St. George-Hyslop, P. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The most simple DNA repetitive elements, with repetitive monomer units of only 1-10 bp in tandem tracts, are an abundant component of the human genome. The expansion of at least one type of these repeats ((CCG)n and (CTG)n) have been detected for a several neurological diseases with anticipation in successive generations. We propose here a simple method for the identification of particularly expanded repeats and for the recovery of flanking sequences. We generated DNA probes using PCR to create long concatamers (n>100) by amplification of the di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeat oligonucleotide primer pairs. To reduce the complexity of the background band pattern, the genomic DNA was restricted with a mixture of at least five different endonucleases, thereby reducing the size of restriction fragments containing short simple repeat arrays while leaving intact the large fragments containing the longer simple repeats arrays. Direct blot hybridization has shown different {open_quotes}DNA fingerprint{close_quotes} patterns with all arbitrary selected di-hexa nucleotide repeat probes. Direct hybridization of the (CTG)n and (CCG)n probes revealed simple or multiple band patterns depending upon stringency conditions. We were able to detect the presence of expanded unstable tri-nucleotide alleles by (CCG)n probe for some FRAXA subjects and by (CTG)n probe for some myotonic dystrophy subjects which were not present in the parental DNA patterns. The cloning of the unstable alleles for simple repeats can be performed by direct recover from agarose gels of the aberrant unstable bands detected above. The recovered flanking regions can be cloned, sequenced and used for PCR detection of expanded alleles or can be used to screen cDNA. This method may be used for testing of small families with diseases thought to display clinical evidence of anticipation.

  6. Evaluating post-Katrina recovery in Mississippi using repeat photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher; Mitchell, Jerry T; Cutter, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 had extensive consequences for the state of Mississippi in the United States. Widespread infrastructure and property damage, massive social dislocation, and ecological loss remain among the many challenges faced by communities as they work towards 'normalcy'. This study employs repeat photography to understand differential recovery from Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi. Revealing change with conventional landscape photography, a process known as repeat photography, is common in the natural sciences. Simply stated, repeat photography is the practice of re-photographing the same scene as it appears in an earlier photograph. Photographs were taken at 131 sites every six months over a three-year period. Each photograph was assigned a recovery score and a spatially interpolated recovery surface was generated for each time period. The mapped and graphed results show disparities in the progression of recovery: some communities quickly entered the rebuilding process whereas others have lagged far behind.

  7. Chloride permeability of concrete under static and repeated compressive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Ishimori, Hiroshi [Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    The chloride permeability of normal weight concrete subjected to static and repeated compressive loading was evaluated by using the AASHTO T277 test method. The results of concrete under static loading showed that the application of loads up to 90% of the ultimate strength had little effect on the chloride permeability. It was found from the results of concrete under repeated loading that load repetitions at the maximum stress levels of 60% or more caused the chloride permeability to increase significantly. The test results also indicated that the chloride permeability of concrete subjected to static and repeated loading increased at an increasing rate with its residual strain. The relation between the chloride permeability obtained and the cracking behavior of concrete previously reported was discussed.

  8. Coevolution between simple sequence repeats (SSRs and virus genome size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiangyan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relationship between the level of repetitiveness in genomic sequence and genome size has been investigated by making use of complete prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, but relevant studies have been rarely made in virus genomes. Results In this study, a total of 257 viruses were examined, which cover 90% of genera. The results showed that simple sequence repeats (SSRs is strongly, positively and significantly correlated with genome size. Certain repeat class is distributed in a certain range of genome sequence length. Mono-, di- and tri- repeats are widely distributed in all virus genomes, tetra- SSRs as a common component consist in genomes which more than 100 kb in size; in the range of genome  Conclusions We conducted this research standing on the height of the whole virus. We concluded that genome size is an important factor in affecting the occurrence of SSRs; hosts are also responsible for the variances of SSRs content to a certain degree.

  9. Assessing agreement with repeated measures for random observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Cheng; Barnhart, Huiman X

    2011-12-30

    Agreement studies are often concerned with assessing whether different observers for measuring responses on the same subject or sample can produce similar results. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a popular index for assessing the closeness among observers for quantitative measurements. Usually, the CCC is used for data without and with replications based on subject and observer effects only. However, we cannot use this methodology if repeated measurements rather than replications are collected. Although there exist some CCC-type indices for assessing agreement with repeated measurements, there is no CCC for random observers and random time points. In this paper, we propose a new CCC for repeated measures where both observers and time points are treated as random effects. A simulation study demonstrates our proposed methodology, and we use vertebral body data and image data for illustrations.

  10. A Novel Algorithm for Finding Interspersed Repeat Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongdong Li; Zhengzhi Wang; Qingshan Ni

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of repeats in the DNA sequences is an important subject in bioinformatics. In this paper, we propose a novel projection-assemble algorithm to find unknown interspersed repeats in DNA sequences. The algorithm employs random projection algorithm to obtain a candidate fragment set, and exhaustive search algorithm to search each pair of fragments from the candidate fragment set to find potential linkage, and then assemble them together. The complexity of our projection-assemble algorithm is nearly linear to the length of the genome sequence, and its memory usage is limited by the hardware. We tested our algorithm with both simulated data and real biology data, and the results show that our projection-assemble algorithm is efficient. By means of this algorithm, we found an un-labeled repeat region that occurs five times in Escherichia coli genome, with its length more than 5,000 bp, and a mismatch probability less than 4%.

  11. A PLL Synthesizer with Learning Repeatable Fluctuation of Input Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroyuki

    This paper describes a high frequency PLL (Phase Locked Loop) synthesizer with a function of learning then eliminating repeatable fluctuation of timing intervals on series input pulses. Typical spindle encoder generates digital pulses according to the revolution speed. The intervals of each pulse have repeatable fluctuation every revolution by eccentricity or warpage of the encoder scale disk. This method provides a programmable counter for the loop counter of PLL circuit and an interval counter with memory in order to learn the repeatable fluctuation. After the learning process, the PLL generates very pure tone clock signal based on the real flutter components of the spindle revolution speed without influenced by encoder errors. This method has been applied to a hard disk test system in order to generate 3GHz read/write clock.

  12. The effects of repeated idea elaboration on unconscious plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa-Jayne; Perfect, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs in a recall task when someone presents someone else's idea as his or her own. Recent research has shown that the likelihood of such an error is inflated if the idea is improved during the retention interval, but not if it is imagined. Here, we explore the effects of repeating the elaboration phase during the retention interval. Participants in a group first generated alternate uses to common objects before elaborating the ideas either by imagining them or by improving them. This elaboration phase occurred once, twice, or not at all. Later, they attempted to recall their original ideas and generate new ideas. Repeated imagery did not inflate unconscious plagiarism on either task. In contrast, repeating the improvement phase increased plagiarism to dramatically high levels in the recall task. The latter effect might be particularly pertinent to real-world cases of plagiarism in which the ideas under dispute have been the subject of creative development over many occasions.

  13. Repeated Games With Intervention: Theory and Applications in Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yuanzhang; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    In communication systems where users share common resources, users' selfish behavior usually results in suboptimal resource utilization. There have been extensive works that model communication systems with selfish users as one-shot games and propose incentive schemes to achieve Pareto optimal action profiles as non-cooperative equilibria. However, in many communication systems, due to strong negative externalities among users, the sets of feasible payoffs in one-shot games are nonconvex. Thus, it is possible to expand the set of feasible payoffs by having users choose convex combinations of different payoffs. In this paper, we propose a repeated game model generalized by intervention. First, we use repeated games to convexify the set of feasible payoffs in one-shot games. Second, we combine conventional repeated games with intervention, originally proposed for one-shot games, to achieve a larger set of equilibrium payoffs and loosen requirements for users' patience to achieve it. We study the problem of maxi...

  14. Archery performance level and repeatability of event-related EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, A R; Ertan, H; Korkusuz, F

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the repeatability of electromyographic linear envelopes (LE) of archery groups. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals of musculus flexor digitorum superficialis (MFDS) and extensor digitorum (MED) of 23 participants (seven skilled, six beginner archers and ten non-archers) were recorded during archery shooting. Two-second periods (clicker falls at first second) of 12 shots' EMG data were recorded, full-wave rectified and filtered (60 ms moving-average filter) for each participant's drawing arm. Repeatability was investigated by using a statistical criterion, variance ratio (VR). Archers' performances were evaluated in terms of FITA scores. The results showed that FITA scores were significantly correlated to the VRs of MFDS and MED. EMG LEs were more repeatable among archers than non-archers. Therefore, we inferred that VRs of MFDS and MED might be important variables for (a) assessing shooting techniques, (b) evaluation of archers' progress, and (c) selection of talented archers.

  15. Plumb line deflection varied with time obtained by repeated gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 付广裕; 李正心

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the plumb line deflection varied with time (PLV) are calculated with the Vening-Meinesz formula for Xiaguan and Beijing point based on the 28 and 39 campaigns of gravimetry at the local gravity networks in the Western Yunnan Earthquake Prediction Experiment Area and the North China, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that: ① the maximum of PLV is under 0.12 and amplitudes of interannual variation are under 0.022.②PLV can be determined with the reliability of 0.012 by the modeling based on the precession of repeated gravimetry. This implies that repeated gravimetry could be used to determine the PLV. ③There exist some common and different characteristics for the different places and different components. It may provide a new approach for the study on the local or global geodynamic by using repeated gravimetry.

  16. A Brief Review of Short Tandem Repeat Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Fan; Jia-You Chu

    2007-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences that involve a repetitive unit of 1-6 bp. Because of their polymorphisms and high mutation rates, STRs are widely used in biological research. Strand-slippage replication is the predominant mutation mechanism of STRs, and the stepwise mutation model is regarded as the main mutation model. STR mutation rates can be influenced by many factors. Moreover, some trinucleotide repeats are associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. In order to deepen our knowledge of these diseases and broaden STR application, it is essential to understand the STR mutation process in detail. In this review, we focus on the current known information about STR mutation.

  17. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  18. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed......Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...

  19. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurles Matthew E

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Results Here, a statistical test to detect gene conversion between pairs of non-coding sequences is presented. It is shown that the 24 kb Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A paralogous repeats (CMT1A-REPs exhibit the imprint of gene conversion processes whilst control orthologous sequences do not. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the evolutionary divergence of the CMT1A-REPs, incorporating two alternative models for gene conversion, generate repeats that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed repeats. Bounds are placed on the rate of these conversion processes, with central values of 1.3 × 10-4 and 5.1 × 10-5 per generation for the alternative models. Conclusions This evidence presented here suggests that gene conversion may have played an important role in the evolution of the CMT1A-REP paralogous repeats. The rates of these processes are such that it is probable that homogenized CMT1A-REPs are polymorphic within modern populations. Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.

  20. Repeat urine cultures in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risky Vitria Prasetyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second leading cause of infection in children, following respiratory tract infections. Repeat urine cultures after antibiotic treatment are routinely obtained in clinical practice to verify proof of bacteriologic cure. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommended repeat cultures, due to increased cost and discomfort to patients. Objective To determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures after 3 days of antibiotics in children with UTIs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on children with UTIs who visited the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Child Health at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from January 2006 to December 2011. Results of repeat urine cultures were obtained after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 779 pediatric UTI cases, repeat urine cultures were performed in 264 (33.9% cases. Of the 264 patients who comprised our study, there were similar numbers of girls and boys (50.4% vs. 49.6%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 43.9 (SD 1.59 months and 35.5% of subjects were aged under 1 year. In the initial urine cultures of our subjects, Escherichia coli was the most common organism found, with 92 cases (34.8%, compared to 58 cases (21.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29 cases (10.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rrepeat urine cultures showed no bacterial growth in 168 cases (63.6%. Conclusion Mostly negative repeat urine cultures will probably obviate the need of this test in daily routine practice. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:170-4].

  1. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurles, M E

    2001-01-01

    Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Here, a statistical test to detect gene conversion between pairs of non-coding sequences is presented. It is shown that the 24 kb Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A paralogous repeats (CMT1A-REPs) exhibit the imprint of gene conversion processes whilst control orthologous sequences do not. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the evolutionary divergence of the CMT1A-REPs, incorporating two alternative models for gene conversion, generate repeats that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed repeats. Bounds are placed on the rate of these conversion processes, with central values of 1.3 x 10(-4) and 5.1 x 10(-5) per generation for the alternative models. This evidence presented here suggests that gene conversion may have played an important role in the evolution of the CMT1A-REP paralogous repeats. The rates of these processes are such that it is probable that homogenized CMT1A-REPs are polymorphic within modern populations. Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.

  2. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kevin P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards and lake systems (for example, African cichlids. Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems. The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms. Results Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa. Conclusions This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships.

  3. Cloning, characterization, and properties of seven triplet repeat DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, K; Kang, S; Larson, J E; Wells, R D

    1996-07-12

    Several neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases are caused by genetically unstable triplet repeat sequences (CTG.CAG, CGG.CCG, or AAG.CTT) in or near the responsible genes. We implemented novel cloning strategies with chemically synthesized oligonucleotides to clone seven of the triplet repeat sequences (GTA.TAC, GAT.ATC, GTT.AAC, CAC.GTG, AGG.CCT, TCG.CGA, and AAG.CTT), and the adjoining paper (Ohshima, K., Kang, S., Larson, J. E., and Wells, R. D.(1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16784-16791) describes studies on TTA.TAA. This approach in conjunction with in vivo expansion studies in Escherichia coli enabled the preparation of at least 81 plasmids containing the repeat sequences with lengths of approximately 16 up to 158 triplets in both orientations with varying extents of polymorphisms. The inserts were characterized by DNA sequencing as well as DNA polymerase pausings, two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, and chemical probe analyses to evaluate the capacity to adopt negative supercoil induced non-B DNA conformations. AAG.CTT and AGG.CCT form intramolecular triplexes, and the other five repeat sequences do not form any previously characterized non-B structures. However, long tracts of TCG.CGA showed strong inhibition of DNA synthesis at specific loci in the repeats as seen in the cases of CTG.CAG and CGG.CCG (Kang, S., Ohshima, K., Shimizu, M., Amirhaeri, S., and Wells, R. D.(1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27014-27021). This work along with other studies (Wells, R. D.(1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 2875-2878) on CTG.CAG, CGG.CCG, and TTA.TAA makes available long inserts of all 10 triplet repeat sequences for a variety of physical, molecular biological, genetic, and medical investigations. A model to explain the reduction in mRNA abundance in Friedreich's ataxia based on intermolecular triplex formation is proposed.

  4. Low-Normal FMR1 CGG Repeat Length: Phenotypic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha eMailick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This population-based study investigates genotype-phenotype correlations of low-normal CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene. FMR1 plays an important role in brain development and function, and encodes FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein, an RNA-binding protein that regulates protein synthesis impacting activity-dependent synaptic development and plasticity. Most past research has focused on CGG premutation expansions (41 to 200 CGG repeats and on fragile X syndrome (200+ CGG repeats, with considerably less attention on the other end of the spectrum of CGG repeats. Using existing data, older adults with 23 or fewer CGG repeats (2 SDs below the mean were compared with age-peers who have normal numbers of CGGs (24-40 with respect to cognition, mental health, cancer, and having children with disabilities. Men (n = 341 with an allele in the low-normal range and women (n = 46 with two low-normal alleles had significantly more difficulty with their memory and ability to solve day to day problems. Women with both FMR1 alleles in the low-normal category had significantly elevated odds of feeling that they need to drink more to get the same effect as in the past. These women also had two and one-half times the odds of having had breast cancer and four times the odds of uterine cancer. Men and women with low-normal CGGs had higher odds of having a child with a disability, either a developmental disability or a mental health condition. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that there is a need for tight neuronal homeostatic control mechanisms for optimal cognitive and behavioral functioning, and more generally that low numbers as well as high numbers of CGG repeats may be problematic for health.

  5. Repeat workers' compensation claims: risk factors, costs and work disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collie Alex

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of our study was to describe factors associated with repeat workers' compensation claims and to compare the work disability arising in workers with single and multiple compensation claims. Methods All initial injury claims lodged by persons of working age during a five year period (1996 to 2000 and any repeat claims were extracted from workers' compensation administrative data in the state of Victoria, Australia. Groups of workers with single and multiple claims were identified. Descriptive analysis of claims by affliction, bodily location, industry segment, occupation, employer and workplace was undertaken. Survival analysis determined the impact of these variables on the time between the claims. The economic impact and duration of work incapacity associated with initial and repeat claims was compared between groups. Results 37% of persons with an initial claim lodged a second claim. This group contained a significantly greater proportion of males, were younger and more likely to be employed in manual occupations and high-risk industries than those with single claims. 78% of repeat claims were for a second injury. Duration between the claims was shortest when the working conditions had not changed. The initial claims of repeat claimants resulted in significantly (p lower costs and work disability than the repeat claims. Conclusions A substantial proportion of injured workers experience a second occupational injury or disease. These workers pose a greater economic burden than those with single claims, and also experience a substantially greater cumulative period of work disability. There is potential to reduce the social, health and economic burden of workplace injury by enacting prevention programs targeted at these workers.

  6. Repeatability of locomotor performance and morphology-locomotor performance relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsen, Cara; Walker, Jeffrey A; Perna, Catherine; McGuigan, Katrina

    2016-09-15

    There is good evidence that natural selection drives the evolution of locomotor performance, but the processes that generate the among-individual variation for selection to act on are relatively poorly understood. We measured prolonged swimming performance, Ucrit, and morphology in a large cohort (n=461) of wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) at ∼6 months and again at ∼9 months. Using mixed-model analyses to estimate repeatability as the intraclass correlation coefficient, we determined that Ucrit was significantly repeatable (r=0.55; 95% CI: 0.45-0.64). Performance differences between the sexes (males 12% faster than females) and changes with age (decreasing 0.07% per day) both contributed to variation in Ucrit and, therefore, the repeatability estimate. Accounting for mean differences between sexes within the model decreased the estimate of Ucrit repeatability to 21% below the naïve estimate, while fitting age in the models increased the estimate to 14% above the naïve estimate. Greater consideration of factors such as age and sex is therefore necessary for the interpretation of performance repeatability in wild populations. Body shape significantly predicted Ucrit in both sexes in both assays, with the morphology-performance relationship significantly repeatable at the population level. However, morphology was more strongly predicative of performance in older fish, suggesting a change in the contribution of morphology relative to other factors such as physiology and behaviour. The morphology-performance relationship changed with age to a greater extent in males than females.

  7. Mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat instability during human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Cynthia T

    2010-11-01

    Trinucleotide expansion underlies several human diseases. Expansion occurs during multiple stages of human development in different cell types, and is sensitive to the gender of the parent who transmits the repeats. Repair and replication models for expansions have been described, but we do not know whether the pathway involved is the same under all conditions and for all repeat tract lengths, which differ among diseases. Currently, researchers rely on bacteria, yeast and mice to study expansion, but these models differ substantially from humans. We need now to connect the dots among human genetics, pathway biochemistry and the appropriate model systems to understand the mechanism of expansion as it occurs in human disease.

  8. Hybrid quantum repeater protocol with fast local processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Johannes; Brask, Jonatan Bohr; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid quantum repeater protocol combining the advantages of continuous and discrete variables. The repeater is based on the previous work of Brask et al. [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 160501 (2010)] but we present two ways of improving this protocol. In the previous protocol entangled single......-photon states are produced and grown into superpositions of coherent states, known as two-mode cat states. The entanglement is then distributed using homodyne detection. To improve the protocol, we replace the time-consuming nonlocal growth of cat states with local growth of single-mode cat states, eliminating...

  9. Experimental realization of entanglement concentration and a quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi; Yang, Tao; Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhang, An-Ning; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2003-05-23

    We report an experimental realization of entanglement concentration using two polarization-entangled photon pairs produced by pulsed parametric down-conversion. In the meantime, our setup also provides a proof-in-principle demonstration of a quantum repeater. The quality of our procedure is verified by observing a violation of Bell's inequality by more than 5 standard deviations. The high experimental accuracy achieved in the experiment implies that the requirement of tolerable error rate in multistage realization of quantum repeaters can be fulfilled, hence providing a useful toolbox for quantum communication over large distances.

  10. Evaluation of pulsed RFI effects on digital satellite repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. C.; Braun, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach for assessing the effect of pulsed RFI on the error probability of a coherent phase-shift keyed signal through a nonlinear satellite repeater. The RFI is assumed to affect the uplink channel and to consist of CW pulses with random power levels and arriving randomly in time with a Poisson distribution. A model to approximate the effect of intermodulation products is introduced and the error probability conditioned on the output of the satellite repeater is computed. The classical moment technique is then used as an efficient method of averaging the conditional error probability over the numerous random parameters associated with the uplink signal.

  11. Eigenvector derivatives of repeated eigenvalues using singular value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Ghaemmaghami, Peiman

    1989-01-01

    An explicit formula is obtained for the first-order eigenvector derivative that corresponds to the eigenvector of a repeated eigenvalue, in the case of the nonself-adjoint eigenvalue problem. This method applies to the class of nondefective problems whose first eigenvalue derivatives of the repeated eigenvalues are distinct. A singular-value decomposition approach is used to compute four requisite bases for eigenspaces, as well as to keep track of the dimensions of state variables and the conditioning of the state equations.

  12. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Justus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  13. Practical repeaters for ultralong-distance quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Scott E.; Kok, Pieter

    2017-05-01

    Quantum repeaters enable long-range quantum communication in the presence of attenuation. Here we propose a method to construct a robust quantum repeater network using only existing technology. We combine the ideas of brokered graph-state construction with double-heralded entanglement generation to form a system that is able to perform all parts of the procedure in a way that is highly tolerant to photon loss and imperfections in detectors. We show that when used in quantum key distribution this leads to secure kilohertz bit rates over intercontinental distances.

  14. Catatonia Secondary to Sudden Clozapine Withdrawal: A Case with Three Repeated Episodes and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bilbily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature search identified 9 previously published cases that were considered as possible cases of catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal. Two of these 9 cases did not provide enough information to make a diagnosis of catatonia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5. The Liverpool Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR Causality Scale was modified to assess ADRs secondary to drug withdrawal. From the 7 published cases which met DSM-5 catatonia criteria, using the modified scale, we established that 3 were definitive and 4 were probable cases of catatonia secondary to clozapine withdrawal. A new definitive case is described with three catatonic episodes which (1 occurred after sudden discontinuation of clozapine in the context of decades of follow-up, (2 had ≥3 of 12 DSM-5 catatonic symptoms and serum creatinine kinase elevation, and (3 required medical hospitalization and intravenous fluids. Clozapine may be a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor agonist; sudden clozapine withdrawal may explain a sudden decrease in GABA activity that may contribute to the development of catatonic symptoms in vulnerable patients. Based on the limited information from these cases, the pharmacological treatment for catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal can include benzodiazepines and/or restarting clozapine.

  15. Mixture Models for the Analysis of Repeated Count Data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijn, M.A.J.; Böckenholt, U

    1995-01-01

    Repeated count data showing overdispersion are commonly analysed by using a Poisson model with varying intensity parameter. resulting in a mixed model. A mixed model with a gamma distribution for the Poisson parameter does not adequately fit a data set on 721 children's spelling errors. An

  16. Repeated Prolonged Exercise Decreases Maximal Fat Oxidation in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Thomas; Rosenkilde, Mads; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Fat metabolism and muscle adaptation was investigated in 6 older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2max: 48 ± 2 mL kg min) following repeated prolonged exercise). METHODS: 2706 km (1,681 miles) cycling was performed over 14 days and a blood sample and a muscle biopsy were...

  17. Modeling repeated measurement data for occupational exposure assessment and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peretz, Chava

    2004-01-01

    Repeated measurements designs, occur frequently in the assessment of exposure to toxic chemicals. This thesis deals with the possibilities of using mixed effects models for occupational exposure assessment and in the analysis of exposure response relationships. The model enables simultaneous estima

  18. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  19. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierike, S.C. te; Jong, M.C. de; Tromp, E.J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Lemmink, K.A.; Malina, R.M.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  20. Teaching the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with a Computerized Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Carsten; Baylor, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a constructivist approach for teaching game theory, on the basis, in part, of Axelrod's research approach. Using the Axelrod tournament multi-user system (ATMUS) software, students create strategies for a repeated prisoner's dilemma (RPD). Later, these strategies are matched with those of their classmates' in a classroom…

  1. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  2. Beyond Repeat after Me: Teaching Pronunciation to English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Marla Tritch

    2016-01-01

    This engaging text clearly presents essential concepts that teachers need to guide their students toward clearly intelligible pronunciation and more effective communication skills. Based on a sound theoretical background, the book presents practical, imaginative ways to teach and practice pronunciation that go beyond simple "Repeat after…

  3. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; S.C. te Wierike; E.J. Tromp; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; P.J. Vuijk; C. Visscher

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were

  4. Repeated treatments of drooling with botulinum toxin B in neurology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eigild; Daugaard, Dorthe; Holm, Ole

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy, saliva flow, and composition in repeated BoNT-B treatments of drooling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen neurological patients (median 66 years), referred for treatment of drooling participated in this observational study. Median total doses of 4000 units...

  5. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  6. Repeated Reading Intervention Effects in Kindergartners with Partial Letter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorp, Karly; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The direct, transfer and retention effects of a repeated reading intervention study of single CVC (consonant in the onset and a vowel and consonant in the rime) words in kindergartners with partial letter knowledge were examined. A total of 26 second-year kindergartners participated in this study. Participants were divided over two feedback…

  7. Properties of Forested Loess Soils After Repeated Prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Moehring; C.X. Grano; J.R. Bassett

    1966-01-01

    Nine annual burns have had little effect on the nutrient content and structure of the surface 4 inches of loess soils on flat terrain.Because prescribed burns must often be repeated to obtain desired results, many foresters are apprehensive about the possible deleterious effects on soils. In 1954 the Timber Management Laboratory at Crossett, Arkansas, in co-...

  8. Repeated Instant Self-healing Shape Memory Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. C.; Ding, Z.; Purnawali, H.; Huang, W. M.; Fan, H.; Sun, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present a shape memory composite which is made of two types of shape memory materials, namely shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory hybrid. This composite has repeated instant self-healing function by means of not only shape recovery but also strength recovery (over 80%). The activation of the self-healing function is triggered by joule heating the embedded SMA.

  9. Statistical analysis of repeated outcomes of different types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musoro, Z.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focused on analyzing data with multiple outcome variables. The motivating data sets comprised longitudinal markers of patients’ disease state (e.g. B cells and CD4+ T cell) as well as information on the time to an event (e.g. death) or (multiple) recurrent event times (e.g. repeated

  10. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  11. Decomposition of Straw in Soil after Stepwise Repeated Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1979-01-01

    of laboratory incubation, following the first repeated application, by determination of the total amount of labelled C in the soils and labelled C in the soil amino acids. The overall pattern of decomposition was similar whether the soil was amended with one or with several successive applications. Four years...... after the first repeated addition of labelled straw the soils were subjected to a number of “stress” treatments: addition of unlabelled glucose, air-drying, oven-drying, grinding and fumigation with vapour of chloroform, respectively. The CO2 that developed during the first 10 days after the treatments...... accounted for 2.6% of the labelled C in the soil amended with one repeated addition, and 1.0% in the soil amended with 4 repeated additions. The increase in the evolution of labelled CO2-C caused by the stress treatments ranged from 0.3 to 1.7% of the labelled C in the soil: air-drying had the least effect...

  12. Experimental demonstration of a BDCZ quantum repeater node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Shuai; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2008-08-28

    Quantum communication is a method that offers efficient and secure ways for the exchange of information in a network. Large-scale quantum communication (of the order of 100 km) has been achieved; however, serious problems occur beyond this distance scale, mainly due to inevitable photon loss in the transmission channel. Quantum communication eventually fails when the probability of a dark count in the photon detectors becomes comparable to the probability that a photon is correctly detected. To overcome this problem, Briegel, Dür, Cirac and Zoller (BDCZ) introduced the concept of quantum repeaters, combining entanglement swapping and quantum memory to efficiently extend the achievable distances. Although entanglement swapping has been experimentally demonstrated, the implementation of BDCZ quantum repeaters has proved challenging owing to the difficulty of integrating a quantum memory. Here we realize entanglement swapping with storage and retrieval of light, a building block of the BDCZ quantum repeater. We follow a scheme that incorporates the strategy of BDCZ with atomic quantum memories. Two atomic ensembles, each originally entangled with a single emitted photon, are projected into an entangled state by performing a joint Bell state measurement on the two single photons after they have passed through a 300-m fibre-based communication channel. The entanglement is stored in the atomic ensembles and later verified by converting the atomic excitations into photons. Our method is intrinsically phase insensitive and establishes the essential element needed to realize quantum repeaters with stationary atomic qubits as quantum memories and flying photonic qubits as quantum messengers.

  13. Wages and employment in a repeated game with revenue fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Empirical investigations suggests that the real wage is surprisingly flat over the business cycle. This paper analyses a repeated game between a union and a firm which can contribute to explaining the flat wage. The parties cannot enter binding contracts, and revenue is fluctuating. The paper...

  14. Cycles in Repeated Exponentiation Modulo $p^n$

    CERN Document Server

    Glebsky, Lev

    2010-01-01

    Given a number $r$, we consider the dynamical system generated by repeated exponentiations modulo $r$, that is, by the map $u \\mapsto f_g(u)$, where $f_g(u) \\equiv g^u \\pmod r$ and $0 \\le f_g(u) \\le r-1$. The number of cycles of the defined above dynamical system is considered for $r=p^n$.

  15. Modeling and evaluating repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Mast; W.N. van Wieringen

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that currently available methods for the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications are not satisfactory. The paper aims to study whether we can modify a class of models from Item Response Theory, well established for the study of the reliability

  16. Quantum repeaters based on CNOT gate under decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Zhao-yang; LIAO Ping; KUANG Le-man

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study single-qubit and single-user quantum repeaters based on CNOT gates under de, co-herence using the Kraus-operator representations of decoher-ence.We investigate the influence of decoherence on the information-disturbance trade-off of quantum repeaters. It is found that decoherence may lead to the appearance of three subspaces, called as the normal subspace, the anoma-lous subspace, and the decoherence-free subspace (DFS), re-spectively. It is indicated that in the normal subspace deco-herence decreases the transmission and estimation fidelities, in the anomalous subspace decoherence enhances these fideli-ties, and in the DFS these fidelities do not change. The con-cept of the quality factor is introduced to evaluate the quality of the quantum repeater. It is indicated that the quality factor can be efficiently controlled and manipulated by changing the initial state of the probe qubit. It is found that under certain conditions the quantum repeater can be optimal even in the presence of decoherence.

  17. Experimentally Induced Repeated Anhydrobiosis in the Eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Tardigrades represent one of the main animal groups with anhydrobiotic capacity at any stage of their life cycle. The ability of tardigrades to survive repeated cycles of anhydrobiosis has rarely been studied but is of interest to understand the factors constraining anhydrobiotic survival. The main objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of survival of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer under repeated cycles of desiccation, and the potential effect of repeated desiccation on size, shape and number of storage cells. We also analyzed potential change in body size, gut content and frequency of mitotic storage cells. Specimens were kept under non-cultured conditions and desiccated under controlled relative humidity. After each desiccation cycle 10 specimens were selected for analysis of morphometric characteristics and mitosis. The study demonstrates that tardigrades may survive up to 6 repeated desiccations, with declining survival rates with increased number of desiccations. We found a significantly higher proportion of animals that were unable to contract properly into a tun stage during the desiccation process at the 5th and 6th desiccations. Also total number of storage cells declined at the 5th and 6th desiccations, while no effect on storage cell size was observed. The frequency of mitotic storage cells tended to decline with higher number of desiccation cycles. Our study shows that the number of consecutive cycles of anhydrobiosis that R. coronifer may undergo is limited, with increased inability for tun formation and energetic constraints as possible causal factors. PMID:27828978

  18. Repeated administration of adenosine increases its cardiovascular effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrio, H; García-Márquez, F; Magos, G A

    1987-01-20

    Hypotensive and negative chronotropic responses to adenosine in anesthetized rats increased after previous administration of the nucleoside. Bradycardia after adenosine in the isolated perfused rat heart was also potentiated after repeated administration at short intervals. This self-potentiation could be due to extracellular accumulation of adenosine and persistent stimulation of receptors caused by saturation or inhibition of cellular uptake of adenosine.

  19. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to compl

  20. Estimating Dynamic Models from Repeated Cross-Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.J.C.M.; Vella, F.

    2000-01-01

    A major attraction of panel data is the ability to estimate dynamic models on an individual level. Moffitt (1993) and Collado (1998) have argued that such models can also be identified from repeated cross-section data. In this paper we reconsider this issue. We review the identification conditions u

  1. Repeat microvascular decompression for recurrent idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Immenga, Steven; Wagemakers, Michiel; Metzemaekers, Jan D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Object. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is considered the method of choice to treat idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) refractory to medical treatment. However, repeat MVD for recurrent TN is not well established. In this paper, the authors describe a large case series in which patients underwen

  2. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins.

  3. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...

  4. Repeating Input-Based Tasks with Young Beginner Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigated task-repetition with young Japanese children. Fifteen children with no prior knowledge of English completed a communicative listening task that was designed to introduce new vocabulary. The same task was repeated nine times over five weeks. In line with Allwright's (1984) claim that "interaction…

  5. Applying the General Linear Model to Repeated Measures Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, John T.; McShane, Michael G.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the general linear model (GLM) in problems with repeated measures on a dependent variable. Such problems include pretest-posttest designs, multitrial designs, and groups by trials designs. For each of these designs, a GLM analysis is demonstrated wherein full models are formed and restrictions…

  6. Prospective Teachers' Understanding of Decimals with Single Repeating Digits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Elizabeth A.; Yopp, David

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of the repeating decimal 0.999... Five students from a first-semester undergraduate course "Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers" were interviewed to ascertain their conceptions about the mathematical statement 0.999... = 1. All of the students indicated they do not…

  7. A survey of FRB fields: Limits on repeatability

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, E; Keane, E F; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Barr, E D; Barsdell, B R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Caleb, M; Champion, D J; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Ng, C; Possenti, A; Stappers, B W

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist to explain the source of the bright, millisecond duration pulses known as fast radio bursts (FRBs). If the progenitors of FRBs are non-cataclysmic, such as giant pulses from pulsars, pulsar-planet binaries, or magnetar flares, FRB emission may be seen to repeat. We have undertaken a survey of the fields of eight known FRBs from the High Time Resolution Universe survey to search for repeating pulses. Although no repeat pulses were detected the survey yielded the detection of a new FRB, described in Petroff et al. (2015a). From our observations we rule out periodic repeating sources with periods P $\\leq$ 8.6 hours and rule out sources with periods 8.6 < P < 21 hours at the 90% confidence level. At P $\\geq$ 21 hours our limits fall off as ~1/P. Dedicated and persistent observations of FRB source fields are needed to rule out repetition on longer timescales, a task well-suited to next generation wide-field transient detectors.

  8. Optimizing prostate biopsy for repeat transrectal prostate biopsies patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Deng; Jianwei Cao; Feng Liu; Weifeng Wang; Jidong Hao; Jiansheng Wan; Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Diagnosis of patients with negative prostate biopsy and persistent suspicion of prostate cancer re-mains a serious problem. In this study, we investigated the application of optimizing prostate biopsy for patients who need repeat prostate biopsy. Methods:In this prospective, non-randomized phase-I clinical trial, the prostate cancer detection rate of initial detection scheme was compared with optimizing prostate biopsy scheme. The number of punctures of initial detection scheme was the same as that of optimizing prostate biopsy scheme. The puncture direction of optimizing prostate biopsy was a 45° angle to the sagittal plane from front, middle, and back. The two cores from each lateral lobe were horizontal y inwardly inclined 45°. Results:A total of 45 patients with initial negative biopsy for cancer were received the optimizing prostate biopsy scheme. The cancer detection rate was 17.8%(8/45), and prostate intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN) was 6.7%(3/45). The pa-tients receiving repeat transrectal prostate biopsies were pathological y diagnosed as lower Gleason grade prostate cancers. Conclusion:The cancer detection rate of repeat biopsy prostate cancer is lower than that of initial biopsy. Our study showed that the optimizing prostate biopsy is important to improve the detection rate of repeat transrectal prostate biopsies patients.

  9. Effectiveness of Repeated Gonorrhea Cultures in the Third Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Torres

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: With the high cost of health care today, the universal prophylactic measures recommended, and the availability of effective treatment should infection occur, the practice of routinely repeating the endocervical gonorrhea (GC culture in the third trimester of pregnancy may be unwarranted.

  10. Positive affective interactions: The role of repeated exposure and copresence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, S.; Krahmer, E.; Neerincx, M.; Swerts, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a new interface to induce positive emotions in users: a digital, interactive adaptive mirror. We study whether the induced affect is repeatable after a fixed interval (Study 1) and how copresence influences the emotion induction (Study 2). Results show that participants syst

  11. The development of ingroup favoritism in repeated social dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rachael Dorrough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In two comprehensive and fully incentivized studies, we investigate the development of ingroup favoritism as one of two aspects of parochial altruism in repeated social dilemmas. Specifically, we test whether ingroup favoritism is a fixed phenomenon that can be observed from the very beginning and remains stable over time, or whether it develops (increases vs. decreases during repeated contact. Ingroup favoritism is assessed through cooperation behavior in a repeated continuous prisoner’s dilemma where participants sequentially interact with ten members of the ingroup (own city and university and subsequently with ten members of the outgroup (other city and university, or vice versa. In none of the experiments do we observe initial differences in cooperation behavior for interaction partners from the ingroup, as compared to outgroup, and we only observe small differences in expectations regarding the interaction partners’ cooperation behavior. After repeated interaction, however, including a change of groups, clear ingroup favoritism can be observed. Instead of being due to gradual and potentially biased updating of expectations, we found that these emerging differences were mainly driven by the change of interaction partners’ group membership that occurred after round 10. This indicates that in social dilemma settings ingroup favoritism is to some degree dynamic in that it is enhanced and sometimes only observable if group membership is activated by thinking about both the interaction with the ingroup and the outgroup.

  12. Repeat microvascular decompression for recurrent idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Immenga, Steven; Wagemakers, Michiel; Metzemaekers, Jan D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Object. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is considered the method of choice to treat idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) refractory to medical treatment. However, repeat MVD for recurrent TN is not well established. In this paper, the authors describe a large case series in which patients

  13. Measurement and repeatability of interrupter resistance in unsedated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A M; Olden, C; Wertheim, D; Ives, A; Bridge, P D; Lenton, J; Seddon, P

    2009-12-01

    Interrupter resistance (R(int)) is a useful measure of airway caliber in young children, but has not been well characterized in infants-in whom there are concerns about the accurate measurement of driving pressure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and repeatability of measuring R(int) in unsedated newborn infants, and to explore alternative algorithms for calculating driving pressure. R(int) measurement was attempted in 28 healthy term newborn infants during natural sleep using the MicroRint device. Paired R(int) measurements were achieved in 24 infants, but after screening of waveforms only 15 infants had at least 5 technically acceptable waveforms on both measurements. R(int) values obtained were comparable with reported values for airflow resistance in newborns using other methods. However, the repeatability coefficient (CR) was much higher than reported values in preschool children using standard back-extrapolation algorithms, with CR 2.47 KPa L(-1) sec (unscreened) and 2.93 KPa L(-1) sec (screened). Other algorithms gave only marginally better repeatability, with all CR values over 50% of the mean R(int) value. Using current commercially available equipment, R(int) is too poorly repeatable to be a reliable measurement of airflow resistance in newborn infants. Lower deadspace equipment is needed, but anatomical and physiological factors in the infant are also important.

  14. Postoperative repeated respiratory insufficiency and thyrotoxicosis in molar pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekic, B; Geze, S; Ulusoy, H; Coskun, I; Erturk, E

    2012-06-01

    Following the removal of a hydatiform mole in a 34-year-old, 14-week pregnant patient, thyrotoxicosis and respiratory insufficiency attacks were twice unexpectedly repeated. The symptoms were resolved with the administration of plasmapheresis, antithyroid and β-blocker drugs and non-invasive mechanical ventilation; however, she was again operated due to prolonged elevated β-hCG.

  15. On Partial Fraction Decompositions by Repeated Polynomial Divisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for finding partial fraction decompositions of rational functions with linear or quadratic factors in the denominators by means of repeated polynomial divisions. This method does not involve differentiation or solving linear equations for obtaining the unknown partial fraction coefficients, which is very suitable for either…

  16. Structural segmentation of music based on repeated harmonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Volk, A.; Wiering, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a simple, yet powerful method for deriving the structural segmentation of a musical piece based on repetitions in chord sequences, called FORM. Repetition in harmony is a fundamental factor in constituting musical form. However, repeated pattern discovery in music still rema

  17. Active Listening--Listen, Repeat, Do. Scans Plans Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Barbara

    In this unit, students will use active listening, repeating, or paraphrasing what has been said to confirm understanding and introductory phrases and rising intonation to ask for clarification. They will also follow one, two, or multi-step instructions or give instructions to another person. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education)…

  18. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; S.C. te Wierike; E.J. Tromp; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; P.J. Vuijk; C. Visscher

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  19. Response of two prairie forbs to repeated vole herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amy T; Howe, Henry F

    2011-04-01

    Vertebrate herbivores as diverse as ungulates, geese, and rabbits preferentially feed on plants that have previously experienced herbivory. Here, we ask whether smaller grassland "cryptic consumers" such as voles (Microtus ochrogaster and M. pennsylvanicus) preferentially clip (cut stems for access to leaves or seeds) or avoid previously clipped individuals of two tallgrass prairie species (Desmanthus illinoensis and Echinacea purpurea) within a growing season. Further, we ask how these plants respond to repeated clipping within a growing season, and whether the effects of this herbivory last into the subsequent growing season. Voles preferentially clipped stems of D. illinoensis and E. purpurea plants that had been previously clipped. The exception was indiscriminant clipping of stems of E. purpurea late in the growing season when its achenes, a favorite vole food, ripened. For D. illinoensis, repeated clipping resulted in a 59% reduction in biomass, 42% lower ratio of reproductive to vegetative biomass, and 57% fewer seeds produced per plant compared with unclipped plants. These effects lasted into the following growing season in which plants were protected from voles. In contrast, the only effect of repeated clipping for E. purpurea was that the number of achenes per plant was substantially reduced by three episodes of clipping. This effect did not carry over to the next growing season. Such differences in D. illinoensis and E. purpurea response to repeated stem clipping by voles offer insights into how these small rodents can effect major changes in composition and dominance in grassland communities.

  20. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Diaz-Real

    Full Text Available Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity. The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj = 0.32-0.57; smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj = 0.18-0.30. These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.