WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeated measurements bis

  1. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  2. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  3. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.; Maity, A.; Mammen, E.; Yu, K.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements

  4. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  5. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  6. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...... to sphericity assumptions, use of F tests and the Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt adjustments to compensate for deviations from sphericity. During a recent implementation of such methods in the R language, the general structure of such transformations was reconsidered, leading to a flexible specification...

  7. Methods for analysing cardiovascular studies with repeated measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, T. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Ouwerkerk, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Repeated measurements in a single subject are generally more similar than unrepeated measurements in different subjects. Unrepeated analyses of repeated data cause underestimation of the treatment effects. Objective. To review methods adequate for the analysis of cardiovascular studies

  8. Influence of body position, food and beverage consumption on BIS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Eitner, F.; Ismail, A. H.; Pikkemaat, R.; Cordes, A.; Floege, J.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of fluid changes using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) during hemodialysis could help to predict hypotensive complications and extend the patient's life. Food and beverage consumption during the treatment may influence the measurements and the calculated fluid removal. In the present article the change observed in whole body and segmental (knee-to-knee, abdomen) BIS measurements following a sequence similar to the one of dialysis treatment (lying down, sitting and eating, lying down) on healthy subjects is presented. The measurements have been performed using a commercial bioimpedance device with a frequency range of 5 kHz to 1 MHz. Knee-to-knee measurements seem to be less sensitive to these influences, compared to the standard whole body and the alternative abdomen BIS measurements. The results indicate that the individual influence of both body posture and food and beverage consumption may be superposed when combined.

  9. Unstable systems and repeated measurements. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.

    1977-01-01

    Two examples are treated. In the first, the chamber structure is only assumed to be periodic and P(t) is an exponential. In the second example no specific assumption is made about the primary decay law and the measuring device is structured as an idealized spark chamber. This example contains the results by Beskow and Nilsson as a special case. (author)

  10. Stability of parameters in repeated TVA measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the limitations of human visual short-term memory or VSTM (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997; Wheeler & Treisman, 2002; Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2004). Usually researchers agree that VSTM is limited to a capacity of about 3 to 4 objects at any given moment (Cowan, 2001......). Capacity of short-term memory is measured in a range of studies often using the change detection paradigm (CD). However, the whole report paradigm (WR) may be a more reliable paradigm (Cusack, Lehmann, Veldsman, & Mitchell, 2009). Moreover, each individual WR trial yield more information compared to a CD...

  11. Lecture notes on: Electrical theory behind the measurement of body fluids with bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    The lecture notes describe how body fluid volumes can be measured/estimated using the technique bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). The opening chapters assume little or none technical/mathematical knowledge and can hopefully be read by anyone interested in the techneque. Later chapters become more...

  12. Intra-examiner repeatability and agreement in accommodative response measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, B; Sanchez, I; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E

    2009-11-01

    Clinical measurement of the accommodative response (AR) identifies the focusing plane of a subject with respect to the accommodative target. To establish whether a significant change in AR has occurred, it is important to determine the repeatability of this measurement. This study had two aims: First, to determine the intraexaminer repeatability of AR measurements using four clinical methods: Nott retinoscopy, monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy, binocular crossed cylinder test (BCC) and near autorefractometry. Second, to study the level of agreement between AR measurements obtained with the different methods. The AR of the right eye at one accommodative demand of 2.50 D (40 cm) was measured on two separate occasions in 61 visually normal subjects of mean age 19.7 years (range 18-32 years). The intraexaminer repeatability of the tests, and agreement between them, were estimated by the Bland-Altman method. We determined mean differences (MD) and the 95% limits of agreement [coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement (COA)]. Nott retinoscopy and BCC offered the best repeatability, showing the lowest MD and narrowest 95% interval of agreement (Nott: -0.10 +/- 0.66 D, BCC: -0.05 +/- 0.75 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the four techniques were similar (COA = +/- 0.92 to +/-1.00 D) yet clinically significant, according to the expected values of the AR. The two dynamic retinoscopy techniques (Nott and MEM) had a better agreement (COA = +/-0.64 D) although this COA must be interpreted in the context of the low MEM repeatability (COR = +/-0.98 D). The best method of assessing AR was Nott retinoscopy. The BCC technique was also repeatable, and both are recommended as suitable methods for clinical use. Despite better agreement between MEM and Nott, agreement among the remaining methods was poor such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.

  13. Repeatability of Objective Measurements of Linear Udder and Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimates the repeatability of objective measurements on linear udder and body conformation traits and to evaluate the objectivity of the measurements in Friesian x Bunaji cows. Data from 50 (F1) Frisian X Bunaji cows collected between 2007 and 2008 at the Dairy Research Farm of the ...

  14. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

    2013-07-05

    In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

  15. A systematic review of the measurement properties of the Body Image Scale (BIS) in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissant, Heleen C; Neijenhuijs, Koen I; Jansen, Femke; Aaronson, Neil K; Groenvold, Mogens; Holzner, Bernhard; Terwee, Caroline B; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2018-06-01

    Body image is acknowledged as an important aspect of health-related quality of life in cancer patients. The Body Image Scale (BIS) is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to evaluate body image in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to systematically review measurement properties of the BIS among cancer patients. A search in Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science was performed to identify studies that investigated measurement properties of the BIS (Prospero ID 42017057237). Study quality was assessed (excellent, good, fair, poor), and data were extracted and analyzed according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) methodology on structural validity, internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, hypothesis testing for construct validity, and responsiveness. Evidence was categorized into sufficient, insufficient, inconsistent, or indeterminate. Nine studies were included. Evidence was sufficient for structural validity (one factor solution), internal consistency (α = 0.86-0.96), and reliability (r > 0.70); indeterminate for measurement error (information on minimal important change lacked) and responsiveness (increasing body image disturbance in only one study); and inconsistent for hypothesis testing (conflicting results). Quality of the evidence was moderate to low. No studies reported on cross-cultural validity. The BIS is a PROM with good structural validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, but good quality studies on the other measurement properties are needed to optimize evidence. It is recommended to include a wider variety of cancer diagnoses and treatment modalities in these future studies.

  16. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Aysun Şanal; Gürdal, Canan; Köylü, Mehmet Talay

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy). Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198) and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366). Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90). The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  17. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Şanal Doğan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy. Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198 and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366. Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90. Conclusion: The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  18. Measuring Repeatability of the Focus-variable Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Řezníček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of photogrammetry, the optical system, usually represented by the glass lens, is used for metric purposes. Therefore, the aberration characteristics of such a lens, inducing deviations from projective imaging, has to be well known. However, the most important property of the metric lens is the stability of its glass and mechanical elements, ensuring long-term reliability of the measured parameters. In case of a focus-variable lens, the repeatability of the lens setup is important as well. Lenses with a fixed focal length are usually considered as “fixed” though, in fact, most of them contain one or more movable glass elements, providing the focusing function. In cases where the lens is not equipped with fixing screws, the repeatability of the calibration parameters should be known. This paper derives simple mathematical formulas that can be used for measuring the repeatability of the focus-variable lenses, and gives a demonstrative example of such measuring. The given procedure has the advantage that only demanded parameters are estimated, hence, no unwanted correlations with the additional parameters exist. The test arrangement enables us to measure each demanded magnification of the optical system, which is important in close-range photogrammetry.

  19. The effect of repeated applanation on subsequent IOP measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMubrad, Turki M; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2008-11-01

    In studies aimed at assessing the accuracy and repeatability of non-contact tonometers, the order in which these tonometers and the Goldmann tonometer are used is usually randomised despite studies in the literature that demonstrate an ocular massage effect that occurs post-applanation but not after non-contact tonometry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated corneal applanation on subsequent assessments of IOP. Data were obtained from 65 left eyes of 65 young, oculovisual normals. Three sets of IOP measurements were obtained, one set with the Goldmann applanation tonometer and two with the Topcon CT80 non-contact tonometer (one set each before and after applanation with the Goldmann tonometer), in each one of two separate measurement sessions, one week apart. The average (and SD) IOP measured with the Goldmann tonometer in the first session (14.8+/-2.9 mmHg) did not vary significantly from the IOP measured with the non-contact tonometer (pre-applanation) in both sessions or with the average Goldmann IOP in the second session. The bias (mean difference +/- SD) between methods was 0.3+/-1.4 mmHg and 0.4+/-1.4 mmHg, respectively, for the first and second sessions, with the CT80 (pre-applanation) recording the higher IOP in both sessions. The within-session repeatability coefficients were +/-2.3 mmHg, +/-2.6 mmHg, +/-2.1 mmHg and +/-2.0 mmHg for the CT80 (pre-applanation) in the first and second sessions, and the Goldmann tonometer in the first and second sessions, respectively. Test-retest repeatability coefficients were +/-2.8 mmHg and +/-2.5 mmHg for the CT80 (pre-applanation) and the Goldmann tonometer respectively. Post-applanation with the Goldmann tonometer, there was a statistically significant (pcontact tonometer in both sessions. These results suggest that repeated corneal applanation leads to a statistically significant reduction in IOP on subsequent measurements.

  20. Modeling intraindividual variability with repeated measures data methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hershberger, Scott L

    2013-01-01

    This book examines how individuals behave across time and to what degree that behavior changes, fluctuates, or remains stable.It features the most current methods on modeling repeated measures data as reported by a distinguished group of experts in the field. The goal is to make the latest techniques used to assess intraindividual variability accessible to a wide range of researchers. Each chapter is written in a ""user-friendly"" style such that even the ""novice"" data analyst can easily apply the techniques.Each chapter features:a minimum discussion of mathematical detail;an empirical examp

  1. Measurement System Analyses - Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepova, Lenka; Kovacikova, Andrea; Cep, Robert; Klaput, Pavel; Mizera, Ondrej

    2018-02-01

    The submitted article focuses on a detailed explanation of the average and range method (Automotive Industry Action Group, Measurement System Analysis approach) and of the honest Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility method (Evaluating the Measurement Process approach). The measured data (thickness of plastic parts) were evaluated by both methods and their results were compared on the basis of numerical evaluation. Both methods were additionally compared and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. One difference between both methods is the calculation of variation components. The AIAG method calculates the variation components based on standard deviation (then a sum of variation components does not give 100 %) and the honest GRR study calculates the variation components based on variance, where the sum of all variation components (part to part variation, EV & AV) gives the total variation of 100 %. Acceptance of both methods among the professional society, future use, and acceptance by manufacturing industry were also discussed. Nowadays, the AIAG is the leading method in the industry.

  2. Analysis of repeated measurement data in the clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineeta; Rana, Rakesh Kumar; Singhal, Richa

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is an integral part of Clinical Trials. Elements of statistics span Clinical Trial design, data monitoring, analyses and reporting. A solid understanding of statistical concepts by clinicians improves the comprehension and the resulting quality of Clinical Trials. In biomedical research it has been seen that researcher frequently use t-test and ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest irrespective of the nature of the data. In Clinical Trials we record the data on the patients more than two times. In such a situation using the standard ANOVA procedures is not appropriate as it does not consider dependencies between observations within subjects in the analysis. To deal with such types of study data Repeated Measure ANOVA should be used. In this article the application of One-way Repeated Measure ANOVA has been demonstrated by using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 15.0 on the data collected at four time points 0 day, 15th day, 30th day, and 45th day of multicentre clinical trial conducted on Pandu Roga (~Iron Deficiency Anemia) with an Ayurvedic formulation Dhatrilauha. PMID:23930038

  3. Unitarity, Feedback, Interactions - Dynamics Emergent from Repeated Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Ugalde, Paulina; Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert; Zych, Magdalena

    Modern measurement theory dispenses with the description of a measurement as a projection. Rather, the measurement is understood as an operation, whereby the system's final state is determined by an action of a completely positive trace non-increasing map and the outcomes are described by linear operators on the system, distributed according to a positive-operator valued measure (POVM). The POVM approach unifies the theory of measurements with a general description of dynamics, the theory of open quantum systems. Engineering a particular measurement and engineering a particular dynamics for the system are thus two complementary aspects of the same conceptual framework. This correspondence is directly applied in quantum simulations and quantum control theory . With this motivation, we study what types of dynamics can emerge from a model of repeated short interactions of a system with a set of ancillae. We show that contingent on the model parameters the resulting dynamics ranges from exact unitarity to arbitrary fast decoherence. For a series of measurements the effective dynamics includes feedback-control, which for a composite system yields effective interactions between the subsystems. We quantify the amount of decoherence accompanying such induced interactions. The simple framework used in the present study can find applications in devising novel quantum control protocols, or quantum simulations.

  4. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: yypspore@gmail.com, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-09-20

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  5. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  6. Validity and repeatability of inertial measurement units for measuring gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Kalyanaraman, Tarun; Adamczyk, Peter G; Claflin, Edward S; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-06-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are small wearable sensors that have tremendous potential to be applied to clinical gait analysis. They allow objective evaluation of gait and movement disorders outside the clinic and research laboratory, and permit evaluation on large numbers of steps. However, repeatability and validity data of these systems are sparse for gait metrics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and between-day repeatability of spatiotemporal metrics (gait speed, stance percent, swing percent, gait cycle time, stride length, cadence, and step duration) as measured with the APDM Opal IMUs and Mobility Lab system. We collected data on 39 healthy subjects. Subjects were tested over two days while walking on a standard treadmill, split-belt treadmill, or overground, with IMUs placed in two locations: both feet and both ankles. The spatiotemporal measurements taken with the IMU system were validated against data from an instrumented treadmill, or using standard clinical procedures. Repeatability and minimally detectable change (MDC) of the system was calculated between days. IMUs displayed high to moderate validity when measuring most of the gait metrics tested. Additionally, these measurements appear to be repeatable when used on the treadmill and overground. The foot configuration of the IMUs appeared to better measure gait parameters; however, both the foot and ankle configurations demonstrated good repeatability. In conclusion, the IMU system in this study appears to be both accurate and repeatable for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On model selections for repeated measurement data in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baiming; Jin, Bo; Koch, Gary G; Zhou, Haibo; Borst, Stephen E; Menon, Sandeep; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2015-05-10

    Repeated measurement designs have been widely used in various randomized controlled trials for evaluating long-term intervention efficacies. For some clinical trials, the primary research question is how to compare two treatments at a fixed time, using a t-test. Although simple, robust, and convenient, this type of analysis fails to utilize a large amount of collected information. Alternatively, the mixed-effects model is commonly used for repeated measurement data. It models all available data jointly and allows explicit assessment of the overall treatment effects across the entire time spectrum. In this paper, we propose an analytic strategy for longitudinal clinical trial data where the mixed-effects model is coupled with a model selection scheme. The proposed test statistics not only make full use of all available data but also utilize the information from the optimal model deemed for the data. The performance of the proposed method under various setups, including different data missing mechanisms, is evaluated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed analytic procedure is more powerful than the t-test when the primary interest is to test for the treatment effect at the last time point. Simulations also reveal that the proposed method outperforms the usual mixed-effects model for testing the overall treatment effects across time. In addition, the proposed framework is more robust and flexible in dealing with missing data compared with several competing methods. The utility of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing a clinical trial on the cognitive effect of testosterone in geriatric men with low baseline testosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Tandem repeats, high copy number and remarkable diel expression rhythm of form II RuBisCO in Prorocentrum donghaiense (Dinophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Shi

    Full Text Available Gene structure and expression regulation of form II RuBisCO (rbcII in dinoflagellates are still poorly understood. Here we isolated this gene (Pdrbc and investigated its diel expression pattern in a harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense. We obtained cDNA sequences with triple tandem repeats of the coding unit (CU; the 5' region has the sequence of a typical dinoflagellate plastid gene, encoding an N-terminus with two transmembrane regions separated by a plastid transit peptide. The CUs (1,455 bp except 1464 bp in last CU are connected through a 63 bp spacer. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rbcII CUs within species formed monophyletic clusters, indicative of intraspecific gene duplication or purifying evolution. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR we estimated 117±40 CUs of Pdrbc in the P. donghaiense genome. Although it is commonly believed that most dinoflagellate genes lack transcriptional regulation, our RT-qPCR analysis on synchronized cultures revealed remarkable diel rhythm of Pdrbc expression, showing significant correlations of transcript abundance with the timing of the dark-to-light transition and cell cycle G2M-phase. When the cultures were shifted to continuous light, Pdrbc expression remained significantly correlated with the G2M-phase. Under continuous darkness the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, and the rhythm of Pdrbc transcription disappeared. Our results suggest that dinoflagellate rbcII 1 undergoes duplication or sequence purification within species, 2 is organized in tandem arrays in most species probably to facilitate efficient translation and import of the encoded enzyme, and 3 is regulated transcriptionally in a cell cycle-dependent fashion at least in some dinoflagellates.

  9. [Analysis of binary classification repeated measurement data with GEE and GLMMs using SPSS software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shengli; Zhang, Yanhong; Chen, Zheng

    2012-12-01

    To analyze binary classification repeated measurement data with generalized estimating equations (GEE) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) using SPSS19.0. GEE and GLMMs models were tested using binary classification repeated measurement data sample using SPSS19.0. Compared with SAS, SPSS19.0 allowed convenient analysis of categorical repeated measurement data using GEE and GLMMs.

  10. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [ 3 H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  11. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  12. Dust Measurement of Two Organophosphorus Flame Retardants, Resorcinol Bis(diphenylphosphate) (RBDPP) and Bisphenol A Bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP), Used as Alternatives for BDE-209

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, S.H.; Sellström, U.; de Wit, C.A.; de Boer, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) are two halogen-free organophosphorus flame retardant (PFRs) that are used as an alternative for the decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE) technical mixture in TV/flatscreen housing and other electronic consumer

  13. [Analysis of variance of repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Guo-qin; Jin, Ru-feng; Zhao, Wei-kang

    2007-01-01

    To introduce the method of analyzing repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS 11.0, and offer a reference statistical method to clinical and basic medicine researchers who take the design of repeated measures. Using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) process of the general linear model in SPSS and giving comparison among different groups and different measure time pairwise. Firstly, Mauchly's test of sphericity should be used to judge whether there were relations among the repeatedly measured data. If any (PSPSS statistical package is available to fulfil this process.

  14. Acute caffeine effect on repeatedly measured P300

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jingbo; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2000-01-01

    The acute effect of a single-dose of caffeine on the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) was assessed in a study using a repeatedly presented auditory oddball button-press task. A dose (5mg/kg body-weight) of either caffeine or placebo lactose, dissolved in a cup of decaffeinated coffee, was administered double-blindly to coffee drinkers who had abstained from coffee for 24hrs, with the presentation order of the sessions counterbalanced and separated by 2–4 weeks. The caffeine-treatment ...

  15. Impulsivity components measured by the Brazilian version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gomide Vasconcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11. Content item analysis was conducted by seven doctoral students. A convenience sample of 897 students was submitted to BIS-11 and they also filled self-reports about Minor Mental Disorder and ADHD symptoms, alcohol use and cigarette smoking. Mean age was 27.32 (SD=8.69 years, 56% were female and 52% had incomplete college degree. Content and factorial analyses revealed that impulsivity was best represented by two latent factors labeled non-planning and inhibition behaviors. Test retest agreement tended to produce similar score patterns seven months after the first evaluation. Additionally, BIS-11 scores discriminated subjects in terms of cigarette smoking and psychopathological symptoms, which indicated evidences regarding criterion-related validity. The theoretical discussion was present based on the neuropsychological model of hot and cool aspects of executive function.

  16. Impulsivity components measured by the Brazilian version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos,Alina Gomide; Teodoro,Maycoln Leôni Martins; Malloy-Diniz,Leandro; Correa,Humberto

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Content item analysis was conducted by seven doctoral students. A convenience sample of 897 students was submitted to BIS-11 and they also filled self-reports about Minor Mental Disorder and ADHD symptoms, alcohol use and cigarette smoking. Mean age was 27.32 (SD=8.69) years, 56% were female and 52% had incomplete college degree. Content and factorial analyses revealed th...

  17. On summary measure analysis of linear trend repeated measures data: performance comparison with two competing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Ayatollahi, S M T; Towhidi, Mina; Ketabchi, Farzaneh

    2012-03-22

    The summary measure approach (SMA) is sometimes the only applicable tool for the analysis of repeated measurements in medical research, especially when the number of measurements is relatively large. This study aimed to describe techniques based on summary measures for the analysis of linear trend repeated measures data and then to compare performances of SMA, linear mixed model (LMM), and unstructured multivariate approach (UMA). Practical guidelines based on the least squares regression slope and mean of response over time for each subject were provided to test time, group, and interaction effects. Through Monte Carlo simulation studies, the efficacy of SMA vs. LMM and traditional UMA, under different types of covariance structures, was illustrated. All the methods were also employed to analyze two real data examples. Based on the simulation and example results, it was found that the SMA completely dominated the traditional UMA and performed convincingly close to the best-fitting LMM in testing all the effects. However, the LMM was not often robust and led to non-sensible results when the covariance structure for errors was misspecified. The results emphasized discarding the UMA which often yielded extremely conservative inferences as to such data. It was shown that summary measure is a simple, safe and powerful approach in which the loss of efficiency compared to the best-fitting LMM was generally negligible. The SMA is recommended as the first choice to reliably analyze the linear trend data with a moderate to large number of measurements and/or small to moderate sample sizes.

  18. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  19. Repeatability of Lucas chamber measurements; Powtarzalnosc pomiarow za pomoca komory Lucasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-12-31

    Results of investigations concerning the repeatability of the measurements carried out with Lucas chamber are presented in the report. The Lucas chamber is used for determination of radon concentration in air, and the Lucas chamber itself is measured in a laboratory stand. The repeatability of measurements is {+-}5.4% relative. The error due to instability of measuring channel gain is estimated to be 2-3% relative. (author). 5 refs, 17 figs, 5 tabs.

  20. High precision measurement of the micro-imaging system to check repeatability of precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Song Li; Ma Chuntao; Luo Hongxin; Wang Jie

    2010-01-01

    The beamlines slits of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) are required to have a repeatability of better than 1 μm. Before the slits installation, the off-line and/or on-line repeatability measurements must be conducted. A machine vision measuring system based on high resolution CCD and adjustable high magnification lens was used in this regard. A multi-level filtering method was used to treat the imaging data. After image binarization, the imaging noises were depressed effectively by using of algebraic mean filtering, statistics median filtering,and the least square filtering. Using the subtracted image between the images before and after slit movement, an average displacement of slit blades could be obtained, and the repeatability of slit could be measured, with a resolution of 0.3 μm of the measurement system. The experimental results show that this measurement system meets the requirements for non-contact measurements to the repeatability of slits. (authors)

  1. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: A North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Daniel D. Richter; Donald S. Ross; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Rock Ouimet; Richard A. F. Warby; Arthur H. Johnson; Henry Lin; James M. Kaste; Andrew G. Lapenis; Timothy J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest...

  2. Preventive maintenance measures and repeat tests on actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueren, H.

    1990-01-01

    At Biblis Nuclear Power Station, about 1500 electrical actuators and variable speed drives of various model ranges and with various driving end speeds and actuating times are installed and about 600 of these are located in important safety engineering systems. In order to optimize the preventive maintenance measures on the drives, a data bank has been established into which are stored, in addition to the fixed type data of each drive, inter alia, statements about location of application, valve type, inspection cycle, calendar year of next maintenance, findings during inspection measures and causes of faults. Before each unit inspection, in addition to the inspection lists, the maintenance and installation records and also the associated job instructions are produced from this data processing equipment. (orig.) [de

  3. Evaluation of the Repeatability and the Reproducibility of AL-Scan Measurements Obtained by Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of ocular biometry and intraocular lens (IOL power measurements obtained by ophthalmology residents using an AL-Scan device, a novel optical biometer. Methods. Two ophthalmology residents were instructed regarding the AL-Scan device. Both performed ocular biometry and IOL power measurements using AL-Scan, three times on each of 128 eyes, independently of one another. Corneal keratometry readings, horizontal iris width, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, and axial length values measured by both residents were recorded together with IOL power values calculated on the basis of four different IOL calculation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay, and HofferQ. Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements obtained were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results. Repeatability (ICC, 0.872-0.999 for resident 1 versus 0.905-0.999 for resident 2 and reproducibility (ICC, 0.916-0.999 were high for all biometric measurements. Repeatability (ICC, 0.981-0.983 for resident 1 versus 0.995-0.996 for resident 2 and reproducibility were also high for all IOL power measurements (ICC, 0.996 for all. Conclusions. The AL-Scan device exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility in all biometric measurements and IOL power calculations, independent of the operator concerned.

  4. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind

  5. Formatting data files for repeated-measures analyses in SPSS: Using the Aggregate and Restructure procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyslain Giguère

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, we demonstrate how to use the Aggregate and Restructure procedures available in SPSS (versions 11 and up to prepare data files for repeated-measures analyses. In the first two sections of the tutorial, we briefly describe the Aggregate and Restructure procedures. In the final section, we present an example in which the data from a fictional lexical decision task are prepared for analysis using a mixed-design ANOVA. The tutorial demonstrates that the presented method is the most efficient way to prepare data for repeated-measures analyses in SPSS.

  6. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measures designs: a flexible approach using the SPSS MANOVA procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, E J; Neilands, T B; Zambarano, R

    2001-11-01

    Although power analysis is an important component in the planning and implementation of research designs, it is often ignored. Computer programs for performing power analysis are available, but most have limitations, particularly for complex multivariate designs. An SPSS procedure is presented that can be used for calculating power for univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures models with and without time-varying and time-constant covariates. Three examples provide a framework for calculating power via this method: an ANCOVA, a MANOVA, and a repeated measures ANOVA with two or more groups. The benefits and limitations of this procedure are discussed.

  7. Maintaining confidentiality in prospective studies: anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Wasserman, Camilla; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Wasserman, Danuta

    2012-02-01

    Respecting and protecting the confidentiality of data and the privacy of individuals regarding the information that they have given as participants in a research project is a cornerstone of complying with accepted research standards. However, in longitudinal studies, establishing and maintaining privacy is often challenging because of the necessity of repeated contact with participants. A novel internet-based solution is introduced here, which maintains privacy while at the same time ensures linkage of data to individual participants in a repeated measures design. With the use of the anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure, two separate one-way communication systems are established through ad hoc email accounts and a secure study website. Strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  8. Convergence of repeated quantum nondemolition measurements and wave-function collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on quantum trapped fields, we give a rigorous proof that repeated indirect quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements converge to the collapse of the wave function as predicted by the postulates of quantum mechanics for direct measurements. We also relate the rate of convergence toward the collapsed wave function to the relative entropy of each indirect measurement, a result which makes contact with information theory.

  9. Repeatability of central corneal thickness measurement with the Pentacam HR system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Simonato Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the repeatability of central corneal thickness measurement at the geometrical center (Central Corneal Thickness - CCT given by the Pentacam High Resolution (HR Comprehensive Eye Scanner (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany over time. METHODS: Prospective, single center, observational study. Two separate CCT measurements were taken by the Pentacam corneal tomography exam (CTm 3 to 12 months apart, and compared. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen eyes (n=116 of 62 health patients were included in this study. Average CCT in first and last visits was 541.6±37 µm and 543.6±36.9 µm respectively. Mean difference between both measurements was 9.2±6.4 µm, and there was no statistically significant difference in CCT measurement between visits, with good correlation between them (P = 0.057, r² = 0,9209. CONCLUSION: Pentacam (HR CTm gives repeatable CCT measurements over time.

  10. Use of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms 62 (CCAPS-62) as a Repeated Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arpita; Rieder Bennett, Sara; Martin, Juanita K.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this initial, exploratory study was to examine the utility of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) as a repeated measure tool at one university counseling center. This study investigated whether clients engaged in individual counseling changed in symptomology while in treatment and when (e.g.,…

  11. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data...

  12. Counterbalancing and Other Uses of Repeated-Measures Latin-Square Designs: Analyses and Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hayne W.

    1997-01-01

    Recommends that when repeated-measures Latin-square designs are used to counterbalance treatments across a procedural variable or to reduce the number of treatment combinations given to each participant, effects be analyzed statistically, and that in all uses, researchers consider alternative interpretations of the variance associated with the…

  13. Parsimonious Structural Equation Models for Repeated Measures Data, with Application to the Study of Consumer Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Terry; Haubl, Gerald; Tipps, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reflects a growing awareness of the value of using structural equation models to analyze repeated measures data. However, such data, particularly in the presence of covariates, often lead to models that either fit the data poorly, are exceedingly general and hard to interpret, or are specified in a manner that is highly data…

  14. Cross-trimester repeated measures testing for Down's syndrome screening: an assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wright, D

    2010-07-01

    To provide estimates and confidence intervals for the performance (detection and false-positive rates) of screening for Down\\'s syndrome using repeated measures of biochemical markers from first and second trimester maternal serum samples taken from the same woman.

  15. Accuracy and repeatability of anthropometric facial measurements using cone beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Peter O.; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and repeatability of linear anthropometric measurements on the soft tissue surface model generated from cone beam computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of seven cadaver heads. The accuracy and

  16. Near-Peer Teaching in Paramedic Education: A Repeated Measures Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Nguyen, David

    2017-01-01

    The transition of the Australian paramedic discipline from vocation education and training to the higher education sector has seen a sharp rise in interest in near-peer teaching (NPT). The objective of this study was to examine satisfaction levels of NPT over one academic semester among undergraduate paramedic students. A repeated measured design…

  17. Repeatability of junctional zone measurements using three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in healthy, fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Kjærgaard; Glavind, Julie; Madsen, Lene Duch

    2016-01-01

    -observer repeatability was evaluated according to the Bland-Altman method and expressed as coefficient of repeatability (CoR). Results: Using 3D-TVS we visualised a thin and regular JZ in most women. The posterior uterine wall had the largest median (interquartile range; iqr) value of JZmax (5.2 (iqr 3.8-6.5)mm. Ten out....... Correlations between measurements were poor in the narrow range of JZ thickness. Conclusions: The JZ has an indistinct outline by 3D-TVS resulting in an error of JZ measurement within a broad range of ±2-4 mm, but reduced by average measurements. The thickness of JZ varied within a narrow range of this healthy......, fertile population and reliability measurements of JZ thickness has to be evaluated in women with a wider range of JZ thickness....

  18. Optimally Repeatable Kinetic Model Variant for Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements with 82Rb PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian F. Ocneanu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Myocardial blood flow (MBF quantification with Rb82 positron emission tomography (PET is gaining clinical adoption, but improvements in precision are desired. This study aims to identify analysis variants producing the most repeatable MBF measures. Methods. 12 volunteers underwent same-day test-retest rest and dipyridamole stress imaging with dynamic Rb82 PET, from which MBF was quantified using 1-tissue-compartment kinetic model variants: (1 blood-pool versus uptake region sampled input function (Blood/Uptake-ROI, (2 dual spillover correction (SOC-On/Off, (3 right blood correction (RBC-On/Off, (4 arterial blood transit delay (Delay-On/Off, and (5 distribution volume (DV constraint (Global/Regional-DV. Repeatability of MBF, stress/rest myocardial flow reserve (MFR, and stress/rest MBF difference (ΔMBF was assessed using nonparametric reproducibility coefficients (RPCnp = 1.45 × interquartile range. Results. MBF using SOC-On, RVBC-Off, Blood-ROI, Global-DV, and Delay-Off was most repeatable for combined rest and stress: RPCnp = 0.21 mL/min/g (15.8%. Corresponding MFR and ΔMBF RPCnp were 0.42 (20.2% and 0.24 mL/min/g (23.5%. MBF repeatability improved with SOC-On at stress (p<0.001 and tended to improve with RBC-Off at both rest and stress (p<0.08. DV and ROI did not significantly influence repeatability. The Delay-On model was overdetermined and did not reliably converge. Conclusion. MBF and MFR test-retest repeatability were the best with dual spillover correction, left atrium blood input function, and global DV.

  19. Joint modelling of repeated measurement and time-to-event data: an introductory tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asar, Özgür; Ritchie, James; Kalra, Philip A; Diggle, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    The term 'joint modelling' is used in the statistical literature to refer to methods for simultaneously analysing longitudinal measurement outcomes, also called repeated measurement data, and time-to-event outcomes, also called survival data. A typical example from nephrology is a study in which the data from each participant consist of repeated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements and time to initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Joint models typically combine linear mixed effects models for repeated measurements and Cox models for censored survival outcomes. Our aim in this paper is to present an introductory tutorial on joint modelling methods, with a case study in nephrology. We describe the development of the joint modelling framework and compare the results with those obtained by the more widely used approaches of conducting separate analyses of the repeated measurements and survival times based on a linear mixed effects model and a Cox model, respectively. Our case study concerns a data set from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Standards Implementation Study (CRISIS). We also provide details of our open-source software implementation to allow others to replicate and/or modify our analysis. The results for the conventional linear mixed effects model and the longitudinal component of the joint models were found to be similar. However, there were considerable differences between the results for the Cox model with time-varying covariate and the time-to-event component of the joint model. For example, the relationship between kidney function as measured by eGFR and the hazard for initiation of RRT was significantly underestimated by the Cox model that treats eGFR as a time-varying covariate, because the Cox model does not take measurement error in eGFR into account. Joint models should be preferred for simultaneous analyses of repeated measurement and survival data, especially when the former is measured with error and the association

  20. Antarctic Ice Sheet Slope and Aspect Based on Icesat's Repeat Orbit Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Xie, S.; Xiao, F.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate information of ice sheet surface slope is essential for estimating elevation change by satellite altimetry measurement. A study is carried out to recover surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) elevation measurements based on repeat orbits. ICESat provides repeat ground tracks within 200 meters in cross-track direction and 170 meters in along-track direction for most areas of Antarctic ice sheet. Both cross-track and along-track surface slopes could be obtained by adjacent repeat ground tracks. Combining those measurements yields a surface slope model with resolution of approximately 200 meters. An algorithm considering elevation change is developed to estimate the surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet. Three Antarctic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were used to calculate surface slopes. The surface slopes from DEMs are compared with estimates by using in situ GPS data in Dome A, the summit of Antarctic ice sheet. Our results reveal an average surface slope difference of 0.02 degree in Dome A. High resolution remote sensing images are also used in comparing the results derived from other DEMs and this paper. The comparison implies that our results have a slightly better coherence with GPS observation than results from DEMs, but our results provide more details and perform higher accuracy in coastal areas because of the higher resolution for ICESat measurements. Ice divides are estimated based on the aspect, and are weakly consistent with ice divides from other method in coastal regions.

  1. Comparability and repeatability of three commonly used methods for measuring endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Gilbert, James; Mühlenhaupt, Max; Whiting, Martin J

    2017-12-01

    Measures of endurance (time to exhaustion) have been used to address a wide range of questions in ecomorphological and physiological research, as well as being used as a proxy for survival and fitness. Swimming, stationary (circular) track running, and treadmill running are all commonly used methods for measuring endurance. Despite the use of these methods across a broad range of taxa, how comparable these methods are to one another, and whether they are biologically relevant, is rarely examined. We used Australian water dragons (Intellagama lesueurii), a species that is morphologically adept at climbing, swimming, and running, to compare these three methods of endurance and examined if there is repeatability within and between trial methods. We found that time to exhaustion was not highly repeatable within a method, suggesting that single measures or a mean time to exhaustion across trials are not appropriate. Furthermore, we compared mean maximal endurance times among the three methods, and found that the two running methods (i.e., stationary track and treadmill) were similar, but swimming was distinctly different, resulting in lower mean maximal endurance times. Finally, an individual's endurance rank was not repeatable across methods, suggesting that the three endurance trial methods are not providing similar information about an individual's performance capacity. Overall, these results highlight the need to carefully match a measure of performance capacity with the study species and the research questions being asked so that the methods being used are behaviorally, ecologically, and physiologically relevant. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  3. Intelligence is in the eye of the beholder: investigating repeated IQ measurements in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were computed, and each IQ score was categorized. Additionally, t-tests and regression analyses were performed. Differences of 10 points or more were found in 66% of the cases comparing WAIS-III with RAVEN scores. Fisher's exact test revealed differences between two WAIS-III scores and the WAIS categories. The WAIS-III did not predict other IQs (WAIS or RAVEN) in participants with intellectual disability. This study showed that stability or interchangeability of scores is lacking, especially in individuals with intellectual disability. Caution in interpreting IQ scores is therefore recommended, and the use of the unitary concept of IQ should be discouraged. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures using mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getchell Thomas V

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two or more factor mixed factorial experiments are becoming increasingly common in microarray data analysis. In this case study, the two factors are presence (Patients with Alzheimer's disease or absence (Control of the disease, and brain regions including olfactory bulb (OB or cerebellum (CER. In the design considered in this manuscript, OB and CER are repeated measurements from the same subject and, hence, are correlated. It is critical to identify sources of variability in the analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures and correlations among data points have to be considered. In addition, multiple testing problems are more complicated in experiments with multi-level treatments or treatment combinations. Results In this study we adopted a linear mixed model to analyze oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We first construct a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes. The Benjamini and Hochberg (BH procedure of controlling false discovery rate (FDR at 5% was applied to the P values of the generalized F test. For those genes with significant generalized F test, we then categorize them based on whether the interaction terms were significant or not at the α-level (αnew = 0.0033 determined by the FDR procedure. Since simple effects may be examined for the genes with significant interaction effect, we adopt the protected Fisher's least significant difference test (LSD procedure at the level of αnew to control the family-wise error rate (FWER for each gene examined. Conclusions A linear mixed model is appropriate for analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We constructed a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes, and then applied a specific sequence of tests to identify factorial effects. This sequence of tests applied was designed to control for gene based FWER.

  5. Repeatability in Color Measurements of a Spectrophotometer using Different Positioning Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Michael; Kwon, So Ran; Qian, Fang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability of color measurements of an intraoral spectrophotometer with the use of three different methods by two operators. A total of 60 teeth were obtained, comprising 30 human maxillary teeth [central incisors (n = 10); canines (n = 10); molars (n = 10)] and 30 artificial teeth [lateral incisors (n = 10); premolar (n = 20)]. Multiple repeated color measurements were obtained from each tooth using three measuring methods by each of the two operators. Five typodonts with alternating artificial and human teeth were made. Measurements were taken by two operators with the Vita EasyShade spectrophotometer using the custom tray (CT), custom jig (CJ) and free hand (FH) method, twice, at an interval of 2 to 7 days. Friedman test was used to detect difference among the three color measuring methods. Post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction applied was used for pair-wise comparison of color measurements among the three methods. Additionally, a paired-sample t-test was used to assess a significant difference between the two duplicated measurements made on the same tooth by the same operator for each color parameter and measuring method. For operator A, mean (SD) overall color change-ΔE* (SD) perceived for FH, CT and CJ were 2.21(2.00), 2.39 (1.58) and 2.86 (1.92), respectively. There was statistically significant difference in perceived ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.0107). However, there were no significant differences between FH and CT (p = 0.2829) or between CT and CJ (p = 0.1159). For operator B mean ΔE* (SD) for FH, CT and CJ were 3.24 (3.46), 1.95 (1.19) and 2.45 (1.56), respectively. There was a significant difference between FH and CT (p = 0.0031). However, there were no statistically significant differences in ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.3696) or CT vs CJ (p = 0.0809). The repeatability of color measurements was different among the three measuring methods by operators. Overall, the CT method worked well for both

  6. High-Dimensional Multivariate Repeated Measures Analysis with Unequal Covariance Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrar, Solomon W.; Kong, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, test statistics for repeated measures design are introduced when the dimension is large. By large dimension is meant the number of repeated measures and the total sample size grow together but either one could be larger than the other. Asymptotic distribution of the statistics are derived for the equal as well as unequal covariance cases in the balanced as well as unbalanced cases. The asymptotic framework considered requires proportional growth of the sample sizes and the dimension of the repeated measures in the unequal covariance case. In the equal covariance case, one can grow at much faster rate than the other. The derivations of the asymptotic distributions mimic that of Central Limit Theorem with some important peculiarities addressed with sufficient rigor. Consistent and unbiased estimators of the asymptotic variances, which make efficient use of all the observations, are also derived. Simulation study provides favorable evidence for the accuracy of the asymptotic approximation under the null hypothesis. Power simulations have shown that the new methods have comparable power with a popular method known to work well in low-dimensional situation but the new methods have shown enormous advantage when the dimension is large. Data from Electroencephalograph (EEG) experiment is analyzed to illustrate the application of the results. PMID:26778861

  7. A Network-Based Algorithm for Clustering Multivariate Repeated Measures Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslovsky, Matthew; Arellano, John; Schaefer, Caroline; Feiveson, Alan; Young, Millennia; Lee, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astronaut Corps is a unique occupational cohort for which vast amounts of measures data have been collected repeatedly in research or operational studies pre-, in-, and post-flight, as well as during multiple clinical care visits. In exploratory analyses aimed at generating hypotheses regarding physiological changes associated with spaceflight exposure, such as impaired vision, it is of interest to identify anomalies and trends across these expansive datasets. Multivariate clustering algorithms for repeated measures data may help parse the data to identify homogeneous groups of astronauts that have higher risks for a particular physiological change. However, available clustering methods may not be able to accommodate the complex data structures found in NASA data, since the methods often rely on strict model assumptions, require equally-spaced and balanced assessment times, cannot accommodate missing data or differing time scales across variables, and cannot process continuous and discrete data simultaneously. To fill this gap, we propose a network-based, multivariate clustering algorithm for repeated measures data that can be tailored to fit various research settings. Using simulated data, we demonstrate how our method can be used to identify patterns in complex data structures found in practice.

  8. Repeatability and Comparison of Keratometry Values Measured with Potec PRK-6000 Autorefractometer, IOLMaster, and Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Türk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To research the repeatability and intercompatibility of keratometry values measured with Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, IOL Master, and Pentacam. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, consecutive measurements were performed in two different sessions with the mentioned three devices on 110 eyes of 55 subjects who had no additional ocular pathology except for refraction error. The consistency of flat and steep keratometry, average keratometry, and corneal astigmatism values obtained in both sessions was compared by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. The measurement differences between the devices were statistically compared as well. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 23.05±3.01 (18-30 years. ICC values of average keratometry measurements obtained in the sessions were 0.996 for Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, 0.997 for IOL Master, and 0.999 for Pentacam. There was high compatibility between the three devices in terms of average keratometry values in Bland-Altman analysis. However, there were statistically significant differences between the devices in terms of parameters other than corneal astigmatism. Conclusion: The repeatability of the three devices was found considerably high in keratometry measurements. However, it is not appropriate for these devices to be substituted for each other in keratometry measurements. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 179-83

  9. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Compression Strength Measurements Conducted According to ASTM E9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, William E.; Ma, Li; Graham, Stephen M.; Adler, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Ten commercial laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of compression strength tests conducted according to ASTM International Standard Test Method E9. The test employed a cylindrical aluminum AA2024-T351 test specimen. Participants measured elastic modulus and 0.2 % offset yield strength, YS(0.2 % offset), using an extensometer attached to the specimen. The repeatability and reproducibility of the yield strength measurement, expressed as coefficient of variations were cv(sub r)= 0.011 and cv(sub R)= 0.020 The reproducibility of the test across the laboratories was among the best that has been reported for uniaxial tests. The reported data indicated that using diametrically opposed extensometers, instead of a single extensometer doubled the precision of the test method. Laboratories that did not lubricate the ends of the specimen measured yield stresses and elastic moduli that were smaller than those measured in laboratories that lubricated the specimen ends. A finite element analysis of the test specimen deformation for frictionless and perfect friction could not explain the discrepancy, however. The modulus measured from stress-strain data were reanalyzed using a technique that finds the optimal fit range, and applies several quality checks to the data. The error in modulus measurements from stress-strain curves generally increased as the fit range decreased to less than 40 % of the stress range.

  10. Spatial cluster detection for repeatedly measured outcomes while accounting for residential history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrea J; Gold, Diane R; Li, Yi

    2009-10-01

    Spatial cluster detection has become an important methodology in quantifying the effect of hazardous exposures. Previous methods have focused on cross-sectional outcomes that are binary or continuous. There are virtually no spatial cluster detection methods proposed for longitudinal outcomes. This paper proposes a new spatial cluster detection method for repeated outcomes using cumulative geographic residuals. A major advantage of this method is its ability to readily incorporate information on study participants relocation, which most cluster detection statistics cannot. Application of these methods will be illustrated by the Home Allergens and Asthma prospective cohort study analyzing the relationship between environmental exposures and repeated measured outcome, occurrence of wheeze in the last 6 months, while taking into account mobile locations.

  11. Effect of repeated contact on adhesion measurements involving polydimethylsiloxane structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroner, E; Arzt, E; Maboudian, R

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years several research groups have focused on the fabrication of artificial gecko inspired adhesives. For mimicking these structures, different polymers are used as structure material, such as polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), polyurethanes (PU), and polypropylene (PP). While these polymers can be structured easily and used for artificial adhesion systems, the effects of repeated adhesion testing have never been investigated closely. In this paper we report on the effect of repeated adhesion measurements on the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer kit Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning). We show that the adhesion force decreases as a function of contact cycles. The rate of change and the final value of adhesion are found to depend on the details of the PDMS synthesis and structuring.

  12. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  13. The effect of repeated measurements and working memory on the most comfortable level in the ANL test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Holm, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    interleaved methodology during one session using a non-semantic version. Phonological (PWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) was measured. STUDY SAMPLE: Thirty-two normal-hearing adults. RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and the coefficient of repeatability (CR) were used...

  14. Intra- and Intersession Repeatability of an Optical Quality and Intraocular Scattering Measurement System in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Tian

    Full Text Available To evaluate intra- and intersession repeatability of objective optical quality and intraocular scattering measurements with a double-pass system in children.Forty-two eyes of 42 children were included in the study. An optical quality analysis system (OQAS was used to measure optical quality parameters, including modulation transfer function cutoff frequency (MTFcutoff, Strehl ratio (SR, OQAS values (OV at 3 different contrasts and objective scatter index (OSI. Three measurement sessions with 10-min intervals were operated by the same technician, and in each session four consecutive measurements were obtained.Mean values for MTFcutoff, SR and OSI were 46.85 ± 7.45cpd, 0.27 ± 0.06 and 0.34 ± 0.22 respectively. 1 The intraclass correlation coefficients were ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 and coefficients of variation from 0.06 to 0.16 for all the parameters in the first session; the relative repeatability were 11.1% (MTFcutoff, 22.5% (SR, 10.9% (OV100%, 16.6% (OV2%, 22.4% (OV9% and 56.3% (OSI. Similar results were found in the second and third sessions. 2 Bland-Altman analysis showed that narrow 95% confidence intervals (compared between the first and second sessions ranged from -5.42 to 5.28 (MTFcutoff, -0.05 to 0.07 (SR, -0.18 to 0.18 (OV100%, -0.26 to 0.29 (OV20%, -0.33 to 0.39 (OV9% and -0.11 to 0.09 (OSI; the comparison between any two of the three sessions showed similar results.Measurements of optical quality and intraocular scattering in children by the double-pass system showed good intra- and intersession repeatability. Retinal image quality is high and intraocular scattering is low in children.

  15. Statistical Validation for Clinical Measures: Repeatability and Agreement of Kinect™-Based Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Natalia; Perez, Elisa; Tello, Emanuel; Rodrigo, Alejandro; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2018-01-01

    The rehabilitation process is a fundamental stage for recovery of people's capabilities. However, the evaluation of the process is performed by physiatrists and medical doctors, mostly based on their observations, that is, a subjective appreciation of the patient's evolution. This paper proposes a tracking platform of the movement made by an individual's upper limb using Kinect sensor(s) to be applied for the patient during the rehabilitation process. The main contribution is the development of quantifying software and the statistical validation of its performance, repeatability, and clinical use in the rehabilitation process. The software determines joint angles and upper limb trajectories for the construction of a specific rehabilitation protocol and quantifies the treatment evolution. In turn, the information is presented via a graphical interface that allows the recording, storage, and report of the patient's data. For clinical purposes, the software information is statistically validated with three different methodologies, comparing the measures with a goniometer in terms of agreement and repeatability. The agreement of joint angles measured with the proposed software and goniometer is evaluated with Bland-Altman plots; all measurements fell well within the limits of agreement, meaning interchangeability of both techniques. Additionally, the results of Bland-Altman analysis of repeatability show 95% confidence. Finally, the physiotherapists' qualitative assessment shows encouraging results for the clinical use. The main conclusion is that the software is capable of offering a clinical history of the patient and is useful for quantification of the rehabilitation success. The simplicity, low cost, and visualization possibilities enhance the use of the software Kinect for rehabilitation and other applications, and the expert's opinion endorses the choice of our approach for clinical practice. Comparison of the new measurement technique with established

  16. REPEATABILITY AND ACCURACY OF EXOPLANET ECLIPSE DEPTHS MEASURED WITH POST-CRYOGENIC SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, J. E.; Carey, S. J.; Stauffer, John R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Mail Code 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buzasi, Derek [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Stevenson, Kevin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Morello, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Wong, Ian, E-mail: ingalls@ipac.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5 μ m data set, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3b system during secondary eclipse, using seven different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique, the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 156 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 3 of the photon noise limit. All methods but one accurately assess their own errors: for these methods, the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10 epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as to clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated data set of 10 visits to XO-3b, for which the eclipse depth is known. We find that three of the methods (BLISS mapping, Pixel Level Decorrelation, and Independent Component Analysis) obtain results that are within three times the photon limit of the true eclipse depth. When averaged over the 10 epoch ensemble,  5 out of 7 techniques come within 60 ppm of the true value. Spitzer exoplanet data, if obtained following current best practices and reduced using methods such as those described here, can measure repeatable and accurate single eclipse depths, with close to photon-limited results.

  17. Validation of Repeated Endothelial Function Measurements Using EndoPAT in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aina S; Butt, Jawad H; Holm-Yildiz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decreased endothelial function (EF) may be a prognostic marker for stroke. Measuring pharmacological effects on EF may be of interest in the development of personalized medicine for stroke prevention. In this study, we assessed the reliability of repeated EF measurements using a pulse......%, mean age 35.85 ± 3.47 years) and 21 stroke patients (men 52%, mean age 66.38 ± 2.85 years, and mean NIHSS 4.09 ± 0.53) under standardized conditions. EF was measured as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), logarithm of RHI (lnRHI), and Framingham RHI (fRHI). Measurements were separated by 1.5 and 24 h...

  18. Education for patients with chronic kidney disease in Taiwan: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Miaofen; Huang, Jeng-Jong; Teng, Hsiu-Lan

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the physical, knowledge and quality of life outcomes of an educational intervention for patients with early stage chronic kidney disease. A comprehensive predialysis education care team can be effective in slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease. A single group repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Participants were recruited through health department community health screen data banks. A predialysis, team-delivered educational intervention covering renal function health care, dietary management of renal function and the effects of Chinese herb medication on renal function was designed and implemented. Data were collected at baseline, six and 12 months. Study outcomes included physical indicators, knowledge (renal function protection, use of Chinese herbs and renal function and diet) and quality of life. Data were analysed using repeated measure anova to test for change over time in outcome variables. Sixty-six persons participated in this study. The predialysis educational intervention showed significant differences at the three time points in overall knowledge scores, waist-hip ratio, body mass index and global health status. Knowledge measures increased at month 6 and decreased at month 12. The primary indicator of renal function, glomerular filtration rate, remained stable throughout the 12 months of follow-up, despite the relatively older mean age of study participants. A predialysis education care team can provide effective disease-specific knowledge and may help retard deterioration of renal function in persons with early-stage chronic kidney disease. The intervention dose may need to be repeated every six months to maintain knowledge effects. A predialysis educational program with disease-specific knowledge and information is feasible and may provide positive outcomes for patients. Topics on the uses of Chinese herbs should be included for people who are likely to use alternative therapies.

  19. Characterisation and measurement of signals generated by DVB-H 'gap-filler' repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, M.; Barellini, A.; Bogi, L.; Licitra, G.; Silvi, A. M.; Zari, A.

    2009-01-01

    DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting Hand-held) is the standard developed by DVB Project and approved by ETSI with the aim of providing the reception of DVB signals even in mobility but also data transfers and multimedia services. The introduction and development of the DVB-H system is still ongoing. In this context, this work focuses on the temporal trend of electromagnetic impact of an urban DVB-H repeater (called 'gap-filler') for exposure assessment purposes; it also describes a method for its measurement by means of narrow band instrumental chains. (authors)

  20. Measuring Starlight Deflection during the 2017 Eclipse: Repeating the Experiment that made Einstein Famous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Donald

    2016-05-01

    In 1919, astronomers performed an experiment during a solar eclipse, attempting to measure the deflection of stars near the sun, in order to verify Einstein's theory of general relativity. The experiment was very difficult and the results were marginal, but the success made Albert Einstein famous around the world. Astronomers last repeated the experiment in 1973, achieving an error of 11%. In 2017, using amateur equipment and modern technology, I plan to repeat the experiment and achieve a 1% error. The best available star catalog will be used for star positions. Corrections for optical distortion and atmospheric refraction are better than 0.01 arcsec. During totality, I expect 7 or 8 measurable stars down to magnitude 9.5, based on analysis of previous eclipse measurements taken by amateurs. Reference images, taken near the sun during totality, will be used for precise calibration. Preliminary test runs performed during twilight in April 2016 and April 2017 can accurately simulate the sky conditions during totality, providing an accurate estimate of the final uncertainty.

  1. Repeated absolute gravity measurements for monitoring slow intraplate vertical deformation in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, M. J.; de Viron, O.; Scherneck, H.; Hinzen, K. G.; Williams, S. D.; Lecocq, T.; Quinif, Y.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2011-12-01

    In continental plate interiors, ground surface movements are at the limit of the noise level and close to or below the accuracy of current geodetic techniques. Absolute gravity measurements are valuable to quantify slow vertical movements, as this instrument is drift free and, unlike GPS, independent of the terrestrial reference frame. Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed in Oostende (Belgian coastline) and at 8 stations along a southwest-northeast profile across the Belgian Ardennes and the Roer Valley Graben (Germany), in order to estimate the tectonic deformation in the area. The AG measurements, repeated once or twice a year, can resolve elusive gravity changes with a precision better than 3.7 nm/s2/yr (95% confidence interval) after 11 years, even in difficult conditions. After 8-15 years (depending on the station), we find that the gravity rates of change lie in the [-3.1, 8.1] nm/s2/yr interval and result from a combination of anthropogenic, climatic, tectonic, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effects. After correcting for the GIA, the inferred gravity rates and consequently, the vertical land movements, reduce to zero within the uncertainty level at all stations except Jülich (due to man-induced subsidence) and Sohier (possibly, an artefact due to the shortness of the time series at that station).

  2. Predicting seed yield in perennial ryegrass using repeated canopy reflectance measurements and PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with first year seed crops using three sowing rates and three spring nitrogen (N) application rates. PLSR models were developed for each year and showed correlation coefficients of 0.71, 0.76, and 0.92, respectively. Regression coefficients showed in these experiments that the optimum time for canopy...... reflectance measurements was from approximately 600 cumulative growing degree-days (CGDD) to approximately 900 CGDD. This is the period just before and at heading of the seed crop. Furthermore, regression coefficients showed that information about N and water is important. The results support the development......Repeated canopy reflectance measurements together with partial least-squares regression (PLSR) were used to predict seed yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The measurements were performed during the spring and summer growing seasons of 2001 to 2003 in three field experiments...

  3. Characterization of the peripheral blood transcriptome in a repeated measures design using a panel of healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boever, Patrick; Wens, Britt; Forcheh, Anyiawung Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A repeated measures microarray design with 22 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (aging 32. ±. 5. years) was set up to study transcriptome profiles in whole blood samples. The results indicate that repeatable data can be obtained with high within-subject correlation. Probes that could discriminate b...

  4. Analyzing repeated measures data on individuals nested within groups: accounting for dynamic group effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Dean, Danielle; Zucker, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Researchers commonly collect repeated measures on individuals nested within groups such as students within schools, patients within treatment groups, or siblings within families. Often, it is most appropriate to conceptualize such groups as dynamic entities, potentially undergoing stochastic structural and/or functional changes over time. For instance, as a student progresses through school, more senior students matriculate while more junior students enroll, administrators and teachers may turn over, and curricular changes may be introduced. What it means to be a student within that school may thus differ from 1 year to the next. This article demonstrates how to use multilevel linear models to recover time-varying group effects when analyzing repeated measures data on individuals nested within groups that evolve over time. Two examples are provided. The 1st example examines school effects on the science achievement trajectories of students, allowing for changes in school effects over time. The 2nd example concerns dynamic family effects on individual trajectories of externalizing behavior and depression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Analyzing Repeated Measures Marginal Models on Sample Surveys with Resampling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Knoke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaged statistical software for analyzing categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample survey data with binary covariates does not appear to be available. Consequently, this report describes a customized SAS program which accomplishes such an analysis on survey data with jackknifed replicate weights for which the primary sampling unit information has been suppressed for respondent confidentiality. First, the program employs the Macro Language and the Output Delivery System (ODS to estimate the means and covariances of indicator variables for the response variables, taking the design into account. Then, it uses PROC CATMOD and ODS, ignoring the survey design, to obtain the design matrix and hypothesis test specifications. Finally, it enters these results into another run of CATMOD, which performs automated direct input of the survey design specifications and accomplishes the appropriate analysis. This customized SAS program can be employed, with minor editing, to analyze general categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample surveys with replicate weights. Finally, the results of our analysis accounting for the survey design are compared to the results of two alternate analyses of the same data. This comparison confirms that such alternate analyses, which do not properly account for the design, do not produce useful results.

  6. Tectonic, Climatic and Anthropogenic Vertical Land Movements in Western Europe by Repeated Absolute Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Camp, M. J.; de Viron, O.; Lecocq, T.; Hinzen, K. G.; Quinif, Y.; Williams, S. D.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2010-12-01

    In continental plate interiors, tectonic deformations are small and the associated ground surface movements remain close to or below the accuracy of current geodetic techniques, and at the limit of the noise level. An absolute gravimeter is an appropriate tool to quantify slow vertical movements, as this instrument, based on length and time standards, is drift free and does not depend on any terrestrial reference frame. Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed in Oostende (Belgian coastline) and at 8 stations along a southwest-northeast profile across the Belgian Ardennes and the Roer Valley Graben (Germany), in order to estimate the tectonic deformations in the area. After 7-13 years (depending on the station), we find evidence that the movements are no larger than a few millimeter per year and result from a combination of anthropogenic, climatic, tectonic, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effects. This demonstrates the importance of precisely modeling the GIA effects in order to investigate intraplate tectonic deformations at the sub-millimeter level. This study also shows that AG measurements, repeated once or twice a year, can resolve vertical velocities at the 1.0 mm/yr level after 10 years, even in difficult conditions, provided that the gravimeter is carefully maintained.

  7. ±25ppm repeatable measurement of trapezoidal pulses with 5MHz bandwidth

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Cerqueira Bastos, Miguel; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    High-quality measurements of pulses are nowadays widely used in fields such as radars, pulsed lasers, electromagnetic pulse generators, and particle accelerators. Whilst literature is mainly focused on fast systems for nanosecond regime with relaxed metrological requirements, in this paper, the high-performance measurement of slower pulses in microsecond regime is faced. In particular, the experimental proof demonstration for a 15 MS/s,_25 ppm repeatable acquisition system to characterize the flat-top of 3 ms rise-time trapezoidal pulses is given. The system exploits a 5MHz bandwidth circuit for analogue signal processing based on the concept of flat-top removal. The requirements, as well as the conceptual and physical designs are illustrated. Simulation results aimed at assessing the circuit performance are also presented. Finally, an experimental case study on the characterization of a pulsed power supply for the klystrons modulators of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN is reported. In ...

  8. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  9. Theoretical repeatability assessment without repetitive measurements in gradient high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Akira; Tsutsumi, Risa; Shoji, Asaki; Hayashi, Yuzuru; Kusu, Fumiyo; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hakamata, Hideki

    2016-07-08

    This paper puts forward a time and material-saving method for evaluating the repeatability of area measurements in gradient HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV), based on the function of mutual information (FUMI) theory which can theoretically provide the measurement standard deviation (SD) and detection limits through the stochastic properties of baseline noise with no recourse to repetitive measurements of real samples. The chromatographic determination of terbinafine hydrochloride and enalapril maleate is taken as an example. The best choice of the number of noise data points, inevitable for the theoretical evaluation, is shown to be 512 data points (10.24s at 50 point/s sampling rate of an A/D converter). Coupled with the relative SD (RSD) of sample injection variability in the instrument used, the theoretical evaluation is proved to give identical values of area measurement RSDs to those estimated by the usual repetitive method (n=6) over a wide concentration range of the analytes within the 95% confidence intervals of the latter RSD. The FUMI theory is not a statistical one, but the "statistical" reliability of its SD estimates (n=1) is observed to be as high as that attained by thirty-one measurements of the same samples (n=31). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Modified Jonckheere Test Statistic for Ordered Alternatives in Repeated Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Tül Kübra AKDUR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new test based on Jonckheere test [1] for  randomized blocks which have dependent observations within block is presented. A weighted sum for each block statistic rather than the unweighted sum proposed by Jonckheereis included. For Jonckheere type statistics, the main assumption is independency of observations within block. In the case of repeated measures design, the assumption of independence is violated. The weighted Jonckheere type statistic for the situation of dependence for different variance-covariance structure and the situation based on ordered alternative hypothesis structure of each block on the design is used. Also, the proposed statistic is compared to the existing test based on Jonckheere in terms of type I error rates by performing Monte Carlo simulation. For the strong correlations, circular bootstrap version of the proposed Jonckheere test provides lower rates of type I error.

  11. Microcomputer-based tests for repeated-measures: Metric properties and predictive validities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Baltzley, Dennis R.; Dunlap, William P.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

    1989-01-01

    A menu of psychomotor and mental acuity tests were refined. Field applications of such a battery are, for example, a study of the effects of toxic agents or exotic environments on performance readiness, or the determination of fitness for duty. The key requirement of these tasks is that they be suitable for repeated-measures applications, and so questions of stability and reliability are a continuing, central focus of this work. After the initial (practice) session, seven replications of 14 microcomputer-based performance tests (32 measures) were completed by 37 subjects. Each test in the battery had previously been shown to stabilize in less than five 90-second administrations and to possess retest reliabilities greater than r = 0.707 for three minutes of testing. However, all the tests had never been administered together as a battery and they had never been self-administered. In order to provide predictive validity for intelligence measurement, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wonderlic Personnel Test were obtained on the same subjects.

  12. Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in Childhood in Prediction of Hypertension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonen, Mervi; Nuotio, Joel; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Jula, Antti; Cheung, Michael; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, Phypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Measurement of repeat effects in Chicago’s criminal social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kump

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The “near-repeat” effect is a well-known criminological phenomenon in which the occurrence of a crime incident gives rise to a temporary elevation of crime risk within close physical proximity to an initial incident. Adopting a social network perspective, we instead define a near repeat in terms of geodesic distance within a criminal social network, rather than spatial distance. Specifically, we report a statistical analysis of repeat effects in arrest data for Chicago during the years 2003–2012. We divide the arrest data into two sets (violent crimes and other crimes and, for each set, we compare the distributions of time intervals between repeat incidents to theoretical distributions in which repeat incidents occur only by chance. We first consider the case of the same arrestee participating in repeat incidents (“exact repeats” and then extend the analysis to evaluate repeat risks of those arrestees near one another in the social network. We observe repeat effects that diminish as a function of geodesic distance and time interval, and we estimate typical time scales for repeat crimes in Chicago.

  14. Testing Mean Differences among Groups: Multivariate and Repeated Measures Analysis with Minimal Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathke, Arne C; Friedrich, Sarah; Pauly, Markus; Konietschke, Frank; Staffen, Wolfgang; Strobl, Nicolas; Höller, Yvonne

    2018-03-22

    To date, there is a lack of satisfactory inferential techniques for the analysis of multivariate data in factorial designs, when only minimal assumptions on the data can be made. Presently available methods are limited to very particular study designs or assume either multivariate normality or equal covariance matrices across groups, or they do not allow for an assessment of the interaction effects across within-subjects and between-subjects variables. We propose and methodologically validate a parametric bootstrap approach that does not suffer from any of the above limitations, and thus provides a rather general and comprehensive methodological route to inference for multivariate and repeated measures data. As an example application, we consider data from two different Alzheimer's disease (AD) examination modalities that may be used for precise and early diagnosis, namely, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and electroencephalogram (EEG). These data violate the assumptions of classical multivariate methods, and indeed classical methods would not have yielded the same conclusions with regards to some of the factors involved.

  15. Developing the Pieta House Suicide Intervention Model: a quasi-experimental, repeated measures design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Paul Wg; Freeman, Joan; O'Connor, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    While most crisis intervention models adhere to a generalised theoretical framework, the lack of clarity around how these should be enacted has resulted in a proliferation of models, most of which have little to no empirical support. The primary aim of this research was to propose a suicide intervention model that would resolve the client's suicidal crisis by decreasing their suicidal ideation and improve their outlook through enhancing a range of protective factors. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of this model on negative and positive outlook. A quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test repeated measures design was employed. A questionnaire assessing self-esteem, depression, and positive and negative suicidal ideation was administered to the same participants pre- and post- therapy facilitating paired responses. Multiple analysis of variance and paired-samples t-tests were conducted to establish whether therapy using the PH-SIM had a significant effect on the clients' negative and positive outlook. Analyses revealed a statistically significant effect of therapy for depression, negative suicidal ideation, self-esteem, and positive suicidal ideation. Negative outlook was significantly lower after therapy and positive outlook significantly higher. The decreased negative outlook and increased positive outlook following therapy provide some support for the proposed model in fulfilling its role, though additional research is required to establish the precise role of the intervention model in achieving this.

  16. Psychosocial outcomes of Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with acute coronary syndromes: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dominic S K; Chau, Janita P C; Chang, Anne M

    2007-08-01

    Western studies have suggested that emotional stress and distress impacted on the morbidity and mortality in people following acute coronary events. Symptoms of anxiety and depression have been associated with re-infarction and death, prolonged recovery and disability and depression may precipitate the client's low self-esteem. This study examined perceived anxiety, depression and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese clients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) over a 6-month period following hospital admission. To examine: A prospective, repeated measures design with measures taken on two occasions over a 6-month period; (1) within the 1st week of hospital admission following the onset of ACS and (2) at 6 months follow up. Convenient sample of 182 voluntary consented clients admitted with ACS to a major public hospital in Hong Kong who could communicate in Chinese, complete questionnaires, cognitive intact, and were haemodynamically stable and free from acute chest pain at the time of interview. Baseline data were obtained within 1 week after hospital admission. The follow-up data was collected 6 months after hospital discharge. The Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State Self-esteem Scale (SSES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess anxiety and depression, state self-esteem, and trait self-esteem, respectively. Findings suggested gender differences in clients' perception in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Improvements in clients' perception of these variables were evident over the 6-month period following their acute coronary events. The study confirmed the western notion that psychosocial problems are common among coronary clients and this also applies to Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with ACS. Further studies to explore effective interventions to address these psychosocial issues are recommended.

  17. Effect of hip braces on brake response time: Repeated measures designed study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Huber, Dennis G; Krismer, Martin; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The question whether or not a patient with a hip brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because the advice given to patients to resume driving is often anecdotal as few scientific data are available on this specific subject. To assess driving ability (brake response time) with commonly used hip braces. Repeated measures design. Brake response time was assessed under six conditions: (1) without a brace (control), (2) with a typical postoperative hip brace with adjustable range of motion and the settings: unrestricted, (3) flexion limited to 70°, (4) extension blocked at 20° hip flexion, (5) both flexion and extension limited (20°/70°) and (6) an elastic hip bandage. Brake response time was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator as used in previous studies. The participants were a convenience sample of able-bodied participants. A total of 70 participants (35 women and 35 men) participated in our study. Mean age was 31.1 (standard deviation: 10.6; range: 21.7-66.4) years. A significant within-subject effect for brake response time was found ( p = 0.009), but subsequent post hoc analyses revealed no significant differences between control and the other settings. Based on our findings, it does not seem mandatory to recommend driving abstinence for patients wearing a hip orthosis. We suggest that our results be interpreted with caution, because (1) an underlying pathological hip condition needs to be considered, (2) the ability to drive a car safely is multifactorial and brake response time is only one component thereof and (3) brake response time measurements were performed only with healthy participants. Clinical relevance Hip braces are used in the context of joint-preserving and prosthetic surgery of the hip. Therefore, clinicians are confronted with the question whether to allow driving a car with the respective hip brace or not. Our data suggest that hip braces do not impair brake response time.

  18. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Reed

    Full Text Available Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75. Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74, = 12.2, p<0.001, for the increase in self-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74, = 0.13, p = 0.72. There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04 between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55. Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  19. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Katharine; Wood, Carly; Barton, Jo; Pretty, Jules N; Cohen, Daniel; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2013-01-01

    Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75). Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74), = 12.2, pself-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74), = 0.13, p = 0.72). There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04) between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55). Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  20. Repeatability of Computerized Tomography-Based Anthropomorphic Measurements of Frailty in Patients With Pulmonary Fibrosis Undergoing Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Taylor; Allen, Brian C; Kappus, Matthew; Bhatti, Lubna; Dafalla, Randa A; Snyder, Laurie D; Bashir, Mustafa R

    To determine interreader and intrareader repeatability and correlations among measurements of computerized tomography-based anthropomorphic measurements in patients with pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation. This was an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study of 23 randomly selected subjects (19 male and 4 female; median age = 69 years; range: 66-77 years) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing pulmonary transplantation, who had also undergone preoperative thoracoabdominal computerized tomography. Five readers of varying imaging experience independently performed the following cross-sectional area measurements at the inferior endplate of the L3 vertebral body: right and left psoas muscles, right and left paraspinal muscles, total abdominal musculature, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. The following measurements were obtained at the inferior endplate of T6: right and left paraspinal muscles with and without including the trapezius muscles and subcutaneous fat. Three readers repeated all measurements to assess intrareader repeatability. Intrareader repeatability was nearly perfect (interclass correlation coefficients = 0.99, P < 0.001). Interreader agreement was excellent across all 5 readers (interclass correlation coefficients: 0.71-0.99, P < 0.001). Coefficients of variance between measures ranged from 3.2%-6.8% for abdominal measurements, but were higher for thoracic measurements, up to 23.9%. Correlation between total paraspinal and total psoas muscle area was strong (r 2 = 0.67, P < 0.001). Thoracic and abdominal musculature had a weaker correlation (r 2 = 0.35-0.38, P < 0.001). Measures of thoracic and abdominal muscle and fat area are highly repeatable in patients with pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation. Measures of muscle area are strongly correlated among abdominal locations, but inversely correlated between abdominal and thoracic locations

  1. Context matters! sources of variability in weekend physical activity among families: a repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Noonan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family involvement is an essential component of effective physical activity (PA interventions in children. However, little is known about the PA levels and characteristics of PA among families. This study used a repeated measures design and multiple data sources to explore the variability and characteristics of weekend PA among families. Methods Families (including a ‘target’ child aged 9–11 years, their primary caregiver(s and siblings aged 6–8 years were recruited through primary schools in Liverpool, UK. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 16 weekend days. ActiGraph.csv files were analysed using the R-package GGIR version 1.1–4. Mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA for each weekend of measurement were calculated using linear mixed models, and variance components were estimated for participant (inter-individual, weekend of measurement, and residual error (intra-individual. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were calculated from the proportion of total variance accounted for by inter-individual sources, and used as a measure of reliability. Diary responses were summed to produce frequency counts. To offer contextual insight into weekend PA among family units, demographic, accelerometer, and diary data were combined to form two case studies representative of low and high active families. Results Twenty-five participants from 7 families participated, including 7 ‘target’ children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 4 boys, 6 siblings (mean age 7.2 ± 0.7 years; 4 boys and 12 adults (7 mothers and 5 fathers. There was a high degree of variability in target children’s (ICC = 0.55, siblings (ICC = 0.38, and mothers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.58, but not in fathers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.83. Children’s weekend PA was mostly unstructured in nature and undertaken with friends, whereas a greater proportion of parents’ weekend

  2. Heart failure re-admission: measuring the ever shortening gap between repeat heart failure hospitalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Bakal

    Full Text Available Many quality-of-care and risk prediction metrics rely on time to first rehospitalization even though heart failure (HF patients may undergo several repeat hospitalizations. The aim of this study is to compare repeat hospitalization models. Using a population-based cohort of 40,667 patients, we examined both HF and all cause re-hospitalizations using up to five years of follow-up. Two models were examined: the gap-time model which estimates the adjusted time between hospitalizations and a multistate model which considered patients to be in one of four states; community-dwelling, in hospital for HF, in hospital for any reason, or dead. The transition probabilities and times were then modeled using patient characteristics and number of repeat hospitalizations. We found that during the five years of follow-up roughly half of the patients returned for a subsequent hospitalization for each repeat hospitalization. Additionally, we noted that the unadjusted time between hospitalizations was reduced ∼40% between each successive hospitalization. After adjustment each additional hospitalization was associated with a 28 day (95% CI: 22-35 reduction in time spent out of hospital. A similar pattern was seen when considering the four state model. A large proportion of patients had multiple repeat hospitalizations. Extending the gap between hospitalizations should be an important goal of treatment evaluation.

  3. Repeated Geophysical Surface Measurements to Estimate the Dynamics of Underground Coalfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Rüter, H.; Lindner, H.

    2009-04-01

    in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to the burning coal in firezone 18. The firezone in Wuda has been visited now for five, that in Queergou for two times. All the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. A so called fireindex deduced from the repeated measurements reveals the dynamics of the coal fire.

  4. The effect of repeated measurements and working memory on the most comfortable level in the ANL test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Holm, Lucas; Kastberg, Tobias; Ibertsson, Tina

    2014-11-01

    To study the effect of a large number of repetitions on the most comfortable level (MCL) when doing the acceptable noise level (ANL) test, and explore if MCL variability is related to central cognitive processes. Twelve MCL repetitions were measured within the ANL test using interleaved methodology during one session using a non-semantic version. Phonological (PWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) was measured. Thirty-two normal-hearing adults. Repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and the coefficient of repeatability (CR) were used to assess the repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA and CR indicated poor agreement between the two first repetitions. After excluding the first repetition, analyses showed that the MCL in the ANL test is reliable. A negative association was found between PWM and MCL variability indicating that subjects with higher PWM show less variability. The findings suggest that, after excluding the first repetition, the MCL in the ANL test is reliable. A single repetition of the MCL in the ANL test should be avoided. If an interleaved methodology is used, a single ANL repetition should be added prior to the actual testing. The findings also suggest that MCL variability is associated to PWM but not VSWM.

  5. Repeatability of measures of inflammatory cell number in bronchial biopsies in atopic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sont, J. K.; Willems, L. N.; Evertse, C. E.; Hooijer, R.; Sterk, P. J.; van Krieken, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Airway pathology is increasingly considered to be a major outcome in asthma research. The aim of this study was to examine the intra-observer, within-section and between-biopsy repeatability, together with the implications for statistical power of a computerized quantitative analysis of inflammatory

  6. Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring biceps brachii oxygenation during sustained and repeated isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Quaresima, Valentina; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    We examine the test-retest reliability of biceps brachii tissue oxygenation index (TOI) parameters measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during a 10-s sustained and a 30-repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contraction task at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (30% MVC) and maximal (100% MVC) intensities. Eight healthy men (23 to 33 yr) were tested on three sessions separated by 3 h and 24 h, and the within-subject reliability of torque and each TOI parameter were determined by Bland-Altman+/-2 SD limits of agreement plots and coefficient of variation (CV). No significant (P>0.05) differences between the three sessions were found for mean values of torque and TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated tasks at both contraction intensities. All TOI parameters were within+/-2 SD limits of agreement. The CVs for torque integral were similar between the sustained and repeated task at both intensities (4 to 7%); however, the CVs for TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated task were lower for 100% MVC (7 to 11%) than for 30% MVC (22 to 36%). It is concluded that the reliability of the biceps brachii NIRS parameters during both sustained and repeated isometric contraction tasks is acceptable.

  7. New procedures to measure synthase and phosphatase activities of bis-phosphoglycerate mutase. Interest for development of therapeutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, P.; Garel, M.C.; Toullec, D.

    1997-01-01

    In red blood cells, a modulation of the level of the allosteric effector of hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) would have implications in the treatment of ischemia and sickle cell anemia. Its concentrations is determined by the relative activities of the synthase and phosphatase reactions of the multifunctional bis-phosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM). In this report we develop first a more direct synthase assay which uses glyceraldehyde phosphate to suppress the aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase reactions. Secondly we propose a radioactive phosphatase assay coupled to chromatographic separation and identification of the reaction products by paper electrophoresis. Such identification of these products allows us to show that the multifunctional BPGM expresses its mutase instead of its phosphatase activity in conditions of competition between the 3-phosphoglycerate and the 2-phospho-glycolate activator in the phosphatase reaction. These two more precise procedures could be used to study the effects of substrate and cofactor analogues regarding potential therapeutic approaches and could be used for clinical analyses to detect deficiency of BPGM. (author)

  8. Spatial Cluster Detection for Repeatedly Measured Outcomes while Accounting for Residential History

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Andrea J.; Gold, Diane R.; Li, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Spatial cluster detection has become an important methodology in quantifying the effect of hazardous exposures. Previous methods have focused on cross-sectional outcomes that are binary or continuous. There are virtually no spatial cluster detection methods proposed for longitudinal outcomes. This paper proposes a new spatial cluster detection method for repeated outcomes using cumulative geographic residuals. A major advantage of this method is its ability to readily incorporate information ...

  9. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measurements designs via SPSS: correction and extension of D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W

    2006-05-01

    D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001) published SPSS syntax to perform power analyses for three complex procedures: ANCOVA, MANOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA. Unfortunately, the published SPSS syntax for performing the repeated measures analysis needed some minor revision in order to perform the analysis correctly. This article presents the corrected syntax that will successfully perform the repeated measures analysis and provides some guidance on modifying the syntax to customize the analysis.

  10. Measuring Aseismic Slip through Characteristically Repeating Earthquakes at the Mendocino Triple Junction, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materna, K.; Taira, T.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ), at the transition point between the San Andreas fault system, the Mendocino Transform Fault, and the Cascadia Subduction Zone, undergoes rapid tectonic deformation and produces more large (M>6.0) earthquakes than any region in California. Most of the active faults of the triple junction are located offshore, making it difficult to characterize both seismic slip and aseismic creep. In this work, we study aseismic creep rates near the MTJ using characteristically repeating earthquakes (CREs) as indicators of creep rate. CREs are generally interpreted as repeated failures of the same seismic patch within an otherwise creeping fault zone; as a consequence, the magnitude and recurrence time of the CREs can be used to determine a fault's creep rate through empirically calibrated scaling relations. Using seismic data from 2010-2016, we identify CREs as recorded by an array of eight 100-Hz PBO borehole seismometers deployed in the Cape Mendocino area. For each event pair with epicenters less than 30 km apart, we compute the cross-spectral coherence of 20 seconds of data starting one second before the P-wave arrival. We then select pairs with high coherence in an appropriate frequency band, which is determined uniquely for each event pair based on event magnitude, station distance, and signal-to-noise ratio. The most similar events (with median coherence above 0.95 at two or more stations) are selected as CREs and then grouped into CRE families, and each family is used to infer a local creep rate. On the Mendocino Transform Fault, we find relatively high creep rates of >5 cm/year that increase closer to the Gorda Ridge. Closer to shore and to the MTJ itself, we find many families of repeaters on and off the transform fault with highly variable creep rates, indicative of the complex deformation that takes place there.

  11. Intra-session repeatability of iridocorneal angle measurements provided by a Scheimpflug photography-based system in healthy eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Belda, Clara; Piñero, David P.; Ruiz Fortes, Pedro; Soto-Negro, Roberto; Moya, Myriam; Pérez Cambrodí, Rafael J.; Artola, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra-session repeatability of measurements of the iridocorneal angle at different meridians in the nasal and temporal areas in healthy eyes using the Sirius Scheimpflug photography-based system in glaucoma analysis mode. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients ranging in age from 36 to 79 years were enrolled in the study. All eyes received a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including a complete anterior segment analysis with the C...

  12. Comparison of Repeated Measurement Design and Mixed Models in Evaluation of the Entonox Effect on Labor Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In many medical studies, the response variable is measured repeatedly over time to evaluate the treatment effect that is known as longitudinal study. The analysis method for this type of data is repeated measures ANOVA that uses only one correlation structure and the results are not valid with inappropriate correlation structure. To avoid this problem, a convenient alternative is mixed models. So, the aim of this study was to compare of mixed and repeated measurement models for examination of the Entonox effect on the labor pain. Methods: This experimental study was designed to compare the effect of Entonox and oxygen inhalation on pain relief between two groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement and mixed models with different correlation structures. Selection and comparison of proper correlation structures performed using Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and restricted log-likelihood. Data were analyzed using SPSS-22. Results: Results of our study showed that all variables containing analgesia methods, labor duration of the first and second stages, and time were significant in these tests. In mixed model, heterogeneous first-order autoregressive, first-order autoregressive, heterogeneous Toeplitz and unstructured correlation structures were recognized as the best structures. Also, all variables were significant in these structures. Unstructured variance covariance matrix was recognized as the worst structure and labor duration of the first and second stages was not significant in this structure. Conclusions: This study showed that the Entonox inhalation has a significant effect on pain relief in primiparous and it is confirmed by all of the models.

  13. Application of a repeat-measure biomarker measurement error model to 2 validation studies: examination of the effect of within-person variation in biomarker measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Sarah Rosner; Spiegelman, Donna; Zhao, Barbara Bojuan; Moshfegh, Alanna; Baer, David J; Willett, Walter C

    2011-03-15

    Repeat-biomarker measurement error models accounting for systematic correlated within-person error can be used to estimate the correlation coefficient (ρ) and deattenuation factor (λ), used in measurement error correction. These models account for correlated errors in the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour diet recall and random within-person variation in the biomarkers. Failure to account for within-person variation in biomarkers can exaggerate correlated errors between FFQs and 24-hour diet recalls. For 2 validation studies, ρ and λ were calculated for total energy and protein density. In the Automated Multiple-Pass Method Validation Study (n=471), doubly labeled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) were measured twice in 52 adults approximately 16 months apart (2002-2003), yielding intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.43 for energy (DLW) and 0.54 for protein density (UN/DLW). The deattenuated correlation coefficient for protein density was 0.51 for correlation between the FFQ and the 24-hour diet recall and 0.49 for correlation between the FFQ and the biomarker. Use of repeat-biomarker measurement error models resulted in a ρ of 0.42. These models were similarly applied to the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (1999-2000). In conclusion, within-person variation in biomarkers can be substantial, and to adequately assess the impact of correlated subject-specific error, this variation should be assessed in validation studies of FFQs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability and Repeatability of Cone Density Measurements in Patients With Stargardt Disease and RPGR-Associated Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Preena; Kasilian, Melissa; Strauss, Rupert; Tee, James; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Tarima, Sergey; Visotcky, Alexis; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-07-01

    To assess reliability and repeatability of cone density measurements by using confocal and (nonconfocal) split-detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) imaging. It will be determined whether cone density values are significantly different between modalities in Stargardt disease (STGD) and retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR)-associated retinopathy. Twelve patients with STGD (aged 9-52 years) and eight with RPGR-associated retinopathy (aged 11-31 years) were imaged using both confocal and split-detector AOSLO simultaneously. Four graders manually identified cone locations in each image that were used to calculate local densities. Each imaging modality was evaluated independently. The data set consisted of 1584 assessments of 99 STGD images (each image in two modalities and four graders who graded each image twice) and 928 RPGR assessments of 58 images (each image in two modalities and four graders who graded each image twice). For STGD assessments the reliability for confocal and split-detector AOSLO was 67.9% and 95.9%, respectively, and the repeatability was 71.2% and 97.3%, respectively. The differences in the measured cone density values between modalities were statistically significant for one grader. For RPGR assessments the reliability for confocal and split-detector AOSLO was 22.1% and 88.5%, respectively, and repeatability was 63.2% and 94.5%, respectively. The differences in cone density between modalities were statistically significant for all graders. Split-detector AOSLO greatly improved the reliability and repeatability of cone density measurements in both disorders and will be valuable for natural history studies and clinical trials using AOSLO. However, it appears that these indices may be disease dependent, implying the need for similar investigations in other conditions.

  15. Reliability and Repeatability of Cone Density Measurements in Patients With Stargardt Disease and RPGR-Associated Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Preena; Kasilian, Melissa; Strauss, Rupert; Tee, James; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Tarima, Sergey; Visotcky, Alexis; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess reliability and repeatability of cone density measurements by using confocal and (nonconfocal) split-detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) imaging. It will be determined whether cone density values are significantly different between modalities in Stargardt disease (STGD) and retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR)–associated retinopathy. Methods Twelve patients with STGD (aged 9–52 years) and eight with RPGR-associated retinopathy (aged 11–31 years) were imaged using both confocal and split-detector AOSLO simultaneously. Four graders manually identified cone locations in each image that were used to calculate local densities. Each imaging modality was evaluated independently. The data set consisted of 1584 assessments of 99 STGD images (each image in two modalities and four graders who graded each image twice) and 928 RPGR assessments of 58 images (each image in two modalities and four graders who graded each image twice). Results For STGD assessments the reliability for confocal and split-detector AOSLO was 67.9% and 95.9%, respectively, and the repeatability was 71.2% and 97.3%, respectively. The differences in the measured cone density values between modalities were statistically significant for one grader. For RPGR assessments the reliability for confocal and split-detector AOSLO was 22.1% and 88.5%, respectively, and repeatability was 63.2% and 94.5%, respectively. The differences in cone density between modalities were statistically significant for all graders. Conclusions Split-detector AOSLO greatly improved the reliability and repeatability of cone density measurements in both disorders and will be valuable for natural history studies and clinical trials using AOSLO. However, it appears that these indices may be disease dependent, implying the need for similar investigations in other conditions. PMID:28738413

  16. EFFICIENCY OF REPEATED AND UNSCHEDULED TRAINING AS THE MEASURES TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS AT SUPPLY DEPOTS AND WAREHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharova Irina Nikolaevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of the state of occupational safety at supply depots and warehouses. It is revealed that most accidents involve the employees who have less than one year’s service. Experience has proven that the preventive activities to avoid occupational traumatism are efficient when a complex of workplace safety measures is implemented. The experts consider the repeated and unscheduled training to be very important events. This is supported by the fact that among the employees of the commercial establishments who underwent repeated and unscheduled training, the number of individuals who suffered an accident is small. The efficient functioning of the occupational safety training system is infeasible without ensuring the motivation for assimilating the knowledge and forming the complete foundation for safe labor. In order to reduce the number of accidents, one should proceed from the principle of responding to accidents to the system for professional risk management.

  17. Measure of O(6)-Alkylguanine-DNA Alkyltransferase Activity in Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes in Culture and Effects of Bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide in the Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurt, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    ...)-alkylguanine in DNA. AGT may be important in DNA repair following injury induced by bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard, HD), since O(sup 6)-alkylguanine is one of the HD alkylation products...

  18. Reproducibility and repeatability of a new computerized software for sagittal spinopelvic and scoliosis curvature radiologic measurements: Keops(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, C; Ferrero, E; Fort, D; Heyberger, C; Le Huec, J-C

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer variability of the computerized radiologic measurements using Keops(®) and to determine the bias between the software and the standard paper measurement. Four individuals measured all frontal and sagittal variables on the 30 X-rays randomly selected on two occasions (test and retest conditions). The Bland-Altman plot was used to determine the degree of agreement between the measurement on paper X-ray and the measurement using Keops(®) for all reviewers and for the two measures; the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for each pair of analyses to assess interobserver reproducibility among the four reviewers for the same patient using either paper X-ray or Keops(®) measurement and finally, concordance correlation coefficient (rc) was calculated to assess intraobserver repeatability among the same reviewer for one patient between the two measure using the same method (paper or Keops(®)). The mean difference calculated between the two methods was minimal at -0, 4° ± 3.41° [-7.1; 6.4] for frontal measurement and 0.1° ± 3.52° [-6.7; 6.8] for sagittal measurement. Keops(®) has a better interobserver reproducibility than paper measurement for determination of the sagittal pelvic parameter (ICC = 0.9960 vs. 0.9931; p = 0.0001). It has a better intraobserver repeatability than paper for determination of Cobbs angle (rc = 0.9872 vs. 0.9808; p rc = 0.9981 vs. 0.9953; p plane and that the use of this software can be recommended for clinical application. Diagnostic, level III.

  19. Measurement and correlation of the solubility of 3,4-bis(3-nitrofurazan-4-yl)furoxan (DNTF) in different solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Guan-Chao; Wang, Jian-Long; Chen, Li-Zhen; Hou, Huan; Li, Jing; Gao, Yu-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The laser monitoring system was used for measuring the solubilities of DNTF. • Three correlation equations were adopted to correlate the experimental values. • The three-dimensional figure between ln x i and 1/T, ln T was obtained. • Thermodynamic properties were calculated by the experimental solubilities. - Abstract: A knowledge of the solubility of 3,4-bis(3-nitrofurazan-4-yl)furoxan (DNTF) in different solvents is essential for crystallization and further theoretical studies. The laser monitoring system was used for measuring the solubility of DNTF in methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, benzene, toluene and n-butanol at temperatures ranging from (298.15 to 338.15) K. Polynomial empirical equation, ideal model and modified Apelblat equation were used to correlate the experimental values. The correlated results of three correlation equations present good consistency with the experimental values. In addition, the modified Apelblat equation produced higher accuracy than the polynomial empirical equation and the ideal equation. The standard dissolution enthalpy, standard dissolution entropy and the Gibbs energy were calculated from the experimental values. The solubility values of DNTF and correlation equations from this experiment would be invoked as basic data and models regarding the crystallization process of DNTF

  20. Intergenic and repeat transcription in human, chimpanzee and macaque brains measured by RNA-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augix Guohua Xu

    Full Text Available Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism's phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes' boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 20-28% of non-ribosomal transcripts correspond to annotated exons and 20-23% to introns. By contrast, transcripts originating within intronic and intergenic repetitive sequences constitute 40-48% of the total brain transcriptome. Notably, some repeat families show elevated transcription. In non-repetitive intergenic regions, we identify and characterize 1,093 distinct regions highly expressed in the human brain. These regions are conserved at the RNA expression level across primates studied and at the DNA sequence level across mammals. A large proportion of these transcripts (20% represents 3'UTR extensions of known genes and may play roles in alternative microRNA-directed regulation. Finally, we show that while transcriptome divergence between species increases with evolutionary time, intergenic transcripts show more expression differences among species and exons show less. Our results show that many yet uncharacterized evolutionary conserved transcripts exist in the human brain. Some of these transcripts may play roles in transcriptional regulation and contribute to evolution of human-specific phenotypic traits.

  1. The Repeated Administration of Resveratrol Has Measurable Effects on Circulating T-Cell Subsets in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that resveratrol exerts immunomodulatory effects with potential clinical value in the amelioration of autoimmune disorders and cancer prevention; however, little is known about the in vivo effects of this naturally occurring polyphenol on human immune cells. We assessed the effects of repeated doses of resveratrol (1000 mg/day for 28 days on circulating immune cells in healthy Japanese individuals. Resveratrol was safe and well tolerated and was associated with significant increases in the numbers of circulating γδ T cells and regulatory T cells and resulted in small, yet significant, decreases in the plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and MCP-1 and a significant increase in the plasma antioxidant activity compared with the corresponding antioxidant baseline activity and with that in four control individuals. In in vitro studies, resveratrol significantly improved the growth of γδ T cells and regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that resveratrol has some clear biological effects on human circulating immune cells. Further studies are necessary to interpret the long-term immunological changes associated with resveratrol treatment.

  2. Perspectives on repeated low-level blast and the measurement of neurotrauma in humans as an occupational exposure risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W.; Dell, K. C.; Yanagi, M. A.; Hassan, D. M.; LoPresti, M. L.

    2017-11-01

    A pressing question in military medical research is the nature and degree of effects on the human brain from occupational repeated exposure to low-level explosive blast, but reliable and effective means to objectively measure such effects remain elusive. In survey results, headache, difficulty sleeping, irritability, cognitive impairment, and a variety of other symptoms consistent with post-concussive syndrome have been reported by those exposed to blast and there was positive correlation between degree of blast exposure and degree of symptomology, but an important goal is to obtain more objective evidence of an effect than self-report alone. This review reflects recent efforts to measure and evaluate such hypothesized effects and current recommendations for ongoing study. Optimal measures are likely those with sensitivity and specificity to systemic effects in mild neurotrauma, that have minimal to no volitional component, and that can be sampled relatively quickly with minimal intrusion in prospective, observational field studies during routine training with explosives. An understanding of an association between parameters of exposure to repeated low-level blast and negative neurologic effects would support the evaluation of clinical implications and development of protective equipment and surveillance protocols where warranted. At present, low-level blast exposure surveillance measurements do not exist as a systematic record for any professional community.

  3. Repeatable aversion across threat types is linked with life-history traits but is dependent on how aversion is measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Reichert, Michael S; Crane, Jodie M S; O'Shea, William; Quinn, John L

    2018-02-01

    Personality research suggests that individual differences in risk aversion may be explained by links with life-history variation. However, few empirical studies examine whether repeatable differences in risk avoidance behaviour covary with life-history traits among individuals in natural populations, or how these links vary depending on the context and the way risk aversion is measured. We measured two different risk avoidance behaviours (latency to enter the nest and inspection time) in wild great tits ( Parus major ) in two different contexts-response to a novel object and to a predator cue placed at the nest-box during incubation---and related these behaviours to female reproductive success and condition. Females responded equally strongly to both stimuli, and although both behaviours were repeatable, they did not correlate. Latency to enter was negatively related to body condition and the number of offspring fledged. By contrast, inspection time was directly explained by whether incubating females had been flushed from the nest before the trial began. Thus, our inferences on the relationship between risk aversion and fitness depend on how risk aversion was measured. Our results highlight the limitations of drawing conclusions about the relevance of single measures of a personality trait such as risk aversion.

  4. Short-term Changes of Apparent Optical Properties in a Shallow Water Environment: Observations from Repeated Airborne Hyperspectral Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; English, D. C.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Toro-Farmer, G.; Herwitz, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm has been developed for AISA imagery over optically shallow waters in Sugarloaf Key of the Florida Keys. The AISA data were collected repeatedly during several days in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. A non-zero near-infrared (NIR) remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was accounted for through iterations, based on the relationship of field-measured Rrs between the NIR and red wavelengths. Validation showed mean ratios of 0.94 to 1.002 between AISA-derived and field-measured Rrs in the blue to red wavelengths, with uncertainties generally turbidity (light attenuation) and bottom contributions. Some of these changes are larger than two times of the Rrs uncertainties from the AISA retrievals, therefore representing statistically significant changes that can be well observed from airborne measurements. The case study suggests that repeated airborne measurements may be used to study short-term changes in shallow water environments, and such a capacity may be enhanced with future geostationary satellite missions specifically designed to observe coastal ecosystems.

  5. Measuring the Dynamic Soil Response During Repeated Wheeling Using Seismic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Carizzon, Marco; Berisso, Feto Esimo

    2013-01-01

    was performed with an agricultural tire (60 kN wheel load) on a gleyic Cambisol. We measured Vp using an acoustic (microseismic) device at various depths before, during (i.e., below the tire), and after wheeling. In addition, we measured bulk density and penetrometer resistance before and after wheeling...

  6. A DESCRIPTION OF QUASAR VARIABILITY MEASURED USING REPEATED SDSS AND POSS IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ivezić, Željko; Becker, Andrew C.; Anderson, Scott F.; Sesar, Branimir; De Vries, Wim; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Lupton, Robert H.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description and statistical interpretation of the optical continuum variability of quasars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has obtained repeated imaging in five UV-to-IR photometric bands for 33,881 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. About 10,000 quasars have an average of 60 observations in each band obtained over a decade along Stripe 82 (S82), whereas the remaining ∼25,000 have 2-3 observations due to scan overlaps. The observed time lags span the range from a day to almost 10 years, and constrain quasar variability at rest-frame time lags of up to 4 years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 Å to 6000 Å. We publicly release a user-friendly catalog of quasars from the SDSS Data Release 7 that have been observed at least twice in SDSS or once in both SDSS and the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and we use it to analyze the ensemble properties of quasar variability. Based on a damped random walk (DRW) model defined by a characteristic timescale and an asymptotic variability amplitude that scale with the luminosity, black hole mass, and rest wavelength for individual quasars calibrated in S82, we can fully explain the ensemble variability statistics of the non-S82 quasars such as the exponential distribution of large magnitude changes. All available data are consistent with the DRW model as a viable description of the optical continuum variability of quasars on timescales of ∼5-2000 days in the rest frame. We use these models to predict the incidence of quasar contamination in transient surveys such as those from the Palomar Transient Factory and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  7. The use of a measure of acute irritation to predict the outcome of repeated usage of hand soap products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Wilkinson, M; McShane, P; Pennington, D; Fernandez, C; Pierce, S

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is an important worldwide problem that could be reduced by better hand hygiene practice. However, an increasing number of healthcare workers are experiencing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands as a result of repeated hand washing. This may lead to a reduced level of compliance with regard to hand hygiene. To assess whether a measure of acute irritation by hand soaps could predict the effects of repeated usage over a 2-week period. In a double-blind, randomized comparison study, the comparative irritation potential of four different hand soaps was assessed over a 24-h treatment period. The effect of repeated hand washing with the hand soap products over a 2-week period in healthy adult volunteers on skin barrier function was then determined by assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), epidermal hydration and a visual assessment using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) at days 0, 7 and 14. A total of 121 subjects from the 123 recruited completed phase 1 of the study. All four products were seen to be significantly different from each other in terms of the irritant reaction observed and all products resulted in a significantly higher irritation compared with the no-treatment control. Seventy-nine of the initial 121 subjects were then enrolled into the repeated usage study. A statistically significant worsening of the clinical condition of the skin as measured by HECSI was seen from baseline to day 14 in those subjects repeatedly washing their hands with two of the four soap products (products C and D) with P-values of 0·02 and 0·01, respectively. Subclinical assessment of the skin barrier function by measuring epidermal hydration was significantly increased from baseline to day 7 after repeated hand washing with products A, B and D but overall no significant change was seen in all four products tested by day 14. A statistically significant increase in TEWL at day 14 was seen for product A (P = 0·02) indicating a

  8. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction...... and measured on a COBAS Mira autoanalyser from Roche. The main findings were that samples for analysis of creatinine should be kept at a temperature of -20 degrees C or lower and frozen and thawed only once. The limit of detection, determined as 3 x SD of 20 determinations of a sample at a low concentration (6...

  9. Repeated stimulation, inter-stimulus interval and inter-electrode distance alters muscle contractile properties as measured by Tensiomyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I.; Francis, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Context The influence of methodological parameters on the measurement of muscle contractile properties using Tensiomyography (TMG) has not been published. Objective To investigate the; (1) reliability of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum muscle displacement (Dm), (2) effect of changing inter-stimulus interval on Dm (using a fixed stimulus amplitude) and contraction time (Tc), (3) the effect of changing inter-electrode distance on Dm and Tc. Design Within subject, repeated measures. Participants 10 participants for each objective. Main outcome measures Dm and Tc of the rectus femoris, measured using TMG. Results The coefficient of variance (CV) and the intra-class correlation (ICC) of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum Dm was 5.7% and 0.92 respectively. Dm was higher when using an inter-electrode distance of 7cm compared to 5cm [P = 0.03] and when using an inter-stimulus interval of 10s compared to 30s [P = 0.017]. Further analysis of inter-stimulus interval data, found that during 10 repeated stimuli Tc became faster after the 5th measure when compared to the second measure [P<0.05]. The 30s inter-stimulus interval produced the most stable Tc over 10 measures compared to 10s and 5s respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that the stimulus amplitude producing maximum Dm of the rectus femoris is reliable. Inter-electrode distance and inter-stimulus interval can significantly influence Dm and/ or Tc. Our results support the use of a 30s inter-stimulus interval over 10s or 5s. Future studies should determine the influence of methodological parameters on muscle contractile properties in a range of muscles. PMID:29451885

  10. Attrition from Web-Based Cognitive Testing: A Repeated Measures Comparison of Gamification Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Skinner, Andy; Coyle, David; Lawrence, Natalia; Munafo, Marcus

    2017-11-22

    The prospect of assessing cognition longitudinally and remotely is attractive to researchers, health practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies alike. However, such repeated testing regimes place a considerable burden on participants, and with cognitive tasks typically being regarded as effortful and unengaging, these studies may experience high levels of participant attrition. One potential solution is to gamify these tasks to make them more engaging: increasing participant willingness to take part and reducing attrition. However, such an approach must balance task validity with the introduction of entertaining gamelike elements. This study aims to investigate the effects of gamelike features on participant attrition using a between-subjects, longitudinal Web-based testing study. We used three variants of a common cognitive task, the Stop Signal Task (SST), with a single gamelike feature in each: one variant where points were rewarded for performing optimally; another where the task was given a graphical theme; and a third variant, which was a standard SST and served as a control condition. Participants completed four compulsory test sessions over 4 consecutive days before entering a 6-day voluntary testing period where they faced a daily decision to either drop out or continue taking part. Participants were paid for each session they completed. A total of 482 participants signed up to take part in the study, with 265 completing the requisite four consecutive test sessions. No evidence of an effect of gamification on attrition was observed. A log-rank test showed no evidence of a difference in dropout rates between task variants (χ 2 2 =3.0, P=.22), and a one-way analysis of variance of the mean number of sessions completed per participant in each variant also showed no evidence of a difference (F 2,262 =1.534, P=.21, partial η 2 =0.012). Our findings raise doubts about the ability of gamification to reduce attrition from longitudinal cognitive testing studies

  11. Direct and Repeated Clinical Measurements of pO2 for Enhancing Cancer Therapy and Other Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Harold M; Williams, Benjamin B; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Jarvis, Lesley A; Chen, Eunice Y; Schaner, Philip E; Ali, Arif; Gallez, Bernard; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Flood, Ann B

    2016-01-01

    The first systematic multi-center study of the clinical use of EPR oximetry has begun, with funding as a PPG from the NCI. Using particulate oxygen sensitive EPR, materials in three complementary forms (India Ink, "OxyChips", and implantable resonators) the clinical value of the technique will be evaluated. The aims include using repeated measurement of tumor pO2 to monitor the effects of treatments on tumor pO2, to use the measurements to select suitable subjects for the type of treatment including the use of hyperoxic techniques, and to provide data that will enable existing clinical techniques which provide data relevant to tumor pO2 but which cannot directly measure it to be enhanced by determining circumstances where they can give dependable information about tumor pO2.

  12. Looking back on a half century of repeat magnetic measurements in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Mioara Mandea; Gilder, Stuart; Courtillot, Vincent; Le Mouël, Jean Louis; Gilbert, Daniel

    Birds do it. Bees do it. And with the discovery of lodestone over 2200 years ago, humans too could incorporate the Earth's magnetic field into their daily lives. Some of the oldest applications for tracking the magnetic field were in land and sea navigation. Magnetic field measurements quickly became an important economic factor in world trade, with documented use dating from the 11th century in China.The measurements are important in other applications as well. For example, rapid field variations are generated by solar activity and its interaction with the terrestrial environment. Large magnetic storms can disrupt satellite operation, communication systems, power transmission networks, and so forth [Campbell, 1997].Geomagnetism also provides a unique opportunity to explore the Earth's outer core, which is mostly liquid (molten) iron, where the field is generated. Field measurements can also yield valuable insights into the location of mineral deposits and aid in applications in the petroleum industry.

  13. Repeated stimulation, inter-stimulus interval and inter-electrode distance alters muscle contractile properties as measured by Tensiomyography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah V Wilson

    Full Text Available The influence of methodological parameters on the measurement of muscle contractile properties using Tensiomyography (TMG has not been published.To investigate the; (1 reliability of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum muscle displacement (Dm, (2 effect of changing inter-stimulus interval on Dm (using a fixed stimulus amplitude and contraction time (Tc, (3 the effect of changing inter-electrode distance on Dm and Tc.Within subject, repeated measures.10 participants for each objective.Dm and Tc of the rectus femoris, measured using TMG.The coefficient of variance (CV and the intra-class correlation (ICC of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum Dm was 5.7% and 0.92 respectively. Dm was higher when using an inter-electrode distance of 7cm compared to 5cm [P = 0.03] and when using an inter-stimulus interval of 10s compared to 30s [P = 0.017]. Further analysis of inter-stimulus interval data, found that during 10 repeated stimuli Tc became faster after the 5th measure when compared to the second measure [P<0.05]. The 30s inter-stimulus interval produced the most stable Tc over 10 measures compared to 10s and 5s respectively.Our data suggest that the stimulus amplitude producing maximum Dm of the rectus femoris is reliable. Inter-electrode distance and inter-stimulus interval can significantly influence Dm and/ or Tc. Our results support the use of a 30s inter-stimulus interval over 10s or 5s. Future studies should determine the influence of methodological parameters on muscle contractile properties in a range of muscles.

  14. Rule-of-thumb adjustment of sample sizes to accommodate dropouts in a two-stage analysis of repeated measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, John E; Tonidandel, Scott; Starbuck, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Recent contributions to the statistical literature have provided elegant model-based solutions to the problem of estimating sample sizes for testing the significance of differences in mean rates of change across repeated measures in controlled longitudinal studies with differentially correlated error and missing data due to dropouts. However, the mathematical complexity and model specificity of these solutions make them generally inaccessible to most applied researchers who actually design and undertake treatment evaluation research in psychiatry. In contrast, this article relies on a simple two-stage analysis in which dropout-weighted slope coefficients fitted to the available repeated measurements for each subject separately serve as the dependent variable for a familiar ANCOVA test of significance for differences in mean rates of change. This article is about how a sample of size that is estimated or calculated to provide desired power for testing that hypothesis without considering dropouts can be adjusted appropriately to take dropouts into account. Empirical results support the conclusion that, whatever reasonable level of power would be provided by a given sample size in the absence of dropouts, essentially the same power can be realized in the presence of dropouts simply by adding to the original dropout-free sample size the number of subjects who would be expected to drop from a sample of that original size under conditions of the proposed study.

  15. Superficial Ultrasound Shear Wave Speed Measurements in Soft and Hard Elasticity Phantoms: Repeatability and Reproducibility Using Two Different Ultrasound Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R.; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S.; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W.; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. Purpose To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three different imaging methods, two different ultrasound systems, and multiple operators. Methods and Materials Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution #1 used an Acuson S3000 ultrasound system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.) and three different shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution #2 used an Aixplorer ultrasound system (Supersonic Imagine) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student’s t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single measure intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. Results For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (p=0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (p>0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5–6.8%), and inter-operator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth

  16. Superficial ultrasound shear wave speed measurements in soft and hard elasticity phantoms: repeatability and reproducibility using two ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L

    2015-03-01

    There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three imaging methods, two US systems and multiple operators. Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution No. 1 used an Acuson S3000 US system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Malvern, PA) and three shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution No. 2 used an Aixplorer US system (SuperSonic Imagine, Bothell, WA) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0 cm, 2.5 cm and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student's t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single-measure intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (P = 0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (P > 0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5-6.8%), and interoperator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥ 0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth significantly affected measured SWS (P

  17. Enhanced explosive sensing based on bis(methyltetraphenyl)silole nanoaggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Bomina; Sohn, Honglae

    2018-01-01

    New photoluminescent bis(methyltetraphenyl)silole nanoaggregates for the detection of trinitrotoluene (TNT) were developed by using aggregation-induced emission property. Bis(methyltetraphenyl)silole nanoaggregates exhibited that photoluminescence (PL) intensity was increased when the water fraction was increased to 90% by volume. Relative PL efficiency of bis(methyltetraphenyl)silole nanoaggregates was exponentially increased to the percent of water fraction and particle diameter was dependent on solvent composition. Particle size of bis(methyltetraphenyl)silole nanoaggregates was tuned by controlling the water fraction by volume. Absolute quantum yield of bis(methyltetraphenyl)silole nanoaggregates in 90% water volume fraction were 32.4%, which increases by about 40 times. Detection of TNT was achieved from the quenching PL measurement of bis(methyltetraphenyl)silole nanoaggregates by adding the TNT. A linear Stern-Volmer relationship was observed for the detection of TNT.

  18. Repeated serum creatinine measurement in primary care: Not all patients have chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentille Lorente, Delicia; Gentille Lorente, Jorge; Salvadó Usach, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of kidney failure in patients from a primary care centre in a basic healthcare district with laboratory availability allowing serum creatinine measurements. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study. A basic healthcare district serving 23,807 people aged ≥ 18 years. Prevalence of kidney failure among 17,240 patients having at least one laboratory measurement available was 8.5% (mean age 77.6 ± 12.05 years). In 33.2% of such patients an occult kidney failure was found (98.8% were women). Prevalence of chronic kidney failure among 10,011 patients having at least 2 laboratory measurements available (≥ 3 months apart) was 5.5% with mean age being 80.1 ± 10.0 years (most severely affected patients were those aged 75 to 84); 59.7% were men and 76.3% of cases were in stage 3. An occult kidney failure was found in 5.3% of patients with women being 86.2% of them (a glomerular filtration rate<60 ml/min was estimated for plasma creatinine levels of 0.9 mg/dl or higher). Comparison of present findings to those previously reported demonstrates the need for further studies on the prevalence of overall (chronic and acute) kidney failure in Spain in order to estimate the real scope of the disease. Primary care physicians play a critical role in disease detection, therapy, control and recording (in medical records). MDRD equation is useful and practical to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic value of repeated serum CA 125 measurements in first trimester pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Rein, D T; Foth, D; Eibach, H W; Kurbacher, C M; Mallmann, P; Römer, T

    2001-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of maternal CA 125 in patients with symptomatic first trimester pregnancy and to evaluate the prognostic significance of CA 125 versus beta-hCG in early pregnancies with intact fetal heartbeat, complicated by vaginal bleeding. Two prospective open-label studies with longitudinal follow-up in the second trial. Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cologne. Study 1: 168 patients presenting between gestational weeks 6 and 12 with: extrauterine pregnancy, 29; missed abortion, 50; incomplete spontaneous abortion, 38; imminent abortion, 33; and normal pregnancy (no history of endometriosis or ovarian mass), 18. Study 2: Fifty consecutive patients with vaginal bleeding during gestational weeks 6-12 all of whom having demostrable fetal heartbeat. Eighteen patients finally aborted whereas the remainder had normally continuing pregnancy until term. Study 1: Single serum determinations of CA 125 and beta-hCG were correlated with the different disorders observed. Study 2: Two sequential measurements of serum CA 125 and beta-hCG performed within a 5-7 days interval were related to the outcome of pregnancy as indicated by changes of the ultrasound presentation, miscarriage, future hospitalization, or delivery. Study 1: Patients with vaginal bleeding generally had higher median CA 125 values (38 IU/ml; range 1.3-540) compared to non-bleeding patients (17.8 IU/ml; range 1.0-157). No statistically significant differences in regard to median serum CA 125 levels between symptomatic and normal pregnancies occurred: normal pregnancy, 25.5 IU/ml (range 3.2-97); ectopic pregnancy, 26 IU/ml (range 1.3-157); missed abortion, 19.1IU/ml (range 1-242); threatened abortion, 48 IU/ml (range 5.2-540); spontaneous abortion, 40 IU/ml (range 5.4-442). Study 2: Initial CA 125 levels did not differ significantly between both groups of patients with 27/32 non-aborters and 13/18 aborters showing concentrations below 65 IU/ml. After 5-7 days, CA

  20. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of self absorption correction factor (SAF) for gross alpha measurement in water samples by BIS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveendran, Nanda; Baburajan, A.; Ravi, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    The laboratories accredited by AERB undertake the measurement of gross alpha and gross beta in packaged drinking water from manufactures across the country and analyze as per the procedure of Bureau of Indian standards. The accurate measurements of gross alpha in the drinking water sample is a challenge due to the self absorption of alpha particle from varying precipitate (Fe(OH) 3 +BaSO 4 ) thickness and total dissolved solids (TDS). This paper deals with a study on tracer recovery generation and self absorption correction factor (SAF). ESL, Tarapur has participated in an inter-laboratory comparison exercise conducted by IDS, RSSD, BARC as per the recommendation of AERB for the accredited laboratories. The thickness of the precipitate is an important aspect which affected the counting process. The activity was reported after conducting multiple experiments with uranium tracer recovery and precipitate thickness. Later on to make our efforts simplified, an average tracer recovery and Self Absorption correction Factor (SAF) was derived by the present experiment and the same was used for the re-calculation of activity from the count rate reported earlier

  2. The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing thresholds: an evaluation based on repeated measurements in the German printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäper, Michael; Seeber, Andreas; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. The study comprised four repeated examinations during 5 years and started with 333 male workers. Lifetime weighted average exposures (LWAE) to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings; recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study (toluene, active sampling; noise, stationary measurements). Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 kHz. Mean LWAE exposures to toluene and noise were 45+/-17 ppm plus 82+/-7 dB(A) for high toluene exposed and 10+/-7 ppm plus 82+/-4 dB(A) for low toluene exposed subjects, mean current exposures were 26+/-20 ppm plus 81+/-4 dB(A) and 3+/-3 ppm plus 82+/-4 dB(A). Mean exposure duration was 21.3+/-6.5 years for long exposed and 5.9+/-2.2 years for short exposed subjects. Repeated measurement analyses of variance did not reveal effects of toluene intensity, exposure duration and interactions between toluene intensity and noise intensity. Noise intensity [79+/-3 dB(A) vs. 84+/-1 dB(A)] was significant for auditory thresholds. A case concept utilising developments of individual auditory thresholds did not reveal significant toluene effects. Logistic models including age, exposure duration, toluene in ambient air, current noise and either hippuric acid or ortho-cresol (o-cresol) found only age to be significant for elevated OR of high frequency hearing loss. Due to missing toluene effects, it was concluded that the threshold level for developing hearing loss as a result of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise might be above the current limit of 50 ppm toluene.

  3. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  4. Repeated measurement of nasal lavage fluid chemokines in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Terry L; Tudor, Gail E; Ivins, Sally S; Murphy, Paula C; Peden, David B; Henderson, Frederick W

    2006-02-01

    Inflammatory processes at the mucosal surface may play a role in maintenance of asthma pathophysiology. Cross-sectional studies in asthmatic patients suggest that chemokines such as interleukin 8 (IL-8) are overproduced by respiratory epithelium. To test the hypothesis that chemokine levels are persistently elevated in the respiratory secretions of asthmatic children at a stable baseline. We measured nasal lavage fluid (NLF) levels of chemokines and other mediators at 3- to 4-month intervals in a longitudinal study of asthmatic children, with nonasthmatic siblings as controls. In a linear mixed-model analysis, both family and day of visit had significant effects on nasal mediators. Thus, data for 12 asthmatic-nonasthmatic sibling pairs who had 3 or more same-day visits were analyzed separately. For sibling pairs, median eosinophil cationic protein levels derived from serial measurements in NLF were elevated in asthmatic patients compared with nonasthmatic patients, with a near-significant tendency for elevation of total protein and eotaxin levels as well. However, no significant differences were found for IL-8 or several other chemokines. Ratios of IL-13 or IL-5 to interferon-gamma released by house dust mite antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, tested on a single occasion, were significantly increased for asthmatic patients. Substantial temporal and family-related variability exists in nasal inflammation in asthmatic children. Although higher levels of eosinophil cationic protein are usually present in NLF of patients with stable asthma compared with patients without asthma, chemokines other than eotaxin are not consistently increased. Eosinophil activation at the mucosal surface is a more consistent predictor of asthmatic symptoms than nonspecific elevation of epithelium-derived inflammatory chemokine levels.

  5. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eNoone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every six months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardised fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Patients with Insomnia: A Repeated Measurement Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Spiegelhalder

    Full Text Available Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system disorders. It is characterized by increased arousal levels, however, the neurobiological causes and correlates of hyperarousal in insomnia remain to be further determined. In the current study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used in the morning and evening in a well-characterized sample of 20 primary insomnia patients (12 females; 8 males; 42.7 ± 13.4 years and 20 healthy good sleepers (12 females; 8 males; 44.1 ± 10.6 years. The most important inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and glutamate/glutamine (Glx, were assessed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. The primary hypothesis, a diurnal effect on GABA levels in patients with insomnia, could not be confirmed. Moreover, the current results did not support previous findings of altered GABA levels in individuals with insomnia. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that GABA levels in the ACC may be positively associated with habitual sleep duration, and, thus, reduced GABA levels may be a trait marker of objective sleep disturbances. Moreover, there was a significant GROUP x MEASUREMENT TIME interaction effect on Glx in the DLPFC with increasing Glx levels across the day in the patients but not in the control group. Therefore, Glx levels may reflect hyperarousal at bedtime in those with insomnia. Future confirmatory studies should include larger sample sizes to investigate brain metabolites in different subgroups of insomnia.

  7. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Martha; Semkovska, Maria; Carton, Mary; Dunne, Ross; Horgan, John-Paul; O'Kane, Breige; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2014-01-01

    Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ) for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability, and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every 6 months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardized fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  8. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). METHODS: A prospective study consisting of patients...... with active nAMD enrolled in the Distance of Choroid Study at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Patients underwent three 12×9 mm macular raster scans using the deep range imaging (DRI) OCT-1 SS-OCT (Topcon) device in a single imaging session. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were calculated for the ETDRS...... macular subfields. Repeatability was calculated according to methods described by Bland and Altman. RESULTS: 39 eyes of 39 patients with nAMD were included with a mean (±SD) age of 73.9 (±7.2) years. The mean (±SD) retinal thickness of the central macular subfield was 225.7 μm (±12.4 μm...

  9. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  10. Use of count-based image reconstruction to evaluate the variability and repeatability of measured standardised uptake values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Kaneta

    Full Text Available Standardized uptake values (SUVs are the most widely used quantitative imaging biomarkers in PET. It is important to evaluate the variability and repeatability of measured SUVs. Phantom studies seem to be essential for this purpose; however, repetitive phantom scanning is not recommended due to the decay of radioactivity. In this study, we performed count-based image reconstruction to avoid the influence of decay using two different PET/CT scanners. By adjusting the ratio of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose solution to tap water, a NEMA IEC body phantom was set for SUVs of 4.0 inside six hot spheres. The PET data were obtained using two scanners (Aquiduo and Celesteion; Toshiba Medical Systems, Tochigi, Japan. We set the start time for image reconstruction when the total radioactivity in the phantom was 2.53 kBq/cc, and employed the counts of the first 2-min acquisition as the standard. To maintain the number of counts for each image, we set the acquisition time for image reconstruction depending on the decay of radioactivity. We obtained 50 images, and calculated the SUVmax and SUVpeak of all six spheres in each image. The average values of the SUVmax were used to calculate the recovery coefficients to compare those measured by the two different scanners. Bland-Altman analyses of the SUVs measured by the two scanners were also performed. The measured SUVs using the two scanners exhibited a 10-30% difference, and the standard deviation (SD of the measured SUVs was between 0.1-0.2. The Celesteion always exhibited higher values than the Aquiduo. The smaller sphere exhibited a larger SD, and the SUVpeak had a smaller SD than the SUVmax. The Bland-Altman analyses showed poor agreement between the SUVs measured by the two scanners. The recovery coefficient curves obtained from the two scanners were considerably different. The Celesteion exhibited higher recovery coefficients than the Aquiduo, especially at approximately 20-mm-diameter. Additionally, the curves

  11. Performance of bias-correction methods for exposure measurement error using repeated measurements with and without missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistatou, Evridiki; McNamee, Roseanne

    2012-12-10

    It is known that measurement error leads to bias in assessing exposure effects, which can however, be corrected if independent replicates are available. For expensive replicates, two-stage (2S) studies that produce data 'missing by design', may be preferred over a single-stage (1S) study, because in the second stage, measurement of replicates is restricted to a sample of first-stage subjects. Motivated by an occupational study on the acute effect of carbon black exposure on respiratory morbidity, we compare the performance of several bias-correction methods for both designs in a simulation study: an instrumental variable method (EVROS IV) based on grouping strategies, which had been recommended especially when measurement error is large, the regression calibration and the simulation extrapolation methods. For the 2S design, either the problem of 'missing' data was ignored or the 'missing' data were imputed using multiple imputations. Both in 1S and 2S designs, in the case of small or moderate measurement error, regression calibration was shown to be the preferred approach in terms of root mean square error. For 2S designs, regression calibration as implemented by Stata software is not recommended in contrast to our implementation of this method; the 'problematic' implementation of regression calibration although substantially improved with use of multiple imputations. The EVROS IV method, under a good/fairly good grouping, outperforms the regression calibration approach in both design scenarios when exposure mismeasurement is severe. Both in 1S and 2S designs with moderate or large measurement error, simulation extrapolation severely failed to correct for bias. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Determining Criteria to Predict Repeatability of Performance in Older Adults: Using Coefficients of Variation for Strength and Functional Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Isaac Selva; Bird, Stephen R; Westfold, Ben A; Shield, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measures of muscle strength and functional capacity in older adults are essential. The aim of this study was to determine whether coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals obtained at the first session can infer repeatability of performance in a subsequent session. Forty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 68.6 ± 6.1 years; age range 60-80 years) completed two assessment sessions, and on each occasion undertook: dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic quadriceps strength, 6 meter fast walk (6MFWT), timed up and go (TUG), stair climb and descent, and vertical jump. Significant linear relationships were observed between CVs in session 1 and the percentage difference between sessions 1 and 2 for torque at 60, 120, 240 and 360°/s, 6MFWT, TUG, stair climb, and stair descent. The results of this study could be used to establish criteria for determining an acceptably reliable performance in strength and functional tests.

  13. Brachial artery responses to ambient pollution, temperature, and humidity in people with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Horton, Edward S; Cohen, Allison; Coull, Brent A; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schwartz, Joel D; Mittleman, Murray A; Li, Yongsheng; Stone, Peter H; de Souza, Celine; Lamparello, Brooke; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R

    2014-03-01

    Extreme weather and air pollution are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. In a population with diabetes, we conducted a novel assessment of vascular brachial artery responses both to ambient pollution and to weather (temperature and water vapor pressure, a measure of humidity). Sixty-four 49- to 85-year-old Boston residents with type 2 diabetes completed up to five study visits (279 repeated measures). Brachial artery diameter (BAD) was measured by ultrasound before and after brachial artery occlusion [i.e., flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] and before and after nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD). Ambient concentrations of fine particulate mass (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, particle number, and sulfate were measured at our monitoring site; ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were obtained from state monitors. Particle exposure in the home and during each trip to the clinic (home/trip exposure) was measured continuously and as a 5-day integrated sample. We used linear models with fixed effects for participants, adjusting for date, season, temperature, and water vapor pressure on the day of each visit, to estimate associations between our outcomes and interquartile range increases in exposure. Baseline BAD was negatively associated with particle pollution, including home/trip-integrated BC (-0.02 mm; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.003, for a 0.28 μg/m3 increase in BC), OC (-0.08 mm; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.03, for a 1.61 μg/m3 increase) as well as PM2.5, 5-day average ambient PM2.5, and BC. BAD was positively associated with ambient temperature and water vapor pressure. However, exposures were not consistently associated with FMD or NMD. Brachial artery diameter, a predictor of cardiovascular risk, decreased in association with particle pollution and increased in association with ambient temperature in our study population of adults with type 2 diabetes. Zanobetti A, Luttmann

  14. Toward a simple, repeatable, non-destructive approach to measuring stable-isotope ratios of water within tree stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulerson, S.; Volkmann, T.; Pangle, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional methodologies for measuring ratios of stable isotopes within the xylem water of trees involve destructive coring of the stem. A recent approach involves permanently installed probes within the stem, and an on-site assembly of pumps, switching valves, gas lines, and climate-controlled structure for field deployment of a laser spectrometer. The former method limits the possible temporal resolution of sampling, and sample size, while the latter may not be feasible for many research groups. We present results from initial laboratory efforts towards developing a non-destructive, temporally-resolved technique for measuring stable isotope ratios within the xylem flow of trees. Researchers have used direct liquid-vapor equilibration as a method to measure isotope ratios of the water in soil pores. Typically, this is done by placing soil samples in a fixed container, and allowing the liquid water within the soil to come into isotopic equilibrium with the headspace of the container. Water can also be removed via cryogenic distillation or azeotropic distillation, with the resulting liquid tested for isotope ratios. Alternatively, the isotope ratios of the water vapor can be directly measured using a laser-based water vapor isotope analyzer. Well-established fractionation factors and the isotope ratios in the vapor phase are then used to calculate the isotope ratios in the liquid phase. We propose a setup which would install a single, removable chamber onto a tree, where vapor samples could non-destructively and repeatedly be taken. These vapor samples will be injected into a laser-based isotope analyzer by a recirculating gas conveyance system. A major part of what is presented here is in the procedure of taking vapor samples at 100% relative humidity, appropriately diluting them with completely dry N2 calibration gas, and injecting them into the gas conveyance system without inducing fractionation in the process. This methodology will be helpful in making

  15. Accuracy and repeatability of quantitative fluoroscopy for the measurement of sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Alexander; Breen, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) was developed to measure intervertebral mechanics in vivo and has been found to have high repeatability and accuracy for the measurement of intervertebral rotations. However, sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation (FCR) are potential measures of stability but have not yet been fully validated for current QF. This study investigated the repeatability and accuracy of QF for measuring these variables. Repeatability was assessed from L2-S1 in 20 human volunteers. Accuracy was investigated using 10 consecutive measurements from each of two pairs of linked and instrumented dry human vertebrae as reference; one which tilted without translation and one which translated without tilt. The results found intra- and inter-observer repeatability for translation to be 1.1mm or less (SEM) with fair to substantial reliability (ICC 0.533-0.998). Intra-observer repeatability of FCR location for inter-vertebral rotations of 5° and above ranged from 1.5mm to 1.8mm (SEM) with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.626-0.988). Inter-observer repeatability for FCR ranged from 1.2mm to 5.7mm, also with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.621-0.878). Reliability was substantial (ICC>0.81) for 10/16 measures for translation and 5/8 for FCR location. Accuracy for translation was 0.1mm (fixed centre) and 2.2mm (moveable centre), with an FCR error of 0.3mm(x) and 0.4mm(y) (fixed centre). This technology was found to have a high level of accuracy and with a few exceptions, moderate to substantial repeatability for the measurement of translation and FCR from fluoroscopic motion sequences. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain oscillations and BIS/BAS (behavioral inhibition/activation system) effects on processing masked emotional cues. ERS/ERD and coherence measures of alpha band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Mazza, Guido

    2009-11-01

    Alpha brain oscillation modulation was analyzed in response to masked emotional facial expressions. In addition, behavioural activation (BAS) and behavioural inhibition systems (BIS) were considered as an explicative factor to verify the effect of motivational significance on cortical activity. Nineteen subjects were submitted to an ample range of facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral). The results demonstrated that anterior frontal sites were more active than central and posterior sites in response to facial stimuli. Moreover, right-side responses varied as a function of emotional types, with an increased right-frontal activity for negative emotions. Finally, whereas higher BIS subjects generated a more right hemisphere activation for some negative emotions (such as fear, anger, and surprise), Reward-BAS subjects were more responsive to positive emotion (happiness) within the left hemisphere. Valence and potential threatening power of facial expressions were considered to elucidate these cortical differences.

  17. Repeated assessment of orthotopic glioma pO2 by multi-site EPR oximetry: A technique with the potential to guide therapeutic optimization by repeated measurements of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadeem; Mupparaju, Sriram; Hou, Huagang; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swartz, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia plays a vital role in therapeutic resistance. Consequently, measurements of tumor pO2 could be used to optimize the outcome of oxygen-dependent therapies, such as, chemoradiation. However, the potential optimizations are restricted by the lack of methods to repeatedly and quantitatively assess tumor pO2 during therapies, particularly in gliomas. We describe the procedures for repeated measurements of orthotopic glioma pO2 by multi-site electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. This oximetry approach provides simultaneous measurements of pO2 at more than one site in the glioma and contralateral cerebral tissue. The pO2 of intracerebral 9L, C6, F98 and U251 tumors, as well as contralateral brain, were measured repeatedly for five consecutive days. The 9L glioma was well oxygenated with pO2 of 27 - 36 mm Hg, while C6, F98 and U251 glioma were hypoxic with pO2 of 7 - 12 mm Hg. The potential of multi-site EPR oximetry to assess temporal changes in tissue pO2 was investigated in rats breathing 100% O2. A significant increase in F98 tumor and contralateral brain pO2 was observed on day 1 and day 2, however, glioma oxygenation declined on subsequent days. In conclusion, EPR oximetry provides the capability to repeatedly assess temporal changes in orthotopic glioma pO2. This information could be used to test and optimize the methods being developed to modulate tumor hypoxia. Furthermore, EPR oximetry could be potentially used to enhance the outcome of chemoradiation by scheduling treatments at times of increase in glioma pO2. PMID:22079559

  18. Validation and Reliability of a Smartphone Application for the International Prostate Symptom Score Questionnaire: A Randomized Repeated Measures Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Ko, Young Myoung; Chun, Dong-Il; Yang, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone-based assessment may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool for patients. There have been many attempts to create a smartphone diagnostic tool for clinical use in various medical fields but few have demonstrated scientific validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a smartphone application of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and to demonstrate its validity and reliability. Methods From June 2012 to May 2013, a total of 1581 male participants (≥40 years old), with or without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), visited our urology clinic via the health improvement center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Republic of Korea) and were enrolled in this study. A randomized repeated measures crossover design was employed using a smartphone application of the IPSS and the conventional paper form of the IPSS. Paired t test under a hypothesis of non-inferior trial was conducted. For the reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured. Results The total score of the IPSS (P=.289) and each item of the IPSS (P=.157-1.000) showed no differences between the paper version and the smartphone version of the IPSS. The mild, moderate, and severe LUTS groups showed no differences between the two versions of the IPSS. A significant correlation was noted in the total group (ICC=.935, Psmartphones could participate. Conclusions The validity and reliability of the smartphone application version were comparable to the conventional paper version of the IPSS. The smartphone application of the IPSS could be an effective method for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24513507

  19. An open source, 3D printed preclinical MRI phantom for repeated measures of contrast agents and reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B L; Ludwig, K D; Adamson, E B; Eliceiri, K W; Fain, S B

    2018-03-01

    In medical imaging, clinicians, researchers and technicians have begun to use 3D printing to create specialized phantoms to replace commercial ones due to their customizable and iterative nature. Presented here is the design of a 3D printed open source, reusable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom, capable of flood-filling, with removable samples for measurements of contrast agent solutions and reference standards, and for use in evaluating acquisition techniques and image reconstruction performance. The phantom was designed using SolidWorks, a computer-aided design software package. The phantom consists of custom and off-the-shelf parts and incorporates an air hole and Luer Lock system to aid in flood filling, a marker for orientation of samples in the filled mode and bolt and tube holes for assembly. The cost of construction for all materials is under $90. All design files are open-source and available for download. To demonstrate utility, B 0 field mapping was performed using a series of gadolinium concentrations in both the unfilled and flood-filled mode. An excellent linear agreement (R 2 >0.998) was observed between measured relaxation rates (R 1 /R 2 ) and gadolinium concentration. The phantom provides a reliable setup to test data acquisition and reconstruction methods and verify physical alignment in alternative nuclei MRI techniques (e.g. carbon-13 and fluorine-19 MRI). A cost-effective, open-source MRI phantom design for repeated quantitative measurement of contrast agents and reference standards in preclinical research is presented. Specifically, the work is an example of how the emerging technology of 3D printing improves flexibility and access for custom phantom design.

  20. Predictive value of repeated measurements of luteal progesterone and estradiol levels in patients with intrauterine insemination and controlled ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Simopoulou, Maria; Giner, Maria; Drakakis, Petros; Panagopoulos, Perikles; Vlahos, Nikolaos

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess if the difference of repeated measurements of estradiol and progesterone during luteal phase predict the outcome of intrauterine insemination. Prospective study. Reproductive clinic. 126 patients with infertility. Patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH (50-150 IU/d). The day of IUI patients were given p.o natural micronized progesterone in a dose of 100 mg/tds. The area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (ROC curve) in predicting clinical pregnancy for % change of estradiol level on days 6 and 10 was 0.892 with 95% CI: 0.82-0.94. A cutoff value of change > -29.5% had a sensitivity of 85.7 with a specificity of 90.2. The corresponding ROC curve for % change of progesterone level was 0.839 with 95% CI: 0.76-0.90. A cutoff value of change > -33% had a sensitivity of 85 with a specificity of 75. The % change of estradiol and progesterone between days 6 and 10 has a predictive ability of pregnancy after IUI with COS of 89.2% and 83.4%, respectively. The addition of % of progesterone to % change of estradiol does not improve the predictive ability of % estradiol and should not be used.

  1. Comparing a single case to a control group - Applying linear mixed effects models to repeated measures data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    In neuropsychological research, single-cases are often compared with a small control sample. Crawford and colleagues developed inferential methods (i.e., the modified t-test) for such a research design. In the present article, we suggest an extension of the methods of Crawford and colleagues employing linear mixed models (LMM). We first show that a t-test for the significance of a dummy coded predictor variable in a linear regression is equivalent to the modified t-test of Crawford and colleagues. As an extension to this idea, we then generalized the modified t-test to repeated measures data by using LMMs to compare the performance difference in two conditions observed in a single participant to that of a small control group. The performance of LMMs regarding Type I error rates and statistical power were tested based on Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that starting with about 15-20 participants in the control sample Type I error rates were close to the nominal Type I error rate using the Satterthwaite approximation for the degrees of freedom. Moreover, statistical power was acceptable. Therefore, we conclude that LMMs can be applied successfully to statistically evaluate performance differences between a single-case and a control sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohotoa Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289 and control group (n=244 were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs, intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048. Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09 and at six weeks (mean=1.09 were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11 and at six weeks (mean =1.07 with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their

  3. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the

  4. Diabetic Foot Prevention: Repeatability of the Loran Platform Plantar Pressure and Load Distribution Measurements in Nondiabetic Subjects during Bipedal Standing—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Zequera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the repeatability of the Loran Platform and evaluate the variability of plantar pressure and postural balance, during barefoot standing in nondiabetic subjects, for future diabetic foot clinical evaluation. Measurements were taken for eight nondiabetic subjects (4 females, 4 males, aged 47±7.2 years who had no musculoskeletal symptoms. Five variables were measured with the platform in the barefoot standing position. Ten measurements were taken using two different techniques for feet and posture positioning, during three sessions, once a week. For most measurements, no significant effect over time was found with Student's t-test (P<.000125. The ANOVA test of statistical significance confirmed that measurement differences between subjects showed higher variations than measurements taken from the same subject (P<.001. The measurements taken by the Loran Platform system were found to be repeatable.

  5. Long-term, repeated measurements of mouse cortical microflow at the same region of interest with high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Yutaka; Pinard, Elisabeth; Tran-Dinh, Alexy; Schiszler, Istvan; Kubis, Nathalie; Tomita, Minoru; Suzuki, Norihiro; Seylaz, Jacques

    2011-02-04

    A method for long-term, repeated, semi-quantitative measurements of cerebral microflow at the same region of interest (ROI) with high spatial resolution was developed and applied to mice subjected to focal arterial occlusion. A closed cranial window was chronically implanted over the left parieto-occipital cortex. The anesthetized mouse was placed several times, e.g., weekly, under a dynamic confocal microscope, and Rhodamine B-isothiocyanate-dextran was each time intravenously injected as a bolus, while microflow images were video recorded. Left and right tail veins were sequentially catheterized in a mouse three times at maximum over a 1.5 months' observation period. Smearing of the input function resulting from the use of intravenous injection was shown to be sufficiently small. The distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) was thermocoagulated through the cranial window in six mice, and five sham-operated mice were studied in parallel. Dye injection and video recording were conducted four times in this series, i.e., before and at 10 min, 7 and 30 days after sham operation or MCA occlusion. Pixelar microflow values (1/MTT) in a matrix of approximately 50×50 pixels were displayed on a two-dimensional (2-D) map, and the frequency distribution of the flow values was also calculated. No significant changes in microflow values over time were detected in sham-operated mice, while the time course of flow changes in the ischemic penumbral area in operated mice was similar to those reported in the literature. This method provides a powerful tool to investigate long-term changes in mouse cortical microflow under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Peristera, Paraskevi; Eib, Constanze; Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2017-12-08

    Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity. Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account. We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity. Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  7. Comparison of diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire with measures from repeated 24-hour dietary recalls. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Andersen, Lene Frost; Lund, Eiliv

    2007-10-01

    To compare diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs). The participants answered an FFQ after completing four, repeated 24HDRs during a year. Norway, nationwide. Of 500 women randomly selected from The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (the Norwegian arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), 286 agreed to participate and 238 completed the study. On the group level, the FFQ overestimated absolute intake in seven and underestimated intake in six of 21 food groups. Intakes of energy, fat, added sugar and alcohol were lower in the FFQ than in the 24HDRs, whereas intake of fibre was higher. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ranged from 0.13 (desserts) to 0.82 (coffee) for foods, and from 0.25 (beta-carotene) to 0.67 (alcohol) for nutrients. Three per cent of the observations on nutrient intake fell in the opposite quintile when classified according to the FFQ as compared with the 24HDR. The median calibration coefficient, calculated by regression of the 24HDR data on the FFQ data, was 0.57 for foods and 0.38 for nutrients. The FFQ's ability to rank subjects was good for foods eaten frequently and fairly good for macronutrients in terms of energy percentages. Weaker ranking abilities were seen for foods eaten infrequently and for some micronutrients. The results underline the necessity of performing measurement error corrections.

  8. Does repeat Hb measurement within 2 hours after a normal initial Hb in stable trauma patients add value to trauma evaluation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierink, Joanne C.; Joosse, Pieter; de Castro, Steve M. M.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2014-01-01

    In our level I trauma center, it is considered common practice to repeat blood haemoglobin measurements in patients within 2 h after admission. However, the rationale behind this procedure is elusive and can be considered labour-intensive, especially in patients in whom haemorrhaging is not to be

  9. Comparison of anterior segment measurements using Sirius Topographer® and Nidek Axial Length-Scan® with assessing repeatability in patients with cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Duman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate anterior segment measurements obtained using CSO Sirius Topographer® (CSO, Firenze, Italy and Nidek Axial Length (AL-Scan® (Nidek CO., Gamagori, Japan. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients were included in this prospective study. The central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, white-to-white distance (WTW, flat keratometry (K1, steep keratometry (K2, and mean keratometry (K values were randomly measured three times with each device by the same examiner. The intraclass correlation coefficient of repeatability was analyzed. The compatibility of both devices was evaluated using the 95% limits of the agreement proposed by Bland and Altman. Results: Examiner achieved high repeatability for all parameters on each device except the WTW measured by Sirius. All measurements except WTW and K1 taken with the Sirius were higher than that taken with the Nidek AL-Scan®. The difference in CCT, ACD, and WTW values was statistically significant. Conclusion: High repeatability of the measurements was achieved on both devices. Although Km, K1, and K2 measurements of the Sirius and the AL-Scan® showed good agreement, WTW, CCT, and ACD measurements significantly differed between two devices. Thus, anterior segment measurements except for Km, K1, and K2 cannot be used interchangeably between Sirius and Nidek AL-Scan® devices.

  10. Repeatability of Volume and Regional Body Composition Measurements of the Lower Limb Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Zerahn, Bo; Juul, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    was calculated using the density of bone mineral content, fat, and lean mass. The repeatability of the volume of the lower limb and regional thigh and lower leg tissue composition (bone mineral content, fat, and lean mass) was good with intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.97 to 0.99, and narrow limits...

  11. Recommendations for analysis of repeated-measures designs: testing and correcting for sphericity and use of manova and mixed model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    A common experimental design in ophthalmic research is the repeated-measures design in which at least one variable is a within-subject factor. This design is vulnerable to lack of 'sphericity' which assumes that the variances of the differences among all possible pairs of within-subject means are equal. Traditionally, this design has been analysed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-anova) but increasingly more complex methods such as multivariate anova (manova) and mixed model analysis (MMA) are being used. This article surveys current practice in the analysis of designs incorporating different factors in research articles published in three optometric journals, namely Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (OPO), Optometry and Vision Science (OVS), and Clinical and Experimental Optometry (CXO), and provides advice to authors regarding the analysis of repeated-measures designs. Of the total sample of articles, 66% used a repeated-measures design. Of those articles using a repeated-measures design, 59% and 8% analysed the data using RM-anova or manova respectively and 33% used MMA. The use of MMA relative to RM-anova has increased significantly since 2009/10. A further search using terms to select those papers testing and correcting for sphericity ('Mauchly's test', 'Greenhouse-Geisser', 'Huynh and Feld') identified 66 articles, 62% of which were published from 2012 to the present. If the design is balanced without missing data then manova should be used rather than RM-anova as it gives better protection against lack of sphericity. If the design is unbalanced or with missing data then MMA is the method of choice. However, MMA is a more complex analysis and can be difficult to set up and run, and care should be taken first, to define appropriate models to be tested and second, to ensure that sample sizes are adequate. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  12. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and heart rate variability and inflammation among non-smoking construction workers: a repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2013-10-02

    Although it has been well recognized that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with cardiovascular mortality, the mechanisms and time course by which SHS exposure may lead to cardiovascular effects are still being explored. Non-smoking workers were recruited from a local union and monitored inside a union hall while exposed to SHS over approximately 6 hours. Participants were fitted with a continuous electrocardiographic monitor upon enrollment which was removed at the end of a 24-hr monitoring period. A repeated measures study design was used where resting ECGs and blood samples were taken from individuals before SHS exposure (baseline), immediately following SHS exposure (post) and the morning following SHS exposure (next-morning).Inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were analyzed. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed from the ECG recordings in time (SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency (LF, HF) domain parameters over 5-minute periods. SHS exposure was quantified using a personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor.Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine within-person changes in inflammatory and HRV parameters across the 3 time periods. Exposure-response relationships with PM2.5 were examined using mixed effects models. All models were adjusted for age, BMI and circadian variation. A total of 32 male non-smokers were monitored between June 2010 and June 2012. The mean PM2.5 from SHS exposure was 132 μg/m3. Immediately following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with declines in HRV (7.8% [standard error (SE) =3%] SDNN, 8.0% (SE = 3.9%) rMSSD, 17.2% (SE = 6.3%) LF, 29.0% (SE = 10.1%) HF) and increases in WBC count 0.42 (SE = 0.14) k/μl. Eighteen hours following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 24.2% higher CRP levels. Our study suggest that short-term SHS exposure is associated

  13. Ambient temperature and cardiovascular biomarkers in a repeated-measure study in healthy adults: A novel biomarker index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Pan, Lu; Shan, Jiao; Li, Hongyu; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2017-07-01

    Associations of ambient temperature with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been well documented in numerous epidemiological studies, but the underlying pathways remain unclear. We investigated whether systemic inflammation, coagulation, systemic oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and endothelial function may be the mechanistic pathways associated with ambient temperature. Forty study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. Ambient temperature and air pollution data were measured in central monitors close to student residences. We created five indices as the sum of weighted biomarker percentiles to represent the overall levels of 15 cardiovascular biomarkers in five pathways (systemic inflammation: hs-CRP, TNF-α and fibrinogen; coagulation: fibrinogen, PAI-1, tPA, vWF and sP-selectin; systemic oxidative stress: Ox-LDL and sCD36: antioxidant activity: EC-SOD and GPX1; and endothelial function: ET-1, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). We used generalized mixed-effects models to estimate temperature effects controlling for air pollution and other covariates. There were significant decreasing trends in the adjusted means of biomarker indices over the lowest to the highest quartiles of daily temperatures before blood collection. A 10°C decrease at 2-d average daily temperature were associated with increases of 2.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 4.2], 1.6% (95% CI: 0.1, 3.1), 2.7% (95% CI: 0.5, 4.8), 5.5% (95% CI: 3.8, 7.3) and 2.0% (95% CI: 0.3, 3.8) in the indices for systemic inflammation, coagulation, systemic oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and endothelial function, respectively. In contrast, the associations between ambient temperature and individual biomarkers had substantial variation in magnitude and strength. The altered cardiovascular biomarker profiles in healthy adults associated with ambient temperature changes may help explain the temperature-related cardiovascular morbidity

  14. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula [Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.pl; Marciniak, Andrzej [Physical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-12-15

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} for 36 solutes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran, ethers, acetone, and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide [bmPY][NTf{sub 2}] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at temperatures from 298.15 K to 368.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values {delta}H{sub 1}{sup E,{infinity}} were calculated from the experimental {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivity for different separation problems were calculated from the {gamma}{sub 13}{sup {infinity}} and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and sulfolane.

  15. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ for 36 solutes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran, ethers, acetone, and water in the ionic liquid 4-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide [bmPY][NTf 2 ] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at temperatures from 298.15 K to 368.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values ΔH 1 E,∞ were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivity for different separation problems were calculated from the γ 13 ∞ and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and sulfolane.

  16. Repeating Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christian; Monticelli, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development...... and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show...... that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today....

  17. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005 [8] used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip

  18. Analyzing repeated data collected by mobile phones and frequent text messages. An example of Low back pain measured weekly for 18 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Bodin, Lennart; Kongsted, Alice

    2012-01-01

    to recovery? This question was answered using survival analysis, illustrated in Kaplan-Meier curves, Proportional Hazard regression analyses and spline regression analyses. 4: How is the repeatedly measured data associated with baseline (predictor) variables? This question was answered using generalized...... involves some challenges. Vital issues to consider are the within-subject correlation, the between measurement occasion correlation and the presence of missing values. The overall aim of this commentary is to describe different methods of analyzing repeated data. It is meant to give an overview...... for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. METHODS: A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions...

  19. Analysis of carrier transport and carrier trapping in organic diodes with polyimide-6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene double-layer by charge modulation spectroscopy and optical second harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Eunju, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Nanosensor and Biotechnology, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Taguchi, Dai, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: elim@dankook.ac.kr, E-mail: taguchi.d.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-08-18

    We studied the carrier transport and carrier trapping in indium tin oxide/polyimide (PI)/6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene)/Au diodes by using charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) and time-resolved electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (TR-EFISHG) measurements. TR-EFISHG directly probes the spatial carrier behaviors in the diodes, and CMS is useful in explaining the carrier motion with respect to energy. The results clearly indicate that the injected carriers move across TIPS-pentacene thorough the molecular energy states of TIPS-pentacene and accumulate at the PI/TIPS-pentacene interface. However, some carriers are trapped in the PI layers. These findings take into account the capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the diodes.

  20. Analyzing repeated data collected by mobile phones and frequent text messages. An example of Low back pain measured weekly for 18 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axén Iben

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated data collection is desirable when monitoring fluctuating conditions. Mobile phones can be used to gather such data from large groups of respondents by sending and receiving frequently repeated short questions and answers as text messages. The analysis of repeated data involves some challenges. Vital issues to consider are the within-subject correlation, the between measurement occasion correlation and the presence of missing values. The overall aim of this commentary is to describe different methods of analyzing repeated data. It is meant to give an overview for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. Methods A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions and analytic approaches were illustrated and discussed, as well as the handling of missing data. In the applications the weekly outcome “number of days with pain” was analyzed in relation to the patients’ “previous duration of pain” (categorized as more or less than 30 days in the previous year. Research questions with appropriate analytical methods 1: How many days with pain do patients experience? This question was answered with data summaries. 2: What is the proportion of participants “recovered” at a specific time point? This question was answered using logistic regression analysis. 3: What is the time to recovery? This question was answered using survival analysis, illustrated in Kaplan-Meier curves, Proportional Hazard regression analyses and spline regression analyses. 4: How is the repeatedly measured data associated with baseline (predictor variables? This question was answered using generalized Estimating Equations, Poisson regression and Mixed linear models analyses. 5: Are there subgroups of patients with similar courses of pain

  1. PTSD and DNA Methylation in Select Immune Function Gene Promoter Regions: A Repeated Measures Case-control Study of U.S. Military Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    other relevant exposures which may influ- ence DNA methylation , such as dietary factors ( folate , vitamin B12 intake) (Fenech, 2001; Piyathilake and...ARTICLE published: 24 June 2013 doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00056 PTSD and DNA methylation in select immune function gene promoter regions: a repeated measures...largely unknown. Dis- tinct expression signatures for PTSD have been found, in particular for immune activation transcripts. DNA methylation may be

  2. Effects of annealing on the sensitivity of LiF TLD-100 after repeated use for low dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunleye, O.T.; Richmond, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The changes in sensitivity of LiF TLD-100 extruded ribbons subjected to repeated use up to 100 times were investigated. Three different annealing regimes were compared. The dosemeters were annealed at 400 0 C followed by (i) a slow or (ii) fast cooling to room temperature or (iii) utilising a 20 s readout process in the reader without a high temperature annealing at 400 0 C. Each of the three groups consisted of two sets of 20 chips each, with one set receiving 500 μ Gy of 90 Sr beta radiation and the other unirradiated. Sensitivity evaluations were performed every five cycles through the first 50 cycles, and on each tenth cycle thereafter. On the average, the fast cooled group maintained their integrity best, while a maximum variation in sensitivity of about 15% was observed in the irradiated set of the slowly cooled group. A permanent increase in sensitivity of at least 10% was observed for the set of dosemeters receiving radiation without annealing. Glow curve analyses showed an increase in the ratio of peaks 4 and 5 with repeated use of this group. (author)

  3. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Mirian; Ferreras, Antonio; Pajarin, Ana B; Calvo, Pilar; Figus, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (COV), and test-retest variability (TRT) were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946) in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982) and inferior average (0.978) yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43%) in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression.

  4. Performance Analysis of Measurement Inaccuracies of IMU/GPS on Airborne Repeat-pass Interferometric SAR in the Presence of Squint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the MOtion COmpensation (MOCO approach to airborne repeat-pass interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR based on motion measurement data, the measurement inaccuracies of Inertial Measurement Unit/Global Positioning System (IMU/GPS and the positioning errors of the target, which may contribute to the residual uncompensated motion errors, affect the imaging result and interferometric measurement. Considering the effects of the two types of error, this paper builds a mathematical model of residual motion errors in presence of squint, and analyzes the effects on the residual motion errors induced by the measurement inaccuracies of IMU/GPS and the positioning errors of the target. In particular, the effects of various measurement inaccuracies of IMU/GPS on interferometric SAR image quality, interferometric phase, and digital elevation model precision are disscussed. Moreover, the paper quantitatively researches the effects of residual motion errors on airborne repeat-pass interferometric SAR through theoretical and simulated analyses and provides theoretical bases for system design and signal processing.

  5. Repeatability of two-dimensional chemical shift imaging multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for measuring human cerebral choline-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Basant K; Egan, Mary; Wallis, Fintan; Jakeman, Philip

    2018-03-22

    To investigate the repeatability of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the in vivo measurement of human cerebral levels of choline-containing compounds (Cho). Two consecutive scans were carried out in six healthy resting subjects at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T. On each occasion, neurospectroscopy data were collected from 64 voxels using the same 2D chemical shift imaging (CSI) sequence. The data were analyzed in the same way, using the same software, to obtain the values for each voxel of the ratio of Cho to creatine. The Wilcoxon related-samples signed-rank test, coefficient of variation (CV), repeatability coefficient (RC), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess the repeatability. The CV ranged from 2.75% to 33.99%, while the minimum RC was 5.68%. There was excellent reproducibility, as judged by significant ICC values, in 26 voxels. Just three voxels showed significant differences according to the Wilcoxon related-samples signed-rank test. It is therefore concluded that when CSI multivoxel proton neurospectroscopy is used to measure cerebral choline-containing compounds at 1.5 T, the reproducibility is highly acceptable.

  6. Repeatability of Brain Volume Measurements Made with the Atlas-based Method from T1-weighted Images Acquired Using a 0.4 Tesla Low Field MR Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Suzuki, Makoto; Mizukami, Shinya; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Fukuda, Michinari; Gomi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru

    2016-10-11

    An understanding of the repeatability of measured results is important for both the atlas-based and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods of magnetic resonance (MR) brain volumetry. However, many recent studies that have investigated the repeatability of brain volume measurements have been performed using static magnetic fields of 1-4 tesla, and no study has used a low-strength static magnetic field. The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability of measured volumes using the atlas-based method and a low-strength static magnetic field (0.4 tesla). Ten healthy volunteers participated in this study. Using a 0.4 tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and a quadrature head coil, three-dimensional T 1 -weighted images (3D-T 1 WIs) were obtained from each subject, twice on the same day. VBM8 software was used to construct segmented normalized images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) images]. The regions-of-interest (ROIs) of GM, WM, CSF, hippocampus (HC), orbital gyrus (OG), and cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) were generated using WFU PickAtlas. The percentage change was defined as[100 × (measured volume with first segmented image - mean volume in each subject)/(mean volume in each subject)]The average percentage change was calculated as the percentage change in the 6 ROIs of the 10 subjects. The mean of the average percentage changes for each ROI was as follows: GM, 0.556%; WM, 0.324%; CSF, 0.573%; HC, 0.645%; OG, 1.74%; and CPL, 0.471%. The average percentage change was higher for the orbital gyrus than for the other ROIs. We consider that repeatability of the atlas-based method is similar between 0.4 and 1.5 tesla MR scanners. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that the level of repeatability with a 0.4 tesla MR scanner is adequate for the estimation of brain volume change by the atlas-based method.

  7. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  8. (InConsistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Froio de Araujo Dias

    Full Text Available Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB.15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110% following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials or placebo (PL, 2 trials. Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD was recorded as the exercise outcome.SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001; absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05. Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001, and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05, although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none.The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  9. Very long Detection Times after High and repeated intake of Heroin and Methadone, measured in Oral Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindenes V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When detection times for psychoactive drugs in oral fluid are reported, they are most often based on therapeutic doses administered in clinical studies. Repeated ingestions of high doses, as seen after drug abuse, are however likely to cause positive samples for extended time periods. Findings of drugs of abuse in oral fluid might lead to negative sanctions, and the knowledge of detection times of these drugs are important to ensure correct interpretation. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection times of opioids in oral fluid. 25 patients with a history of heavy drug abuse admitted to a detoxification ward were included. Oral fluid and urine were collected daily and, if the patient gave consent, a blood sample was drawn during the first five days after admission. Morphine, codeine and/or 6-monoacetyl morphine (6-MAM were found in oral fluid and/or urine from 20 patients. The maximum detection times in oral fluid for codeine, morphine and 6-MAM were 1, 3 and 8 days, respectively. Positive oral fluid samples were interspersed with negative samples, mainly for concentrations around cut off. Elimination curves for methadone in oral fluid were found for two subjects, and the detection times were 5 and 8 days. Oral fluid is likely to become a good method for detection of drug abuse in the future

  10. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK). A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34-0.61; %CV=4.48%-9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85)-0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  11. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Weiss Telles

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK. Material and methods: A test–retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW measured at three different locations. Results: Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1 mm ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5 mm and ≤1.7 mm, respectively. Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference = 1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV = 54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (95%CI = 0.59 (0.34–0.77]; JSW [SD of mean difference = 0.34–0.61; %CV = 4.48%–9.80%; ICC (95%CI = 0.74 (0.55–0.85–0.94 (0.87–0.97]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Conclusions: Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10 mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK.

  12. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  13. Violation of the Sphericity Assumption and Its Effect on Type-I Error Rates in Repeated Measures ANOVA and Multi-Level Linear Models (MLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Nicolas; Beauducel, André

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of violations of the sphericity assumption on Type I error rates for different methodical approaches of repeated measures analysis using a simulation approach. In contrast to previous simulation studies on this topic, up to nine measurement occasions were considered. Effects of the level of inter-correlations between measurement occasions on Type I error rates were considered for the first time. Two populations with non-violation of the sphericity assumption, one with uncorrelated measurement occasions and one with moderately correlated measurement occasions, were generated. One population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines uncorrelated with highly correlated measurement occasions. A second population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines moderately correlated and highly correlated measurement occasions. From these four populations without any between-group effect or within-subject effect 5,000 random samples were drawn. Finally, the mean Type I error rates for Multilevel linear models (MLM) with an unstructured covariance matrix (MLM-UN), MLM with compound-symmetry (MLM-CS) and for repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) models (without correction, with Greenhouse-Geisser-correction, and Huynh-Feldt-correction) were computed. To examine the effect of both the sample size and the number of measurement occasions, sample sizes of n = 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 were considered as well as measurement occasions of m = 3, 6, and 9. With respect to rANOVA, the results plead for a use of rANOVA with Huynh-Feldt-correction, especially when the sphericity assumption is violated, the sample size is rather small and the number of measurement occasions is large. For MLM-UN, the results illustrate a massive progressive bias for small sample sizes ( n = 20) and m = 6 or more measurement occasions. This effect could not be found in previous simulation studies with a smaller number of measurement occasions. The

  14. IMPLANTABLE RESONATORS – A TECHNIQUE FOR REPEATED MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN AT MULTIPLE DEEP SITES WITH IN VIVO EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Hou, Huagang; Sucheta, Artur; Williams, Benjamin B.; Lariviere, Jean P.; Khan, Nadeem; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2013-01-01

    EPR oximetry using implantable resonators allow measurements at much deeper sites than are possible with surface resonators (> 80 mm vs. 10 mm) and have greater sensitivity at any depth. We report here the development of an improvement of the technique that now enables us to obtain the information from multiple sites and at a variety of depths. The measurements from the various sites are resolved using a simple magnetic field gradient. In the rat brain multi-probe implanted resonators measured pO2 at several sites simultaneously for over 6 months to record under normoxic, hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. This technique also facilitates measurements in moving parts of the animal such as the heart, because the orientation of the paramagnetic material relative to the sensitive small loop is not altered by the motion. The measured response is very fast, enabling measurements in real time of physiological and pathological changes such as experimental cardiac ischemia in the mouse heart. The technique also is quite useful for following changes in tumor pO2, including applications with simultaneous measurements in tumors and adjacent normal tissues. PMID:20204802

  15. Repeated measurements of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin T or C-reactive protein do not predict future allograft rejection in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battes, Linda C; Caliskan, Kadir; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Constantinescu, Alina A; Robertus, Jan L; Akkerhuis, Martijn; Manintveld, Olivier C; Boersma, Eric; Kardys, Isabella

    2015-03-01

    Studies on the prognostic value of serial biomarker assays for future occurrence of allograft rejection (AR) are scarce. We examined whether repeated measurements of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), troponin T (TropT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict AR. From 2005 to 2010, 77 consecutive heart transplantation (HTx) recipients were included. The NT-proBNP, TropT, and CRP were measured at 16 ± 4 (mean ± standard deviation) consecutive routine endomyocardial biopsy surveillance visits during the first year of follow-up. Allograft rejection was defined as International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grade 2R or higher at endomyocardial biopsy. Joint modeling was used to assess the association between repeated biomarker measurements and occurrence of future AR. Joint modeling accounts for dependence among repeated observations in individual patients. The mean age of the patients at HTx was 49 ± 9.2 years, and 68% were men. During the first year of follow-up, 1,136 biopsies and concurrent blood samples were obtained, and 56 patients (73%) experienced at least one episode of AR. All biomarkers were elevated directly after HTx and achieved steady-state after ∼ 12 weeks, both in patients with or without AR. No associations were present between the repeated measurements of NT-proBNP, TropT, or CRP and AR both early (weeks 0-12) and late (weeks 13-52) in the course after HTx (hazard ratios for weeks 13-52: 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.68), 0.67 (0.27-1.69), and 1.44 (0.90-2.30), respectively, per ln[unit]). Combining the three biomarkers in one model also rendered null results. The temporal evolution of NT-proBNP, TropT, and CRP before AR did not predict occurrence of acute AR both in the early and late course of the first year after HTx.

  16. Discontinuous Patterns of Cigarette Smoking From Ages 18 to 50 in the United States: A Repeated-Measures Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2017-12-13

    Effective cigarette smoking prevention and intervention programming is enhanced by accurate understanding of developmental smoking pathways across the life span. This study investigated within-person patterns of cigarette smoking from ages 18 to 50 among a US national sample of high school graduates, focusing on identifying ages of particular importance for smoking involvement change. Using data from approximately 15,000 individuals participating in the longitudinal Monitoring the Future study, trichotomous measures of past 30-day smoking obtained at 11 time points were modeled using repeated-measures latent class analyses. Sex differences in latent class structure and membership were examined. Twelve latent classes were identified: three characterized by consistent smoking patterns across age (no smoking; smoking developing effective smoking prevention and intervention programming. This study examined cigarette smoking among a national longitudinal US sample of high school graduates from ages 18 to 50 and identified distinct latent classes characterized by patterns of movement between no cigarette use, light-to-moderate smoking, and the conventional definition of heavy smoking at 11 time points via repeated-measures latent class analysis. Membership probabilities for each smoking class were estimated, and critical ages of susceptibility to change in smoking behaviors were identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Repeatability of Retinal Sensitivity Measurements Using a Medmont Dark-Adapted Chromatic Perimeter in Healthy and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rose S; Guymer, Robyn H; Luu, Chi D

    2018-05-01

    To determine the intrasession and intersession test-retest repeatability of retinal sensitivity measurements using a dark-adapted chromatic perimeter (DACP). For intrasession testing, retinal sensitivity within the central 24° for the 505-nm stimulus was measured after 20, 30, and 40 minutes of dark adaptation (DA) and for the 625-nm stimulus was measured after the first and second 505-nm tests. For intersession testing, retinal sensitivity for both stimuli was measured after 30 minutes of DA at baseline and 1 month. The point-wise sensitivity (PWS) difference and coefficient of repeatability (CoR) of each stimulus and group were determined. For intrasession testing, 10 age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and eight control subjects were recruited. The overall CoR for the 505-nm stimulus was 8.4 dB for control subjects and 9.1 dB for AMD cases, and for the 625-nm stimulus was 6.7 dB for control subjects and 9.5 dB for AMD cases. For intersession testing, seven AMD cases and 13 control subjects returned an overall CoR for the 505-nm stimulus of 8.2 dB for the control and 11.7 dB for the AMD group. For the 625-nm stimulus the CoR was 6.2 dB for the control group and 8.4 dB for the AMD group. Approximately 80% of all test points had a PWS difference of ±5 dB between the two intrasession or intersession measurements for both stimuli. The CoR for the DACP is larger than that reported for scotopic perimeters; however, the majority of test points had a PWS difference of ±5 dB between tests. The DACP offers an opportunity to measure static and dynamic rod function at multiple locations with an acceptable reproducibility level.

  18. Repeatability and reproducibility of in situ measurements of sound reflection and airborne sound insulation index of noise barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garai, M.; Schoen, E.; Behler, G.; Bragado, B.; Chudalla, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Demizieux, P.; Glorieux, C.; Guidorzi, P.

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, in situ measurements of sound reflection and airborne sound insulation of noise barriers are usually done according to CEN/TS 1793-5. This method has been improved substantially during the EU funded QUIESST collaborative project. Within the same framework, an inter-laboratory test has

  19. Dynamic Pain Phenotypes are Associated with Spinal Cord Stimulation-Induced Reduction in Pain: A Repeated Measures Observational Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Buenaver, Luis F; Raja, Srinivasa N; Kiley, Kasey B; Swedberg, Lauren J; Wacnik, Paul W; Cohen, Steven P; Erdek, Michael A; Williams, Kayode A; Christo, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a widely used treatment option for a variety of pain conditions. Substantial variability exists in the degree of benefit obtained from SCS and patient selection is a topic of expanding interest and importance. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of dynamic quantitative sensory testing (QST) to develop objective measures of SCS outcomes or as a predictive tool to help patient selection. Psychological characteristics have been shown to play an important role in shaping individual differences in the pain experience and may aid in predicting responses to SCS. Static laboratory pain-induction measures have also been examined in their capacity for predicting SCS outcomes. The current study evaluated clinical, psychological and laboratory pain measures at baseline, during trial SCS lead placement, as well as 1 month and 3 months following permanent SCS implantation in chronic pain patients who received SCS treatment. Several QST measures were conducted, with specific focus on examination of dynamic models (central sensitization and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) and their association with pain outcomes 3 months post SCS implantation. Results suggest few changes in QST over time. However, central sensitization and CPM at baseline were significantly associated with clinical pain at 3 months following SCS implantation, controlling for psycho/behavioral factors and pain at baseline. Specifically, enhanced central sensitization and reduced CPM were associated with less self-reported pain 3 months following SCS implantation. These findings suggest a potentially important role for dynamic pain assessment in individuals undergoing SCS, and hint at potential mechanisms through which SCS may impart its benefit. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Repeated measures of body mass index and C-reactive protein in relation to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Jørgensen, Torben; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been linked with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and both have been associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have used a single 'baseline' measurement and such analyses cannot account for possible changes in these which...... may lead to a biased estimation of risk. Using four cohorts from CHANCES which had repeated measures in participants 50 years and older, multivariate time-dependent Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) to examine the relationship between......, they may participate in distinct/independent pathways. Accounting for independent changes in risk factors over time may be crucial for unveiling their effects on mortality and disease morbidity....

  1. Non bis in idem

    OpenAIRE

    La Rosa, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Данная статья посвящена исследованию влияния уголовно-правового принципа «non bis in idem» на возможность привлечения одновременно к уголовной и административной ответственности за одно и то же деяния. На основании анализа действующего законодательства Украины приведены аргументы относительно невозможности одновременно привлекать лицо к административной и уголовной ответственности за одно и то же деяние. Также предложены критерии, по которым возможно провести разграничение между административ...

  2. Tolerability of the Oscar 2 ambulatory blood pressure monitor among research participants: a cross-sectional repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinderliter Alan L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is increasingly used to measure blood pressure (BP in research studies. We examined ease of use, comfort, degree of disturbance, reported adverse effects, factors associated with poor tolerability, and association of poor tolerability with data acquisition of 24-hour ABPM using the Oscar 2 monitor in the research setting. Methods Sixty adults participating in a research study of people with a history of borderline clinic BP reported on their experience with ABPM on two occasions one week apart. Poor tolerability was operationalized as an overall score at or above the 75th percentile using responses to questions adapted from a previously developed questionnaire. In addition to descriptive statistics (means for responses to Likert-scaled "0 to 10" questions and proportions for Yes/No questions, we examined reproducibility of poor tolerability as well as associations with poor tolerability and whether poor tolerability was associated with removal of the monitor or inadequate number of BP measurements. Results The mean ambulatory BP of participants by an initial ABPM session was 148/87 mm Hg. After wearing the monitor the first time, the degree to which the monitor was felt to be cumbersome ranged from a mean of 3.0 to 3.8, depending on whether at work, home, driving, or other times. The most bother was interference with normal sleeping pattern (mean 4.2. Wearers found the monitor straightforward to use (mean 7.5. Nearly 67% reported that the monitor woke them after falling asleep, and 8.6% removed it at some point during the night. Reported adverse effects included pain (32%, skin irritation (37%, and bruising (7%. Those categorized as having poor tolerability (kappa = 0.5 between sessions, p = 0.0003 were more likely to report being in fair/poor health (75% vs 22%, p = 0.01 and have elevated 24-hour BP average (systolic: 28% vs 17%, p = 0.56; diastolic: 30% vs 17%, p = 0.37. They were

  3. Blessures Skaten (BIS): Blessurevrij skaten?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespen, A. van; Stubbe, J.; Stege, J.

    2009-01-01

    Sportblessures: niemand zit erop te wachten, maar jaarlijks krijgen ongeveer 1,5 miljoen mensen in Nederland ermee te maken. Om effectief aan preventie te doen, is inzicht in het aantal en soort sportblessures onmisbaar. Dit kan met het web-based Blessure Informatie Systeem (BIS) van TNO Kwaliteit

  4. Blessures badmington (BIS): blessurevrij badmintonnen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespen, A. van; Stubbe, J.; Stege, J.; Ooijendijk, W.

    2008-01-01

    Sportblessures: niemand zit erop te wachten, maar jaarlijks krijgen ongeveer 1,5 miljoen mensen in Nederland ermee te maken. Om effectief aan preventie te doen, is inzicht in het aantal en soort sportblessures onmisbaar. Dit kan met het web-based Blessure Informatie Systeem (BIS) van TNO Kwaliteit

  5. Test–retest repeatability of quantitative cardiac 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine measurements in rats by small animal positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, James T.; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Kordos, Myra; Klein, Ran; Kemp, Robert A. de; Beanlands, Rob S.B.; DaSilva, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The norepinephrine analogue 11 C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has been used to interrogate sympathetic neuronal reuptake in cardiovascular disease. Application for longitudinal studies in small animal models of disease necessitates an understanding of test–retest variability. This study evaluated the repeatability of multiple quantitative cardiac measurements of HED retention and washout and the pharmacological response to reuptake blockade and enhanced norepinephrine levels. Methods: Small animal PET images were acquired over 60 min following HED administration to healthy male Sprague Dawley rats. Paired test and retest scans were undertaken in individual animals over 7 days. Additional HED scans were conducted following administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine or continuous infusion of exogenous norepinephrine. HED retention was quantified by retention index, standardized uptake value (SUV), monoexponential and one-compartment washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Test retest variability was lower for retention index (15% ± 12%) and SUV (19% ± 15%) as compared to monoexponential washout rates (21% ± 13%). Desipramine pretreatment reduced myocardial HED retention index by 69% and SUV by 85%. Chase treatment with desipramine increased monoexponential HED washout by 197% compared to untreated controls. Norepinephrine infusion dose-dependently reduced HED accumulation, reflected by both retention index and SUV, with a corresponding increase in monoexponential washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine levels correlated with HED quantitative measurements. Conclusion: The repeatability of HED retention index, SUV, and monoexponential washout supports its suitability for longitudinal PET studies in rats. Uptake and washout of HED are sensitive to acute increases in norepinephrine concentration

  6. BIS-2 spectrometer for search and investigation of narrow resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.N.; Aref'ev, V.A.; Balandin, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The configuration and main characteristics of the BIS-2 spectrometer are described. The spectrometer was intended to search for and to investigate charmed particles and narrow resonances produced in neutron-nucleus interactions. It was placed on a neutron beam of the Serpukhov accelerator. The Monte-Carlo simulated and experimentally measured characteristics of individual elements and the spectrometer as a whole are described. A brief review of the principal results based on the analysis of more than 10 7 neutron-nucleus interactions registered by means of the BIS-2 spectrometer is given. 34 refs.; 8 figs.; 5 tabs

  7. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  8. Macroeconomic effects of energy political and climate political measures of the years 1995 up to 2011; Gesamtwirtschaftliche Effekte energie- und klimapolitischer Massnahmen der Jahre 1995 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehr, Ulrike; Lutz, Christian; Ulrich, Philip [Gesellschaft fuer Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung mbH (GWS), Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Actually, the macroeconomic effects of the energy policy turnaround are discussed controversially. The Federal Government started a comprehensive monitoring process in order to accompany the energy policy turnaround. Currently it is too early for a model-supported ex-post acquisition of the effects of the resolutions of the Federal Government in 2010. Often the implementation of the measures began in 2011. Just now no complete results are available. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution consider the macroeconomic aspects of the measures which were implemented in the areas energy efficiency, renewable energy sources as well as combined heat and power generation in the years between 1995 and 2011.

  9. Personality Correlates of Aggression: Evidence from Measures of the Five-Factor Model, UPPS Model of Impulsivity, and BIS/BAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Zeichner, Amos; Wilson, Lauren F.

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies of personality and aggression focus on multidimensional traits and higher order personality disorders (e.g., psychopathy), lower order, unidimensional traits may provide more precision in identifying specific aspects of personality that relate to aggression. The current study includes a comprehensive measurement of lower…

  10. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedslund Geir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

  11. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VIII. Estimation of time since death by repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T

    1994-10-21

    The development of the intensity of rigor mortis was monitored in nine groups of rats. The measurements were initiated after 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 15, 24, and 48 h post mortem (p.m.) and lasted 5-9 h, which ideally should correspond to the usual procedure after the discovery of a corpse. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. Measurements initiated early after death resulted in curves with a rising portion, a plateau, and a descending slope. Delaying the initial measurement translated into shorter rising portions, and curves initiated 8 h p.m. or later are comprised of a plateau and/or a downward slope only. Three different phases were observed suggesting simple rules that can help estimate the time since death: (1) if an increase in intensity was found, the initial measurements were conducted not later than 5 h p.m.; (2) if only a decrease in intensity was observed, the initial measurements were conducted not earlier than 7 h p.m.; and (3) at 24 h p.m., the resolution is complete, and no further changes in intensity should occur. Our results clearly demonstrate that repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis allow a more accurate estimation of the time since death of the experimental animals than the single measurement method used earlier. A critical review of the literature on the estimation of time since death on the basis of objective measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis is also presented.

  12. Teaching renewable energy using online PBL in investigating its effect on behaviour towards energy conservation among Malaysian students: ANOVA repeated measures approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Norfarah; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Hadi Harun, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether online problem based learning (PBL) approach to teach renewable energy topic improves students’ behaviour towards energy conservation. A renewable energy online problem based learning (REePBaL) instruction package was developed based on the theory of constructivism and adaptation of the online learning model. This study employed a single group quasi-experimental design to ascertain the changed in students’ behaviour towards energy conservation after underwent the intervention. The study involved 48 secondary school students in a Malaysian public school. ANOVA Repeated Measure technique was employed in order to compare scores of students’ behaviour towards energy conservation before and after the intervention. Based on the finding, students’ behaviour towards energy conservation improved after the intervention.

  13. The effect of technical replicate (repeats) on Nix Pro Color Sensor™ measurement precision for meat: A case-study on aged beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Kilgannon, Ashleigh K; Hopkins, David L

    2018-01-01

    The Nix Pro Colour Sensor™ (NIX) can be potentially used to measure meat colour, but procedural guidelines that assure measurement reproducibility and repeatability (precision) must first be established. Technical replicate number (r) will minimise response variation, measureable as standard error of predicted mean (SEM), and contribute to improved precision. Consequently, we aimed to explore the effects of r on NIX precision when measuring aged beef colour (colorimetrics; L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma values). Each colorimetric SEM declined with increasing r to indicate improved precision and followed a diminishing rate of improvement that allowed us to recommend r=7 for meat colour studies using the NIX. This definition was based on practical limitations and a* variability, as additional r would be required if other colorimetrics or advanced levels of precision are necessary. Beef ageing and display period, holding temperature, loin and sampled portion were also found to contribute to colorimetric variation, but were incorporated within our definition of r. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Schull, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Comparison of non-electrophoresis grade with electrophoresis grade BIS in NIPAM polymer gel preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khajeali, Azim; Farajollahi, Ali Reza; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Raeisi, Noorallah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The main objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing electrophoresis cross-linker with non-electrophoresis N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel and its possible effect on dose response. Methods: NIPAM polymer gel was prepared from non-electrophoresis grade BIS and the relaxation rate (R2) was measured by MR imaging after exposing the gel to gamma radiation from Co-60 source. To compare the response of this gel with the one that contains electrophoresis grade BIS, two sets of NIPAM gel were prepared using electrophoresis and non-electrophoresis BIS and irradiated to different gamma doses. Results: It was found that the dose–response of NIPAM gel made from the non-electrophoresis grade BIS is coincident with that of electrophoresis grade BIS. Conclusion:Taken all, it can be concluded that the non-electrophoresis grade BIS not only is a suitable alternative for the electrophoresis grade BIS but also reduces the cost of gel due to its lower price. PMID:26457250

  16. Repeated tumor pO2 measurements by multi-site EPR oximetry as a prognostic marker for enhanced therapeutic efficacy of fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Huagang; Lariviere, Jean P.; Demidenko, Eugene; Gladstone, David; Swartz, Harold; Khan, Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the temporal effects of single or fractionated radiotherapy on subcutaneous RIF-1 tumor pO 2 and to determine the therapeutic outcomes when the timing of fractionations is guided by tumor pO 2 . Methods: The time-course of the tumor pO 2 changes was followed by multi-site electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. The tumors were treated with single 10, 20, and 10 Gy x 2 doses, and the tumor pO 2 was measured repeatedly for six consecutive days. In the 10 Gy x 2 group, the second dose of 10 Gy was delivered at a time when the tumors were either relatively oxygenated or hypoxic. The changes in tumor volumes were followed for nine days to determine the therapeutic outcomes. Results: A significant increase in tumor pO 2 was observed at 24 h post 10 Gy, while 20 Gy resulted in a significant increase in tumor pO 2 at 72-120 h post irradiation. The tumors irradiated with a second dose of 10 Gy at 24 h, when the tumors were oxygenated, had a significant increase in tumor doubling times (DTs), as compared to tumors treated at 48 h when they were hypoxic (p 2 repeatedly during fractionated schemes to optimize radiotherapeutic outcome. This technique could also be used to identify responsive and non-responsive tumors, which will facilitate the design of other therapeutic approaches for non-responsive tumors at early time points during the course of therapy.

  17. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  18. Repeat, Low Altitude Measurements of Vegetation Status and Biomass Using Manned Aerial and UAS Imagery in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Lippitt, C.; Loerch, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the above ground biomass of vegetation is a critical component of any ecological monitoring campaign. Traditionally, biomass of vegetation was measured with allometric-based approach. However, it is also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and extremely expensive to conduct over large scales and consequently is cost-prohibitive at the landscape scale. Furthermore, in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by vegetation with inconsistent growth morphologies (e.g., piñon-juniper woodlands), even ground-based conventional allometric approaches are often challenging to execute consistently across individuals and through time, increasing the difficulty of the required measurements and consequently the accuracy of the resulting products. To constrain the uncertainty associated with these campaigns, and to expand the extent of our measurement capability, we made repeat measurements of vegetation biomass in a semi-arid piñon-juniper woodland using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. We used high-spatial resolution overlapping aerial images and high-accuracy ground control points collected from both manned aircraft and multi-rotor UAS platforms, to generate digital surface model (DSM) for our experimental region. We extracted high-precision canopy volumes from the DSM and compared these to the vegetation allometric data, s to generate high precision canopy volume models. We used these models to predict the drivers of allometric equations for Pinus edulis and Juniperous monosperma (canopy height, diameter at breast height, and root collar diameter). Using this approach, we successfully accounted for the carbon stocks in standing live and standing dead vegetation across a 9 ha region, which contained 12.6 Mg / ha of standing dead biomass, with good agreement to our field plots. Here we present the initial results from an object oriented workflow which aims to automate the biomass estimation process of tree crown delineation and volume calculation, and partition

  19. Baseline repeated measures from controlled human exposure studies: associations between ambient air pollution exposure and the systemic inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M S; Zanobetti, Antonella; Silverman, Frances; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Brook, Jeffrey R; Manno, Michael; Gold, Diane R

    2010-01-01

    Systemic inflammation may be one of the mechanisms mediating the association between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen are biomarkers of systemic inflammation that are independent risk factors for cardio-vascular disease. We investigated the association between ambient air pollution and systemic inflammation using baseline measurements of IL-6 and fibrinogen from controlled human exposure studies. In this retrospective analysis we used repeated-measures data in 45 nonsmoking subjects. Hourly and daily moving averages were calculated for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter pollutants on systemic IL-6 and fibrinogen. Effect modification by season was considered. We observed a positive association between IL-6 and O3 [0.31 SD per O3 interquartile range (IQR); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.080.54] and between IL-6 and SO2 (0.25 SD per SO2 IQR; 95% CI, 0.060.43). We observed the strongest effects using 4-day moving averages. Responses to pollutants varied by season and tended to be higher in the summer, particularly for O3 and PM2.5. Fibrinogen was not associated with pollution. This study demonstrates a significant association between ambient pollutant levels and baseline levels of systemic IL-6. These findings have potential implications for controlled human exposure studies. Future research should consider whether ambient pollution exposure before chamber exposure modifies IL-6 response.

  20. Relation between constructs of BisBas questionnaire and some personality constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Sedlar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine relation between constructs relevant for Gray's neuropsychological model of motivation. According to Gray's theory, two general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS and a behavioral activation system (BAS. BIS is sensitive to aversive stimuli, causes avoidance behaviors and is responsible for individual differences in anxiety. BAS is responsive to appetitive stimuli, triggers approach behavior and has been associated with individual differences in impulsivness. BIS activity has been related to the experience of negative emotions, whereas BAS activity has been associated with the experience of positive emotions. A total of 122 Slovenian students, aged 17–19 years, completed the BIS/BAS scale, the Impulsiveness-Venturesome-Empathy Scale IVE, State Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI-X2, The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS, and The Big Five Questionairre BFQ. Our results are consistent with those from recent empirical studies and provide support for Gray's theory. Measures of BIS were found to be positively related to trait anxiety and neuroticism, whereas measures of BAS were found to be positively related to impulsiveness and extraversion. Emotional component measured with PANAS did not distinguish BIS from BAS constructs. Both were found to be related to negative affect. With respect to construct validity these findings suggest that BIS/BAS scale is reasonably effective.

  1. Validity and Reliability of the Abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in Spanish (BIS-15S)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Cabal, Luis; Rodríguez, Maritza; Herin, David V.; Gempeler, Juanita; Uribe, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study determined the validity and reliability of a new, abbreviated version of the Spanish Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15S) in Colombian subjects. Method The BIS-15S was tested in non-clinical (n=283) and clinical (n=164) native Spanish-speakers. Intra-scale reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s α, and test-retest reliability was measured with Pearson correlations. Psychometric properties were determined using standard statistics. A factor analysis was performed to determine BIS-15S factor structure. Results 447 subjects participated in the study. Clinical subjects were older and more educated compared to non-clinical subjects. Impulsivity scores were normally distributed in each group. BIS-15S total, motor, non-planning and attention scores were significantly lower in non-clinical vs. clinical subjects. Subjects with substance-related disorders had the highest BIS-15S total scores, followed by subjects with bipolar disorders and bulimia nervosa/binge eating. Internal consistency was 0.793 and test-retest reliability was 0.80. Factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure (attention, motor, non-planning) accounting for 47.87% of the total variance in BIS-15S total scores. Conclusions The BIS-15S is a valid and reliable self-report measure of impulsivity in this population. Further research is needed to determine additional components of impulsivity not investigated by this measure. PMID:21152412

  2. Personality correlates (BAS-BIS), self-perception of social ranking, and cortical (alpha frequency band) modulation in peer-group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia

    2014-06-22

    The perception and interpretation of social hierarchies are a key part of our social life. In the present research we considered the activation of cortical areas, mainly the prefrontal cortex, related to social ranking perception in conjunction with some personality components (BAS - Behavioral Activation System - and BIS - Behavioral Inhibition System). In two experiments we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. Indeed, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating in an attentional task. Specifically, a peer group comparison was undertaken and improved (Experiment 1) or decreased (Experiment 2) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. For each experiment two groups were compared, based on a BAS and BIS dichotomy. Alpha band modulation in prefrontal cortex, behavioral measures (performance: error rate, ER; response times, RTs), and self-perceived ranking were considered. Repeated measures ANOVAs and regression analyses showed in Experiment 1 a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs) and higher self-perceived ranking in high-BAS participants. Moreover, their prefrontal activity was increased within the left side (alpha band decreasing). Conversely, in Experiment 2 a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs) and lower self-perceived ranking was observed in higher-BIS participants. Their prefrontal right activity was increased in comparison with higher BAS. The regression analyses confirmed the significant predictive role of alpha band modulation with respect of subjects' performance and self-perception of social ranking, differently for BAS/BIS components. The present results suggest that social status perception is directly modulated by cortical activity and personality correlates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Usefulness of repeated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide measurements as incremental predictor for long-term cardiovascular outcome after vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goei, Dustin; van Kuijk, Jan-Peter; Flu, Willem-Jan; Hoeks, Sanne E; Chonchol, Michel; Verhagen, Hence J M; Bax, Jeroen J; Poldermans, Don

    2011-02-15

    Plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels improve preoperative cardiac risk stratification in vascular surgery patients. However, single preoperative measurements of NT-pro-BNP cannot take into account the hemodynamic stress caused by anesthesia and surgery. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the incremental predictive value of changes in NT-pro-BNP during the perioperative period for long-term cardiac mortality. Detailed cardiac histories, rest left ventricular echocardiography, and NT-pro-BNP levels were obtained in 144 patients before vascular surgery and before discharge. The study end point was the occurrence of cardiovascular death during a median follow-up period of 13 months (interquartile range 5 to 20). Preoperatively, the median NT-pro-BNP level in the study population was 314 pg/ml (interquartile range 136 to 1,351), which increased to a median level of 1,505 pg/ml (interquartile range 404 to 6,453) before discharge. During the follow-up period, 29 patients (20%) died, 27 (93%) from cardiovascular causes. The median difference in NT-pro-BNP in the survivors was 665 pg/ml, compared to 5,336 pg/ml in the patients who died (p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analyses, adjusted for cardiac history and cardiovascular risk factors (age, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, body mass index, type of surgery and the left ventricular ejection fraction), demonstrated that the difference in NT-pro-BNP level between pre- and postoperative measurement was the strongest independent predictor of cardiac outcome (hazard ratio 3.06, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 6.91). In conclusion, the change in NT-pro-BNP, indicated by repeated measurements before surgery and before discharge is the strongest predictor of cardiac outcomes in patients who undergo vascular surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of a person-centred dementia care training programme on hospital staff attitudes, role efficacy and perceptions of caring for people with dementia: A repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, C A; Smith, S J; Crossland, J; Robins, J

    2016-01-01

    People with dementia occupy up to one quarter of acute hospital beds. However, the quality of care delivered to this patient group is of national concern. Staff working in acute hospitals report lack of knowledge, skills and confidence in caring for people with dementia. There is limited evidence about the most effective approaches to supporting acute hospital staff to deliver more person-centred care. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a specialist training programme for acute hospital staff regarding improving attitudes, satisfaction and feelings of caring efficacy, in provision of care to people with dementia. A repeated measures design, with measures completed immediately prior to commencing training (T1), after completion of Foundation level training (T2: 4-6 weeks post-baseline), and following Intermediate level training (T3: 3-4 months post-baseline). One NHS Trust in the North of England, UK. 40 acute hospital staff working in clinical roles, the majority of whom (90%) were nurses. All participants received the 3.5 day Person-centred Care Training for Acute Hospitals (PCTAH) programme, comprised of two levels, Foundation (0.5 day) and Intermediate (3 days), delivered over a 3-4 months period. Staff demographics and previous exposure to dementia training were collected via a questionnaire. Staff attitudes were measured using the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ), satisfaction in caring for people with dementia was captured using the Staff Experiences of Working with Demented Residents questionnaire (SEWDR) and perceived caring efficacy was measured using the Caring Efficacy Scale (CES). The training programme was effective in producing a significant positive change on all three outcome measures following intermediate training compared to baseline. A significant positive effect was found on the ADQ between baseline and after completion of Foundation level training, but not for either of the other measures. Training acute hospital staff in

  5. Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of Five Substituted Bis-Thioureas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurulain Kamalulazmy; Sahilah Abd Mutalib; Fatin Ilyani Nasir; Nurul Izzaty Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Thioureas play an important role in medicinal chemistry and agricultures due to their biological activity such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, herbicides, rodenticides, phenoloxidase enzymatic inhibitors, anti-HIV and anti-tumor agents. In this study, five substituted bis-thioureas have been synthesized. The isophthaloyl chloride and 2,6- pyridine dicarbonyl dichloride were easily converted to bis-isothiocyanate compound via the reaction with ammonium thiocyanate by solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis of polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400). Bis-isothiocyanate compound was reacted with aniline derivatives to produce substituted bis-thioureas in good yield at room temperature. All the novel compounds were obtained as yellow solid after recrystallization using DMF/EtOH/H_2O. Their chemical structures were confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) "1H and "1"3C and mass spectrometry. The five synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities using disc diffusion method for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus Subtilis and Staphylococcus Aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia Coli and Salmonella Typhi) and a mold (Aspergillus Niger). All tested compounds showed low antimicrobial activity since the diameter of inhibition zone (IZ) measure was less than positive control inhibition zone. (author)

  6. Using the American alligator and a repeated-measures design to place constraints on in vivo shoulder joint range of motion in dinosaurs and other fossil archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel D; Hutson, Kelda N

    2013-01-15

    Using the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs (crocodylians and birds), recent work has reported that elbow joint range of motion (ROM) studies of fossil dinosaur forearms may be providing conservative underestimates of fully fleshed in vivo ROM. As humeral ROM occupies a more central role in forelimb movements, the placement of quantitative constraints on shoulder joint ROM could improve fossil reconstructions. Here, we investigated whether soft tissues affect the more mobile shoulder joint in the same manner in which they affect elbow joint ROM in an extant archosaur. This test involved separately and repeatedly measuring humeral ROM in Alligator mississippiensis as soft tissues were dissected away in stages to bare bone. Our data show that the ROMs of humeral flexion and extension, as well as abduction and adduction, both show a statistically significant increase as flesh is removed, but then decrease when the bones must be physically articulated and moved until they separate from one another and/or visible joint surfaces. A similar ROM pattern is inferred for humeral pronation and supination. All final skeletonized ROMs were less than initial fully fleshed ROMs. These results are consistent with previously reported elbow joint ROM patterns from the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs. Thus, studies that avoid separation of complementary articular surfaces may be providing fossil shoulder joint ROMs that underestimate in vivo ROM in dinosaurs, as well as other fossil archosaurs.

  7. The Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations (Q-MEGA). Study design, baseline characteristics, and repeatability of phenotype and sun exposure measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Hughes, Maria Celia; Kvaskoff, Marina; Siskind, Victor; Shekar, Sri; Aitken, Joanne F.; Green, Adele C.; Duffy, David L.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whiteman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a major health issue in Queensland, Australia which has the world’s highest incidence. Recent molecular and epidemiologic studies suggest that CMM arises through multiple etiological pathways involving gene-environment interactions. Understanding the potential mechanisms leading to CMM requires larger studies than those previously conducted. This article describes the design and baseline characteristics of Q-MEGA, the Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations, which followed-up four population-based samples of CMM patients in Queensland, including children, adolescents, men aged over 50, and a large sample of adult cases and their families, including twins. Q-MEGA aims to investigate the roles of genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction, in the etiology of melanoma. 3,471 participants took part in the follow-up study and were administered a computer-assisted telephone interview in 2002–2005. Updated data on environmental and phenotypic risk factors, and 2,777 blood samples were collected from interviewed participants as well as a subset of relatives. This study provides a large and well-described population-based sample of CMM cases with follow-up data. Characteristics of the cases and repeatability of sun exposure and phenotype measures between the baseline and the follow-up surveys, from six to 17 years later, are also described. PMID:18361720

  8. Effect of exposure to evening light on sleep initiation in the elderly: a longitudinal analysis for repeated measurements in home settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nezu, Satoko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated associations of sleep-onset insomnia with a variety of diseases, including depression, dementia, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Sleep initiation is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and endogenous melatonin, both of which are influenced by environmental light. Exposure to evening light is hypothesized to cause circadian phase delay and melatonin suppression before bedtime, resulting in circadian misalignment and sleep-onset insomnia; however, whether exposure to evening light disturbs sleep initiation in home settings remains unclear. In this longitudinal analysis of 192 elderly individuals (mean age: 69.9 years), we measured evening light exposure and sleep-onset latency for 4 days using a wrist actigraph incorporating a light meter and an accelerometer. Mixed-effect linear regression analysis for repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of evening light exposure on subsequent sleep-onset latency. The median intensity of evening light exposure and the median sleep-onset latency were 27.3 lux (interquartile range, 17.9-43.4) and 17 min (interquartile range, 7-33), respectively. Univariate models showed significant associations between sleep-onset latency and age, gender, daytime physical activity, in-bed time, day length and average intensity of evening and nighttime light exposures. In a multivariate model, log-transformed average intensity of evening light exposure was significantly associated with log-transformed sleep-onset latency independent of the former potential confounding factors (regression coefficient, 0.133; 95% CI, 0.020-0.247; p = 0.021). Day length and nighttime light exposure were also significantly associated with log-transformed sleep-onset latency (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, exposure to evening light in home setting prolongs subsequent sleep-onset latency in the elderly.

  9. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Weischer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77, current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3, increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14, physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17, but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10. At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300 and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27, but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  10. Bis(1,3-dithiole) Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Engler, E. M.; Green, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    There is described the preparation of bis-1,3-dithiole compounds (I) which are key synthetic precursors for the preparation of new polymeric metal bis(dithiolene) (i.e., II) and tetrathiafulvalene compounds (i.e., III): (Image Omitted)...

  11. μ-Carbonato-bis-(bis-{2-[(diethyl-amino)-meth-yl]phen-yl}bis-muth(III)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Albert P; Nema, Mihai G; Breunig, Hans J; Silvestru, Cristian

    2011-01-12

    The mol-ecular structure of the title compound, [Bi(2)(C(11)H(16)N)(4)(CO(3))], consists of a symmetrically bridging carbonato group which binds two [2-Et(2)NCH(2)C(6)H(4)](2)Bi units that are crystallographically related via a twofold rotation axis bis-ecting the carbonate group. The two Bi atoms and two of the C atoms directly bonded to bis-muth are quasi-planar [deviations of 0.323 (1) and 0.330 (9)Å for the Bi and C atoms, respectively] with the carbonate group. The remaining two ligands are in a trans arrangement relative to the quasi-planar (CBi)(2)CO(3) system. The metal atom is strongly coordinated by the N atom of one pendant arm [Bi-N = 2.739 (6) Å], almost trans to the O atom, while the N atom of the other pendant arm exhibits a weaker intra-molecular inter-action [Bi⋯N = 3.659 (7) Å] almost trans to a C atom. If both these intra-molecular N→Bi inter-actions per metal atom are considered, the overall coordination geometry at bis-muth becomes distorted square-pyramidal [(C,N)(2)BiO cores] and the compound can be described as a hypervalent 12-Bi-5 species. Additional quite short intra-molecular Bi⋯O inter-actions are also present [3.796 (8)-4.020 (9) Å]. Inter-molecular associations through weak η(6)⋯Bi inter-actions [Bi⋯centroid of benzene ring = 3.659 (1) Å] lead to a ribbon-like supra-molecular association.

  12. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim...... was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. METHODS: A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due...... to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent...

  13. Repeatability of quantitative 18F-FLT uptake measurements in solid tumors: an individual patient data multi-center meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G M; Liu, Y; de Langen, A J; Jansma, E P; Trigonis, I; Asselin, M-C; Jackson, A; Kenny, L; Aboagye, E O; Hoekstra, O S; Boellaard, R

    2018-06-01

    3'-deoxy-3'-[ 18 F]fluorothymidine ( 18 F-FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) provides a non-invasive method to assess cellular proliferation and response to antitumor therapy. Quantitative 18 F-FLT uptake metrics are being used for evaluation of proliferative response in investigational setting, however multi-center repeatability needs to be established. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of 18 F-FLT tumor uptake metrics by re-analyzing individual patient data from previously published reports using the same tumor segmentation method and repeatability metrics across cohorts. A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE.com and the Cochrane Library from inception-October 2016 yielded five 18 F-FLT repeatability cohorts in solid tumors. 18 F-FLT avid lesions were delineated using a 50% isocontour adapted for local background on test and retest scans. SUV max , SUV mean , SUV peak , proliferative volume and total lesion uptake (TLU) were calculated. Repeatability was assessed using the repeatability coefficient (RC = 1.96 × SD of test-retest differences), linear regression analysis, and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The impact of different lesion selection criteria was also evaluated. Images from four cohorts containing 30 patients with 52 lesions were obtained and analyzed (ten in breast cancer, nine in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and 33 in non-small cell lung cancer patients). A good correlation was found between test-retest data for all 18 F-FLT uptake metrics (R 2  ≥ 0.93; ICC ≥ 0.96). Best repeatability was found for SUV peak (RC: 23.1%), without significant differences in RC between different SUV metrics. Repeatability of proliferative volume (RC: 36.0%) and TLU (RC: 36.4%) was worse than SUV. Lesion selection methods based on SUV max  ≥ 4.0 improved the repeatability of volumetric metrics (RC: 26-28%), but did not affect the repeatability of SUV metrics. In multi-center studies

  14. (Acetonitrile[bis(2-pyridylmethylamine]bis(perchloratocopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(ClO42(C12H13N3(C2H3N], the CuII atom is six-coordinate in a Jahn–Teller distorted octahedral geometry, with coordination by the tridentate chelating ligand, an acetonitrile molecule, and two axial perchlorate anions. The tridentate ligand bis(2-pyridylmethylamine chelates meridionally and equatorially while an acetonitrile molecule is coordinated at the fourth equatorial site. The two perchlorate anions are disordered with site occupancy factors of 0.72/0.28. The amine H is involved in intramolecular hydrogen bonding to the perchlorate O atoms and there are extensive but weak intermolecular C—H...O interactions.

  15. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, K S; Rowe, K J

    1994-11-01

    To establish whether there is an association between the ingestion of synthetic food colorings and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of "hyperactivity." From approximately 800 children referred to the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) for assessment of suspected hyperactivity, 200 were included in a 6-week open trial of a diet free of synthetic food coloring. The parents of 150 children reported behavioral improvement with the diet, and deterioration on the introduction of foods noted to contain synthetic coloring. A 30-item behavioral rating inventory was devised from an examination of the clinical histories of 50 suspected reactors. Thirty-four other children (23 suspected reactors, 11 uncertain reactors) and 20 control subjects, aged 2 to 14 years, were studied. A 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study used each child as his or her own control. Placebo, or one of six dose levels of tartrazine (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg), was administered randomly each morning, and behavioral ratings were recorded by parents at the end of each 24 hours. The study identified 24 children as clear reactors (19 of 23 "suspected reactors," 3 of 11 "uncertain reactors," and 2 of 20 "control subjects"). They were irritable and restless and had sleep disturbance. Significant reactions were observed at all six dose levels. A dose response effect was obtained. With a dose increase greater than 10 mg, the duration of effect was prolonged. Behavioral changes in irritability, restlessness, and sleep disturbance are associated with the ingestion of tartrazine in some children. A dose response effect was observed.

  16. Knowledge and Skill Retention of In-Service versus Preservice Nursing Professionals following an Informal Training Program in Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Repeated-Measures Quasiexperimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuma Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants—28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals—were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P=0.08 while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P<0.001. Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups—in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P=0.01 and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P<0.001. Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills.

  17. Theory and experiment studies of the 1,4-bis(4-methoxylstyryl)benzene as a wavelength shifter of liquid scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhanlong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhu, Jiayi [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Bi, Yutie, E-mail: biyutie@sina.com [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Xu, Yewei [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhang, Qianfeng [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhang, Xing [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Junjiang [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: zhlmy@sina.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, Mianyang 621010 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-03-15

    A novel wavelength shifter of the 1,4-bis(4-methoxylstyryl)benzene (bis-4-MOSB) was synthesized by employing the classical Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction. Feasible analysis of the bis-4-MOSB as the wavelength shifter in a ternary liquid scintillator, in which p-xylene (PX) was as the solvent and 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) was as the primary fluor, was carried out. The optimum prescription with 3.5 g/L PPO and 25 mg/L bis-4-MOSB was obtained with regard to the light yield. A series of characterization tests based on the optimal formulation were performed. Compared with the 1,4-bis(2-methylstyryl)benzene (bis-MSB), the maximum absorption peak at 356 nm and maximum emission peak at 421 nm in n-hexane with the red shift of 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively, were measured accordingly. The light yield characterized by using a relative measurement method achieved as high as 75.85% of the anthracene crystal. A brief density functional calculation was conducted to have an insight into the electronic structure characteristic of the bis-4-MOSB in the scintillation process. - Graphic abstract: In our work, 1,4-bis(4-methoxylstyryl)benzene (bis-4-MOSB), as a novel wavelength shifter of liquid scintillator, was designed and synthesized. A comparison including absorption spectra and electronic structure characteristic between bis-4-MOSB and bis-MSB were conducted. Its maximum emission peak lied at 421 nm in n-hexane was corresponded to the maximum response range wavelength of PMT for the bis-4-MOSB. Furthermore, compared with the bis-MSB, the wavelength shifter of bis-4-MOSB showed a better luminescence performance.

  18. Theory and experiment studies of the 1,4-bis(4-methoxylstyryl)benzene as a wavelength shifter of liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Zhanlong; Zhu, Jiayi; Bi, Yutie; Xu, Yewei; Zhang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Xing; Li, Junjiang; Zhang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A novel wavelength shifter of the 1,4-bis(4-methoxylstyryl)benzene (bis-4-MOSB) was synthesized by employing the classical Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction. Feasible analysis of the bis-4-MOSB as the wavelength shifter in a ternary liquid scintillator, in which p-xylene (PX) was as the solvent and 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) was as the primary fluor, was carried out. The optimum prescription with 3.5 g/L PPO and 25 mg/L bis-4-MOSB was obtained with regard to the light yield. A series of characterization tests based on the optimal formulation were performed. Compared with the 1,4-bis(2-methylstyryl)benzene (bis-MSB), the maximum absorption peak at 356 nm and maximum emission peak at 421 nm in n-hexane with the red shift of 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively, were measured accordingly. The light yield characterized by using a relative measurement method achieved as high as 75.85% of the anthracene crystal. A brief density functional calculation was conducted to have an insight into the electronic structure characteristic of the bis-4-MOSB in the scintillation process. - Graphic abstract: In our work, 1,4-bis(4-methoxylstyryl)benzene (bis-4-MOSB), as a novel wavelength shifter of liquid scintillator, was designed and synthesized. A comparison including absorption spectra and electronic structure characteristic between bis-4-MOSB and bis-MSB were conducted. Its maximum emission peak lied at 421 nm in n-hexane was corresponded to the maximum response range wavelength of PMT for the bis-4-MOSB. Furthermore, compared with the bis-MSB, the wavelength shifter of bis-4-MOSB showed a better luminescence performance.

  19. BIS impulsivity and acute nicotine exposure are associated with discounting global consequences in the Harvard game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Stillwell, David J; Tunney, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) provides a transdiagnostic marker for a number of psychiatric conditions and drug abuse, but the precise psychological trait(s) tapped by this questionnaire remain obscure. To address this, 51 smokers completed in counterbalanced order the BIS, a delay discounting task and a Harvard game that measured choice between a response that yielded a high immediate monetary payoff but decreased opportunity to earn money overall (local choice) versus a response that yielded a lower immediate payoff but afforded a greater opportunity to earn overall (global choice). Individual level of BIS impulsivity and self-elected smoking prior to the study were independently associated with increased preference for the local over the global choice in the Harvard game, but not delay discounting. BIS impulsivity and acute nicotine exposure reflect a bias in the governance of choice by immediate reward contingencies over global consequences, consistent with contemporary dual-process instrumental learning theories. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Reproducibility of repeated measures of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl ([11C]L-deprenyl-D2) binding in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; MacGregor, Robert R.; Shea, Colleen

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of repeated positron emission tomography (PET) measures of brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) using deuterium-substituted [ 11 C]L-deprenyl ([ 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2) in normal subjects and to validate the method used for estimating the kinetic constants from the irreversible 3-compartment model applied to the tracer binding. Five normal healthy subjects (age range 23-73 years) each received two PET scans with [ 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2. The time interval between scans was 7-27 days. Time-activity data from eight regions of interest and an arterial plasma input function was used to calculate λk 3 , a model term proportional to MAO B, and K 1 , the plasma to brain transfer constant that is related to blood flow. Linear (LIN) and nonlinear least-squares (NLLSQ) estimation methods were used to calculate the optimum model constants. A comparison of time-activity curves for scan 1 and scan 2 showed that the percent of change for peak uptake varied from -18.5 to 15.0% and that increases and decreases in uptake on scan 2 were associated with increases and decreases in the value of the arterial input of the tracer. Calculation of λk 3 showed a difference between scan 1 and scan 2 in the global value ranging between -6.97 and 4.5% (average -2.1±4.7%). The average percent change for eight brain regions for the five subjects was -2.84±7.07%. Values of λk 3 for scan 1 and scan 2 were highly correlated (r 2 =0.98; p 1 showed a significant correlation between scan 1 and scan 2 (r 2 =0.61; p 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2 varied between scan 1 and scan 2, driven by the differences in arterial tracer input. Application of a 3-compartment model to regional time-activity data and arterial input function yielded λk 3 values for scan 1 and scan 2 with an average difference of -2.84 ± 7.07%. Linear regression applied to values of λk 3 from the LIN and NLLSQ methods validated the use of the linear method for calculating λk 3

  1. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Chloe; Bremer, Emily; Campbell, Wenonah; Cairney, John

    2017-01-01

    School readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3-4 years. A within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies), 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc.) or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks), and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1-2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.). A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3) was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1), pre-intervention (Time 2), post-intervention (Time 3), and 5-week follow-up (Time 4). Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point. There was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks' lambda = 0.09, p  = .002), print-concept skills (Wilks' lambda = 0.09, p  = .001), and alphabet knowledge (Wilks' lambda = 0.29, p  = .046). Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3. Participation in a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy

  2. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Bedard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSchool readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3–4 years.MethodsA within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies, 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc. or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks, and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1–2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.. A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3 was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1, pre-intervention (Time 2, post-intervention (Time 3, and 5-week follow-up (Time 4. Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point.ResultsThere was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .002, print-concept skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .001, and alphabet knowledge (Wilks’ lambda = 0.29, p = .046. Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3.ConclusionParticipation in a

  3. A probit- log- skew-normal mixture model for repeated measures data with excess zeros, with application to a cohort study of paediatric respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Neil W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A zero-inflated continuous outcome is characterized by occurrence of "excess" zeros that more than a single distribution can explain, with the positive observations forming a skewed distribution. Mixture models are employed for regression analysis of zero-inflated data. Moreover, for repeated measures zero-inflated data the clustering structure should also be modeled for an adequate analysis. Methods Diary of Asthma and Viral Infections Study (DAVIS was a one year (2004 cohort study conducted at McMaster University to monitor viral infection and respiratory symptoms in children aged 5-11 years with and without asthma. Respiratory symptoms were recorded daily using either an Internet or paper-based diary. Changes in symptoms were assessed by study staff and led to collection of nasal fluid specimens for virological testing. The study objectives included investigating the response of respiratory symptoms to respiratory viral infection in children with and without asthma over a one year period. Due to sparse data daily respiratory symptom scores were aggregated into weekly average scores. More than 70% of the weekly average scores were zero, with the positive scores forming a skewed distribution. We propose a random effects probit/log-skew-normal mixture model to analyze the DAVIS data. The model parameters were estimated using a maximum marginal likelihood approach. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed mixture model if the underlying distribution of the positive response is different from log-skew normal. Results Viral infection status was highly significant in both probit and log-skew normal model components respectively. The probability of being symptom free was much lower for the week a child was viral positive relative to the week she/he was viral negative. The severity of the symptoms was also greater for the week a child was viral positive. The probability of being symptom free was

  4. 40 CFR 721.1630 - 1,2-Ethanediol bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonate); 2,2-oxybis-ethane bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-methylbenzenesulfonate); 2,2-oxybis-ethane bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonate); ethanol, 2,2â²-[oxybis(2,1-ethanediyl oxy)]bis-, bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonate); ethanol, 2,2â²-[oxybis (2,1-ethane diyloxy)] bis-, bis(4...); 2,2-oxybis-ethane bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonate); ethanol, 2,2′-[oxybis(2,1-ethanediyl oxy)]bis-, bis...

  5. Measurements of Repeated Tightening and Loosening Torque of Seven Different Implant/Abutment Connection Designs and Their Modifications: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevica, Alena; Nathanson, Dan; Pober, Richard; Strating, Herman

    2018-02-01

    Repeated tightening and loosening of the abutment screw may alter its mechanical and physical properties affecting the optimal torque and ultimate reliability of an implant/abutment connection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated tightening and loosening of implant/abutment screws on the loosening torque of implant/abutment connections of commercially available implant systems. Seven different implant/abutment connections and their modifications were tested. The screws of each system were tightened according to the manufacturer's specifications. After 20 minutes the screws were loosened. This procedure was repeated ten times, and the differences between the 1st and 10th cycle were expressed as a percentage change RTq(%) and correlated with initial torque, the number of threads, the length of shank, and thread surface area employing Spearman's analysis. All systems showed significant differences in residual torque (RTq) value (p 0.05). All connections but group 3 (p = 1.000) showed a significant change from the initial torque (ITq) to the RTq values. The first successive RTq values increased in two connection groups 1 and 2. The remaining connections showed reduced RTq values ranging from -1.2 % (group 5) to -23.5% (group 6). The RTq values declined gradually with every repeated tightening in groups 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12. In group 2, after the tenth tightening the RTq was still above the ITq value. Only length of shank demonstrated a correlation with the RTq(%) change over the successive tightening loosening cycles (p abutment screws caused varying torque level changes among the different systems. These observations can probably be attributed to connection design. Limiting the number of tightening/loosening cycles in clinical and laboratory procedures is advisable for most of the implant systems tested. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Normative data of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11 for Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro F. Malloy-Diniz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 is a valid and reliable instrument, and one of the most often used tools to assess impulsivity. This study assesses the performance of a large sample of adults by using a version of BIS-11 adapted to Brazilian Portuguese.Methods:We assessed 3,053 adults from eight Brazilian states. Internal consistencies and performance data were presented for two correction criteria of BIS-11: original and the two-factor score.Results:The associations between age, sex, region, and education and the BIS-11 scores present very small effect sizes. Therefore, we provided a percentile rank parameter for the different BIS-11 subscores considering the whole sample. Given the internal consistency of the two correction systems, we found that only the two-factor system fulfills the psychometric criteria of Cronbach’s alpha (cutoff value of at least 0.6.Conclusion:Our results support the use of the Brazilian adaptation of BIS-11 in different regions of the country as a measure of impulsivity. Since high impulsiveness is a characteristic of several dysfunctional behaviors, the establishment of normative parameters is of utmost relevance and should be extended to other age ranges and populations in future studies.

  7. Alternativas de análises em dados de medidas repetidas de bovinos de corte Alternative analyses of repeated weight measurements of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar duas alternativas de análises de variâncias e covariâncias para dados de pesagens de bovinos. Foram utilizados dados de animais Nelore, Guzerá, Gir e Indubrasil, machos e fêmeas, pertencentes à Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu - ABCZ. De cada indivíduo, foram obtidas, em intervalos trimestrais, nove medidas repetidas de pesos, do nascimento aos dois anos de idade. Na primeira análise, a variável resposta y i foi transformada por meio da família de transformação de Box-Cox y ilambda = (ylambda-lambda/lambda, (l ¹ 0 ou y i = log y i, (lambda = 0. Essa transformação foi efetiva na redução dos coeficientes de assimetria e da heterogeneidade de variância para todas as pesagens e raças. Na segunda análise, foi selecionada a estrutura de covariâncias mais adequada para representar a variabilidade dentro de indivíduo, considerando-se um modelo misto usual para medidas repetidas. Utilizando-se os critérios fornecidos pelo procedimento MIXED do SAS: distribuição de chi2, AIC ("Akaike's Information Criterion" e SBC ("Schwarz's Bayesian Criterion", a estrutura de covariância mais adequada para todas as raças foi a Não-Estruturada, seguida da estrutura Fator-Analítico para Nelore, Gir e Indubrasil e Simetria Composta Heterogênea para Guzerá.Data consisting of individual records of male and female animals of purebred Bos Indicus beef cattle (Nellore, Guzerá, Gir and Indubrasil weighted every three months from birth to 24 months of age available from National Archive of Brazilian Zebu Breeders Association (ABCZ were used to evaluate two alternatives (covariance analyses for body weight. In the first analysis the Box-Cox family transformation y ilambda = (ylambda-lambda/lambda (l ¹ 0 or y i = log y i, for lambda=0 was effective in reducing the asymmetry of the coefficients and variance heterogeneity for all weights and breeds. In the second analysis a usual standard mixed model for repeated

  8. Briefwechsel uber die Partikel "bis" (An Exchange of Letters about the Particle "bis").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Horst; Holschuh, Albrecht

    1990-01-01

    A discussion, in the form of an animated letter exchange, argues that, contrary to most current grammatical descriptions, the German particle "bis" should not be viewed as a preposition governing the accusative case. Rather, it is demonstrated that "bis" most often occurs as a proclitic adverb. (16 references) (JTC)

  9. Facile, novel two-step syntheses of benzimidazoles, bis-benzimidazoles, and bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhigang; Shaw, Arthur Y; Dietrich, Justin; Cappelli, Alexandra P; Nichol, Gary; Hulme, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Three scaffolds of benzimidazoles, bis-benzimidazoles, and bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines were synthesized via Ugi/de-protection/cyclization methodology. Benzimidazole forming ring closure was enabled under microwave irradiation in the presence of 10% TFA/DCE. The methodology demonstrates the utility of 2-(N-Boc-amino)-phenyl-isocyanide for the generation of new molecular diversity.

  10. Facile, novel two-step syntheses of benzimidazoles, bis-benzimidazoles, and bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhigang; Shaw, Arthur Y.; Dietrich, Justin; Cappelli, Alexandra P.; Nichol, Gary; Hulme, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Three scaffolds of benzimidazoles, bis-benzimidazoles, and bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines were synthesized via Ugi/de-protection/cyclization methodology. Benzimidazole forming ring closure was enabled under microwave irradiation in the presence of 10% TFA/DCE. The methodology demonstrates the utility of 2-(N-Boc-amino)-phenyl-isocyanide for the generation of new molecular diversity.

  11. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  12. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  13. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  14. Incremental Value of Repeated Risk Factor Measurements for Cardiovascular Disease Prediction in Middle-Aged Korean Adults: Results From the NHIS-HEALS (National Health Insurance System-National Health Screening Cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Jeong; Sung, Ji Min; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chung, Namsik; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that repeatedly measured cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may have an additive predictive value compared with single measured levels. Thus, we evaluated the incremental predictive value of incorporating periodic health screening data for CVD prediction in a large nationwide cohort with periodic health screening tests. A total of 467 708 persons aged 40 to 79 years and free from CVD were randomly divided into development (70%) and validation subcohorts (30%). We developed 3 different CVD prediction models: a single measure model using single time point screening data; a longitudinal average model using average risk factor values from periodic screening data; and a longitudinal summary model using average values and the variability of risk factors. The development subcohort included 327 396 persons who had 3.2 health screenings on average and 25 765 cases of CVD over 12 years. The C statistics (95% confidence interval [CI]) for the single measure, longitudinal average, and longitudinal summary models were 0.690 (95% CI, 0.682-0.698), 0.695 (95% CI, 0.687-0.703), and 0.752 (95% CI, 0.744-0.760) in men and 0.732 (95% CI, 0.722-0.742), 0.735 (95% CI, 0.725-0.745), and 0.790 (95% CI, 0.780-0.800) in women, respectively. The net reclassification index from the single measure model to the longitudinal average model was 1.78% in men and 1.33% in women, and the index from the longitudinal average model to the longitudinal summary model was 32.71% in men and 34.98% in women. Using averages of repeatedly measured risk factor values modestly improves CVD predictability compared with single measurement values. Incorporating the average and variability information of repeated measurements can lead to great improvements in disease prediction. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02931500. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  16. Repeated cycles of chemical and physical disinfection and their influence on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability measured by propidium monoazide F57 quantitative real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Petr; Babak, Vladimir; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has a high degree of resistance to chemical and physical procedures frequently used for the elimination of other bacteria. Recently, a method for the determination of viability by exposure of MAP to propidium monoazide (PMA) and subsequent real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was established and found to be comparable with culture. The aim of this study was to apply the PMA qPCR method to determine the impact of increasing concentration or time and repeated cycles of the application of selected disinfectants on MAP viability. Different MAP isolates responded to the same type of stress in different ways. The laboratory strain CAPM 6381 had the highest tolerance, while the 8819 low-passage field isolate was the most sensitive. Ultraviolet exposure caused only a partial reduction in MAP viability; all MAP isolates were relatively resistant to chlorine. Only the application of peracetic acid led to the total elimination of MAP. Repeated application of the treatments resulted in more significant decreases in MAP viability compared to single increases in the concentration or time of exposure to the disinfectant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  18. DNA-Directed alkylating agents. 7. Synthesis, DNA interaction, and antitumor activity of bis(hydroxymethyl)- and bis(carbamate)-substituted pyrrolizines and imidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, G J; Fan, J Y; Tan, K; Denny, W A

    1998-11-19

    A series of bis(hydroxymethyl)-substituted imidazoles, thioimidazoles, and pyrrolizines and related bis(carbamates), linked to either 9-anilinoacridine (intercalating) or 4-(4-quinolinylamino)benzamide (minor groove binding) carriers, were synthesized and evaluated for sequence-specific DNA alkylation and cytotoxicity. The imidazole and thioimidazole analogues were prepared by initial synthesis of [(4-aminophenyl)alkyl]imidazole-, thioimidazole-, or pyrrolizine dicarboxylates, coupling of these with the desired carrier, and reduction to give the required bis(hydroxymethyl) alkylating moiety. The pyrrolizines were the most reactive alkylators, followed by the thioimidazoles, while the imidazoles were unreactive. The pyrrolizines and some of the thioimidazoles cross-linked DNA, as measured by agarose gel electrophoresis. Strand cleavage assays showed that none of the compounds reacted at purine N7 or N3 sites in the gpt region of the plasmid gpt2Eco, but the polymerase stop assay showed patterns of G-alkylation in C-rich regions. The corresponding thioimidazole bis(carbamates) were more selective than the bis(hydroxymethyl) pyrrolizines, with high-intensity bands at 5'-NCCN, 5'-NGCN and 5'-NCGN sequences in the PCR stopping assay ( indicates block sites). The data suggest that these targeted compounds, like the known thioimidazole bis(carbamate) carmethizole, alkylate exclusively at guanine residues via the 2-amino group, with little or no alkylation at N3 and N7 guanine or adenine sites. The cytotoxicities of the compounds correlated broadly with their reactivities, with the bis(hydroxymethyl)imidazoles being the least cytotoxic (IC50s >1 microM; P388 leukemia) and with the intercalator-linked analogues being more cytotoxic than the corresponding minor-groove-targeted ones. This was true also for the more reactive thioimidazole bis(carbamates) (IC50s 0.8 and 11 microM, respectively), but both were more active than the analogous "untargeted" carmethizole (IC50 20

  19. Pharmacokinetics of taurolidine following repeated intravenous infusions measured by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of the derivatives taurultame and taurinamide in glioblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Ruediger; Scheurer, Louis; Schlatterer, Kathrin; Stalder, Urs; Pfirrmann, Rolf W; Fiss, Ingo; Möhler, Hanns; Bigler, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Taurolidine is known to have antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, at lower concentrations, it has been found to exert a selective antineoplastic effect in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of taurolidine in vivo following repeated intravenous infusion in a schedule used for the treatment of glioblastoma. As a prerequisite, the pharmacokinetics of taurolidine in human blood plasma and whole blood in vitro was investigated. The pharmacokinetics of taurolidine and its derivatives taurultame and taurinamide were investigated in human blood plasma and in whole blood in vitro using blood from a healthy male volunteer. During repeated intravenous infusion therapy with taurolidine, plasma samples were taken every hour for a period of 13 hours per day in seven patients (three male, four female; mean age 48.4 +/- 12.8 years, range 27-66 years) with a glioblastoma. Following dansyl derivatisation, the concentrations of taurultame and taurinamide were determined using a new method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) online coupled to electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Under the experimental conditions used, taurolidine could not be determined directly and was back-calculated from the taurultame and taurinamide values. The new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method demonstrated high accuracy and reproducibility. In vitro plasma concentrations of taurultame and taurinamide remained constant over the incubation period. In whole blood in vitro, a time-dependent formation of taurinamide was observed. At the start of the incubation, the taurultame-taurinamide ratio (TTR) was 0.95 at an initial taurolidine concentration of 50 microg/mL, and 1.69 at 100 microg/mL. The concentration of taurultame decreased at the same rate as the taurinamide concentration increased, showing logarithmic kinetics. The calculated taurolidine concentration remained largely constant over the

  20. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  1. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  2. Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivity differentiates EEG theta responses during goal conflict in a continuous monitoring task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roger A; Mills, Matthew; Marshman, Paul; Corr, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    Previous research has revealed that EEG theta oscillations are affected during goal conflict processing. This is consistent with the behavioural inhibition system (BIS) theory of anxiety (Gray & McNaughton, 2000). However, studies have not attempted to relate these BIS-related theta effects to BIS personality measures. Confirmation of such an association would provide further support for BIS theory, especially as it relates to trait differences. EEG was measured (32 electrodes) from extreme groups (low/high trait BIS) engaged in a target detection task. Goal conflicts were introduced throughout the task. Results show that the two groups did not differ in behavioural performance. The major EEG result was that a stepwise discriminant analysis indicated discrimination by 6 variables derived from coherence and power, with 5 of the 6 in the theta range as predicted by BIS theory and one in the beta range. Also, across the whole sample, EEG theta coherence increased at a variety of regions during primary goal conflict and showed a general increase during response execution; EEG theta power, in contrast, was primarily reactive to response execution. This is the first study to reveal a three-way relationship between the induction of goal conflict, the induction of theta power and coherence, and differentiation by psychometrically-defined low/high BIS status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  4. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  5. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  6. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Flowerlike Cu3BiS3 Thin Films Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S. G.; Patel, S. J.; Patel, K. K.; Panchal, A. K.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2017-10-01

    For widespread application of thin-film photovoltaic solar cells, synthesis of inexpensive absorber material is essential. In this work, deposition of ternary Cu3BiS3 absorber material, which contains abundant and environmentally benign elements, was carried out on glass substrate. Flowerlike Cu3BiS3 thin films with nanoflakes as building block were formed on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition. These films were annealed at 573 K and 673 K in sulfur ambient for structural improvement. Their structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, as well as their surface morphological and optical properties. The x-ray diffraction profile of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 thin film revealed amorphous structure, which transformed to orthorhombic phase after annealing. The Raman spectrum exhibited a characteristic peak at 290 cm-1. Scanning electron microscopy of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 film confirmed formation of nanoflowers with diameter of around 1052 nm. Wettability testing of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 thin film demonstrated hydrophobic nature, which became hydrophilic after annealing. The measured ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra of the Cu3BiS3 thin films gave an absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1 and direct optical bandgap of about 1.42 eV after annealing treatment. Based on all these results, such Cu3BiS3 material may have potential applications in the photovoltaic field as an absorber layer.

  7. Correlation of bispectral index (BIS monitoring and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in a patient with lobar holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Galante

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: The bispectral index (BIS is a parameter derived by electroencephalography (EEG which provides a direct measurement of the effects of sedatives and anesthetics on the brain and offers guidance on the adequacy of anesthesia. The literature lacks studies on BIS monitoring in pediatric patients with congenital brain disease undergoing general anesthesia.CLINICAL FEATURES: A 13-year-old child weighing 32 kg, suffering from lobar holoprosencephaly, underwent surgery in which the bispectral index (BIS monitoring the depth of anesthesia showed an abnormal response. Detailed analysis of the trends of BIS values in the different observation times demonstrated sudden falls and repetitive values of BIS likely related to repetitive epileptiform electrical activity caused by sevoflurane.CONCLUSION: The BIS is a very useful monitoring tool for assessing the degree of depth of anesthesia and to analyze the electroencephalographic variations of anesthetics. Particular attention should be given to patients with congenital disorders of the central nervous system in which the BIS may give abnormal responses that do not reflect an accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia.

  8. Bis(indenyl)zirconium(IV) complexes of monofunctional bidentate salicylidimines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.; Khera, B.; Kaushik, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    A series of (C 9 H 7 ) 2 Zr(SB)Cl complexes where SB- is the anion of bidentate Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 4-substitued anilines, viz. salicylidene-4-ansidine, salicylidene-4-phenetidine, salicylidene-4-chloroaniline, salicylidene-4-bromoaniline, salicylene-4-iodoaniline and salicylidene-4-nitroaniline, have been synthesized by the reaction of bis(indenyl)zirconium(IV) dichloride and Schiff base (SBH) in 1 : 1 molar ratio in refluxing THF in the presence of triethylamine. The new derivatives have been characterized on the basis of their elemental analyses, conductance measurements and spectral (IR, 1 H-NMR, UV-VIS) studies. (Author)

  9. The Synthesis of Dicationic Extended Bis-Benzimidazoles

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Zhijan; Dykstra, Christine C.; Boykin, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of extended dicationic bis-benzimidazoles starting from trans-1,2-bis(4-cyanophenyl)ethene and trans-1,2-bis(4-cyanophenyl)cyclopropane is reported. The target diamidines show significant in vitro activity against B. subtilis.

  10. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  11. [Preparation of clear thermosetting resin for veneered crown from several bisMEPP monomers (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E

    1978-07-01

    The whitish translucent shade of a thermosetting resin cured from a mixture of a 2,2-Bis (p-methacryloxy (ethoxy)1-2 phenyl)-propane monomer and PMMA pearls makes it difficult to reconstruct a shade of the natural tooth. The attempt to improve the transparency of the mixed polymer was made in this study. Varying the molecular weight of BisMEPP monomer, PMMA polymer and curing temperature, cured specimens were prepared and their transparency was measured with a spectrophotometer. The results obtained are as follows. 1) In any molecular weight of PMMA, BisMEPP with 2.3 to 3.3 average number of ethylene oxide linkage showed the highest transpalency on the specimen. 2) With increasing the curing temperature, transpalency of the specimens made from BisME4.0 PP increased. With another molecular of BisMEPP, transpalency of the cured specimens showed the highest transpalency at the curing temperature of 120 degrees C. 3) With increasing the molecular weight of PMMA, the transpalency increased.

  12. Fine-resolution repeat topographic surveying of dryland landscapes using UAS-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry: Assessing accuracy and precision against traditional ground-based erosion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aerial system (UAS) imagery is an emerging tool for repeat topographic surveying of dryland erosion. These methods are particularly appealing due to the ability to cover large landscapes compared to field methods and at reduced costs and finer spatial resolution compared to airborne laser scanning. Accuracy and precision of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from UAS imagery have been explored in many studies, typically by comparing image coordinates to surveyed check points or LiDAR datasets. In addition to traditional check points, this study compared 5 cm resolution DTMs derived from fixed-wing UAS imagery with a traditional ground-based method of measuring soil surface change called erosion bridges. We assessed accuracy by comparing the elevation values between DTMs and erosion bridges along thirty topographic transects each 6.1 m long. Comparisons occurred at two points in time (June 2014, February 2015) which enabled us to assess vertical accuracy with 3314 data points and vertical precision (i.e., repeatability) with 1657 data points. We found strong vertical agreement (accuracy) between the methods (RMSE 2.9 and 3.2 cm in June 2014 and February 2015, respectively) and high vertical precision for the DTMs (RMSE 2.8 cm). Our results from comparing SfM-generated DTMs to check points, and strong agreement with erosion bridge measurements suggests repeat UAS imagery and SfM processing could replace erosion bridges for a more synoptic landscape assessment of shifting soil surfaces for some studies. However, while collecting the UAS imagery and generating the SfM DTMs for this study was faster than collecting erosion bridge measurements, technical challenges related to the need for ground control networks and image processing requirements must be addressed before this technique could be applied effectively to large landscapes.

  13. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  14. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  15. Biochemical characterization of propylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). Facile synthesis of monoalkylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, H; Laine, R; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Jänne, J; Mutikainen, I; Lumme, P

    1985-01-01

    Propylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) sulfate, a novel analog of the well-known antileukemic drug methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), has been prepared from 2,2-dibromopentanal, and the compound has been characterized biochemically. Although it is a powerful inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, its Ki value (0.2 microM) is considerably higher than that of ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (0.06 microM). The compound is only poorly taken up by tumor cells, and its accumulation is not stimulated by a prior exposure of the tumor cells to difluoromethylornithine, a compound that causes polyamine depletion. Thus, the uptake characteristics of the compound are similar to those of ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), but in striking contrast to those of methylglyoxal and glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazones). Since the configuration of the double bonds in glyoxal, methylglyoxal and propylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazones) has been shown to be identical, the different uptake characteristics are probably only due to differences in side chain size and/or hydrophobicity.

  16. Monitoring sleep depth: analysis of bispectral index (BIS) based on polysomnographic recordings and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Sandra; Romero, Sergio; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miguel Ángel; Pujol, Anna; Baxarias, Pilar; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria

    2017-02-01

    The assessment and management of sleep are increasingly recommended in the clinical practice. Polysomnography (PSG) is considered the gold standard test to monitor sleep objectively, but some practical and technical constraints exist due to environmental and patient considerations. Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring is commonly used in clinical practice for guiding anesthetic administration and provides an index based on relationships between EEG components. Due to similarities in EEG synchronization between anesthesia and sleep, several studies have assessed BIS as a sleep monitor with contradictory results. The aim of this study was to evaluate objectively both the feasibility and reliability of BIS for sleep monitoring through a robust methodology, which included full PSG recordings at a baseline situation and after 40 h of sleep deprivation. Results confirmed that the BIS index was highly correlated with the hypnogram (0.89 ± 0.02), showing a progressive decrease as sleep deepened, and an increase during REM sleep (awake: 91.77 ± 8.42; stage N1: 83.95 ± 11.05; stage N2: 71.71 ± 11.99; stage N3: 42.41 ± 9.14; REM: 80.11 ± 8.73). Mean and median BIS values were lower in the post-deprivation night than in the baseline night, showing statistical differences for the slow wave sleep (baseline: 42.41 ± 9.14 vs. post-deprivation: 39.49 ± 10.27; p = 0.02). BIS scores were able to discriminate properly between deep (N3) and light (N1, N2) sleep. BIS values during REM overlapped those of other sleep stages, although EMG activity provided by the BIS monitor could help to identify REM sleep if needed. In conclusion, BIS monitors could provide a useful measure of sleep depth in especially particular situations such as intensive care units, and they could be used as an alternative for sleep monitoring in order to reduce PSG-derived costs and to increase capacity in ambulatory care.

  17. Preoperative and postoperative agreement in fat free mass (FFM) between bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M W; Verberne, Hein J; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M M J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; de Mol, Bas A J M

    2010-12-01

    To measure undernutrition in terms of fat free mass (FFM), there are several options. The aim of this study was to assess agreement in FFM between the portable, bedside bioelectrical impedance spectrometry (BIS) and relatively expensive, non-portable dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In a prospective study, body composition measurements by BIS and DXA were performed two weeks prior and two months after cardiac surgery. Preoperative and postoperative agreement in FFM between BIS and DXA were analyzed with Bland and Altman plots. Twenty-six patients were analyzed. BIS overestimated preoperative and postoperative FFM by 2 kg compared to DXA (2.3 kg (95%CI: -3.5-8.1 kg) and 2.1 kg (95%CI: -4.5-8.7 kg), respectively). BIS underestimated FFM change by -0.5% (95%CI: -8.4-7.5%). There is a large inter-individual variation between BIS and DXA. This hinders the interchange-ability of BIS and DXA in routine clinical practice and may lead to misclassifications and thereby inappropriate nutritional treatment and possible postoperative complications. To evaluate nutritional therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, we advocate the use of DXA assessed FFM in parallel to BIS assessed extracellular and intracellular water and FFM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Anticancer Properties of Bis-Naphthalimide Derivatives with Lysine-Modified Polyamine Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of bis-naphthalimide derivatives with different diamine linkers were designed and synthesized. All of the synthesized bis-naphthalimide derivatives were characterized by NMR and HRMS spectra. The binding ability between the compounds and CT DNA was evaluated by using UV–Vis titration experiments. The bis-naphthalimide compound with an ethylenediamine linker showed the largest binding constant with CT DNA. Hence, it was used as the model compound to study the DNA binding selectivity by UV–Vis titration aiming at different DNA duplexes. As a result, this compound showed binding preference to AT-rich duplexes. The DNA binding modes of the compounds were also measured by viscosity titration. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated by MTT assay. Compounds with 1,6-diaminohexane or 1,4-phenylenedimethanamine linkers showed higher cytotoxicity compared with other bis-naphthalimide derivatives.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

  20. Classifying individuals based on a densely captured sequence of vital signs: An example using repeated blood pressure measurements during hemodialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin A; Chang, Tara I; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2015-10-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) present the opportunity to observe serial measurements on patients. While potentially informative, analyzing these data can be challenging. In this work we present a means to classify individuals based on a series of measurements collected by an EHR. Using patients undergoing hemodialysis, we categorized people based on their intradialytic blood pressure. Our primary criteria were that the classifications were time dependent and independent of other subjects. We fit a curve of intradialytic blood pressure using regression splines and then calculated first and second derivatives to come up with four mutually exclusive classifications at different time points. We show that these classifications relate to near term risk of cardiac events and are moderately stable over a succeeding two-week period. This work has general application for analyzing dense EHR data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Food packaging and bisphenol A and bis(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate exposure: findings from a dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A; Gray, Janet M; Engel, Connie L; Rawsthorne, Teresa W; Dodson, Robin E; Ackerman, Janet M; Rizzo, Jeanne; Nudelman, Janet L; Brody, Julia Green

    2011-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are high-production-volume chemicals used in plastics and resins for food packaging. They have been associated with endocrine disruption in animals and in some human studies. Human exposure sources have been estimated, but the relative contribution of dietary exposure to total intake has not been studied empirically. To evaluate the contribution of food packaging to exposure, we measured urinary BPA and phthalate metabolites before, during, and after a "fresh foods" dietary intervention. We selected 20 participants in five families based on self-reported use of canned and packaged foods. Participants ate their usual diet, followed by 3 days of "fresh foods" that were not canned or packaged in plastic, and then returned to their usual diet. We collected evening urine samples over 8 days in January 2010 and composited them into preintervention, during intervention, and postintervention samples. We used mixed-effects models for repeated measures and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to assess change in urinary levels across time. Urine levels of BPA and DEHP metabolites decreased significantly during the fresh foods intervention [e.g., BPA geometric mean (GM), 3.7 ng/mL preintervention vs. 1.2 ng/mL during intervention; mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxy hexyl) phthalate GM, 57 ng/mL vs. 25 ng/mL]. The intervention reduced GM concentrations of BPA by 66% and DEHP metabolites by 53-56%. Maxima were reduced by 76% for BPA and 93-96% for DEHP metabolites. BPA and DEHP exposures were substantially reduced when participants' diets were restricted to food with limited packaging.

  2. Changing the size of a mirror-reflected hand moderates the experience of embodiment but not proprioceptive drift: a repeated measures study on healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopf, Priscilla G; Lloyd, Donna M; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-06-01

    Mirror visual feedback is used for reducing pain and visually distorting the size of the reflection may improve efficacy. The findings of studies investigating size distortion are inconsistent. The influence of the size of the reflected hand on embodiment of the mirror reflection is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of magnifying and minifying mirror reflections of the hand on embodiment measured using an eight-item questionnaire and on proprioceptive drift. During the experiment, participants (n = 45) placed their right hand behind a mirror and their left hand in front of a mirror. Participants watched a normal-sized, a magnified and a minified reflection of the left hand while performing synchronised finger movements for 3 min (adaptive phase). Measurements of embodiment were taken before (pre) and after (post) synchronous movements of the fingers of both hands (embodiment adaptive phase). Results revealed larger proprioceptive drift post-adaptive phase (p = 0.001). Participants agreed more strongly with questionnaire items associated with location, ownership and agency of the reflection of the hand post-adaptive phase (p embodiment of the reflection of the hand. Magnifying and minifying the reflection of the hand has little effect on proprioceptive drift, but it weakens the subjective embodiment experience. Such factors need to be taken into account in future studies using this technique, particularly when assessing mirror visual feedback for pain management.

  3. Repetibilidade e número mínimo de medições para caracteres de cacho de bacabi (Oenocarpus mapora Repeatability and minimum number of measurements for characters of bacabi palm (Oenocarpus mapora racemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    potential for commercial and food uses, but has not been well studied. The objectives of this study were to estimate the repeatability coefficients, determine predictability and the number of measurements needed for raceme characters of this palm. 27 individuals of bacabi that belong to the Germplasm Bank of Oenocarpus/Jessenia at Embrapa Eastern Amazon, in Belém, PA, Brazil were evaluated. Three fully matured racemes from each plant were sampled to measure six characters: total weight of raceme (TWR and fruit weight per raceme (FWR, number of rachillae per raceme (NRR, rachis length per raceme (RLR, weight of 100 fruits (WHF and fruit yield per raceme (FER. The repeatability estimates were obtained by three statistical methods: analysis of variance; principal components; and structural analysis. For all characters, the estimates of repeatability coefficients presented values with very similar magnitudes in the three methods. The estimates of repeatability coefficients and determination coefficients were relatively high (r 0.60 and R2 81.7% for the characters FER and NRR, showing genotype regularity for these raceme measurements. For these characters, the minimum number of racemes necessary to estimate the true character value of the genotypes was thirteen (FER and five (NRR, with 95% reliability. The remaining characters showed repeatabilities and determination coefficients with medium to low values, indicating the need for better environmental control to make the measurements.

  4. The effects of repeated testing, simulated malingering, and traumatic brain injury on high-precision measures of simple visual reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Simple reaction time (SRT, the latency to respond to a stimulus, has been widely used as a basic measure of processing speed. In the current experiments, we examined clinically-relevant properties of a new SRT test that presents visual stimuli to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies. Experiment 1 examined test-retest reliability in participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. In the first test, log-transformed (log-SRT z-scores, corrected for the influence of age and computer-use, were well predicted by regression functions derived from a normative population of 189 control participants. Test-retest reliability of log-SRT z-scores was measured with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.83 and equaled or exceeded those of other SRT tests and other widely used tests of processing speed that are administered manually. No significant learning effects were observed across test sessions. Experiment 2 investigated the same participants when instructed to malinger during a fourth testing session: 94% showed abnormal log-SRT z-scores, with 83% producing log-SRT z-scores exceeding a cutoff of 3.0, a degree of abnormality never seen in full-effort conditions. Thus, a log-SRT z-score cutoff of 3.0 had a sensitivity (83% and specificity (100% that equaled or exceeded that of existing symptom validity tests. We argue that even expert malingerers, fully informed of the malingering-detection metric, would be unable to successfully feign impairments on the SRT test because of the precise control of SRT latencies that would be required. Experiment 3 investigated 26 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI tested more than one year post-injury. The 22 patients with mild TBI showed insignificantly faster SRTs than controls, but a small group of four patients with severe TBI showed slowed SRTs. Simple visual reaction time is a reliable measure of processing speed that is sensitive to the effects of

  5. 3,5-bis(acylamino) benzamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Certain 3,5-disubstituted, 2,4,6-triiodoanilides of polyhydroxymonobasic acids have recently been found useful as non-ionic x-ray contrast agents. The 3-(lower acylamino)-5-amino-2,4,6-triiodobenzamides are prepared by hydrogenation of a 3,5-dinitrobenzamide, acylation of the resulting diamino compound to the bis-(acylamino) level and iodination of the acylamino compound

  6. County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W

    2006-12-01

    This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain. The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder. This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive

  7. Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaley Jill

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence indicates that dietary fats and physical activity influence bone health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 (N-3 supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, bone mineral density (BMD, and bone biomarkers in post-menopausal women. Methods Seventy-nine healthy sedentary post-menopausal women aged 58-78 years participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to one of 4 groups: exercise + supplement (E+S, n = 21, exercise (E, n = 20, supplement (S, n = 20, and control (Con, n = 18 groups. The subjects in the E+S and E groups performed aerobic exercise training (walking and jogging up to 65% of HRmax, three times a week for 24 weeks. Subjects in the E+S and S groups consumed 1000 mg/d N-3 for 24 weeks. The lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF α, interleukin (IL 6, prostaglandin (PG E2, estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 Vit D, C-telopeptide (CTX, parathyroid hormone (PTH and calcitonin (CT were measured at baseline, the end of week 12 and 24. Results Serum estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25 Vit D, CT, L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD measures increased (P 2 decreased (P 2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, estrogen, osteocalcin, and CT were negatively (P 2. PTH and CT were correlated positively and negatively with IL-6, respectively (P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that long-term aerobic exercise training plus N-3 supplementation have a synergistic effect in attenuating inflammation and augmenting BMD in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  8. Accuracy of repeated measurements of late-night salivary cortisol to screen for early-stage recurrence of Cushing's disease following pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danet-Lamasou, Marie; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Vivot, Alexandre; Nunes, Marie-Laure; Loiseau, Hugues; San-Galli, François; Cherifi-Gatta, Blandine; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît; Tabarin, Antoine

    2015-02-01

    The performance of late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) to accurately screen for postoperative recurrence of Cushing's disease (CD) at an early stage is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of multiple sampling strategies to suggest the optimal number of LNSC samples needed for diagnosing post-surgical recurrences of CD at an early stage. Retrospective analysis in a single centre. Thirty-six patients in surgical remission of CD had successive measurements of LNSC, defined as 'sequences', using a locally modified RIA assay as part of long-term follow-up (69·2 ± 10·6 months). Patients underwent an extensive biochemical evaluation within 3 months before or after a sequence of saliva sampling and were classified as being in remission or in early-stage recurrence. The accuracy of three diagnostic strategies combining two, three or four LNSC results from a sequence was estimated using areas under the ROC curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Forty-four sequences of LNSC measurements were available. Fifty-two percent of sequences were performed during early-stage recurrence. The intrasequence variability of LNSC was higher during recurrence than during remission (medians of SDs: 2·1 vs 0·5 nm; P recurrence of CD. However, due to a major within-patient variability of LNSC from 1 day to another, a screening strategy using three or four samples collected on successive days may be recommended to detect early-stage recurrence of CD with a high accuracy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Measurement of Q{sub {beta}} values of neutron-rich Tc to Pd isotopes in the mass range A=110 to A=117; Messung von Q{sub {beta}}-Werten neutronenreicher Tc- bis Pd-Isotope im Massenbereich A=110 bis A=117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeckl, Ingo

    2008-06-15

    The present work describes the measuring of Q{sub {beta}} values of {beta}-instable isotopes of Tc, Ru, Rh and Pd. The mass range A=110 to 117 comprises neutron-rich, short-living isotopes. Due to their small (fission) abundances, few data are known, especially regarding level schemes or gamma radiation. The proton-induced fission and a fast online mass separation was used to produce these nuclides in the IGISOL facility located in Jyvaeskylaein Finland. The {beta},{gamma},X coincidence apparatus used during the experiments allows measuring Q{sub {beta}} values as well as {gamma},X coincidences. The latter represent the basic input data for a calculation of Q{sub {beta}} values out of {beta},{gamma} coincidences. It is so possible to examine nuclides with incomplete level schemes; similarly, these level schemes can be extended using beta,gamma coincidence data. Twelve Q{sub {beta}} values of neutron-rich Tc to Pd isotopes could be determined, yielding nuclear masses, mass defects and neutron separation energies. Eight of them were determined for the first time; another one could be confirmed. For three more, the error of earlier values could be decreased by a factor of nearly ten. The resulting data are of interest for the review of nuclear mass models, they represent also input in astrophysical network calculations. (orig.)

  10. Effects of polyamines and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on hepatic nuclear structure and deoxyribonucleic acid template activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K B; Nelson, N F; Brown, D G

    1975-12-01

    1. The interaction of polyamines and methylglyoxal bis(guanythydrazone) (1, 1'-[(methylethanediylidene)-dinitrilo]diguanidine) with isolated rat liver nuclei was investigated by electron microscopy. 2. At 4mM, putrescine was without effect; however, spermidine, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanythydrazone) resulted in dispersed chromatin and alterations in nucleolar structure. In addition, spermidine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) caused marked aggregation of interchromatin granules. 3. The DNA template property of calf thymus DNA was examined by using DNA polymerases from Escherichia coli, Micrococcus lysodeikticus and calf thymus in the presence of 0-5 mM-amine. 4. In the presence of DNA polymerase, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibited activity, whereas putrescine or spermidine had much less effect or in some cases stimulated [3H]dTMP incorporation. 5. Template activity which was inhibited by spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) could be partially restored by additional DNA or enzyme. 6. When mixed with calf thymus DNA, calf thymus histone inhibited template activity as measured with E. coli DNA polymerase. The template activity of such a 'histone-nucleate' could not be restored by putrescine, spermidine, spermine or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). 7. DNA template activity of isolated rat liver nuclei was tested by using E. coli DNA polymerase. None of the amines was able to increase the template activity of the nuclear DNA in vitro.

  11. Evaluation of repeated measurements of radon-222 concentrations in well water sampled from bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont near Richmond, Virginia, USA: Effects of lithology and well characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Shelley A.; Billmeyer, Ernest R.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in 26 ground water wells of two distinct lithologies in the Piedmont of Virginia were measured to assess variation in ground water radon concentrations (GWRC), to evaluate differences in concentrations related to well characteristics, lithology, and spatial distributions, and to assess the feasibility of predicting GWRC. Wells were sampled in accordance with American Public Health Association Method 7500 Rn-B, with modifications to include a well shaft profile analysis that determined the minimum purge time sufficient to remove the equivalent of one column of water from each well. Statistically significant differences in GWRC were found in the Trssu (1482±1711 pCi/L) and Mpg (7750±5188 pCi/L) lithologies, however, no significant differences were found among GWRC at each well over time. Using multiple regression, 86% of the variability (R 2 ) in the GWRC was explained by the lithology, latitudinal class, and water table elevation of the wells. The GWRC in a majority of the wells studied exceed US Environmental Protection Agency designated maximum contaminant level and AMCL. Results support modifications to sampling procedures and indicate that, in previous studies, variations in GWRC concentrations over time may have been due in part to differences in sampling procedures and not in source water

  12. Assessment of denitrification gaseous end-products in the soil profile under two water table management practices using repeated measures analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Abdirashid A; Astatkie, Tess; Madramootoo, Chandra; Gordon, Robert; Burton, David

    2005-01-01

    The denitrification process and nitrous oxide (N2O) production in the soil profile are poorly documented because most research into denitrification has concentrated on the upper soil layer (0-0.15 m). This study, undertaken during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons, was designed to examine the effects of water table management (WTM), nitrogen (N) application rate, and depth (0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 m) on soil denitrification end-products (N2O and N2) from a corn (Zea mays L.) field. Water table management treatments were free drainage (FD) with open drains and subirrigation (SI) with a target water table depth of 0.6 m. Fertility treatments (ammonium nitrate) were 120 kg N ha(-1) (N120) and 200 kg N ha(-1) (N200). During both growing seasons greater denitrification rates were measured in SI than in FD, particularly in the surface soil (0-0.15 m) and at the intermediate (0.15-0.30 m) soil depths under N200 treatment. Greater denitrification rates under the SI treatment, however, were not accompanied with greater N2O production. The decrease in N2O production under SI was probably caused by a more complete reduction of N2O to N2, which resulted in lower N2O to (N2O + N2) ratios. Denitrification rate, N2O production and N2O to (N2O + N2) ratios were only minimally affected by N treatments, irrespective of sampling date and soil depth. Overall, half of the denitrification occurred at the 0.15- to 0.30- and 0.30- to 0.45-m soil layers, and under SI, regardless of fertility treatment level. Consequently, sampling of the 0- to 0.15-m soil layer alone may not give an accurate estimation of denitrification losses under SI practice.

  13. Real-World Massage Therapy Produces Meaningful Effectiveness Signal for Primary Care Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of a Repeated Measures Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, William G; Munk, Niki; Love, Margaret M; Bruckner, Geza G; Stewart, Kathryn E; Pearce, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    While efficacy of massage and other nonpharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain is established, stakeholders have called for pragmatic studies of effectiveness in "real-world" primary health care. The Kentucky Pain Research and Outcomes Study evaluated massage impact on pain, disability, and health-related quality of life for primary care patients with chronic low back pain. We report effectiveness and feasibility results, and make comparisons with established minimal clinically important differences. Primary care providers referred eligible patients for 10 massage sessions with community practicing licensed massage therapists. Oswestry Disability Index and SF-36v2 measures obtained at baseline and postintervention at 12 and 24 weeks were analyzed with mixed linear models and Tukey's tests. Additional analyses examined clinically significant improvement and predictive patient characteristics. Of 104 enrolled patients, 85 and 76 completed 12 and 24 weeks of data collection, respectively. Group means improved at 12 weeks for all outcomes and at 24 weeks for SF-36v2's Physical Component Summary and Bodily Pain Domain. Of those with clinically improved disability at 12 weeks, 75% were still clinically improved at 24 weeks ( P  < 0.01). For SF-36v2 Physical and Mental Component Summaries, 55.4% and 43.4%, respectively, showed clinically meaningful improvement at 12 weeks, 46.1% and 30.3% at 24 weeks. For Bodily Pain Domain, 49.4% were clinically improved at 12 weeks, 40% at 24 weeks. Adults older than age 49 years had better pain and disability outcomes than younger adults. Results provide a meaningful signal of massage effect for primary care patients with chronic low back pain and call for further research in practice settings using pragmatic designs with control groups. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Stabilization of N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine thin film morphology with UV light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomović, A.Ž.; Markešević, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Scarpellini, M.; Bovio, S. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Lucenti, E. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Institute of Molecular Science and Technology of CNR, via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan (Italy); Milani, P. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zikic, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, V.P., E-mail: vladimir.jovanovic@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Srdanov, V.I. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Owing to their low glass transition temperature, T{sub g}, amorphous thin films of N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine (TPD) undergo morphological changes even at room temperature. It has been noticed previously that exposure to UV light can increase apparent T{sub g} of TPD films and thus stabilize their morphology. However, the reason behind increase in structural stability was not examined at the time. Here we present evidence that TPD molecules undergo photo-oxidation in air when exposed to λ ≈ 350 nm radiation and that less than 5% of the photo-oxidized species are needed to prevent dewetting of thin TPD films. We propose that photo-oxidized TPD species bind strongly to both ordinary TPD molecules and to terminal hydroxyl groups at the substrate surface, which decreases mobility of TPD molecules and makes thin TPD film less prone to morphology changes. - Highlights: • We made variable thickness TPD films and exposed them to UV light under ambient conditions. • Mass spectroscopy and proton NMR measurements of irradiated and pristine TPD films • TPD molecules undergo oxidation process under UV light irradiation. • Dipole–dipole interactions may be responsible for stabilization of morphological changes.

  15. Ultrathin polycrystalline 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Min-Cherl; Zhang, Dongrong; Nikiforov, Gueorgui O.; Lee, Michael V.; Qi, Yabing, E-mail: Yabing.Qi@oist.jp [Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit (EMSS), Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Joo Shin, Tae; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Han-Koo; Baik, Jaeyoon; Shin, Hyun-Joon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Ultrathin (<6 nm) polycrystalline films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-P) are deposited with a two-step spin-coating process. The influence of spin-coating conditions on morphology of the resulting film was examined by atomic force microscopy. Film thickness and RMS surface roughness were in the range of 4.0–6.1 and 0.6–1.1 nm, respectively, except for small holes. Polycrystalline structure was confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements suggested that the plane through aromatic rings of TIPS-P molecules was perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  16. Method of integral values for measuring the heat conductivity and other parameter of materials up to temperatures of 2000 Kelvin; Integralwertverfahren zur Messung der Waermeleiffaehigkeit und anderer Stoffwerte bis zu Temperaturen von 2000 Kelvin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Manfred

    1974-06-15

    For the development of new reactor materials and nuclear fuels, it is important to measure the heat conductivity of the materials up to high temperatures. Performing the measurements several difficulties arise. A method which avoids most of the measuring problems has been developed and used to measure the heat conductivity of graphite and uranium carbonidrides. The method is based on measuring a set of integral values of the heat conductivity over relatively large temperature intervals and on evaluating the temperature curve of the heat conductivity by a computer program. Further parameters of the materials as electrical conductivity and thermal expansion can be measured simultaneously.

  17. Effects of two hospital bed design features on physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation: a repeated measures experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunwook; Barker, Linsey M; Jia, Bochen; Agnew, Michael J; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-03-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are prevalent among healthcare workers worldwide. While existing research has focused on patient-handling techniques during activities which require direct patient contact (e.g., patient transfer), nursing tasks also involve other patient-handling activities, such as engaging bed brakes and transporting patients in beds, which could render healthcare workers at risk of developing WMSDs. Effectiveness of hospital bed design features (brake pedal location and steering-assistance) was evaluated in terms of physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation tasks. Two laboratory-based studies were conducted. In simulated brake engagement tasks, three brake pedal locations (head-end vs. foot-end vs. side of a bed) and two hands conditions (hands-free vs. hands-occupied) were manipulated. Additionally, both in-room and corridor patient transportation tasks were simulated, in which activation of steering-assistance features (5th wheel and/or front wheel caster lock) and two patient masses were manipulated. Nine novice participants were recruited from the local student population and community for each study. During brake engagement, trunk flexion angle, task completion time, and questionnaires were used to quantify postural comfort and usability. For patient transportation, dependent measures were hand forces and questionnaire responses. Brake pedal locations and steering-assistance features in hospital beds had significant effects on physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation tasks. Specifically, a brake pedal at the head-end of a bed increased trunk flexion by 74-224% and completion time by 53-74%, compared to other pedal locations. Participants reported greater overall perceived difficulty and less postural comfort with the brake pedal at the head-end. During in-room transportation, participants generally reported "Neither Low nor High" physical demands

  18. Synthesis of Ethylene Bis-stearamide for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sayyadnejad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene bis-stearamide is one of the important acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS( polymer additives, which is used as lubricant, slip agent and mold release agent. In this research, ethylene bis-stearamide for ABS application was synthesized using stearic acid and ethylene diamine under reflux condition. Refluxing prevented ethylenediamine from evaporation and thus the initial molar ratio was maintained unchanged. The other role of refluxing was to prevent the oxidation of ethylene diamine by removal of oxygen which might have been present inside the reactor. The synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR(, total acid number and melting point. The total acid number of the synthesized samples in the lab, bench scale 1 kg( and pilot scale 30 kg( were 6.5, 8.7 and 8.6 mgKOH/g, respectively, and their melting points were in 141-144 °C range. It was found that total acid number values of samples are inversely proportional with reaction time. The longer the reaction time, the higher was the total acid number and sample purity. Compounding was carried out using ABS containing synthesized and reference ethylene bis-stearamide and the physical-mechanical properties of the samples were measured. The obtained results showed that, the measured properties such as melt flow index, impact resistance, softening temperature, heat deflection temperature, tensile strength and hardness for the compound prepared using synthesized ethylene bis-stearamide match very well with those of reference compound.

  19. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  20. Comparisons Between Tridentate Bis(benzazoles-pyridine and Bis(benzazolestriazine Ligands: a Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaiela Andoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve bis(benzazole structures with potential ligand character were investigated by means of computational chemistry. Global and local reactivity descriptors within DFT (Density Functional Theory theory (Fukui functions, chemical potential, hardness, electrophilicity index have been computed at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p level of theory. NICS(0 (Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift index computations were employed for the evaluation of the local aromatic character of each heterocyclic moiety. Best results have been reported for the bis(benzimidazole derivatives. Copper and zinc complexes of the investigated tridentate ligands have been proposed.

  1. Accelerated optical holographic recording using bis-DNO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle H.; Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    The design, synthesis and optical holographic recording properties of bis-DNO are reported. Bis-DNO is composed of two identical azobenzene oligoornithine segments (DNO) connected via a dipeptide linker. The two segments were assembled in a parallel fashion at the two amino groups of the dipeptid...... linker by Merrifield synthesis. Surprisingly, the response time of films of bis-DNOs was found to be much faster than that of their linear counterparts. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Repetibilidade da mensuração de imagens das características de carcaça obtidas por ultrassonografia em fêmeas Nelore Repeatability of ultrasound image measurements of carcass traits in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a repetibilidade da mensuração de imagens de ultrassom da área do músculo longissimus dorsi (AOL e das espessuras de gordura subcutânea do lombo (EGL e da garupa (EGG. Imagens de ultrassom tomadas no lombo (entre a 12ª e a 13ª costela e na garupa (entre os músculos gluteus medium e biceps femoris de novilhas Nelore de 14 a 22 meses de idade foram classificadas em aceitáveis, marginais e rejeitáveis. As imagens aceitáveis e marginais foram mensuradas duas vezes por três técnicos em diferentes níveis de treinamento. Foram estimadas as repetibilidades entre e dentro de técnicos por classe de qualidade da imagem, para determinação do efeito da qualidade da imagem e do técnico no valor absoluto da diferença entre a primeira e a segunda mensuração dessas características. A repetibilidade para as imagens aceitáveis foi maior que para imagens marginais, tanto entre como dentro de técnicos. Na análise da diferença absoluta entre a primeira e a segunda interpretação, foram significativos os efeitos de técnico para AOL e EGL e de classe de qualidade da imagem para AOL. Em geral, o técnico com maior experiência apresentou maiores valores de repetibilidade. É recomendável que a mensuração de imagens de animais de mesmo grupo contemporâneo seja feita por um único técnico.The repeatability of ultrasound image measurements of the longissimus dorsi muscle (AOL and of the rumpfat (EGG and backfat (EGL subcutaneous thickness was evaluated. Ultrasound images taken from the back (between 12th and 13th ribs and from the rump (between gluteus medium and biceps femoris muscles of Nelore heifers at 14 and 22 months of age were classified as acceptable, marginal and rejected. The acceptable and marginal images were measured twice by three technicians at different levels of training. It was estimated repeatabilities among and within technicians by class of image quality in order to determine effect of image quality and of

  3. Disorder-derived, strong tunneling attenuation in bis-phosphonate monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Anshuma; Bora, Achyut; Tornow, Marc; Liao, Kung-Ching; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Schmolke, Hannah; Jung, Antje; Klages, Claus-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Monolayers of alkyl bisphosphonic acids (bisPAs) of various carbon chain lengths (C4, C8, C10, C12) were grown on aluminum oxide (AlO x ) surfaces from solution. The structural and electrical properties of these self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were compared with those of alkyl monophosphonic acids (monoPAs). Through contact angle (CA) and Kelvin-probe (KP) measurements, ellipsometry, and infrared (IR) and x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies, it was found that bisPAs form monolayers that are relatively disordered compared to their monoPA analogs. Current–voltage (J–V) measurements made with a hanging Hg drop top contact show tunneling to be the prevailing transport mechanism. However, while the monoPAs have an observed decay constant within the typical range for dense monolayers, β mono   =  0.85  ±  0.03 per carbon atom, a surprisingly high value, β bis   =  1.40  ±  0.05 per carbon atom, was measured for the bisPAs. We attribute this to a strong contribution of ‘through-space’ tunneling, which derives from conformational disorder in the monolayer due to strong interactions of the distal phosphonic acid groups; they likely form a hydrogen-bonding network that largely determines the molecular layer structure. Since bisPA SAMs attenuate tunnel currents more effectively than do the corresponding monoPA SAMs, they may find future application as gate dielectric modification in organic thin film devices. (paper)

  4. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  5. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... coordinators estimate the effect on coordination fees? Does the supposed benefit that mobile repeater stations... allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and other mobile repeaters by public... email: [email protected] or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed instructions for...

  6. Species dependence of [64Cu]Cu-Bis(thiosemicarbazone) radiopharmaceutical binding to serum albumins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basken, Nathan E.; Mathias, Carla J.; Lipka, Alexander E.; Green, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Interactions of three copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazone) positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals with human serum albumin, and the serum albumins of four additional mammalian species, were evaluated. Methods: 64 Cu-labeled diacetyl bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-ATSM), pyruvaldehyde bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-PTSM) and ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-ETS) were synthesized and their binding to human, canine, rat, baboon and porcine serum albumins quantified by ultrafiltration. Protein binding was also measured for each tracer in human, porcine, rat and mouse serum. Results: The interaction of these neutral, lipophilic copper chelates with serum albumin is highly compound- and species-dependent. Cu-PTSM and Cu-ATSM exhibit particularly high affinity for human serum albumin (HSA), while the albumin binding of Cu-ETS is relatively insensitive to species. At HSA concentrations of 40 mg/ml, '% free' (non-albumin-bound) levels of radiopharmaceutical were 4.0±0.1%, 5.3±0.2% and 38.6±0.8% for Cu-PTSM, Cu-ATSM and Cu-ETS, respectively. Conclusions: Species-dependent variations in radiopharmaceutical binding to serum albumin may need to be considered when using animal models to predict the distribution and kinetics of these compounds in humans

  7. Species dependence of [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-Bis(thiosemicarbazone) radiopharmaceutical binding to serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basken, Nathan E. [Division of Nuclear Pharmacy, Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: nbasken@purdue.edu; Mathias, Carla J. [Division of Nuclear Pharmacy, Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Lipka, Alexander E. [Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Green, Mark A. [Division of Nuclear Pharmacy, Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: magreen@purdue.edu

    2008-04-15

    Introduction: Interactions of three copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazone) positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals with human serum albumin, and the serum albumins of four additional mammalian species, were evaluated. Methods: {sup 64}Cu-labeled diacetyl bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-ATSM), pyruvaldehyde bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-PTSM) and ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-ETS) were synthesized and their binding to human, canine, rat, baboon and porcine serum albumins quantified by ultrafiltration. Protein binding was also measured for each tracer in human, porcine, rat and mouse serum. Results: The interaction of these neutral, lipophilic copper chelates with serum albumin is highly compound- and species-dependent. Cu-PTSM and Cu-ATSM exhibit particularly high affinity for human serum albumin (HSA), while the albumin binding of Cu-ETS is relatively insensitive to species. At HSA concentrations of 40 mg/ml, '% free' (non-albumin-bound) levels of radiopharmaceutical were 4.0{+-}0.1%, 5.3{+-}0.2% and 38.6{+-}0.8% for Cu-PTSM, Cu-ATSM and Cu-ETS, respectively. Conclusions: Species-dependent variations in radiopharmaceutical binding to serum albumin may need to be considered when using animal models to predict the distribution and kinetics of these compounds in humans.

  8. Conductivity of oriented bis-azo polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apitz, D.; Bertram, R.P.; Benter, N.

    2006-01-01

    The conductivity properties of electro-optic photoaddressable, dense bis-ozo chromophore polymer films are investigated by using samples corona poled at various temperatures. A dielectric spectrometer is applied to measure the frequency dependence of the conductivity at different temperatures...... before and after heating the material to above the glass transition temperature. The results show that the orientation of the chromophores changes the charge-carrier mobility. Ionic conductivity dominates in a more disordered configuration of the material, while the competing process of hole hopping...... takes over as a transition to a liquid-crystalline phase occurs when the material is heated to much higher than the gloss transition temperature. Such micro-crystallization strongly enhances the conductivity....

  9. Initial study of stability and repeatability of measuring R2' and oxygen extraction fraction values in the healthy brain with gradient-echo sampling of spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Lihong; Zhang Xiaodong; He Chao; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang jue; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability and repeatability of gradient-echo sampling of spin- echo (GESSE) sequence in measuring the R 2 ' value in volunteers, by comparison with traditional GRE sequence (T 2 * ]nap and T 2 map). Methods: Eight normal healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study and written informed consents were obtained from all subjects. MR scanning including sequences of GESSE, T 2 map and T 2 * map were performed in these subjects at resting status. The same protocol was repeated one day later. Raw data from GESSE sequence were transferred to PC to conduct postprocessing with the software built in house. R 2 ' map and OEF map were got consequently. To obtain quantitative R 2 ' and OEF values in the brain parenchyma, six ROIs were equally placed in the anterior, middle and posterior part of bilateral hemispheres. Both mean and standard deviation of R 2 ' and OEF were recorded. All images from T 2 * map and T 2 map were transferred to the Workstation for postprocessing. The ROIs were put at the same areas as those for GESSE sequence. R 2 ' is defined as R 2 ' = R 2 * - R 2 , R 2 * = 1/T 2 * . The R 2 ' value of GESSE sequence were compared with that of GRE sequence. Results: The mean R 2 ' values of GESSE at the first and second scan and those of the GRE were (4.21±0.92), (4.45±0.94) Hz and (7.37±1.47), (6.42±2.33) Hz respectively. The mean OEF values of GESSE at the first and second scan is 0.327±0.036 and 0.336± 0.035 respectively. The R 2 ' value and OEF value obtained from GESSE were not significantly different between the first and second scan (t=-0.83, -1.48, P>0.05). The R 2 ' value of first GRE imaging had significantly statistical difference from that of second GRE imaging (t=1.80, P 2 ' value of GESSE sequence was less than that of GRE sequence, and there was significantly statistical difference between them (t=1.71, P<0.05). Conclusion: The GESSE sequence has good stability and repeatability with promising clinical practicability

  10. Repeated causal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Synthesis & Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Title: Synthesis and Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl, Terepthaloyl, Chiral Diimido-di-L-alanine Diesters and Chiral Phthaloyl-L-alanine Ester of Tripropoxy p-tert-Butyl Calix[4]arene and Study of Their Hosting Ability for Alanine and Na+. Bis-symmetrical tripropoxy p-tert-butyl calix[4]arene esters were ...

  12. Induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, A E; Erwin, B G; Persson, L

    1985-10-17

    The anti-tumor agent methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was found to be a competitive inhibitor of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase with a Ki of about 8 microM. Treatment of rats with this drug lead to a very large increase in the total amount of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase in liver, kidney and spleen. The total increase as measured using a specific antiserum amounted to 700-fold in liver and 100-fold in kidney within 18 h of treatment with 80 mg/kg doses. At least part of this induction was due to a pronounced increase in the half-life of the acetyltransferase which increased from 15 min to more than 12 h. The very large increase in the amount of the enzyme is likely to overwhelm the direct inhibition, and a net increase in the acetylation of polyamines by this enzyme would be expected to occur after treatment with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). The acetylated polyamines are known to be rapidly degraded by polyamine oxidase producing putrescine. Direct evidence that a substantial part of the increase in the content of putrescine in the liver of rats treated with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) occurs via the induction of this acetylase/oxidase pathway was obtained. These results indicate that methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) affects cellular polyamine levels not only by means of its inhibitory effect on S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and diamine oxidase but also by the induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. They also raise the possibility that the enormous increase in this enzyme which occurs with higher doses may contribute to the very severe toxicity of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

  13. Psychometric Properties of the BIS/BAS Scales and the SPSRQ in Flemish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vandeweghe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST is a frequently used model of personality that is relevant to the period of adolescence. However, the psychometric properties of the most frequently used questionnaires to measure the RST-constructs, namely the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS Scales and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, are rarely examined in samples of adolescents. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine the two-factor structure, reliability and convergent validity of the BIS/BAS Scales and SPSRQ in a Flemish adolescent community sample.  Method: A sample of 579 adolescents (39.5% boys; 14–19 years was recruited. The proposed two-factor structure was assessed using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling. Reliability was evaluated using internal consistency and construct validity was examined with the correlations between the two questionnaires and with the Temperament and Character Inventory–short form (TCI-SF.  Results: After the removal of problematic items, and the addition of correlated errors, all indices indicated a good fit for the two-factor structure of the modified BIS/BAS Scales. For the modified SPSRQ, three fit indices indicated a good model fit, while a fourth fit index was slightly below the cut-off score of an adequate model fit. Internal consistency of both questionnaires was sufficient. In general, the associations with scales of the TCI-SF were as expected, with positive correlations between BIS-related scales, and between BAS-related scales of all three instruments.  Discussion: In Flemish adolescents, the use of a two-factor model to analyze data gathered with the modified BIS/BAS Scales or modified SPSRQ seems appropriate.

  14. Ocular surface sensitivity repeatability with Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cecilia; Stapleton, Fiona; Badarudin, Ezailina; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2015-02-01

    To determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer on the same day and 3 months apart. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements made on the same day (n = 20 subjects) and 3 months apart (n = 29 subjects). The Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was used to measure corneal and inferior conjunctival thresholds using the ascending method of limits. The pressure exerted by the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was determined using an analytical balance, for both the 0.08- and 0.12-mm-diameter filaments. This calibration was then used to convert filament length measurements to pressure. Repeatability was determined using a Bland and Altman analysis. The pressure exerted at each filament length differed between the two filament diameters. The measured pressure also differed from values provided by the manufacturer. Repeatability of threshold measurements at the central cornea was shown to be good, with better repeatability for same-day measurements (coefficient of repeatability [CoR] = ±0.23 g/mm²) than for those 3 months apart (CoR = ±0.52 g/mm²). Threshold measurements at the inferior conjunctiva, in contrast, were poorly repeatable (CoR = ±12.78 g/mm²). Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry is repeatable when performed on the central cornea on the same day and 3 months apart, but this instrument is not recommended for conjunctival threshold measurements.

  15. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: The Common Swine Industry Audit: Future steps to assure positive on-farm animal welfare utilizing validated, repeatable and feasible animal-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M; Moeller, S J

    2017-03-01

    The Common Swine Industry Audit (CSIA) was developed and scientifically evaluated through the combined efforts of a task force consisting of university scientists, veterinarians, pork producers, packers, processers, and retail and food service personnel to provide stakeholders throughout the pork chain with a consistent, reliable, and verifiable system to ensure on-farm swine welfare and food safety. The CSIA tool was built from the framework of the Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) site assessment program with the purpose of developing a single, common audit platform for the U.S. swine industry. Twenty-seven key aspects of swine care are captured and evaluated in CSIA and cover the specific focal areas of animal records, animal observations, facilities, and caretakers. Animal-based measures represent approximately 50% of CSIA evaluation criteria and encompass critical failure criteria, including observation of willful acts of abuse and determination of timely euthanasia. Objective, science-based measures of animal well-being parameters (e.g., BCS, lameness, lesions, hernias) are assessed within CSIA using statistically validated sample sizes providing a detection ability of 1% with 95% confidence. The common CSIA platform is used to identify care issues and facilitate continuous improvement in animal care through a validated, repeatable, and feasible animal-based audit process. Task force members provide continual updates to the CSIA tool with a specific focus toward 1) identification and interpretation of appropriate animal-based measures that provide inherent value to pig welfare, 2) establishment of acceptability thresholds for animal-based measures, and 3) interpretation of CSIA data for use and improvement of welfare within the U.S. swine industry.

  16. Correlation of bispectral index (BIS monitoring and end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in a patient with lobar holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Galante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The bispectral index (BIS is a parameter derived by electroencephalography (EEG which provides a direct measurement of the effects of sedatives and anesthetics on the brain and offers guidance on the adequacy of anesthesia. The literature lacks studies on BIS monitoring in pediatric patients with congenital brain disease undergoing general anesthesia. Clinical features: A 13-year-old child weighing 32 kg, suffering from lobar holoprosencephaly, underwent surgery in which the bispectral index (BIS monitoring the depth of anesthesia showed an abnormal response. Detailed analysis of the trends of BIS values in the different observation times demonstrated sudden falls and repetitive values of BIS likely related to repetitive epileptiform electrical activity caused by sevoflurane. Conclusion: The BIS is a very useful monitoring tool for assessing the degree of depth of anesthesia and to analyze the electroencephalographic variations of anesthetics. Particular attention should be given to patients with congenital disorders of the central nervous system in which the BIS may give abnormal responses that do not reflect an accurate assessment of the depth of anesthesia. Resumo: Objetivo: O índice bispectral (BIS é um parâmetro derivado por eletroencefalografia (EEG que fornece uma medida direta dos efeitos de sedativos e anestésicos no cérebro e orientação sobre a adequação da anestesia. A literatura carece de estudos sobre a monitoração do BIS em pacientes pediátricos com doença cerebral congênita submetidos à anestesia geral. Características clínicas: Criança de 13 anos de idade, pesando 32 kg, com holoprosencefalia lobar, foi submetida à cirurgia em que a monitoração da profundidade da anestesia com o uso do BIS mostrou uma resposta anormal. A análise detalhada das tendências dos valores do BIS nos diferentes tempos de observação mostrou quedas súbitas e valores repetitivos do BIS, provavelmente relacionados

  17. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  18. Hybrid FRC under repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibres - polypropylene and steel, were tested under repeated loading. Mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150/150/150 mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100/100/400 (for flexural strength), short cylinders 150/60 mm (for impact strength) have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading at the age of 28 days curing time. Mix proportions were designed after DIN 1045 with max. aggregate size 8 mm and grading curve B 8. Portland Cement PC 400 in the amount of 450 kg. m -3 was applied and W/C ratio 0.55. Workability of mixes was measured by Vebe method and regulated by plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. Maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene + steel) was 1.0%. Dynamic forces generated in Schenck testing machine with frequency 16 Hz had sinusoidal wave form varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR at static four point bending test and working diagram force-deflection was carried out as well. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of falling weight test. Relationships between composition of fibre composites with different combination of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3, 0.5% by volume) and steel (0.5, 0.7, and 0.8% by volume) fibre content were obtained and technological properties of mixes as well. (author)

  19. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  20. Bis(μ-bis{[4-(2-pyridylpyrimidin-2-yl]sulfanyl}methanedisilver(I bis(perchlorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bin Zhu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the macrocyclic centrosymmetric dinuclear complex, [Ag2(C19H14N6S22](ClO42, the AgI atom, bis{[4-(2-pyridylpyrimidin-2-yl]sulfanyl}methane (2-bppt ligand and perchlorate anion each lie on a twofold rotation axis. The 2-bppt ligand chelates two four-coordinated AgI atoms through its two bipyridine-like arms. The O atoms of the perchlorate anion are disordered each over two positions of equal occupancy. Adjacent complex molecules are linked by π–π interactions between the pyridine and pyrimidine rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.663 (8 Å].

  1. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  2. Food Packaging and Bisphenol A and Bis(2-Ethyhexyl) Phthalate Exposure: Findings from a Dietary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Gray, Janet M.; Engel, Connie L.; Rawsthorne, Teresa W.; Dodson, Robin E.; Ackerman, Janet M.; Rizzo, Jeanne; Nudelman, Janet L.; Brody, Julia Green

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are high-production-volume chemicals used in plastics and resins for food packaging. They have been associated with endocrine disruption in animals and in some human studies. Human exposure sources have been estimated, but the relative contribution of dietary exposure to total intake has not been studied empirically. Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of food packaging to exposure, we measured urinary BPA and phthalate...

  3. Vibrational, calorimetric and nonlinear optical studies of melaminium-bis(trichloroacetate) monohydrate molecular ionic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrus, S.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Ratajczak, H.

    2007-04-01

    The efficiency of second harmonic generation for melaminium bis(trichloroacetate) was estimated relatively to KDP: deff = 3.09 deff (KDP). Room temperature FT IR and FT Raman spectra were recorded. Some spectral features of this new crystal are referred to corresponding one for melamine crystal as well as for other trichloroacetates. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements performed on powder sample indicate the phase transition point at approximately 276 and 239 K for heating and cooling, respectively.

  4. Optimal and safe treatment of spider leg veins measuring less than 1.5 mm on skin type IV patients, using repeated low-fluence Nd:YAG laser pulses after polidocanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Hernández, Esteban; Royo, Josefina; Alcolea, Justo; Isarría, M Jose; Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Smarandache, Adriana; Trelles, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Treatment of micro-veins of less than 1.5 mm with laser and with chemical sclerosis is technically challenging because of their difficulty to remedy. Laser treatment is even more difficult when dark phototypes are involved.Three groups of 30 patients each, skin type IV, and vessels measuring less than 1.5 mm in diameter, were enrolled for two treatment sessions 8 weeks apart: group A, polidocanol (POL) micro-foam injection; group B, Nd:YAG laser alone; and group C, laser after POL injection. Repeated 8-Hz low-fluence pulses, moving the hand piece over a 3-cm vein segment with an average of five laser passes maximum and with a total time irradiation of 1 s were used. Sixteen weeks after the second treatment, statistically, degree of clearance after examining photographs and patients satisfaction index, plotted on a visual analogue scale and comparing results of all three groups, results were significantly better for group C (psafe and satisfactory in 96 % of patients using low-fluence laser pulses with a total cumulative energy in the 3 cm venous segment, lower than that of conventional treatment. Very few and transient complications were observed. POL foam injection followed by laser pulses is safe and efficient for vein treatment in dark-skinned patients.

  5. Assessment of the Variation Associated with Repeated Measurement of Gastrointestinal Transit Times and Assessment of the Effect of Oral Ranitidine on Gastrointestinal Transit Times Using a Wireless Motility Capsule System in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Lidbury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the variation associated with repeated measurement of gastrointestinal (GI transit times and the effect of oral ranitidine on GI transit times in healthy dogs using a wireless motility capsule (WMC system. Eight privately owned healthy adult dogs were enrolled, and one developed diarrhea and was removed from the study. For the first 3 repetitions, each dog was fed a standard meal followed by oral administration of a WMC. For the 4th repetition, each dog was given ranitidine hydrochloride (75 mg PO every 12 hours prior to and during assessment of GI transit times. Mean between-subject coefficients of variation for gastric emptying time (GET, small and large bowel transit time (SLBTT, and total transit time (TTT were 26.9%, 32.3%, and 19.6%, respectively. Mean within-subject coefficients of variation for GET, SLBTT, and TTT were 9.3%, 19.6%, and 15.9%, respectively. Median GET, SLBTT, and TTT without ranitidine were 719, 1,636, and 2,735 minutes, respectively. Median GET, SLBTT, and TTT with ranitidine were 757, 1,227, and 2,083 minutes, respectively. No significant differences in GI transit times were found between any of the 4 repetitions. Under these experimental conditions, no significant effects of oral ranitidine on GI transit times were observed.

  6. Synthesis of Acridine-based DNA Bis-intercalating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mack

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the synthesis of N1, N8-bis(9-acridinyl-N4-(4-hydroxybenzyl-spermidine and N1, N7-(hydroxybenzyl-bis-(3-aminopropylamine were investigated. Thus monocyanoethylation of 4-methoxybenzylamine followed by treatment with 4-chlorobutyronitrile gave the dinitrile N-(2-cyanoethyl-N-(3-cyanopropyl-4-methoxybenzylamine. Subsequent in situ reduction with lithium aluminium hydride gave the corresponding diamine. Biscyanoethylation of 4-methoxybenzylamine with 2 mole of acrylonitrile followed by reduction yielded the diamine N, N-bis-(3-aminopropyl-4-methoxybenzylamine. Both diamines reacted smoothly with 9-methoxyacridine to give the bis-(9-acridinyl compounds 11 and 15 but with 4,5-dimethyl-9-methoxyacridine, the bis compound 16 was produced in only low yields. Demethylation of the dinitriles by a variety of approaches all failed to give the corresponding hydroxybenzyl derivatives. These studies yielded useful methylated tyrosine derivatives which could also be iodinated. This study has been useful for elucidating chemical methods needed for the synthesis of the desired tyrosine-based bis acridine compound and for alerting us to the need to synthesise a more labile protected tyrosine intermediate which will be easily deprotected to afford the desired tyrosine-based bis acridine compound.

  7. Film repeats in radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwan, A. Z.; Al-Shakharah, A. I

    1997-01-01

    During a one year period, 4910 radiographs of 55780 films were repeated. The objective of our study was to analyse and to classify the causes in order to minimize the repeats, cut the expenses and to provide optimal radiographs for accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the different factors revealed that, 43.6% of film repeats in our service were due to faults in exposure factors, centering comprises 15.9% of the repeats, while too much collimation was responsible for 7.6% of these repeats. All of which can be decreased by awareness and programmed training of technicians. Film blurring caused by patient motion was also responsible for 4.9% for radiographs reexamination, which can be minimized by detailed explanation to the patient and providing the necessary privacy. Fogging of X-Ray films by improper storage or inadequate handling or processing faults were responsible for 14.5% in repeats in our study. Methods and criteria for proper storage and handling of films were discussed. Recommendation for using modern day-light and laser processor has been high lighted. Artefacts are noticeably high in our cases, due to spinal dresses and frequent usage of precious metals for c osmotic purposes in this part of the world. The repeated films comprise 8.8% of all films We conclude that, the main factor responsible for repeats of up to 81.6% of cases was the technologists, thus emphasizing the importance of adequate training of the technologists. (authors). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 table

  8. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  9. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  10. Optical and magneto-optical properties of spin coated films of novel trinuclear bis(oxamato) and bis(oxamidato) type complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmalic, Mohammad A. [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Chemie, Straße der Nationen 62, D-09111 Chemnitz (Germany); Fronk, Michael [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Straße 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Bräuer, Björn [Stanford Institute of Materials and Energy Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Straße 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Salvan, Georgeta, E-mail: salvan@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Fakultät für Naturwissenschaften, Institut für Physik, Reichenhainer Straße 70, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Eya' ane Meva, Francois [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala, BP 2701 (Cameroon); and others

    2016-12-01

    This work reports the first example of the spectroscopic measurements of the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) of films being composed of trinuclear transition metal complexes on a non-transparent substrate at room temperature. The thin films of the tailor-made trinuclear bis(oxamidato) type complex 5 ([Cu{sub 3}(opbo{sup n}Pr{sub 2})(tmcd){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}], opbo{sup n}Pr{sub 2} = o-phenylenebis(N’-{sup n}propyloxamido, tmcd=trans-(1 R,2 R)-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-cyclohexanediamine) and of the bis(oxamato) type complexes 11 ([Cu{sub 2}Ni(opbaCF{sub 3})(pmdta){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}], opbaCF{sub 3} = 4-trifluoromethyl-o-phenylenebis(oxamato), pmdta = N,N,N,′N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) and 12 ([Cu{sub 3}(opba)(bppe){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamato), bppe = S-N,N-bis(2-picolyl)−1-phenylethylamine) were fabricated by spin-coating and their thicknesses in the range between 0.5 µm and 2 µm was determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Based on the spectroscopic ellipsometry results it was also possible to determine the optical constants of the film and compare them with the absorption of the complexes in solution in order to confirm the complex integrity after the film deposition. The fabrication of high-quality films which exhibit Kerr rotation up to 0.2 mrad (11.5 mdeg) was only possible due to tailor-made synthesis, which allows circumventing intermolecular interactions of the trinuclear complexes during the film formation. - Highlights: • Tailor-made trinuclear bis(oxamidato) and bis(oxamato) type complexes were synthesized. • Thin films (between 0.5 µm and 2 µm) were fabricated by spin-coating. • The film optical constants indicate the complex integrity after the deposition. • Film quality enabled first spectroscopic MOKE measurements of multi-nuclear complexes. • Magneto-optical Kerr rotation up to 11.5 mdeg was observed at RT (in 1.7 T).

  11. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  12. Disorder-derived, strong tunneling attenuation in bis-phosphonate monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anshuma; Bora, Achyut; Liao, Kung-Ching; Schmolke, Hannah; Jung, Antje; Klages, Claus-Peter; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Tornow, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Monolayers of alkyl bisphosphonic acids (bisPAs) of various carbon chain lengths (C4, C8, C10, C12) were grown on aluminum oxide (AlO x ) surfaces from solution. The structural and electrical properties of these self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were compared with those of alkyl monophosphonic acids (monoPAs). Through contact angle (CA) and Kelvin-probe (KP) measurements, ellipsometry, and infrared (IR) and x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies, it was found that bisPAs form monolayers that are relatively disordered compared to their monoPA analogs. Current-voltage (J-V) measurements made with a hanging Hg drop top contact show tunneling to be the prevailing transport mechanism. However, while the monoPAs have an observed decay constant within the typical range for dense monolayers, β mono  =  0.85  ±  0.03 per carbon atom, a surprisingly high value, β bis  =  1.40  ±  0.05 per carbon atom, was measured for the bisPAs. We attribute this to a strong contribution of ‘through-space’ tunneling, which derives from conformational disorder in the monolayer due to strong interactions of the distal phosphonic acid groups; they likely form a hydrogen-bonding network that largely determines the molecular layer structure. Since bisPA SAMs attenuate tunnel currents more effectively than do the corresponding monoPA SAMs, they may find future application as gate dielectric modification in organic thin film devices.

  13. Demonstration of the test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 as a measure of functional recovery post burn injury: a cross-sectional repeated measures study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Margaret E; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wood, Fiona M; Phillips, Michael; Edgar, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Lower limb burns can significantly delay recovery of function. Measuring lower limb functional outcomes is challenging in the unique burn patient population and necessitates the use of reliable and valid tools. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and internal consistency of Sections 1 and 3 of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 (LLFI-10) questionnaire for measuring functional ability in patients with lower limb burns over time. Twenty-nine adult patients who had sustained a lower limb burn injury in the previous 12 months completed the test-retest procedure of the study. In addition, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10. Section 1 is focused on the activity limitations experienced by patients with a lower limb disorder whereas Section 3 involves patients indicating their current percentage of pre-injury duties. Section 1 of the LLFI-10 demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.98, 95 % CI 0.96-0.99) whilst Section 3 demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC 0.88, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94). MDC scores for Sections 1 and 3 were 1.27 points and 30.22 %, respectively. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a significant negative association (r s  = -0.83) between Sections 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10 (p reliable for measuring functional ability in patients who have sustained lower limb burns in the previous 12 months, and furthermore, Section 1 is sensitive to changes in patient function over time.

  14. Gamma spectrometry of EFTTRA T2BIS R280.2. Gamma scan wires 6 through 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Plakman, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    In the frame work of the EFTTRA programme on recycling of actinides and fission products, five gamma scan wires which were included in the experiment R280.2 T2bis have been examined by gamma scanning. The results of the measurements have been described in this report. (orig.)

  15. High-pressure studies of superconductivity in BiO0. 75F0. 25BiS2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ). We have investigated the effect of pressure on magnetization measurements. Our studies suggest improved superconducting properties in polycrystalline samples of BiO 0.75 F 0.25 BiS 2 . The Tc in our sample is 5.3 K, at ambient pressure, ...

  16. Spectroscopic study of monitoring the kinetics of radical copolymerization of di(ethylene glycol) bis(allylcarbonate) and 2-naphthylmethacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, N. N.; Novikova, T. S.; Sakhno, T. V.; Bulgakova, L. M.

    1996-03-01

    The results of fluorescence monitoring in the radical copolymerization of di(ethylene glycol) bis(allylcarbonate) and 2-naphthylmethacrylate are discussed. Our studies suggest that data based on measurement of the intensity of the fluorescence band at 345 nm during copolymerization are in good agreement with the data obtained by the traditional dilatometric method.

  17. Pharmacokinetic behaviour of phenylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (PGBG) after intravenous administration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; San Andrés, M I; San Andrés, M D; Encinas, T; González, F; Ballesteros, E

    2001-04-01

    Phenylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (PGBG) is a synthesized analogue of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), which has demonstrated anti-parasitic activity in rabbits. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of PGBG after intravenous administration (10 mg/kg bodyweight) was studied in five rabbits. Plasma concentrations of PGBG were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma PGBG concentrations decreased rapidly and were not detectable beyond 90 min after treatment. The mean [+/- standard deviation (SD)] volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) was 2.19 +/- 0.47 l/kg and the mean plasma clearance value (Cl) was 29.99 +/- 3.98 ml/min kg. This drug is rapidly eliminated from the body in rabbits, having a short elimination half-life (0.93 h) and mean residence time (1.21 h).

  18. Prognostic usefulness of repeated echocardiographic evaluation after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korup, E; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of repeated echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated. We found that repeated measurements of wall motion index in survivors of acute myocardial infarction, with no reinfarction, provide important prognostic...

  19. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver’s cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51–71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction

  20. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  1. 重複觀測量數之分析:多群體多變項線性成長模式的估計Data Analysis of Repeated Measures: Estimating a Multi-Group Multivariate Linear Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    溫福星 Fur-Hsing Wen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究利用「台灣教育長期追蹤資料庫」的一般分析能力與數學分析能力的四波調查結果,配合男、女學生樣本進行多群體多條追蹤資料的線性成長模式估計。在考慮重複觀測資料誤差項在不同時點的變異數非同質與不同時點間的共變數非獨立情況下,以及男、女學生的不同成長軌跡,將誤差項結構設為無限制結構,利用虛擬變項交互項法與虛擬變項多樣本法同時估計不同性別、不同能力的線性成長軌跡變化。由於全部追蹤資料樣本存在遺失值的情形,本研究以階層線性模式(hierarchical linear modeling, HLM)軟體對完整資料2,806位學生進行分析,其估計結果發現,在完整資料的兩條成長軌跡模式中,男、女學生誤差項共變異數矩陣結構相同,但線性成長軌跡不恆等。除此之外,本文並對競爭模式比較的結果在文章最後進行討論並提出相關的建議。 This paper demonstrates the data analysis of the repeated measures from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS. Based on the four data waves on the TEPS, we consider two abilities (general and mathematic and two population groups (male and female students to construct a multi-group multivariate linear growth model. Because the two-group multivariate repeated measures belong to the different populations and the different research variables, the residual terms of linear growth models may imply heterogeneity of the error covariance structure. We treat the error covariance structure as an unrestricted structure to compare the various types of models. The results from the HLM on the complete data (2,806 students reveal that the male and female students in this study have the same error covariance structure but have distinct linear growth trajectories. In addition, comparisons of the competitive models and related suggestions are discussed in the results and conclusion

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Bis (2 – Methoxyethyl) Phthalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and Characterization of Bis (2 – Methoxyethyl) Phthalate and Hexashydro-1 3 – Dimethyl – 4 – Phenyl – 1h – Azepine 4 – Carboxylic Acid from the Root of Cissampelos Owariensis (P. Beauv)

  3. Synthesis and Characterisation of Eight Isomeric Bis(2-pyridyloxynaphthalenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Steel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight isomeric bis(2-pyridyloxynaphthalenes have been prepared from reactions of 2-bromopyridine with the appropriate dihydroxynaphthalene and the products fully characterised by 1- and 2-D NMR spectroscopy.

  4. Synthesis, spectral and structural properties of bis-imidazoline selones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solid state structures of bis-imidazoline selones were ... two biologically active selones are expected to function. ∗ .... The organic extract was washed with brine solution .... mentioned CH2 carbon and the quaternary carbon of benzene ...

  5. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystals: bis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    molecules have received great attention for NLO applica- tions. However ... Figure 3. Single crystals of bis(cyclohexylammonium) terephthalate (crystal a) and cyclohexylammo- .... from ground state to higher energy states.17 Optical window ...

  6. Complementarity and completed trials: reforming the Ne bis in idem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper is concerned with the question whether article 20(3) of the Rome Statute is ... Rome Statute, Ne bis in idem, double jeopardy, International Criminal Court ...

  7. A repeated-measures analysis of the effects of soft tissues on wrist range of motion in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs: Implications for the functional origins of an automatic wrist folding mechanism in Crocodilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel David; Hutson, Kelda Nadine

    2014-07-01

    A recent study hypothesized that avian-like wrist folding in quadrupedal dinosaurs could have aided their distinctive style of locomotion with semi-pronated and therefore medially facing palms. However, soft tissues that automatically guide avian wrist folding rarely fossilize, and automatic wrist folding of unknown function in extant crocodilians has not been used to test this hypothesis. Therefore, an investigation of the relative contributions of soft tissues to wrist range of motion (ROM) in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs, and the quadrupedal function of crocodilian wrist folding, could inform these questions. Here, we repeatedly measured wrist ROM in degrees through fully fleshed, skinned, minus muscles/tendons, minus ligaments, and skeletonized stages in the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis and the ostrich Struthio camelus. The effects of dissection treatment and observer were statistically significant for alligator wrist folding and ostrich wrist flexion, but not ostrich wrist folding. Final skeletonized wrist folding ROM was higher than (ostrich) or equivalent to (alligator) initial fully fleshed ROM, while final ROM was lower than initial ROM for ostrich wrist flexion. These findings suggest that, unlike the hinge/ball and socket-type elbow and shoulder joints in these archosaurs, ROM within gliding/planar diarthrotic joints is more restricted to the extent of articular surfaces. The alligator data indicate that the crocodilian wrist mechanism functions to automatically lock their semi-pronated palms into a rigid column, which supports the hypothesis that this palmar orientation necessitated soft tissue stiffening mechanisms in certain dinosaurs, although ROM-restricted articulations argue against the presence of an extensive automatic mechanism. Anat Rec, 297:1228-1249, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  9. High pressure synthesis of BiS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard-Pedersen, Simone; Nielsen, Morten Bormann; Bremholm, Martin

    crystal structures and electrical properties.1,2 Up until now, the most sulfur rich phase in the Bi-S phase diagram was Bi2S3.3 For BiS2 the Bi atoms have anisotropic charge distribution and more complex structures are expected when comparing the layered structures of transition metal dichalcogenides....... The possibilities of using high pressure synthesis to discover new phases in the Bi-S binary system were investigated as early as the 1960’s.4 The research led to discovery of a compound with BiS2 stoichiometry, but no structure solution of BiS2 was reported. A reason behind making this new phase is to study...... the physical properties since the related compound Bi2S3 is known to be a thermoelectric material.5 In this research the BiS2 compound was synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature method using a multi-anvil large volume press and the structure was solved by single crystal diffraction. The structure...

  10. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  11. Governing conditions of repeatable Barkhausen noise response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, O.; Pal'a, J.; Takagi, T.; Uchimoto, T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the establishment of experimental conditions, which ensure the repeatability of magnetic Barkhausen noise testing in practice. For this task, the measurements were performed on open flat samples using different experimental configurations, including: different magnetization frequencies, sampling rates, and filter cut-off frequencies; using a sample-wrapped coil and using attached pick-up coils of various dimensions, with different lift-offs of a single yoke magnet and of the attached coil. The sample magnetization was controlled by a vertical array of three Hall sensors; their readings were extrapolated to the sample surface to precisely define its field. After analysis of the results, a scheme for an optimized sensor with a controlled field waveform was suggested to improve the measurement repeatability. The important issues of signal processing and parameter applicability were also discussed in detail.

  12. Immediate Effects of a Single Session of Motor Skill Training on the Lumbar Movement Pattern During a Functional Activity in People With Low Back Pain: A Repeated-Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marich, Andrej V; Lanier, Vanessa M; Salsich, Gretchen B; Lang, Catherine E; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2018-04-06

    People with low back pain (LBP) may display an altered lumbar movement pattern of early lumbar motion compared to people with healthy backs. Modifying this movement pattern during a clinical test decreases pain. It is unknown whether similar effects would be seen during a functional activity. The objective of this study is was to examine the lumbar movement patterns before and after motor skill training, effects on pain, and characteristics that influenced the ability to modify movement patterns. The design consisted of a repeated-measures study examining early-phase lumbar excursion in people with LBP during a functional activity test. Twenty-six people with chronic LBP received motor skill training, and 16 people with healthy backs were recruited as a reference standard. Twenty minutes of motor skill training to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion during the performance of a functional activity were used as a treatment intervention. Early-phase lumbar excursion was measured before and after training. Participants verbally reported increased pain, decreased pain, or no change in pain during performance of the functional activity test movement in relation to their baseline pain. The characteristics of people with LBP that influenced the ability to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion were examined. People with LBP displayed greater early-phase lumbar excursion before training than people with healthy backs (LBP: mean = 11.2°, 95% CI = 9.3°-13.1°; healthy backs: mean = 7.1°, 95% CI = 5.8°-8.4°). Following training, the LBP group showed a decrease in the amount of early-phase lumbar excursion (mean change = 4.1°, 95% CI = 2.4°-5.8°); 91% of people with LBP reported that their pain decreased from baseline following training. The longer the duration of LBP (β = - 0.22) and the more early-phase lumbar excursion before training (β = - 0.82), the greater the change in early-phase lumbar excursion following training. The long

  13. Assessment of regional tumor hypoxia using 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 64Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) positron emission tomography: Comparative study featuring microPET imaging, PO2 probe measurement, autoradiography, and fluorescent microscopy in the R3327-AT and FaDu rat tumor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, Joseph A.; Zanzonico, Pat; Pugachev, Andrei; Wen Bixiu; Smith-Jones, Peter; Cai Shangde; Burnazi, Eva; Finn, Ronald D.; Burgman, Paul; Ruan, Shutian; Lewis, Jason S.; Welch, Michael J.; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare two potential positron emission tomography (PET) tracers of tumor hypoxia in an animal model. Methods and Materials: The purported hypoxia imaging agents 18 F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and 64 Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) were compared by serial microPET imaging of Fisher-Copenhagen rats bearing the R3327-AT anaplastic rat prostate tumor. Probe measurements of intratumoral PO 2 were compared with the image data. At the microscopic level, the relationship between the spatial distributions of 64 Cu (assessed by digital autoradiography) and tumor hypoxia (assessed by immunofluorescent detection of pimonidazole) was examined. 18 F-FMISO and 64 Cu-ATSM microPET images were also acquired in nude rats bearing xenografts derived from the human squamous cell carcinoma cell line, FaDu. Results: In R3327-AT tumors, the intratumoral distribution of 18 F-FMISO remained relatively constant 1-4 h after injection. However, that of 64 Cu-ATSM displayed a significant temporal evolution for 0.5-20 h after injection in most tumors. In general, only when 64 Cu-ATSM was imaged at later times (16-20 h after injection) did it correspond to the distribution of 18 F-FMISO. Oxygen probe measurements were broadly consistent with 18 F-FMISO and late 64 Cu-ATSM images but not with early 64 Cu-ATSM images. At the microscopic level, a negative correlation was found between tumor hypoxia and 64 Cu distribution when assessed at early times and a positive correlation when assessed at later times. For the FaDu tumor model, the early and late 64 Cu-ATSM microPET images were similar and were in general concordance with the 18 F-FMISO scans. Conclusion: The difference in behavior between the R3327-AT and FaDu tumor models suggests a tumor-specific dependence of Cu-ATSM uptake and retention under hypoxic conditions

  14. Competitive solvation of (bis)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion by acetonitrile and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    Competitive solvation of an ion by two or more solvents is one of the key phenomena determining the identity of our world. Solvation in polar solvents frequently originates from non-additive non-covalent interactions. Pre-parametrized potentials poorly capture these interactions, unless the force field derivation is repeated for every new system. Development cost increases drastically as new chemical species are supplied. This work represents an alternative simulation approach, PM7-MD, by coupling the latest semiempirical parametrization, PM7, with equation-of-motion propagation scheme and temperature coupling. Using a competitive solvation of (bis)(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion in acetonitrile and water, the work demonstrates efficiency and robustness of PM7-MD.

  15. Synergistic extraction of Eu(III) with N-phosphorylated bis-ureas and chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selucký, P.; Bubeníková, M.; Rais, J.; Grüner, Bohumír; Brusko, V.V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2013), s. 27-31 ISSN 0033-8230 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0668 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : liquid-liquid extraction * lanthanides * actinides * N-phosphorylated bis-ureas * chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ion * high level liquid waste Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.411, year: 2013

  16. A review on bis-hydrazonoyl halides: Recent advances in their synthesis and their diverse synthetic applications leading to bis-heterocycles of biological interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sami Shawali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review covers a summary of the literature data published on the chemistry of bis-hydrazonoyl halides over the last four decades. The biological activities of some of the bis-heterocyclic compounds obtained from these bis-hydrazonoyl halides are also reviewed and discussed.

  17. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  18. Quantitation of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in blood plasma and leukemia cells of patients receiving the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, P; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Siimes, M; Jänne, J

    1980-11-15

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), a cytostatic compound which apparently interferes with the metabolism and/or functions of the natural polyamines (spermidine and spermine), was effectively taken up by cultured human lymphocytic leukemia cells, rapidly resulting in the formation of a concentration gradient of up to 1,000-fold across the cell membrane in cells grown in the presence of micromolar concentrations of the drug. For an anti-proliferative effect on the leukemia cells, an intracellular concentration of more than 0.5 mM was required. The uptake of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was critically dependent on the growth rate of the leukemia cells. Low intracellular concentrations of the drug were present in cells growing slowly, whereas in rapidly dividing cells the intracellular concentration of the drug approached 5mM. When given as repeated intravenous infusions to two leukemic children, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) exhibited sharp and transient peaks of plasma concentration, the drug having an apparent half-life in plasma of only 1-2 h. However, as in cultured cells, the drug was rapidly concentrated in the leukemia cells, reaching concentrations that were distinctly anti-proliferative. In contrast to the rapid disappearance of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) from plasma, the circulation leukemia cells retained the drug for a period of several days with only minimal decrease in the initial concentrations. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was given to the patients for 1 to 2 months as intravenous infusions, the timing of which was determined by regular assays of the drug concentrations in the leukemia cells. In agreement with the results obtained with the cultured cells, and intracellular concentration of about 0.5 to 1mM was apparently required for growth-inhibitory action to occur. Regular determination of the cellular drug concentrations indicated that methylglyoxal bis(quanylhydrazone) could be given as weekly infusions. This treatment

  19. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  20. Different efflux rates may determine the cellular accumulation of various bis(guanylhydrazones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Fagerström, R; Laine, R; Elo, H; Jänne, J

    1984-01-01

    Three bis(guanylhydrazones) (those of methylglyoxal, glyoxal and ethylglyoxal) were compared for their affinity for the putative polyamine carrier and for their cellular retention in L1210 mouse leukaemia cells. All the bis(guanylhydrazones) inhibited equally effectively the uptake of spermidine by the tumour cells, indicating that the compounds had roughly equal affinity for the polyamine carrier. The fact that methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) and glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) were much more effectively concentrated in the animal cells than was ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was obviously attributable to the finding that the efflux rate of ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) greatly exceeded that of the other bis(guanylhydrazones). The rate of efflux of the drugs was slowed down if the tumour cells were treated with 2-difluoromethylornithine before exposure to the bis(guanylhydrazones). These results suggest that intracellular binding of the bis(guanylhydrazones) determines their cellular accumulation. PMID:6431972

  1. Preparation of 177Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN and biodistribution evaluation in normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xinrong; Luo Zhifu; Du Jin

    2010-01-01

    The labeling method for 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN was established, and the biodistribution of 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN in normal mice was carried out as well. Under the optimal experimental condition (DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN 25 μg, pH=4.5 reacting at 80 degree C for 20 min), the labeling yield of 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN is more than 99.0%. 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN shows pretty good in vitro stability. The biodistribution of 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN in normal mice shows a rapid blood clearance. The uptake of 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN is mainly accumulated in liver, spleen and kidney. 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN is excreted by kidney. The results provide the basis for further study on 177 Lu-DTPA-BIS-BIOTIN used in pretargeted radioimage and radiotherapy of cancer. (authors)

  2. Growth and characterization of Melaminium bis (trichloroacetate) dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Renganathan, N. G.; Marchewka, M. K.; Sivakumar, N.; Gayathri, K.; Krishnan, P.; Gunasekaran, S.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Single crystals of melaminium bis (trichloroacetate) dihydrate have been grown successfully by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the compound crystallizes in monoclinic system with non -centrosymmetric space group C2 with lattice parameters a = 17.70 Å, b = 8.44 Å, c = 6.09 Å, α = 90°, β = 100.24°, γ = 90° and V = 900 (Å)3. The UV-Vis transmittance spectrum shows that the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the entire visible region with lower cutoff wavelength of 351 nm. The vibrational frequencies of various functional groups present in the crystal have been derived from FI-IR, FT-Raman and Confocal Raman analyses. The chemical structure of the compound was established by 1H and 13C NMR spectrum. TGA-DTA analysis reveals that the materials have good thermal stability and the melting point of the crystal is found to be 195 °C. The dielectric response of the crystals was studied in the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz at different temperatures and the results are discussed. Etching studies show the growth pattern of the crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured in comparison with KDP by employing powder Kurtz method.

  3. Hippocampal volume is positively associated with behavioural inhibition (BIS) in a large community-based sample of mid-life adults: the PATH through life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Windsor, Tim D; Anstey, Kaarin J; Maller, Jerome J; Meslin, Chantal; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2008-09-01

    The fields of personality research and neuropsychology have developed with very little overlap. Gray and McNaughton were among the first to recognize that personality traits must have neurobiological correlates and developed models relating personality factors to brain structures. Of particular note was their description of associations between conditioning, inhibition and activation of behaviours, and specific neural structures such as the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study was to determine whether personality constructs representing the behavioural inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS) were associated with volumetric measures of the hippocampus and amygdala in humans. Amygdalar and hippocampal volumes were measured in 430 brain scans of cognitively intact community-based volunteers. Linear associations between brain volumes and the BIS/BAS measures were assessed using multiple regression, controlling for age, sex, education, intra-cranial and total brain volume. Results showed that hippocampal volumes were positively associated with BIS sensitivity and to a lesser extent with BAS sensitivity. No association was found between amygdalar volume and either the BIS or BAS. These findings add support to the model of Gray and McNaughton, which proposes a role of the hippocampus in the regulation of defensive/approach behaviours and trait anxiety but suggest an absence of associations between amygdala volume and BIS/BAS measures.

  4. Ground measured evapotranspiration scaled to stand level using MODIS and Landsat sensors to study Tamarix spp.response to repeated defoliation by the Tamarix leaf beetle at two sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlstein, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Hultine, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Dolores River in Southern Utah and the Virgin River in Southern Nevada are ecosystems under pressure from increased groundwater withdrawal due to growing populations and introduced riparian species. We studied the impact of the biocontrol Tamarix leaf beetles (Dirohabda carinulata and D. elongata) on the introduced riparian species, Tamarix spp., phenology and water use over multiple cycles of annual defoliation. Heat balance sap flow measurements, leaf area index (LAI), well data, allometry and satellite imagery from Landsat Thematic Mapper 5 and EOS-1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors were used to assess the distribution of beetle defoliation and its effect on evapotranspiration (ET). Study objectives for the Virgin River were to measure pre-beetle arrival ET, while the Dolores River site has had defoliation since 2004 and is a site of long-term beetle effect monitoring. This study focuses on measurements conducted over two seasons, 2010 and 2011. At the Dolores River site, results from 2010 were inconclusive due to sensor malfunctions but plant ET by sap flow in 2011 averaged 1.02 mm/m^2 leaf area/day before beetle arrival, dropping to an average of 0.75 mm/m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival. Stand level estimations from May - December, 2010 by MODIS were about 0.63 mm/ day, results from Landsat were 0.51 mm/day in June and 0.78 in August. For January -September, 2011, MODIS values were about 0.6 mm/day, and Landsat was 0.57 mm/day in June and 0.62 mm/day in August. These values are lower than previously reported ET values for this site meaning that repeated defoliation does diminish stand level water use. The Virgin River site showed plant ET from sap flow averaged about 3.9-4 mm/m^2 leaf area/day from mid-May - September, 2010. In 2011, ET from sap flow averaged 3.83 mm/m^2 leaf area/day during June - July, but dropped to 3.73 mm/ m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival in August. The slight drop in plant ET is not significant

  5. SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF BIS(PHENYLTETRAMETHYLCYCLOPENTADIENYL)TITANIUM(III) HYDRIDE - THE FIRST MONOMERIC BIS(CYCLOPENTADIENYL)TITANIUM(III) HYDRIDE : The First Monomeric Bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(III) Hydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, J.M.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H

    1995-01-01

    The first structurally characterized monomeric bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(III) hydride, (C(5)PhMe(4))(2)TiH (4), was synthesized by hydrogenolysis of (C(5)PhMe(4))(2)TiMe (5). Hydride 4 was found to be a monomeric bent sandwich by X-ray diffraction methods, and the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl

  6. Non-covalent interactions between {N,N′-bis[(2-pyridinyl)methylene]-1, 2-benzenediamine]-bis(nitrato)}Cu(II) with pyridoxine hydrochloride in methanol at T = (298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahman, Dhiraj; Sinha, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Methanolic solution of pyridoxine hydrochloride used as solvent. • {N,N′-bis[(2-pyridinyl)methylene]-1, 2-benzenediamine]-bis(nitrato)}Cu(II) used as solute. • Partial molar volumes and viscosity B-coefficients of the solute were determined. • Weak 1:1 association between the complex and pyridoxine hydrochloride found. • Non-covalent interactions and Cu(II) complex acts as a net structure maker in the ternary solutions. - Abstract: Non-covalent interactions between of {N,N′-bis[(2-pyridinyl)methylene]-1, 2-benzenediamine]-bis(nitrato)}Cu(II) with pyridoxine hydrochloride in methanol were investigated by a combination of physico-chemical and spectrophotometric methods at T = (298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K under ambient pressure. From measured density and viscosity data the apparent molar volume (ϕ V ), the slope (S V ∗ ), standard partial molar volume (ϕ V 0 ), standard transfer volume (Δ t ϕ V 0 ), isobaric apparent molar expansibility (ϕ E ), standard isobaric partial molar expansibility (ϕ E 0 ), the viscosity B-coefficient, its temperature derivative (∂B/∂T), solvation number (S n ) were calculated and discussed on the basis of specific or non-specific (solute + cosolute) and (solute + solvent) interactions. Thermodynamics of viscous flow were discussed on the basis of the transition state theory. Spectrophotometric results indicated 1:1 (solute + cosolute) interaction between the complex and pyridoxine hydrochloride

  7. Avaliação do desempenho zootécnico de genótipos de frangos de corte utilizando-se a análise de medidas repetidas Performance evaluation of broiler genotypes by repeated measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millor Fernandes do Rosário

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar genótipos de frangos de corte por meio do desempenho zootécnico utilizando-se medidas repetidas. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro genótipos (A, B, C e D e dois sexos avaliados em seis idades (7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias. As variáveis analisadas foram: consumo médio de alimento (CONS, peso vivo médio (PV e conversão alimentar (CA. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos incompletos desbalanceados, em esquema fatorial 4x2 nas parcelas experimentais, com seis medidas realizadas no decorrer do experimento. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do procedimento MIXED do SAS®, sendo testadas cinco estruturas de variância e covariância do erro. As médias foram estimadas por quadrados mínimos e comparadas pelo teste Tukey-Kramer. Foram estimadas funções de resposta quadrática para CONS e CA e Gompertz para PV e seus respectivos coeficientes de determinação, pelo procedimento NLIN do SAS®. Detectaram-se efeitos de algumas interações triplas ou duplas para todas as variáveis. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas entre genótipos dentro de cada idade e sexo para CONS e PV e para CA entre genótipos e sexos, dentro de cada idade, apenas aos 42 e a partir dos 21 dias, respectivamente. Constatou-se que o genótipo D, apesar de apresentar maiores médias de CONS e PV, não mostrou menor CA, que foi verificada nos genótipos C e B. As funções de resposta estimadas explicaram adequadamente cada variável em função da idade, constatando-se que o CONS e PV dos machos do genótipo D foram maiores a partir dos 14 dias e dos 28 aos 42 dias, distinguindo este tratamento dos demais. A melhor CA foi verificada nos machos e no genótipo C. É possível avaliar o desempenho zootécnico de frangos de corte por medidas repetidas, sendo que os genótipos B e C apresentaram melhor desempenho zootécnico.The objetive of this study was to evaluate the performance of broiler genotypes using repeated measurements

  8. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  9. Repeated checking causes memory distrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits

  10. Ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) as an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis in L1210 leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, P; Ruohola, H; Jänne, J

    1984-04-16

    Ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), a close derivative of the known anti-cancer drug methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), is also a powerful inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50), the enzyme needed for the synthesis of spermidine and spermine. There were, however, marked differences between the ethyl and methyl derivatives of glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) when tested in cultured L1210 cells. The cellular accumulation of ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) represented only a fraction (20-25%) of that of the methyl derivative. Moreover, polyamine depletion, which is known to strikingly stimulate the uptake of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), decreased, if anything, the uptake of ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) by L1210 cells. The compound produced spermidine and spermine depletion fully comparable to that achieved with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) at micromolar concentrations. Ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was growth-inhibitory to L1210 cells and produced an additive antiproliferative action when used together with 2-difluoromethylornithine. Ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was distinctly less effective than methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in releasing bound polyamines from isolated cell organelles in vitro. Ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was also devoid of the early and profound mitochondrial toxicity typical to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). These findings may indicate that this compound is a more specific inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis with less intracellular polyamine 'receptor-site' activity than methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

  11. LA REINCIDENCIA VULNERA EL “NON BIS IN IDEM”

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Cabrera Paredes

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo explica como la “Reincidencia vulnera el  Non bis in ídem”; empezamos con la “Introducción” que comprende los antecedentes, la formulación del problema y la justificación de esta investigación. Continuamos con las “Bases Teóricas”, la misma que comprende el sentido de los principios penales, el principio “Non bis in Idem”, la Reincidencia y la Problemática de la Reincidencia como vulneración del Principio Non bis in ídem. En la “Metodología”, encontramos la tipología y me...

  12. Rahumeelse läbisõidu õigus Venemaa Föderatsiooni Soome lahe vetest / Alexander Lott

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lott, Alexander, 1987-

    2017-01-01

    Venemaa Föderatsiooni õigusraamistikust ja praktikast välisriikide laevade rahumeelse läbisõidu õiguse kohta oma Soome lahe territoriaalmeres ja olukorrast, et Venemaa ei tunnusta rahumeelse läbisõidu õigust selles merealas

  13. Le principe non bis in idem et le droit communautaire

    OpenAIRE

    Hedabou, Aziz

    2018-01-01

    Le principe non bis in idem est une garantie fondamentale qui interdit que les mêmes faits soit poursuivi et puni deux fois. Il est reconnu par tous les droits internes et “appartient aux droit universel des nations”. Dès lors, sa lettre et son esprit ne sont plus cantonnés au droit interne et ont tendance à s’internationaliser. En droit communautaire, l’étude du principe non bis in idem peut être envisagée sous trois angles différents. D’abord en droit pénal international unilatéral où chaqu...

  14. Combinatorial synthesis of oxazol-thiazole bis-heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Siva; Nefzi, Adel

    2014-01-13

    A combinatorial library of novel oxazol-thiazole bis-heterocycles was synthesized in good to excellent overall yields with high purity using a solution and solid-phase parallel synthesis approach. Oxazole amino acids, prepared from serine methyl ester and amino acids via coupling and cyclodehydration, were treated with Fmoc-NCS and α-haloketones for the parallel synthesis of diverse bis-heterocycles. Fmoc-isothiocyanate is used as a traceless reagent for thiazole formation. Oxazole diversity can be achieved by using variety of amino acids, whereas thiazole diversity is produced with various haloketones.

  15. Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) as an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis in tumour cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Seppänen, P; Fagerström, R; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Elo, H; Lumme, P; Jänne, J

    1984-01-01

    Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), the parent compound of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), was synthesized and tested for its ability to inhibit the biosynthesis of polyamines. It was found to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50), yet the lack of the methyl group at the glyoxal portion increased the apparent Ki value for the enzyme by about 30-fold in comparison with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibited diami...

  16. Bis(phenylethylamide) derivatives of Gd-DTPA as potential receptor-specific MRI contrast agents

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Sophie; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana; Kimpe, Kristof; Thirifays, Coralie; Binnemans, Koen; Muller, Robert N.; Vander Elst, Luce

    2007-01-01

    DTPA-bis(amide) derivatives bearing phenyl, phenol or catechol groups that mimic side chains of naturally occurring amino acids, such as phenylatanine, tyrosine or dopamine, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The gadolinium(III) complexes of the ligands DTPA-bis(tyramide) [DTPA-(TA)(2)], DTPA-bis(3-hydroxytyramide) [DTPA-(HTA)(2)] and DTPA-bis(phenylalanine ethyl ester) [DTPA-(PAE)(2)], were prepared ...

  17. Crystal structures of eight 3D molecular adducts derived from bis-imidazole, bis(benzimidazole), and organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Aihua; Jin, Shouwen; Jin, Shide; Hu, KaiKai; Lin, Zhihao; Liu, Hui; Wang, Daqi

    2018-01-01

    Cocrystallization of the bis(imidazole)/bis(benzimidazole) with a series of organic acids gave a total of eight molecular adducts with the compositions: (3,6-bis(imidazole-1-yl)pyridazine): (trichloroacetic acid)2(1) [(H2L1)2+ · (tca-)2, L1 = 3,6-bis(imidazole-1-yl)pyridazine, tca- = trichloroacetate], (bis(N-imidazolyl)methane): (suberic acid) (2) [(L2) · (H2suba), L2 = bis(N-imidazolyl)methane, H2suba = suberic acid], bis(N-imidazolyl)methane: (3-nitrophthalic acid): 3H2O (3) [(H2L2)2+ · (3-Hnpa-)2 · 3H2O, 3-Hnpa- = 3-nitro hydrogenphthalate], (bis(N-imidazolyl)butane)0.5: (4-nitrophthalic acid): H2O (4) [(H2L3)0.5+ · (4-Hnpa-)- · H2O, L3 = bis(N-imidazolyl)butane, 4-Hnpa- = 4-nitro hydrogenphthalate], (1-(3-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-benzimidazole): (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) (5) [(HL4) · (3,5-dns-), L4 = 1-(3-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-benzimidazole, 3,5-dns- = 3,5-dinitrosalicylate], (1-(3-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-benzimidazole): (3-nitrophthalic acid) (6) [(H2L4) · (3-npa2-), L4 = 1-(3-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)propyl)-1H-benzimidazole, 3-npa2-=3-nitrogenphthalate], (bis(N-imidazolyl)butane): (pamoic acid) (7) [(H2L3) · (pam), pam = pamoate], and (3,6-bis(imidazole-1-yl)pyridazine): (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) [(H2L1)2+ · (npda)2- = 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate] (8). The eight adducts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, infrared spectrum, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all adducts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the eight investigated crystals both the end ring N in the bis(imidazole) moieties are protonated when the organic acids are deprotonated except 2, and 5, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong ionic Nsbnd H⋯O H-bond between the imidazolium and the deprotonated acidic groups. Except the Nsbnd H⋯O H-bond, the Osbnd H⋯O H-bonds were also found at the salts 3, 4

  18. Thermophysical properties of 1-alkylpyridinum bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, Normawati M.; Abdul Mutalib, M.I.; Man, Zakaria; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Murugesan, T.

    2010-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of 1-alkylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C n py][Tf 2 N] ionic liquids where n = 4, 8, 10, or 12 have been determined. Density ρ, and dynamic viscosity η, were determined at T = (293.15 to 353.15) K and refractive index n D , was measured at T = (293.15 to 333.15) K. Empirical correlations are proposed to represent the present experimental results. The values of the coefficient of thermal expansion were calculated from the experimental density values. The thermal decomposition temperature, T d was also determined using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at a heating rate of (10 and 20) K . min -1 .

  19. Conducting polymers of decanedioic acid bis-(4-pyrrol-1-yl-phenyl) ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirpan, A.; Guner, Y.; Toppare, L.

    2004-01-01

    A dipyrrolyl monomer was synthesized via the reaction between 4-pyrrol-1-yl phenol and decanedioyl dichloride. The electrochemical behavior of this monomer was studied. Polymerization of decanedioic acid bis-(4-pyrrol-1-yl-phenyl) ester (DAPE) was achieved by chemical and constant current electrolyses methods. Copolymerization of DAPE with thiophene was performed by constant potential electrolysis in acetonitrile-tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBAFB), dichloromethane-TBAFB, solvent-electrolyte couples. The chemical structures and properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetry analysis. The conductivities of the samples were measured by a four-probe technique

  20. Conducting polymers of decanedioic acid bis-(4-pyrrol-1-yl-phenyl) ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirpan, A.; Guner, Y.; Toppare, L

    2004-05-15

    A dipyrrolyl monomer was synthesized via the reaction between 4-pyrrol-1-yl phenol and decanedioyl dichloride. The electrochemical behavior of this monomer was studied. Polymerization of decanedioic acid bis-(4-pyrrol-1-yl-phenyl) ester (DAPE) was achieved by chemical and constant current electrolyses methods. Copolymerization of DAPE with thiophene was performed by constant potential electrolysis in acetonitrile-tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBAFB), dichloromethane-TBAFB, solvent-electrolyte couples. The chemical structures and properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetry analysis. The conductivities of the samples were measured by a four-probe technique.

  1. Electrodeposition of polypyrrole on aluminium in the presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, I.L.; Saidman, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    Stable and adherent polypyrrole films have been successfully electrodeposited onto aluminium electrode over a wide solution pH interval by using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate as dopant. The redox behaviour of the deposited coating was studied by cyclic voltammetry in different electrolytes and the corrosion protection properties were examined in chloride solution by polarisation studies and open circuit measurements. The polymer film was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The obtained results are explained considering the surfactant remains entrapped into the polymer matrix. The coatings inhibit the oxidation of the aluminium substrate even on polarisation to high anodic potentials

  2. Online learning in repeated auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Weed, Jonathan; Perchet, Vianney; Rigollet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by online advertising auctions, we consider repeated Vickrey auctions where goods of unknown value are sold sequentially and bidders only learn (potentially noisy) information about a good's value once it is purchased. We adopt an online learning approach with bandit feedback to model this problem and derive bidding strategies for two models: stochastic and adversarial. In the stochastic model, the observed values of the goods are random variables centered around the true value of t...

  3. Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), Behavioral activation system (BAS) and schizophrenia : Relationship with psychopathology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Marion R. M.; van Honk, Jack; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) have been conceptualized as two neural motivational systems that regulate sensitivity to punishment (BIS) and reward (BAS). Imbalance in BIS and BAS levels has been reported to be related to various forms of

  4. Reproducibility and Reliability of Repeated Quantitative Fluorescence Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Knudsen, Kristine Bach Korsholm; Ambrus, Rikard

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When using fluorescence angiography (FA) in perioperative perfusion assessment, repeated measures with re-injections of fluorescent dye (ICG) may be required. However, repeated injections may cause saturation of dye in the tissue, exceeding the limit of fluorescence intensity...... that the camera can detect. As the emission of fluorescence is dependent of the excitatory light intensity, reduction of this may solve the problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and reliability of repeated quantitative FA during a reduction of excitatory light....

  5. Hall Effect and transient surface photovoltage (SPV study of Cu3BiS3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mesa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the electrical properties of the compound Cu3BiS3 deposited by co-evaporation. This new compound may have the properties necessary to be used as an absorbent layer in solar cells. The samples were characterized by Hall effect and transient surface photovoltage (SPV measurements. Using Hall effect measurements, we found that the concentration of n charge carriers is in the order of 1016 cm-3 irrespective of the Cu/Bi mass ratio. We also found that the mobility of this compound (μ in the order of 4 cm2 V-1s-1 varies according to the transport mechanisms that govern it and are dependent on temperature. Based on the SPV, we found a high density of surface defects, which can be passivated by superimposing a buffer layer over the Cu3BiS3 compound.

  6. Non bis in idem : De ontwikkeling van een beginsel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hattum, W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Non bis in idem. The development of a principle The double jeopardy rule forbids a second prosecution for the same offence. The rule is applicable after irrevocable judgments: condemnations as well as acquittals. If a conviction is subsequently found to be wrong, it is annulled. But what if an

  7. LA REINCIDENCIA VULNERA EL “NON BIS IN IDEM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Cabrera Paredes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo explica como la “Reincidencia vulnera el  Non bis in ídem”; empezamos con la “Introducción” que comprende los antecedentes, la formulación del problema y la justificación de esta investigación. Continuamos con las “Bases Teóricas”, la misma que comprende el sentido de los principios penales, el principio “Non bis in Idem”, la Reincidencia y la Problemática de la Reincidencia como vulneración del Principio Non bis in ídem. En la “Metodología”, encontramos la tipología y metodología de la investigación. En los “Resultados”,  están los análisis y la decisión final de las entrevistas y encuestas a Docentes y abogados especializados en el tema y al personal de Juzgados, Fiscalías y abogados, respectivamente, del Distrito Judicial de Iquitos de la Provincia de Maynas, región Loreto. En la “Discusión”, explicamos que la Reincidencia debe desaparecer porque va en contra del principio Non bis in ídem, colocando en las “Conclusiones” nuestra posición.

  8. LA REINCIDENCIA VULNERA EL “NON BIS IN IDEM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Cabrera-Paredes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo explica como la “Reincidencia vulnera el  Non bis in ídem”; empezamos con la “Introducción” que comprende los antecedentes, la formulación del problema y la justificación de esta investigación. Continuamos con las “Bases Teóricas”, la misma que comprende el sentido de los principios penales, el principio “Non bis in Idem”, la Reincidencia y la Problemática de la Reincidencia como vulneración del Principio Non bis in ídem. En la “Metodología”, encontramos la tipología y metodología de la investigación. En los “Resultados”,  están los análisis y la decisión final de las entrevistas y encuestas a Docentes y abogados especializados en el tema y al personal de Juzgados, Fiscalías y abogados, respectivamente, del Distrito Judicial de Iquitos de la Provincia de Maynas, región Loreto. En la “Discusión”, explicamos que la Reincidencia debe desaparecer porque va en contra del principio Non bis in ídem, colocando en las “Conclusiones” nuestra posición.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Stigmasterol and Bis-(5, 7-diacetyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... from the hexane fraction and a catechin glycoside, Bis-(5,7-diacetyl-catechin-4'-α- rhamnopyranoside) was isolated from the ethylacetate soluble fraction using a combination of silica gel column, gel filtration (sephadex LH-20) and preparative thin layer chromatography.

  10. Polymerization behavior of butyl bis(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lenovo

    Polymerization behavior of butyl bis(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide: Phosphorus containing polyethers for. Li‒ion conductivities. Heeralal Vignesh Babu, Billakanti Srinivas and Krishnamurthi Muralidharan*. School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad - 500046, India. Table of Contents. TGA plots of SPE2.

  11. Electronic states of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Jones, Nykola; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The electronic transitions of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPEB) were investigated by UV synchrotron radiation linear dichroism (SRLD) spectroscopy in the range 25,000 – 58,000 cm–1 (400 – 170 nm) on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyethylene. The investigation was supported by variable...

  12. Thermodynamic investigation of the MOCVD of copper films from bis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodynamically calculated, using the free energy minimization criterion, for the metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of copper films using bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) as the precursor material.

  13. KINETICS OF SUBSTITUTION OF CIS-BIS(MALONATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    In this process, it indicated that the substitution reaction occurs through an Ia mechanism in the ... isotopic water exchange and other anation processes. ... The potassium salt of cis-bis(malonato)diaquochromate(III) was prepared by a reported [26] ... of the synthesized metal complex showed maxima at 415 nm (ε = 41.6 M-1 ...

  14. 2,6-Bis(9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 2,6-bis(ethyl-9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone has been synthesized by condensation of 9-ethylcarbazole-3-aldehyde and cyclohexanone in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  15. Thermal decomposition of potassium bis-oxalatodiaqua- indate(III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    32), temperature programmable thermal balance, with platinum crucible as container, is used for taking thermograms in air. The rate of heating is fixed at ... Thermal decomposition of pot. bis-oxalatodiaquaindate (III).H2O. 277. 3. Results and ...

  16. Improvements/Experience derived from wiring 10% of BIS MDTs

    CERN Document Server

    Fassouliotis, D; Kourkoumelis, C; Pancheluga, V; Pappas, D P; Stefanidis, S; Birioukov, V

    2001-01-01

    This note describes the improvements performed to the University of Athens Muon Drift Tube assembly line. All implemented QA/QC tests are described. Experience and results of the performance are extracted from the assembly of more than 10% of the BIS tubes.

  17. Combinatorial Libraries of Bis-Heterocyclic Compounds with Skeletal Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soural, Miroslav; Bouillon, Isabelle; Krchňák, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Combinatorial solid-phase synthesis of bis-heterocyclic compounds, characterized by the presence of two heterocyclic cores connected by a spacer of variable length/structure, provided structurally heterogeneous libraries with skeletal diversity. Both heterocyclic rings were assembled on resin in a combinatorial fashion. PMID:18811208

  18. Combinatorial Libraries of Bis-Heterocyclic Compounds with Skeletal Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Soural, Miroslav; Bouillon, Isabelle; Krchňák, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    Combinatorial solid-phase synthesis of bis-heterocyclic compounds, characterized by the presence of two heterocyclic cores connected by a spacer of variable length/structure, provided structurally heterogeneous libraries with skeletal diversity. Both heterocyclic rings were assembled on resin in a combinatorial fashion.

  19. Polymerization of methyl methacrylate by diphenylamido bis (methylcyclopentadienyl) ytterbium complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Yao-Rong(王耀荣); SHEN, Qi(沈琪); MA, Jia-Le(马家乐); ZHAO, Qun(赵群)

    2000-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was effectively polymerized by diphenylamido bis(methyicyclopentadienyl) ytterbium complex (MeCp)2YbNPh2(THF). Tne reaction can be carried out over a range of polymerization temperature from - 40℃ to 40℃ and gives the polyMMA with high molecular weights.The initiation mechanism was demonstrated by diphenylamidoterminated methyl methacrylate oligomer.

  20. Conversion of diphosphatidylglycerol to bis(monoacylglyceryl)phosphate by lysosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, B. J.; Hostetler, K. Y.

    1978-01-01

    Diphosphatidyl[1',2',3'-14C]glycerol (cardiolipin) is converted to bis(monoacylglyceryl)phosphate when incubated in vitro with rat lysosomes at pH 4.4. The stereochemical configuration of the product is unknown. This reaction probably takes place via lysophosphatidylglycerol, one of the major

  1. Bis-polymer lipid-peptide conjugates and nanoparticles thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Dong, He; Shu, Jessica; Dube, Nikhil

    2018-04-24

    The present invention provides bis-polymer lipid-peptide conjugates containing a hydrophobic block and headgroup containing a helical peptide and two polymer blocks. The conjugates can self-assemble to form helix bundle subunits, which in turn assemble to provide micellar nanocarriers for drug cargos and other agents. Particles containing the conjugates and methods for forming the particles are also disclosed.

  2. Synthesis, spectra and electrochemistry of dinitro-bis- {2-(phenylazo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... Synthesis, spectra and electrochemistry of dinitro-bis-. {2-(phenylazo)pyrimidine} ruthenium(II). Nitro–nitroso derivatives and reactivity of the electrophilic nitrosyl centre. PRITHWIRAJ BYABARTTA. Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713 104. Present address: Departmento de ...

  3. The differences of saliva pH before and after application of Bis-GMA resin based-pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayub Irmadani Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pit and fissure sealant applications is one way to prevent caries. One of the effective ingredient as a pit and fissure sealant is a Bis-GMA resin. One of the active components  of  Bis-GMA  resin  is  sodium  fluoride,  which is capable  of releasing fluoride ions to the tooth surface and able to improve the repair and remineralization process through the replacement  of  calcium and phosphate ions found in saliva to increase the pH of saliva. This study was to determine the effect of pit and fissure sealant applications made from Bis-GMA resin to pH of saliva in children aged 6-12 years. The study design is pre and post test with control group design. Saliva samples were derived from 15 pediatric patients has met the criteria. The pH of saliva were taken before and after the application of pit and fissure sealant made from Bis-GMA and measured with pH meter. This study used a non-parametric test, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. The results of this study are also supported by the results of statistical tests showed p-: 0.005 (p<0.05 value, which means that there are significant differences in pH of saliva before and after the application of pit and fissure sealant made from Bis-GMA resin.

  4. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  6. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  7. From bis(imidazole-2-thion-4-yl)phosphane to a flexible P-bridged bis(NHC) ligand and its silver complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Paresh Kumar; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Streubel, Rainer

    2014-11-28

    Synthesis of the first P(V)-bridged bis(NHC) ligand 7 was achieved via deprotonation of P(V)-functionalized bis(imidazolium) salt 6, which was obtained via oxidative desulfurization of bis(imidazole-2-thion-4-yl)phosphane 2. Bis(imidazolium) salt 6 was also employed to synthesize the corresponding silver complex 8. All new products were firmly established by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods as well as elemental analysis and, in addition, X-ray crystal structure analysis in the case of 3.

  8. Superconductivity in REO0.5F0.5BiS2 with high-entropy-alloy-type blocking layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Ryota; Goto, Yosuke; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu

    2018-05-01

    We synthesized new REO0.5F0.5BiS2 (RE: rare earth) superconductors with high-entropy-alloy-type (HEA-type) REO blocking layers. The lattice constant a systematically changed in the HEA-type samples with the RE concentration and the RE ionic radius. A sharp superconducting transition was observed in the resistivity measurements for all the HEA-type samples, and the transition temperature of the HEA-type samples was higher than that of typical REO0.5F0.5BiS2. The sharp superconducting transition and the enhanced superconducting properties of the HEA-type samples may indicate the effectiveness of the HEA states of the REO blocking layers in the REO0.5F0.5BiS2 system.

  9. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook; Bhowmik, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using 1 H, 19 F, and 13 C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property

  10. Thermal behavior of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine) networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos Figueroa, L A; Salgado Delgado, R; García Hernandez, E; Vargas Galarza, Z; Rubio Rosas, E; Salgado Rodriguez, R

    2013-01-01

    Poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks were prepared by using acid-catalyzed sol-gel of bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine (BisSi) and free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The thermal properties of the poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermal behavior of these networks was also compared with homopolymers (The networks formed in both PHEMA and PBisSi gels were identified). The glass transition temperature (T g ) of PHEMA homopolymer was found as 103.74 °C. The thermal degradation of the poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks with different silica contents (e.g. 10, 15 and 25 wt%) were evaluated with use of DTG. It was observed that the thermal degradation temperature of poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks changed much with the BisSi content.

  11. Preoperative and postoperative agreement in fat free mass (FFM) between bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; Verberne, Hein J.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aims: To measure undernutrition in terms of fat free mass (FFM), there are several options. The aim of this study was to assess agreement in FFM between the portable, bedside bioelectrical impedance spectrometry (BIS) and relatively expensive, non-portable dual-energy X-ray

  12. New metal-organic complexes based on bis(tetrazole) ligands: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ceng-Ceng; Fan, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Fang; Zhou, Sheng-Bin; Wang, Duo-Zhi

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a series of new complexes, [Zn2(HL1)2(H2O)4]·H2O (1), [Co2(HL1)2]·TEA (2), [Co3(HL1)2(H2L1)2(H2O)4]n (3), [Cu(HL1)(H2O)2]n (4), {[Cu5(HL2)2(OH)4(ClO4)2]·4H2O}n (5) and [Cu2(L3)]n (6) were successfully prepared by utilizing three bis(tetrazole) ligands [bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl)-amine (H3L1), bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylethyl)-amine (H3L2) and 1,5-bis(5-tetrazolo)-3-thiapentane (H2L3)], all of which have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analyses as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showing different dimensionalities (0D, 1D and 3D). Complexes 1 and 2 are 0D structures, 1 shows a dinuclear structure, 2 displays two crystallographically different mononuclear structures, 1 and 2 are further assembled to form 3D supramolecular framework and 2D supramolecular network by hydrogen-bonding interactions, respectively. Complexes 3, 4 and 5 are 1D structures, 3 features a mononuclear unit and a 1D chain, which are arranged into 3D supramolecular architecture by hydrogen-bonding interactions, 4 presents a zigzag chain, 5 shows an infinite chain structure constructed from pentanuclear Cu(II) subunits and ClO4- anions. Complex 6 exhibits a 3D coordination framework based on cyclic [Cu4(L3)2] dimmer subunits as nodes possessing an 8-connected network topology with the point symbol {424·64}. Further, semiconductor behaviors, the solid-state luminescent properties of the complexes 1-3 and 6 were measured and studied seriously at room temperature.

  13. X-rays, radiometers and skin unit dose. The development of measuring methods and measuring units for X radiation in medical physics from the beginning until the international standardization; X-Strahlen, Radiometer und Hauteinheitsdosis. Die Entwicklung der Messverfahren und Masseinheiten fuer Roentgenstrahlung in der medizinischen Physik von den Anfaengen bis zur internationalen Standardisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glessmer-Junike, Simone

    2015-01-22

    X-rays, a special form of ionizing radiation, have been utilized in medicine and technology ever since their discovery at the end of 1895. However, the usage of X-rays made the development of measuring techniques necessary. Newly-developed measuring devices were at first called radiometers', but later the term dosimeter' has gained universal acceptance. The development of numerous dosimeters used in radiotherapy was accompanied by new units of measurement, each corresponding to its individual newly constructed dosimeter or method of measurement. While at first conversions between old and new units were performed, it later became clear that both within Germany and Europe units with similar names were used with different meanings, which was both incompatible and confusing. The first serious attempts of a standardization of units in Germany were made after the First World War, when the when the ionizing properties of X-rays was focused on for both measurements and unit definitions. Efforts towards an international standardization of units became successful in the mid-1920s when the Roentgen was defined as the universal unit. From the development described above, four stages of the evolution of radiation measurement and units in radiotherapy could be identified by means of comprehensive systematic research in printed publications. The first stage was the period of diagnostic application of X-rays, when tools for the determination of X-ray quality were designed. This stage progressed into that of therapeutic administration of X-rays shortly after, when instruments and units for the measurement of X-ray quantities (dose') were implemented. Due to the variety and diversity of measurement apparatus and units a third stage emerged, closely interconnected with the second. During the third stage, a nation-wide standardization was attempted in Germany. With the conclusion of this stage - the resolution of a unit for dose measurement in Germany - the stage of

  14. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  15. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  16. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  17. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  18. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  19. Application of UAV-SfM photogrammetry and aerial lidar to a disastrous flood: repeated topographic measurement of a newly formed crevasse splay of the Kinu River, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Atsuto; Uchiyama, Shoichiro; Sugai, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Geomorphic impacts of a disastrous crevasse splay that formed in September 2015 and its post-formation modifications were quantitatively documented by using repeated, high-definition digital surface models (DSMs) of an inhabited and cultivated floodplain of the Kinu River, central Japan. The DSMs were based on pre-flood (resolution: 2 m) and post-flood (resolution: 1 m) aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data from January 2007 and September 2015, respectively, and on structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry data (resolution: 3.84 cm) derived from aerial photos taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in December 2015. After elimination of systematic errors among the DSMs and down-sampling of the SfM-derived DSM, elevation changes on the order of 10-1 m - including not only topography but also growth of vegetation, vanishing of flood waters, and restoration and repair works - were detected. Comparison of the DSMs showed that the volume eroded by the flood was more than twice the deposited volume in the area within 300-500 m of the breached artificial levee, where the topography was significantly affected. The results suggest that DSMs based on a combination of UAV-SfM and lidar data can be used to quantify, rapidly and in rich detail, topographic changes on floodplains caused by floods.

  20. μ-Carbonato-bis­(bis­{2-[(diethyl­amino)­meth­yl]phen­yl}bis­muth(III))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Albert P.; Nema, Mihai G.; Breunig, Hans J.; Silvestru, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    The mol­ecular structure of the title compound, [Bi2(C11H16N)4(CO3)], consists of a symmetrically bridging carbonato group which binds two [2-Et2NCH2C6H4]2Bi units that are crystallographically related via a twofold rotation axis bis­ecting the carbonate group. The two Bi atoms and two of the C atoms directly bonded to bis­muth are quasi-planar [deviations of 0.323 (1) and 0.330 (9)Å for the Bi and C atoms, respectively] with the carbonate group. The remaining two ligands are in a trans arrangement relative to the quasi-planar (CBi)2CO3 system. The metal atom is strongly coordinated by the N atom of one pendant arm [Bi—N = 2.739 (6) Å], almost trans to the O atom, while the N atom of the other pendant arm exhibits a weaker intra­molecular inter­action [Bi⋯N = 3.659 (7) Å] almost trans to a C atom. If both these intra­molecular N→Bi inter­actions per metal atom are considered, the overall coordination geometry at bis­muth becomes distorted square-pyramidal [(C,N)2BiO cores] and the compound can be described as a hypervalent 12-Bi-5 species. Additional quite short intra­molecular Bi⋯O inter­actions are also present [3.796 (8)–4.020 (9) Å]. Inter­molecular associations through weak η6⋯Bi inter­actions [Bi⋯centroid of benzene ring = 3.659 (1) Å] lead to a ribbon-like supra­molecular association. PMID:21522836

  1. Synthesis and Molecular Structures of Two [1,4-bis(3-pyridyl)-2,3-diazo-1,3-butadiene]-dichloro-Zn(II) Coordination Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Wang, Hsin-Ta

    2006-01-01

    Two novel coordination polymers with 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized by reacting 1,4-bis(3-pyridyl)-2,3-diazo-1,3-butadiene (L) with zinc dichloride. Both compounds have the same repeating unit consisting of a distorted tetrahedral Zn(II) center coordinated by two chlorides and two pyridyl nitrogen atoms of two bridging bismonodentate L ligands, however, different structural conformations have been found, one forming a helical chain and the other producing a square-wa...

  2. Method for synthesizing metal bis(borano) hypophosphite complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Joseph G.

    2013-06-18

    The present invention describes the synthesis of a family of metal bis(borano) hypophosphite complexes. One procedure described in detail is the syntheses of complexes beginning from phosphorus trichloride and sodium borohydride. Temperature, solvent, concentration, and atmosphere are all critical to ensure product formation. In the case of sodium bis(borano) hypophosphite, hydrogen gas was evolved upon heating at temperatures above 150.degree. C. Included in this family of materials are the salts of the alkali metals Li, Na and K, and those of the alkaline earth metals Mg and Ca. Hydrogen storage materials are possible. In particular the lithium salt, Li[PH.sub.2(BH.sub.3).sub.2], theoretically would contain nearly 12 wt % hydrogen. Analytical data for product characterization and thermal properties are given.

  3. Convenient synthesis of bis(alkoxy)rhenium(VII) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Al-Ajlouni, A.M.; Espenson, J.H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-02-28

    The study of high-oxidation-state organorhenium compounds has been a field of continuing activity, thanks to the success of methylrhenium trioxide (CH{sub 3}ReO{sub 3} or MTO) in catalytic processes. This catalyst is effective in oxidations, olefin metathesis, the olefination of aldehydes, and the preparation of other compounds with three-membered rings. The syntheses of some rhenium compounds derived form MTO have been reported. Epoxide formation is a key reaction, and it bears directly on these findings reported here. Re(VII) complexes containing a chelated bis(diolate) ligand can be synthesized by refluxing MTO with 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diol. Here, the authors report a more convenient method for this preparation. A different series of related compounds consists of chelated bis(diolates) of the Cp*Re-oxo series, Cp*ReO-(diolate).

  4. 2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel(II) Bromide and 2,6-Bis(ketimine)phenylnickel(II) Bromide: Synthesis, Structural Features, and Redox Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, M.; Snelders, D.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836257; Godbole, M.D.; Havenith, R.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205279546; Haddleton, D.M.; Clarkson, G.; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Spek, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156517566; van Klink, G.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/170637964; van Koten, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073839191

    2007-01-01

    2,6-Bis(oxazolinyl)phenylnickel bromide complexes [NiBr(R,R'-Phebox)] (2) were synthesized via two synthetic routes (A and B). In route A, selective bis-ortho lithiation of [R,R'-PheboxBr], followed by a transmetalation reaction with [NiBr2(PEt3)2], yielded not only complexes 2 with an

  5. Microwave assisted synthesis of bis and tris(ω-bromoacetophenones): versatile precursors for novel bis(imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines), bis(imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines) and their tris-analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background α-Bromination of the side chain of aromatic ketones using NBS in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH) in acetonitrile is very common. However, regioselective bromination of bis and tris(ω-bromoacetophenones) with NBS in the presence of p-TsOH in acetonitrile under microwave irradiation is quite novel. The bis- and tris(ω-bromoacetophenones) are used in synthesis of bis and tris(heterocycles). bis(heterocycles) have received a great deal of attention, because many biologically active natural and synthetic products have molecular symmetry. The use of the pressurized microwave irradiation is very advantageous to many syntheses and provide a large rate enhancement. Results Bis and tris(ω-bromoacetophenones) were obtained as single monobrominated derivatives in a shorter time than the conventional conditions. The results clearly demonstrate the better reactivity and selectivity of NBS/p-TsOH/CH3CN as a brominating mixture under microwave conditions. The reaction of bis and tris(ω-bromoacetophenone) with 2-aminopyridine and 2-aminopyrimidine proceeded smoothly in a mixture of anhydrous ethanol and DMF under reflux or using 300 W/105°C/ 20 min microwave irradiation conditions to afford the corresponding bis(imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine), bis(imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine) and tris(imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine) derivatives in moderate to excellent yields. The carbonyl analogue of the targeted bis(imidazopyridines) could be synthesized by the reaction of N,N-dimethyl-N'-(pyridin-2-yl)formimidamide with bis(ω-bromoacetophenone) in refluxing ethanol. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their spectral data as well as their elemental analyses. Conclusion In conclusion, selective α-bromination of bis- and tris(acetophenones) has been accomplished efficiently utilizing NBS/p-TsOH/CH3CN under microwave irradiation. In addition, a facile synthesis of novel series of bis- and tris(imidazopyridine) and bis(imidazopyrimidine) derivatives

  6. Alkanediyl-α, ω-bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide gemini surfactants as novel corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in formic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mobin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants, butanediyl 1,4-bis(dimethyl cetylammonium bromide, pentanediyl 1,5 - bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide and hexanediyl 1,6 - bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide from Alkanediyl-α, ω-bis (dimethyl cetylammonium bromide series were synthesized in laboratory and were characterized by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The surfactants were tested as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 20% formic acid. The influence of surfactants on mild steel corrosion inhibition was investigated by measuring the corrosion rate of mild steel in their absence and presence by weight loss measurements, solvent analysis of iron ions into the test solution and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The surface morphology of the corroded steel samples in presence and absence of surfactants was evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The synthesized gemini surfactants performed as excellent corrosion inhibitor, the inhibition efficiency (IE being in the range of 76.66-97.41%. The IE of surfactants is slightly affected by the spacer length. The IE increased with increase in surfactant concentration and temperature. The adsorption of gemini surfactants on the steel surface was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The results of the potentiodynamic polarization studies are consistent with the results of weight loss studies.

  7. Determination of methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) in body fluids by ion-pair chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboz, J; Wu, K T; Hart, R D

    1980-01-01

    Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone), Methyl-G, is a potent antineoplastic agent currently undergoing Phase l clinical trials. Serum, ascitic and pleural fluids, and urine are deproteinized with methanol, supernatant is evaporated, residue is redissolved in the eluent, lipids are removed with carbon tetrachloride, and an aliquot of the aqueous layer injected into the chromatograph. Ethylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (Ethyl-G) is the internal standard. The mobile phase is a mixture of an aqueous buffer (containing 0.004 M heptane and pentane sulfonic acid, 90%:10%, buffered to pH 3.5) and methanol (68%:32%). The ion-pair complex is retained on a micro Bondapak C18 column, eluted with a flow of 2.0 mL/min. Absorbance is measured at 280 nm. Detectability: 30 ng/mL (0.11 micro M) in serum, ascitic and pleural fluids, 300 ng/mL (1.1 micro M) in urine. Calibration curves (peak height ratios of Methyl-G/Ethyl-G plotted against known drug concentrations) were linear in the 0.1-30 microg/mL range. Correlation coefficinets were 0.999; coefficients of variation for reproducibility were less than 5%. Residual blood levels of Methyl-G persist for several days. Methyl-G was found to pass into ascitic fluid.

  8. Australian OTC Derivatives Markets: Insights from the BIS Semiannual Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Ahn; Mihovil Matic; Christian Vallence

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank of Australia recently commenced surveying participants in Australian over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives markets as part of the Bank for International Settlements’ (BIS) semiannual global OTC derivatives survey. Australia’s contribution to the survey complements regulatory efforts to improve the resilience and transparency of Australia’s OTC derivatives markets. It also facilitates a higher frequency comparison of the Australian and foreign OTC derivatives markets. The survey ...

  9. SYNTHESIS OF BIS-QUINOXALINE DERIVATIVES USING TONSIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A convenient and efficient synthesis of new bis-quinoxaline is described, involving ... the following composition (in %): SiO2: 74.5, Al2O3: 9.3, MgO: 0.4, Fe2O3: 1.3, CaO: 4.0, K2O: 0.4 and .... Tonsil clay is a nanoparticle with layered structure.

  10. bis-NHC complexes of R-BINOL scaffold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SONALI RAMGOPAL MAHULE

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... The newly synthesized bis-NHC ligand precursor (1g) and its corresponding {[L(L -NHC)2]Ag}Cl (1h) and .... -binaphthyl (1f) (0.500 g, 1.21 mmol) and 1-i-propyl- ... chloride (1g) (0.250 g, 0.340 mmol) and Ag2O (0.078 g, 0.340.

  11. Polymeric metal chelates with piperazine(bis)dithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionov, S.V.; Kosareva, L.A.; Ikorskij, V.N.; Uskov, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    Roentgenoamorphous polymer chelates of Fe 3 , Co 2 , Ni 2 , Cu 2 , Zn 2 , Cd 2 , Pb 2 with tetradentate bridge ligand piperazine-(bis) dithiocarbamate have been synthesized. IR spectra in the region 200-400 cm - 1 point to coordination of sulphur atoms of groups CS 2- with metals. It is found that among the polymers synthesized CuLxH 2 O possesses the lowest electric resistance

  12. Quantum key distribution with two-segment quantum repeaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters represent one possible way to achieve long-distance quantum key distribution. One way of improving the repeater rate and decreasing the memory coherence time is the usage of multiplexing. Motivated by the experimental fact that long-range connections are practically demanding, we extend the analysis of the quantum repeater multiplexing protocol to the case of short-range connections. We derive formulas for the repeater rate and we show that short-range connections lead to most of the benefits of a full-range multiplexing protocol. A less demanding QKD-protocol without quantum memories was recently introduced by Lo et al. We generalize this measurement-device-independent quantum key Distribution protocol to the scenario where the repeater Station contains also heralded quantum memories. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decay states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. We give formulas in terms of device imperfections i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate.

  13. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  14. STRUCTURAL STUDY OF BIS(2,6-BIS(PYRAZOL-3-YLPYRIDINENICKEL(II BY CALORIMETRY AND EXAFS SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian H Sugiyarto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to reveal the complex formation of 2,6-bis(pyrazol-3-ylpyridine, bpp, with nickel(II perchlorate in DMF by calorimetric stepwise complex formation and then followed by EXAFS spectrometry. It was found that the complex formation follows two stepwise pathways namely the formation of mono pyrazolyl-pyridine, [Ni(DMF3 bpp]2+, and bis pyrazolyl-pyridine, [Ni(bpp2]2+;  the formation constants being  log β1 = 6.57, and log β2 = 5.02, and the total value of log β  = 11.58. The final formation of six-coordinated compound was confirmed by EXAFS analysis with the mean Ni-Nbpp bond length of 2.0646(0.0014 Å.   Keywords: nickel(II, bpp, EXAFS

  15. Discovery of novel alkylated (bis)urea and (bis)thiourea polyamine analogues with potent antimalarial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Bianca K; Niemand, Jandeli; Snyman, Janette; Sharma, Shiv K; Beattie, Ross J; Woster, Patrick M; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2011-10-13

    A series of alkylated (bis)urea and (bis)thiourea polyamine analogues were synthesized and screened for antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. All analogues showed growth inhibitory activity against P. falciparum at less than 3 μM, with the majority having effective IC(50) values in the 100-650 nM range. Analogues arrested parasitic growth within 24 h of exposure due to a block in nuclear division and therefore asexual development. Moreover, this effect appears to be cytotoxic and highly selective to malaria parasites (>7000-fold lower IC(50) against P. falciparum) and is not reversible by the exogenous addition of polyamines. With this first report of potent antimalarial activity of polyamine analogues containing 3-7-3 or 3-6-3 carbon backbones and substituted terminal urea- or thiourea moieties, we propose that these compounds represent a structurally novel class of antimalarial agents.

  16. Synthesis, Thermal, Electrical and Catalytic Studies of Some Transition Metal Polychelates of Bis-bidentate Schiff Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BANSOD Ashish; ASWAR Anand

    2007-01-01

    Polychelates of Mn(Ⅱ),Fe(Ⅱ),Co(Ⅱ), Ni(Ⅱ),Cu(Ⅱ),Zn(Ⅱ) and Cd(Ⅱ) with the bis salen-type ligand derivedfrom 4,4'-bis[(salicylaldehyde-5)azo]biphenyl and 1,4-diaminobutane have been synthesized.All the polychelates have been characterized by elemental analysis,magnetic susceptibility measurements,IR,electronic spectra and thermogravimetric studies.All the complexes isolated in solid state are dark coloured and insoluble in water and common organic solvents.The ligand behaves as a bis-bidentate molecule coordinating through the phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms.The thermal decomposition of these metal complexes was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and data have been analyzed for kinetic parameters using Broido equation.The solid-state electrical conductivity of the ligand and its polychelates in the form of compressed pellet was studied in the temperature range from 313 to 413 K.All the polychelates were found to show semiconducting nature.The Mn(Ⅱ),Fe(Ⅱ),Co(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) polychelates have been assessed for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene.

  17. Bis(heterocumulenes) derived from the 1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiyne framework. Synthesis of three new classes of axially chiral biheteroaryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajarín, Mateo; Bonillo, Baltasar; Vidal, Angel; Bautista, Delia

    2008-01-04

    Bis(ketenimines) and bis(carbodiimides) derived from 1,4-bis(2-aminophenyl)-1,3-butadiynes via two independent biradical cyclizations provided, respectively, axially chiral bis(benzocarbazoles) and bis(quinindolines). Mixed biheteroaryls, consisting of benzocarbazole and quinindoline units, have been also prepared by a slightly modified strategy.

  18. Maternal BIS Sensitivity, Overprotective Parenting, and Children’s Internalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Maack, Danielle J.

    2012-01-01

    Although sensitivity to the Behavioral Inhibition System within Gray’s (1970) reinforcement sensitivity theory relates to individuals’ own depressive and anxious symptomatology, less is known about how parental BIS sensitivity relates to early indicators of internalizing problems in young children. Moreover, the extent to which this parental characteristic relates to parenting behavior, and children’s internalizing problems above and beyond parenting, remains unknown. The current study assessed maternal BIS sensitivity, overprotective parenting, and toddlers’ internalizing behaviors in a sample of 91 mothers while controlling for mothers’ own internalizing symptomatology. Heightened BIS sensitivity related to both overprotective parenting and internalizing behaviors. Overprotective parenting partially mediated the relation between BIS sensitivity and children’s internalizing behaviors, although BIS sensitivity maintained a marginal relation to internalizing behaviors. Maternal BIS sensitivity and toddler internalizing behaviors may represent a shared disposition towards inhibition that is somewhat accounted for by overprotective parenting. PMID:22904590

  19. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  20. Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) as an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis in tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, P; Fagerström, R; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Elo, H; Lumme, P; Jänne, J

    1984-07-15

    Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), the parent compound of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), was synthesized and tested for its ability to inhibit the biosynthesis of polyamines. It was found to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50), yet the lack of the methyl group at the glyoxal portion increased the apparent Ki value for the enzyme by about 30-fold in comparison with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibited diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) activity as effectively as did methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). The cellular accumulation curves of glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in L1210 cells were practically superimposable with those of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and the uptake of both compounds was distinctly stimulated by a prior treatment with 2-difluoromethylornithine. The drug decreased the concentration of spermidine in a dose-dependent manner and, in contrast with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), without a concomitant accumulation of putrescine. The fact that putrescine concentrations were decreased in cells exposed to glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was, at least in part, attributable to an inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17) activity in cells treated with the compound. Under these experimental conditions equivalent concentrations of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) [1,1'-[(methylethanediylidine)dinitrilo]diguanidine] elicited large increases in the enzyme activity. When combined with difluoromethylornithine, glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) potentiated the growth-inhibitory effect of that drug. Taking into consideration the proven anti-leukaemic activity of glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), its effectiveness to inhibit spermidine biosynthesis (without raising the concentration of putrescine) as well as its suitability for combined use with inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase, this drug is apparently worthy of further testing in tumour-bearing animals, especially in

  1. 40 CFR 721.982 - Calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O′).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,Oâ²... Substances § 721.982 Calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O′). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O′) (PMN P-93-214, CAS...

  2. Activity-guided isolation of cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl constituents from Dumortiera hirsuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Masao; Ikeda, Risa; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the ether extract of Dumortiera hirsute (Japanese liverwort), using cytotoxicity testing with cultured HL 60 and KB cells, resulted in the isolation of a new cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl compound, along with the two known bis-bibenzyls: isomarchantin C and isoriccardin C. The structural determination of the new bis-bibenzyl through extensive NMR spectral data indicated a derivative of marchantin A, which has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The cytotoxicity of the bis-bibenzyls was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using cultured HL 60 and KB cells.

  3. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide using g.l.c. at T=(298.15, 313.15, and 333.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letcher, Trevor M.; Marciniak, Andrzej; Marciniak, MaIgorzata; Domanska, Urszula

    2005-01-01

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, γ 13 ∞ (where 1 refers to the solute and 3 to the solvent), for both polar and non-polar solutes (alkanes, alk-1-enes, alk-1-ynes, cycloalkanes, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol) in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide [HMIM][Tf 2 N] at three temperatures T=(298.15, 313.15, and 333.15) K have been determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The interaction at the gas-liquid interface between the solutes and the solvent was examined by varying solvent liquid loading on the column. Corrected retention values, taking carrier gas and solute imperfections into account, were determined and used to calculate the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. The results have been used to predict the solvent potential for the hexane/benzene separation from calculated selectivity values. The results were compared to γ 13 ∞ for similar systems found in the literature in an attempt to understand the effect of the nature of the cation and anion has on solute-solvent interactions. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values ΔH 1 E∞ were calculated from the experimental γ 13 ∞ values obtained over the temperature range

  4. Isolation of a Bis-Iodurated Tetra-THF as a Trace Product from the Oxidation of Squalene with RuO4 and Its Double Ring Expansion to a Novel bis-THF-bis-THP Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Borbone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel bis-iodurated polyether compound, based on an unprecedented tetra-THF backbone, has been isolated as a trace by-product of the oxidation of squalene with the catalytic system RuO2(cat./NaIO4. The double erythro configuration of the central portion of the molecule furnishes the first indirect support of the previously postulated pathway operating in the oxidative pentacyclization of the isoprenoid substrate. A bidirectional double oxidative bis-cyclization is invoked to explain the formation of this compound. The isolated substance was successfully subjected to a double rearrangement-ring expansion to give a novel bis-THF-bis-THP compound.

  5. μ-1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphinoethane-κ2P:P′-bis{[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphinoethane-κ2P,P′]bromidocopper(I} acetone disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Shi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cu2Br2(dppe3]·2CH3COCH3 [dppe is 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphinoethane, C26H24P2], the two Cu centers are bridged by a dppe ligand and each metal center carries one chelating dppe unit, with the fourth coordination site available for the Br− anion. The molecule is centrosymmetric, with the center of symmetry located between the methylene C atoms of the bridging dppe ligand. The crystal structure is stabilized by intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen bonds and intermolecular π–π interactions, with a centroid-to-centroid distance of 3.2055 (1 Å.

  6. [μ-1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphinoethane-κ2P:P′]bis{[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphinoethane-κ2P,P′]cyanidocopper(I} methanol disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title centrosymmetric complex, [Cu2(CN2(C26H24P23]·2CH3OH, consists of two five-membered [Cu(dppeCN] rings [dppe is 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphinoethane] bridged by one μ2-dppe ligand, and two methanol solvent molecules. The angles around the central metal atom indicate that each CuI atom is located in the center of a distorted tetrahedron. The coordination sphere of each CuI atom is formed by three P atoms from two dppe ligands, and one C atom from the cyanide ligand. The crystal structure is stabilized by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, which are formed by the O—H donor group from methanol and the N-atom acceptor from a cyanide ligand.

  7. Bis[2,6-bis(trimethylsilylaminopyridine-κN1]{[6-bis(trimethylsilylaminopyridin-2-yl-κN1](trimethylsilylazanido-κN}lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Rave

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Li(C11H22N3Si2(C11H23N3Si22], contains a single lithium cation coordinated to three ligands. This is the first reported example of the ligand 2,6-bis(trimethylsilylaminopyridine supporting a monometallic complex. One ligand is mono-anionic and forms a four-membered chelate ring with the lithium cation via the pyridine and silylamido N atoms. The other two ligands are neutral and bind via the pyridine nitrogen. The lithium cation is coordinated in a tetrahedral environment. No intra- or intermolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in the crystal structure, likely indicating that weak electrostatic interactions are the dominant feature of the crystal packing.

  8. Ne bis in idem põhimõte Eesti karistusõiguses : [bakalaureusetöö] / Natalja Mogiljova ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Elina Elkind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mogiljova, Natalja

    2009-01-01

    Ne bis in idem põhimõtte olemusest ja ajaloolisest arengust, horisontaalsest riigisisesest ne bis in idem-ist, rahvusvahelistest konventsioonidest, EIÕK praktikast, Riigikohtu praktikast, ne bis in idem Ameerika Ühendriikide õiguskorras

  9. Synthesis and Antitumor Evaluation of Novel Bis-Triaziquone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ling Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aziridine-containing compounds have been of interest as anticancer agents since late 1970s. The design, synthesis and study of triaziquone (TZQ analogues with the aim of obtaining compounds with enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity are an ongoing research effort in our group. A series of bis-type TZQ derivatives has been prepared and their cytotoxic activities were investigated. The cytotoxicity of these bis-type TZQ derivatives were tested on three cancer lines, including breast cancer (BC-M1, oral cancer (OEC-M1, larynx epidermal cancer (Hep2 and one normal skin fibroblast (SF. Most of these synthetic derivatives displayed significant cytotoxic activities against human carcinoma cell lines, but weak activities against SF. Among tested analogues the bis-type TZQ derivative 1a showed lethal effects on larynx epidermal carcinoma cells (Hep2, with an LC50 value of 2.02 mM, and also weak cytotoxic activity against SF cells with an LC50 value over 10 mM for 24 hr treatment. Comparing the viability of normal fibroblast cells treated with compound 1a and TZQ, the LC50 value of the latter was 2.52 mM, indicating more toxicity than compound 1a. This significantly decreased cytotoxicity of compound 1a towards normal SF cells, while still maintaining the anticancer activity towards Hep2 cells is an interesting feature. Among the seven compounds synthesized, compound 1c has similar toxicity effects on the three cancer cell lines and SF normal cells as the TZQ monomer.

  10. Monolithic poly(1,2-bis(p-vinylphenyl)ethane) capillary columns for simultaneous separation of low- and high-molecular-weight compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiderer, Andreas; Ligon, S Clark; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2009-08-01

    Monolithic poly(1,2-bis(p-vinylphenyl)ethane (BVPE)) capillary columns were prepared by thermally initiated free radical polymerisation of 1,2-bis(p-vinylphenyl)ethane in the presence of inert diluents (porogens) and alpha,alpha'-azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. Polymerisations were accomplished in 200 microm ID fused silica capillaries at 65 degrees C and for 60 min. Mercury intrusion porosimetry measurements of the polymeric RP support showed a broad bimodal pore-size-distribution of mesopores and small macropores in the range of 5-400 nm and flow-channels in the mum range. N(2)-adsorption (BET) analysis resulted in a tremendous enhancement of surface area (101 m(2)/g) of BVPE stationary phases compared to typical organic monoliths (approximately 20 m(2)/g), indicating the presence of a considerable amount of mesopores. Consequently, the adequate proportion of both meso- and (small) macropores allowed the rapid and high-resolution separation of low-molecular-weight compounds as well as biomolecules on the same monolithic support. At the same time, the high fraction of flow-channels provided enhanced column permeability. The chromatographic performance of poly(1,2-bis(p-vinylphenyl)ethane) capillary columns for the separation of biomolecules (proteins, oligonucleotides) and small molecules (alkyl benzenes, phenols, phenons) are demonstrated in this article. Additionally, pressure drop versus flow rate measurements of novel poly(1,2-bis(p-vinylphenyl)ethane) capillary columns confirmed high mechanical robustness, low swelling in organic solvents and high permeability. Due to the simplicity of monolith fabrication, comprehensive studies of the retention and separation behaviour of monolithic BVPE columns resulted in high run-to-run and batch-to-batch reproducibilities. All these attributes prove the excellent applicability of monolithic poly(1,2-bis(p-vinylphenyl)ethane) capillary columns for micro-HPLC towards a huge range of analytes of different

  11. Radiolytic synthesis of Ag-poly(BIS-co-HEMA-co-IA) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacarevic-Popovic, Z.; Tomic, S.; Krkljes, A.; Micic, M.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2007-01-01

    Ag-poy(BIS-co-HEMA-co-IA) nanocomposites are prepared via in situ reduction of silver salt embedded in swollen polymer gels by employing gamma irradiation. Hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, itaconic acid and four types of poly(alkylene glycol) acrylate or methacrylate (Bisomers) were previously prepared using gamma irradiation. The nanocomposites are characterized by using UV-vis, swelling measurements and thermal analysis. Evolution of plasmon absorption detected by UV-vis spectrophotometry indicated generation of Ag nanoparticles in polymer hydrogels. Altering the structure of the hydrogels did not lead to alternation of the position of the absorption maximum. The bulk property of equilibrium swelling is dependent on the presence of the Ag nanostructures. The initial thermal stability of the polymer is slightly increased due to presence of silver as nanofiller

  12. Thermophysical properties of 1-alkylpyridinum bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Normawati M.; Abdul Mutalib, M.I.; Man, Zakaria; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh-31750, Perak (Malaysia); Murugesan, T., E-mail: murugesan@petronas.com.m [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh-31750, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-04-15

    The thermophysical properties of 1-alkylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C{sub n}py][Tf{sub 2}N] ionic liquids where n = 4, 8, 10, or 12 have been determined. Density rho, and dynamic viscosity eta, were determined at T = (293.15 to 353.15) K and refractive index n{sub D}, was measured at T = (293.15 to 333.15) K. Empirical correlations are proposed to represent the present experimental results. The values of the coefficient of thermal expansion were calculated from the experimental density values. The thermal decomposition temperature, T{sub d} was also determined using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at a heating rate of (10 and 20) K . min{sup -1}.

  13. Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrochemically Activated by Bis-Spiro Quaternary Alkyl Ammonium for Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tieshi; Meng, Xiangling; Nie, Junping; Tong, Yujin; Cai, Kedi

    2016-06-08

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrochemically activated by a quaternary alkyl ammonium-based organic electrolytes/activated carbon (AC) electrode asymmetric capacitor is proposed. The electrochemical activation process includes adsorption of anions into the pores of AC in the positive electrode and the interlayer intercalation of cations into RGO in the negative electrode under high potential (4.0 V). The EA process of RGO by quaternary alkyl ammonium was investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, and the effects of cation size and structure were extensively evaluated. Intercalation by quaternary alkyl ammonium demonstrates a small degree of expansion of the whole crystal lattice (d002) and a large degree of expansion of the partial crystal lattice (d002) of RGO. RGO electrochemically activated by bis-spiro quaternary alkyl ammonium in propylene carbonate/AC asymmetric capacitor exhibits good activated efficiency, high specific capacity, and stable cyclability.

  14. Crystal structure and vibrational spectra of piperazinium bis(4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate) molecular-ionic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, M. K.; Pietraszko, A.

    2008-02-01

    The piperazinium bis(4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate) crystallizes from water solution at room temperature in P2 1/ c space group of monoclinic system. The crystals are built up of doubly protonated piperazinium cations and ionized 4-hydroxybenzenesulphonate anions that interact through weak hydrogen bonds of O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O type. Mutual orientation of anions is determined by non-conventional hydrogen bonds of C-H⋯π type. Room temperature powder FT IR and FT Raman measurements were carried out. The vibrational spectra are in full agreement with the structure obtained from X-ray crystallography. The big single crystals of the title salt can be grown.

  15. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  16. Crystal structure of dimethylformamidium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylamide: an ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Jay P. Cardenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At 100 K, the title molecular salt, C3H8NO+·C2F6NO4S2−, has orthorhombic (P212121 symmetry; the amino H atom of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylamine (HNTf2 was transferred to the basic O atom of dimethylformamide (DMF when the ionic liquid components were mixed. The structure displays an O—H...N hydrogen bond, which links the cation to the anion, which is reinforced by a non-conventional C—H...O interaction, generating an R22(7 loop. A further very weak C—H...O interaction generates an [001] chain.

  17. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  18. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeat ... Cluster analysis revealed a high genetic similarity among the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines which could reduce the genetic gain in ..... The multiple allele characteristic of SSR com-.

  19. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan; Manolescu, Ioana; Afanasiev, Loredana; Feng, Jieling; Gou, G.; Hadjieleftheriou, Marios; Harizopoulos, Stavros; Kalnis, Panos; Karanasos, Konstantinos; Laurent, Dominique; Lupu, M.; Onose, N.; Ré , C.; Sans, Virginie; Senellart, Pierre; Wu, T.; Shasha, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  20. Synthesis of novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents: Evaluation of their performance by crosslinking of poly(ethylene oxide)

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim; Bakr, Osman

    2011-01-01

    Novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents, containing spacer arms from ethylene or ethylene glycol subunits, were successfully synthesized. Nitrenes photogenerated from these novel bis(PFPA) coupling agents were applied successfully

  1. catena-Poly[[copper(II)-bis[μ-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyuk, Maksym; Haukka, Matti; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, {[Cu(C10H14N4Se)2](ClO4)2}n, the CuII ion is located on a twofold rotation axis and has a tetra­gonally distorted square-planar geometry constituted by four N atoms. A pair of bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) selenide (L) ligands bridges the copper centers into a polymeric chain extending along [001]. The perchlorate anions are involved in inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding, which links the chains into layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:21578140

  2. catena-Poly[[copper(II-bis[μ-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksym Seredyuk

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Cu(C10H14N4Se2](ClO42}n, the CuII ion is located on a twofold rotation axis and has a tetragonally distorted square-planar geometry constituted by four N atoms. A pair of bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl selenide (L ligands bridges the copper centers into a polymeric chain extending along [001]. The perchlorate anions are involved in intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding, which links the chains into layers parallel to the bc plane.

  3. Blood pressure and heart rate response to posteriorly directed pressure applied to the cervical spine in young, pain-free individuals: a randomized, repeated-measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Emmanuel; Wong, Michael; Williams, Haddie; Mache, Kyle

    2014-08-01

    Randomized clinical trial. Objectives To compare the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response of healthy volunteers to posteriorly directed (anterior-to-posterior [AP]) pressure applied to the cervical spine versus placebo. Manual therapists employ cervical spine AP mobilizations for various cervical-shoulder pain conditions. However, there is a paucity of literature describing the procedure, cardiovascular response, and safety profile. Thirty-nine (25 female) healthy participants (mean ± SD age, 24.7 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 received a placebo, consisting of light touch applied to the right C6 costal process. Group 2 received AP pressure at the same location. Blood pressure and HR were measured prior to, during, and after the application of AP pressure. One-way analysis of variance and paired-difference statistics were used for data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for mean systolic BP, mean diastolic BP, and mean HR (P >.05) for all time points. Within-group comparisons indicated statistically significant differences between baseline and post-AP pressure HR (-2.8 bpm; 95% confidence interval: -4.6, -1.1) and between baseline and post-AP pressure systolic BP (-2.4 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -3.7, -1.0) in the AP group, and between baseline and postplacebo systolic BP (-2.6 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -4.2, -1.0) in the placebo group. No participants reported any adverse reactions or side effects within 24 hours of testing. AP pressure caused a statistically significant physiologic response that resulted in a minor drop in HR (without causing asystole or vasodepression) after the procedure, whereas this cardiovascular change did not occur for those in the placebo group. Within both groups, there was a small but statistically significant reduction in systolic BP following the procedure.

  4. Gray's BIS/BAS dimensions in non-comorbid, non-medicated social anxiety disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, B.E.; Honk, J. van; Hermans, E.J.; Scholten, M.R.; Stein, D.J.; Kahn, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Gray's behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation (BIS/BAS) neural systems model has led to research on approach and withdrawal as the two most fundamental dimensions of affective behaviour, and their role in psychopathology. Although Gray proposed the BIS as the neurological basis of

  5. Ne bis in idem põhimõte Euroopa Liidu õiguses / Uno Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Uno, 1952-

    2009-01-01

    Ne bis in idem põhimõtte ehk teistkordse kohtumõistmise ja karistamise keelu territoriaalsest kohaldamisest. Schengeni rakenduskonventsiooni artiklis 54 sisalduva ne bis in idem põhimõtte tõlgendustest. Mõistetest "sama tegu" ja "lõplik kohtuotsus"

  6. 40 CFR 721.10143 - Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... linear alkyl). 721.10143 Section 721.10143 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10143 Amines, bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl). (a) Chemical..., bis (C11-14-branched and linear alkyl) (PMN P-06-733; CAS No. 900169-60-0) is subject to reporting...

  7. Uptake of 153Sm-DTPA-bis-biotin and 99mTc-DTPA-bis-biotin in rat as-30D-hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Gonzalez, Luis; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Pedraza-Lopez, Martha; Murphy-Stack, Eduardo; Mino-Leon, Dolores; Perez-Villasenor, Graciela; Diaz-Torres, Yaneth; Munoz-Olvera, Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Labeled biotin has been used mainly for pretargeted therapy, an approach for increasing the amount of radioactivity delivered to a cancer cell. The aim of this investigation was to prepare 153 Sm-DTPA-bis-biotin and 99m Tc-DTPA-bis-biotin in order to study their in vitro and in vivo uptake in rat AS-30D hepatoma cells found in ascites and in implanted tumor. DTPA-bis-biotin (pH 8) was 153 Sm labeled with 153 SmCl 3 and 99m Tc-DTPA-bis-biotin was prepared via SnCl 2 reduction. Radiochemical purity was >98% in both cases. AS-30D hepatoma cells were obtained from ascites of a rat with hepatoma and were propagated in the peritoneum cavity of normal rats. In vitro ascites cell 153 Sm-DTPA-bis-biotin uptake was compared with 153 SmCl 3 cell uptake. The ratio cell 153 Sm-DTPA-bis-biotin/ 153 SmCl 3 was 39.6 and when avidin was added it increased to 50. The ratio 99m Tc-DTPA-bis-biotin/TcO 4 Na was 8.7. Concentration of 153 Sm-DTPA-bis-biotin in tumor 2, 3 and 24 h after administration, was 5, 15 and 3 times higher than in normal muscle (T/nT). Biodistribution in a 0.083-24 h time period showed that 153 Sm-DTPA-bis-biotin was taken up only by ascites tumor cells and hepatoma cells. Two and 3 h ratio ascites/liver (As/Lv) was 6.4 and 6.0. For 99m Tc-DTPA-bis-biotin 2 and 3 h T/nT was 15.7 and 4.7 and 2 h As/Lv was 1.4. In conclusion, both radiopharmaceuticals show high uptake in rat AS-30D hepatoma cells in ascites and in implanted tumor. Since lung, thyroid, kidney, liver or pancreas carcinomas are ascites producing cancers 153 Sm-DTPA-bis-biotin would be an adequate therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for these patients whose life quality would be enhanced with control of ascites, and a reduction of the primary tumor and its metastases

  8. ‘Transnationalising’ Ne Bis In Idem: How the Rule of Ne Bis In Idem Reveals the Principle of Personal Legal Certainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Lelieur

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since Article 54 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement gave the rule of ne bis in idem a transnational dimension, talk of the ‘transnational ne bis in idem principle’ has been commonplace. Thus, when looking for general principles of transnational criminal law, scholars refer to the principle of ‘transnational ne bis in idem’. It is doubtful, however, that ne bis in idem qualifies as a principle of law. It should be regarded, rather, as a rule of criminal procedure, traditionally based on the principle of res judicata. Giving the rule of ne bis in idem a transnational dimension therefore requires either transnationalising the principle of res judicata, or giving the rule of ne bis in idem a new foundation.The principle of res judicata principally serves the credibility of the justice system in a given jurisdiction by prohibiting several tribunals, all acting within the parameters of their jurisdiction, from contradicting each other’s interpretation of the same facts. For this reason, the principle of res judicata does not provide an adequate basis for a transnationalised rule of ne bis in idem.From a human rights perspective, multiple prosecutions against the same person for the same facts collides with protecting individuals against arbitrary judicial treatment. This is true whether the multiple prosecutions all take place in one country or in several different countries. The rule of ne bis in idem could therefore be regarded as a manifestation of the (new ‘principle of personal legal certainty’.

  9. Depression-like behavior and mechanical allodynia are reduced by bis selenide treatment in mice with chronic constriction injury: a comparison with fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Cristiano R; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2010-12-01

    Neuropathic pain is associated with significant co-morbidities, including depression, which impact considerably on the overall patient experience. Pain co-morbidity symptoms are rarely assessed in animal models of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is characterized by hyperexcitability within nociceptive pathways and remains difficult to treat with standard analgesics. The present study determined the effect of bis selenide and conventional antidepressants (fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and bupropion) on neuropathic pain using mechanical allodynic and on depressive-like behavior. Male mice were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) or sham surgery and were assessed on day 14 after operation. Mice received oral treatment with bis selenide (1-5 mg/kg), fluoxetine, amitriptyline, or bupropion (10-30 mg/kg). The response frequency to mechanical allodynia in mice was measured with von Frey hairs. Mice were evaluated in the forced swimming test (FST) test for depression-like behavior. The CCI procedure produced mechanical allodynia and increased depressive-like behavior in the FST. All of the drugs produced antiallodynic effects in CCI mice and produced antidepressant effects in control mice without altering locomotor activity. In CCI animals, however, only the amitriptyline and bis selenide treatments significantly reduced immobility in the FST. These data demonstrate an important dissociation between the antiallodynic and antidepressant effects in mice when tested in a model of neuropathic pain. Depressive behavior in CCI mice was reversed by bis selenide and amitriptyline but not by the conventional antidepressants fluoxetine and buproprion. Bis selenide was more potent than the other drugs tested for antidepressant-like and antiallodynic effects in mice.

  10. The fractionation of t-RNA on N,N′-bis(3-aminopropyl)-piperazine substituted-Sepharose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberman, Reuben; Giovanelli, Ruth; Acosta, Zenobio

    1974-01-01

    An anion exchange agarose has been prepared by modifying sepharose 6B with N,N′-bis (-3-aminopropyl) piperazine. This material (BAPP-Sepharose) has been used for the fractionation of t-RNA from E.coli by column chromatography. The results obtained with gram quantities of crude t-RNA at pH 4.6 and pH 8.0 as measured by the elution patterns of alanyl, arginyl, aspartyl, leucyl, lysyl, methionyl, phenylalanyl, prolyl, seryl, tyrosyl, and valyl t-RNA are described. PMID:10793731

  11. Characterization of polypyrrole films electrosynthesized onto titanium in the presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamini, D.O.; Saidman, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Films of polypyrrole (PPy) were successfully electrosynthesized onto titanium in neutral and alkaline solutions of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT or AOT) by potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and potentiostatic techniques. Results of the characterization of the films by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion measurements are presented. It was found that the AOT molecule remains entrapped within the polymer matrix. The initial growth of the polymer produces electroactive toroidal deposits whereas for electropolymerization of longer duration the typical globular structure is developed. Adherence to Ti increases with deposition time and this result is interpreted as a consequence of the growth of a composite PPy/Ti oxide.

  12. In Vitro Antioxidant Evaluation of Some Mannich Bases which Contain Bis-1,2,4 -Triazole Derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlak, A. E.; Karatepe, M.; Koparir, M.; Alayunt, N. O.; Keser, S.; Dastan, S. D.; Ulas, M.; Celik, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the antioxidant effects of some Mannich bases containing bis-1, 2, 4 triazole, which are synthesized afresh. The antioxidant activities of the derivatives were measured using different methods in this study, including reducing power capacity, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radicals scavenging activity, H/sub 2/ O/sub 2/ scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging. As a result, derivatives had efficient antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity when compared to ascorbic acid, BHT and alpha-tocopherol as associated antioxidants. (author)

  13. Impact of age on both BIS values and EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with sevoflurane in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodey, E; Tirel, O; Bansard, J Y; Terrier, A; Chanavaz, C; Harris, R; Ecoffey, C; Senhadji, L

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between age, BIS (Aspect), and the EEG bispectrum during anaesthesia with sevoflurane. BIS and raw EEG were recorded at a steady state of 1 MAC in 100 children, and during a decrease from 2 to 0.5 MAC in a sub-group of 29 children. The bispectrum of the EEG was estimated using MATLAB software. For analysis, the bispectrum was divided into 36 frequencies of coupling (P(i))--the MatBis. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to establish an underlying structure of the pattern of each individual's MatBis at 1 MAC. Clustering of children into homogeneous groups was conducted by a hierarchical ascending classification (HAC). The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. At 1 MAC, the BIS values for all children ranged from 20 to 74 (median 40). Projection of both age and BIS value recorded at 1 MAC onto the structured model of the MCA showed them to be distributed along the same axis, demonstrating that the different values of BIS obtained in younger or older children are mainly dependent on their MatBis. At 1 MAC, six homogeneous groups of children were obtained through the HAC. Groups 5 (30 months; range 23-49) and 6 (18 months; range 6-180) were the younger children and Group 1 (97 months; range 46-162) the older. Groups 5 and 6 had the highest median values of BIS (54; range 50-59) (55; range 26-74) and Group 1 the lowest values (29; range 22-37). The EEG bispectrum, as well as the BIS appeared to be strongly related to the age of children at 1 MAC sevoflurane.

  14. Chiral Diamine Bis(phenolate) Ti-IV and Zr-IV Complexes - Synthesis, Structures and Reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barroso, Sonia; Adao, Pedro; Duarte, M. Teresa; Meetsma, Auke; Pessoa, Joao Costa; Bouwkamp, Marco W.; Martins, Ana M.

    Neutral and cationic titanium and zirconium diamine bis(phenolate) complexes supported by chiral ligands L-1 and L-2 are described [L-1 = (R)-6,6'-{1-(dimethylamino)propan-2-ylazanediyl}bis(methylene)-bis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenolate); L-2 =

  15. Simulation studies for wells AH-4bis/AH-17 and AH-18, Ahuachapan Geothermal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterrosa, Manuel Ernesto

    1996-01-24

    Well AH-4bis, at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field is planned to be drilled on the same pad as the former AH-4. A simulation study was carried out for two casing dameters 13 5/8 and 9 5/8” in order to estimate its production and to know its economic feasibility. The simulation results indcate a high probability of production in the range of 7 Mwe, equivalent to 120 kg/s total mass flow rate, 1250 kJ/kg at 6 bar-a for the new well AH-4bis. Well AH- 17 is good producer, during 1991 after ten years of production, the well was shut-in due to silica scaling problems. A wellbore simulation was carried out in order to predict the new production conditions after the work-over, mainly to estimate the water flow rate in order to reduce the silica scaling. The results indicate a very low water flow rate. The match between the simulated and measured production curves after the work-over was successful. The well AH-18 is located at the southern part of the actual bore field. CEL is planning to expand the borefield at this area and it is neccessary to estimate the possible production condtions at that zone. The results indicate a high probabilty of production at that area. The power potential is estimated at 3.5 Mwe per well at WHP 6 bar-a and the wells will not require induction.

  16. Development of analog watch with minute repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigami, Tomio; Aoyama, Shigeru; Osa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kiyotaka; Ikegami, Tomomi

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor with large scale integration was developed for an electronic minute repeater. It is equipped with the synthetic struck sound circuit to generate natural struck sound necessary for the minute repeater. This circuit consists of an envelope curve drawing circuit, frequency mixer, polyphonic mixer, and booster circuit made by using analog circuit technology. This large scale integration is a single chip microcomputer with motor drivers and input ports in addition to the synthetic struck sound circuit, and it is possible to make an electronic system of minute repeater at a very low cost in comparison with the conventional type.

  17. Synergistic extraction of Eu(III) with N-phosphorylated bis-ureas and chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selucky, P.; Bubenikova, M.; Rais, J. [UJV Rez, a.s., Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Gruener, B. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez near Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Brusko, V.V. [JSC NIIneftepromchim, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-01

    Extraction of Eu(III) with a synergistic mixture of polydentate N-phosphorylated bis-ureas with the general formula (i-PrO){sub 2}P(O)NHC(O)NHXNHC(O)NHP(O)(Oi-Pr){sub 2} (X = (CH{sub 2}){sub 7}, (CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2} and (CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}) and chlorinated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) ion (CCD-) with formula closo-[(1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 8}Cl{sub 3}){sub 2}-3-Co]{sup -} was studied using nitrobenzene as the solvent. Extraction of Eu(III) was very effective up to high concentrations of nitric acid. Eu(III) is most likely extracted into the organic phase as the [EuL{sub 2}]{sup 3+} species whereas the positive charge of extracted complex is compensated by CCD and/or nitrate anions. (orig.)

  18. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  19. iphones, Androids, and history repeating

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    Remember when everyone was bashing Bill Gates because his operating system was insecure and a primary target for malicious software? While Microsoft has (tried to) improved on this, the IT world keeps on turning and the new target is your mobile phone. The Android and iPhone market is still growing. Can you live without your mobile phone today? Probably not. Mobile phones have become part of our identity.   They are with us all the time and record every step we take (see the iPhoneTracker application). Do you worry that your iPhone sends a unique token to every app company who wants to pin-point you and your activity? 15 years ago there was a rebellion and legal measures against Intel’s Pentium II/III unique serial number intended to do the same (see this CNN article). Also, think about how much confidential or sensitive stuff you already store on your phone (e.g. your mail, music, photos, credentials). In the future, you might even be able to pay with your phone - initial plans hav...

  20. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.

  1. Repeated passive stretching : Acute effect on the passive muscle moment and extensibility of short hamstrings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; Mulder, [No Value; Goeken, LNH; Eisma, WH; Mulder, I.; Göeken, L.N.

    Objective: To examine the response of short hamstring muscles to repeated passive stretching. Design: A repeated measures design. Setting: A university laboratory for human movement analysis in a department of rehabilitation. Subjects: Students (7 men, 10 women) from the Department of Human Movement

  2. Repeatability of Bolus Kinetics Ultrasound Perfusion Imaging for the Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Elisabeth J.; Eyding, Jens; de Korte, Chris L.; Slump, Cornelis H.; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W.E.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound perfusion imaging (UPI) can be used for the quantification of cerebral perfusion. In a neuro-intensive care setting, repeated measurements are required to evaluate changes in cerebral perfusion and monitor therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of UPI in

  3. Repeatability of oral fluid collection methods for THC measurement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, S. Smink, B.E. Legrand, S.-A. Mathijssen, M.P.M. Verstraete, A.G. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the influence of sample collection for two different collection methods on THC concentrations and to compare THC concentrations collected by both methods. A total of 136 pairs of oral fluid samples from subjects who had recently smoked Cannabis were obtained by

  4. Repeatability of oral fluid collection methods for THC measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Smink, Beitske E.; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Mathijssen, Rene P. M.; Verstraete, Alain G.; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2012-01-01

    Study objectives: To determine the influence of sample collection for two different collection methods on THC concentrations and to compare THC concentrations collected by both methods. Methods: A total of 136 pairs of oral fluid samples from subjects who had recently smoked Cannabis were obtained

  5. Estimation of individual growth trajectories when repeated measures are missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Mollie Elizabeth; Clements, Christopher; Pemberton, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    Individuals in a population vary in their growth due to hidden and observed factors such as age, genetics, environment, disease, and carryover effects from past environments. Because size affects fitness, growth trajectories scale up to affect population dynamics. However, it can be difficult to ...

  6. The genetic analysis of repeated measures I: Simplex models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    Extends the simplex model to a model that may be used for the genetic and environmental analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) structures. This "double" simplex structure can be specified as a linear structural relationships model. It is shown that data that give rise to a simplex correlation structure,

  7. Repeatability and consistency of individual behaviour in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C.; Carl, Teresa; Foerster, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on animal personality has provided new insights into evolutionary biology and animal ecology, as behavioural types have been shown to affect fitness. Animal personality is characterized by repeatable and consistent between-individual behavioural differences throughout time and across different situations. Behavioural repeatability within life history stages and consistency between life history stages should be checked for the independence of sex and age, as recent data have shown that males and females in some species may differ in the repeatability of behavioural traits, as well as in their consistency. We measured the repeatability and consistency of three behavioural and one cognitive traits in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice ( Micromys minutus). We found that exploration, activity and boldness were repeatable in juveniles and adults. Spatial recognition measured in a Y Maze was only repeatable in adult mice. Exploration, activity and boldness were consistent before and after maturation, as well as before and after first sexual contact. Data on spatial recognition provided little evidence for consistency. Further, we found some evidence for a litter effect on behaviours by comparing different linear mixed models. We concluded that harvest mice express animal personality traits as behaviours were repeatable across sexes and consistent across life history stages. The tested cognitive trait showed low repeatability and was less consistent across life history stages. Given the rising interest in individual variation in cognitive performance, and in its relationship to animal personality, we suggest that it is important to gather more data on the repeatability and consistency of cognitive traits.

  8. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  9. The repeatability of an intraoral dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Francis F; Goldstein, Gary R; Jang, Sungkoo; Hittelman, Eugene

    2002-12-01

    Characterizing and reproducing color remain one of the most challenging aspects of dentistry. A relatively new intraoral colorimeter measures the color of natural teeth and metal-ceramic restorations and prints out a color recipe for the Vintage Halo Porcelain System. The reliability of the colorimeter is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a contact dental colorimeter and to correlate the shade registered by the colorimeter with the shade selected by experienced clinicians. In part I of the study, 2 examiners (A and B) took 2 colorimeter measurements from the maxillary right central incisors of 11 subjects. The examiners were blinded to their own data and those of other investigators. The readings were repeated 3 weeks later with the same protocol. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was used to analyze the collected data. In part II of the study, 2 experienced clinicians (examiners D and E) selected a shade from the classic Vita Lumin Vacuum shade guide for the maxillary right central incisors of the same 11 subjects. The clinicians were blinded to each other's selections and the colorimeter readings. It should be noted that the manufacturer of the colorimeter uses the terms shade, value, and hue to represent chroma, value, and hue, respectively, as defined in the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms (J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:39-110). The reliability analysis results for each of the combined trials for shade, value, and hue were all >.94. The interexaminer reliability alpha values were >.9 for shade and value and.64 to.74 for hue. The interexaminer alpha represented the value range of each of 4 measurements. The intraexaminer reliability alpha values for shade, value, and hue were.99,.95, and.96 for examiner A and.99,.93, and.97 for examiner B, respectively. In part II of the study, the colorimeter agreed with itself 82% of the time, whereas clinicians agreed with each other on the selected shade 73% of the time. Selections made

  10. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BIS-(2-HYDROXYBENZALDEHYDEDIAMINOGUANIZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dragancea, Vladimir B. Arion, Sergiu Shova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The new ligand, bis(2-hydroxybenzaldehydediaminoguanizone (1 has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The crystal structure of the compound was determined by X-ray diffraction. The ligand C15H15N5O2·C2H5OH crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with unit cell parameters a = 8.9102(3, b = 10.0357(3, c = 19.7618(6 Å, β = 98.385(2°, Z = 4, V = 1748.21(9 Å3, R1 = 0.040. The amino form of the ligand adopts a planar conformation stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the type O–H···N, in which the H atoms of the central amino group are directed to the lone-pair regions of the azomethine nitrogen atoms.

  11. Macrocyclic bis(ureas as ligands for anion complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kretschmer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two macrocyclic bis(ureas 1 and 2, both based on diphenylurea, have been synthesized. Compound 1 represents the smaller ring with two ethynylene groups as linkers and 2 the larger ring with two butadiynylene groups. On thermal treatment to 130 °C molecule 1 splits up into two dihydroindoloquinolinone (3 molecules. Both compounds 1 and 2 form adducts with polar molecules such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and dimethylformamide (DMF and act as complexing agents towards a series of anions (Cl−, Br−, I−, NO3−, HSO4−. The crystal structures of 3, 2·2DMSO, 2·2DMF, and of the complex NEt4[Br·2] have been determined. Quantitative investigations of the complexation equilibria were performed via 1H NMR titrations. While 1 is a rather weak complexing agent, the large ring of 2 binds anions with association constants up to log K = 7.93 for chloride ions.

  12. Conformational Restriction of Peptides Using Dithiol Bis-Alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraro, L; Siegert, T R; Kritzer, J A

    2016-01-01

    Macrocyclic peptides are highly promising as inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. While many bond-forming reactions can be used to make cyclic peptides, most have limitations that make this chemical space challenging to access. Recently, a variety of cysteine alkylation reactions have been used in rational design and library approaches for cyclic peptide discovery and development. We and others have found that this chemistry is versatile and robust enough to produce a large variety of conformationally constrained cyclic peptides. In this chapter, we describe applications, methods, mechanistic insights, and troubleshooting for dithiol bis-alkylation reactions for the production of cyclic peptides. This method for efficient solution-phase macrocyclization is highly useful for the rapid production and screening of loop-based inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The solubility of palladium(II) bis-dimethylglyoximate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghzian, R.

    1978-01-01

    The solubility of palladium(II) bis-dimethylglyoximate in different solutions has been determined. Values obtained for the solubility of the palladium complex are tabulated. The solubility is the lowest in water, ammonium acetate and a 25% acetone-water mixture. It is highest in dilute HCl and acetone but precipitation from aqueous acetone should be satisfactory for most purposes if the acetone content of the solvent is roughly less than 50% by volume. The solubility in dilute HCl reflects the concern by previous workers for losses in precipitation from mineral acid. In general, however, the losses are unlikely to be significant unless the quantity of palladium to be precipitated and weighed is small. (T.G.)

  14. Macrocyclic bis-thioureas catalyze stereospecific glycosylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongho; Harper, Kaid C; Kuhl, Nadine; Kwan, Eugene E; Liu, Richard Y; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2017-01-13

    Carbohydrates are involved in nearly all aspects of biochemistry, but their complex chemical structures present long-standing practical challenges to their synthesis. In particular, stereochemical outcomes in glycosylation reactions are highly dependent on the steric and electronic properties of coupling partners; thus, carbohydrate synthesis is not easily predictable. Here we report the discovery of a macrocyclic bis-thiourea derivative that catalyzes stereospecific invertive substitution pathways of glycosyl chlorides. The utility of the catalyst is demonstrated in the synthesis of trans-1,2-, cis-1,2-, and 2-deoxy-β-glycosides. Mechanistic studies are consistent with a cooperative mechanism in which an electrophile and a nucleophile are simultaneously activated to effect a stereospecific substitution reaction. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Antibacterial activity of head-to-head bis-benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Joao B; Mann, John; Neidle, Stephen; McHugh, Timothy D; Taylor, Peter W

    2013-10-01

    Symmetric bis-benzimidazole (BBZ) conjugates were profiled for activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. para-Substituted ethoxy, amino and methoxy derivatives displayed potent bacteriostatic activity against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, streptococci and Listeria monocytogenes. Moderate to good activity was also found against mycobacteria; two compounds were strongly active against logarithmic phase and hypoxia-induced latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. No compound displayed significant activity towards Gram-negative bacteria. Only high concentrations of antibacterial BBZs showed cytotoxic effects towards fibroblasts, and the most active compound was well tolerated by zebrafish embryos. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction of niobium and tantalum with bis-2-ethylhexyl acetamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Hiroshi; Shibata, Junji; Sano, Makoto; Nishimura, Sanji

    1986-01-01

    Extraction of Nb and Ta from acid solutions with bis-2-ethylhexyl acetamide and stripping of these metals with sulphuric acid solutions were investigated. The organic phase was a binary solution of bis-2-ethylhexyl acetamide and xylene, while the aqueous phase was composed of hydrofluoric acid solution or hydrofluoric-sulphuric acid solution containing 3.5 - 13 kg/m 3 Nb and 5 - 10 kg/m 3 Ta. Sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid were used as salting out agents to understand the effect on the extraction. Both metals were not sufficiently extracted from hydrofluoric acid solutions, whereas the extraction of both metals remarkably increased with an addition of sulphuric acid to the aqueous phase. The separation factor decreased with an increase in the concentration of hydrofluoric acid at the constant sulphuric acid concentration of 5.8N, and both metals were completely coextracted in the aqueous condition of 6N hydrofluoric acid and 8N sulphuric acid. The stripping occurred for both metals with a high efficiency, when water or dilute sulphuric acid solution was used as a stripping agent. The increase in sulphuric acid concentration caused less stripping of Ta, while the stripping of Nb was maintained at 80 % up to 7N sulphuric acid. The separation factor reached the maximum with the value of 116 in the use of 6.5N sulphuric acid. The extraction behavior of Fe(II), Fe(III), Sn(IV) and Mn(II) was also examined with the results that these metals were not extracted even to the extent of the lowest limit of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Moreover, the comparison of this extractant with MIBK and TBP, which were in common use, was carried out. (author)

  17. Bis-enoxacin Inhibits Bone Resorption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, E.J.; Zuo, J.; Guiterrez, A.; La Rosa, R.L.; Gawron, A.J.; Bradaschia-Correa, V.; Arana-Chavez, V.; Dolce, C.; Rivera, M.F.; Kesavalu, L.; Bhattacharyya, I.; Neubert, J.K.; Holliday, L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Enoxacin inhibits binding between the B-subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and microfilaments, and also between osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. We hypothesized that a bisphosphonate derivative of enoxacin, bis-enoxacin (BE), which was previously studied as a bone-directed antibiotic, might have similar activities. BE shared a number of characteristics with enoxacin: It blocked binding between the recombinant B-subunit and microfilaments and inhibited osteoclastogenesis in cell culture with IC50s of about 10 µM in each case. BE did not alter the relative expression levels of various osteoclast-specific proteins. Even though tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b was expressed, proteolytic activation of the latent pro-enzyme was inhibited. However, unlike enoxacin, BE stimulated caspase-3 activity. BE bound to bone slices and inhibited bone resorption by osteoclasts on BE-coated bone slices in cell culture. BE reduced the amount of orthodontic tooth movement achieved in rats after 28 days. Analysis of these data suggests that BE is a novel anti-resorptive molecule that is active both in vitro and in vivo and may have clinical uses. Abbreviations: BE, bis-enoxacin; V-ATPase, vacuolar H+-ATPase; TRAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; αMEM D10, minimal essential media, alpha modification with 10% fetal bovine serum; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; RANKL, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B-ligand; NFATc1, nuclear factor of activated T-cells; ADAM, a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain; OTM, orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:23958763

  18. Perceived importance of attributes on hotel guests' repeat visit intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Emir, Oktay; Kozak, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Based on the empirical evidence in the related literature, we can emphasize that customer satisfaction and repeat patronage in the hotel industry has been well researched. Over the past two decades, many researchers as well as businesses have conducted surveys on visitors' satisfaction in order to measure customer perceptions of quality attributes of hotel or hospitality services. However, there is a lack of research paying attention to the empirical investigation of the self-perceived direct...

  19. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beige, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lim, Y L [DSO National Laboratories, 20 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118230, Singapore (Singapore); Kwek, L C [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes.

  20. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beige, A; Lim, Y L; Kwek, L C

    2007-01-01

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes