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Sample records for repeated measure anova

  1. Violation of the Sphericity Assumption and Its Effect on Type-I Error Rates in Repeated Measures ANOVA and Multi-Level Linear Models (MLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Nicolas; Beauducel, André

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of violations of the sphericity assumption on Type I error rates for different methodical approaches of repeated measures analysis using a simulation approach. In contrast to previous simulation studies on this topic, up to nine measurement occasions were considered. Effects of the level of inter-correlations between measurement occasions on Type I error rates were considered for the first time. Two populations with non-violation of the sphericity assumption, one with uncorrelated measurement occasions and one with moderately correlated measurement occasions, were generated. One population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines uncorrelated with highly correlated measurement occasions. A second population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines moderately correlated and highly correlated measurement occasions. From these four populations without any between-group effect or within-subject effect 5,000 random samples were drawn. Finally, the mean Type I error rates for Multilevel linear models (MLM) with an unstructured covariance matrix (MLM-UN), MLM with compound-symmetry (MLM-CS) and for repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) models (without correction, with Greenhouse-Geisser-correction, and Huynh-Feldt-correction) were computed. To examine the effect of both the sample size and the number of measurement occasions, sample sizes of n = 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 were considered as well as measurement occasions of m = 3, 6, and 9. With respect to rANOVA, the results plead for a use of rANOVA with Huynh-Feldt-correction, especially when the sphericity assumption is violated, the sample size is rather small and the number of measurement occasions is large. For MLM-UN, the results illustrate a massive progressive bias for small sample sizes ( n = 20) and m = 6 or more measurement occasions. This effect could not be found in previous simulation studies with a smaller number of measurement occasions. The

  2. Teaching renewable energy using online PBL in investigating its effect on behaviour towards energy conservation among Malaysian students: ANOVA repeated measures approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Norfarah; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Hadi Harun, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether online problem based learning (PBL) approach to teach renewable energy topic improves students’ behaviour towards energy conservation. A renewable energy online problem based learning (REePBaL) instruction package was developed based on the theory of constructivism and adaptation of the online learning model. This study employed a single group quasi-experimental design to ascertain the changed in students’ behaviour towards energy conservation after underwent the intervention. The study involved 48 secondary school students in a Malaysian public school. ANOVA Repeated Measure technique was employed in order to compare scores of students’ behaviour towards energy conservation before and after the intervention. Based on the finding, students’ behaviour towards energy conservation improved after the intervention.

  3. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  4. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  5. Analysis of repeated measurement data in the clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineeta; Rana, Rakesh Kumar; Singhal, Richa

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is an integral part of Clinical Trials. Elements of statistics span Clinical Trial design, data monitoring, analyses and reporting. A solid understanding of statistical concepts by clinicians improves the comprehension and the resulting quality of Clinical Trials. In biomedical research it has been seen that researcher frequently use t-test and ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest irrespective of the nature of the data. In Clinical Trials we record the data on the patients more than two times. In such a situation using the standard ANOVA procedures is not appropriate as it does not consider dependencies between observations within subjects in the analysis. To deal with such types of study data Repeated Measure ANOVA should be used. In this article the application of One-way Repeated Measure ANOVA has been demonstrated by using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 15.0 on the data collected at four time points 0 day, 15th day, 30th day, and 45th day of multicentre clinical trial conducted on Pandu Roga (~Iron Deficiency Anemia) with an Ayurvedic formulation Dhatrilauha. PMID:23930038

  6. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.; Maity, A.; Mammen, E.; Yu, K.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements

  7. Effects of measurement errors on psychometric measurements in ergonomics studies: Implications for correlations, ANOVA, linear regression, factor analysis, and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-05-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the effects of measurement errors on psychometric measurements in ergonomics studies. A variety of sources can cause random measurement errors in ergonomics studies and these errors can distort virtually every statistic computed and lead investigators to erroneous conclusions. The effects of measurement errors on five most widely used statistical analysis tools have been discussed and illustrated: correlation; ANOVA; linear regression; factor analysis; linear discriminant analysis. It has been shown that measurement errors can greatly attenuate correlations between variables, reduce statistical power of ANOVA, distort (overestimate, underestimate or even change the sign of) regression coefficients, underrate the explanation contributions of the most important factors in factor analysis and depreciate the significance of discriminant function and discrimination abilities of individual variables in discrimination analysis. The discussions will be restricted to subjective scales and survey methods and their reliability estimates. Other methods applied in ergonomics research, such as physical and electrophysiological measurements and chemical and biomedical analysis methods, also have issues of measurement errors, but they are beyond the scope of this paper. As there has been increasing interest in the development and testing of theories in ergonomics research, it has become very important for ergonomics researchers to understand the effects of measurement errors on their experiment results, which the authors believe is very critical to research progress in theory development and cumulative knowledge in the ergonomics field.

  8. [Analysis of variance of repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Guo-qin; Jin, Ru-feng; Zhao, Wei-kang

    2007-01-01

    To introduce the method of analyzing repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS 11.0, and offer a reference statistical method to clinical and basic medicine researchers who take the design of repeated measures. Using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) process of the general linear model in SPSS and giving comparison among different groups and different measure time pairwise. Firstly, Mauchly's test of sphericity should be used to judge whether there were relations among the repeatedly measured data. If any (PSPSS statistical package is available to fulfil this process.

  9. Incomplete quality of life data in lung transplant research : comparing cross sectional, repeated measures ANOVA, and multi-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, KM; Post, WJ; Span, MM; van der Bij, W; Koeter, GH; ten Vergert, EM

    2005-01-01

    Background: In longitudinal studies on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) it frequently occurs that patients have one or more missing forms, which may cause bias, and reduce the sample size. Aims of the present study were to address the problem of missing data in the field of lung transplantation

  10. The effect of repeated measurements and working memory on the most comfortable level in the ANL test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Holm, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    interleaved methodology during one session using a non-semantic version. Phonological (PWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) was measured. STUDY SAMPLE: Thirty-two normal-hearing adults. RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and the coefficient of repeatability (CR) were used...

  11. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  12. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  13. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...... to sphericity assumptions, use of F tests and the Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt adjustments to compensate for deviations from sphericity. During a recent implementation of such methods in the R language, the general structure of such transformations was reconsidered, leading to a flexible specification...

  14. Formatting data files for repeated-measures analyses in SPSS: Using the Aggregate and Restructure procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyslain Giguère

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, we demonstrate how to use the Aggregate and Restructure procedures available in SPSS (versions 11 and up to prepare data files for repeated-measures analyses. In the first two sections of the tutorial, we briefly describe the Aggregate and Restructure procedures. In the final section, we present an example in which the data from a fictional lexical decision task are prepared for analysis using a mixed-design ANOVA. The tutorial demonstrates that the presented method is the most efficient way to prepare data for repeated-measures analyses in SPSS.

  15. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measures designs: a flexible approach using the SPSS MANOVA procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, E J; Neilands, T B; Zambarano, R

    2001-11-01

    Although power analysis is an important component in the planning and implementation of research designs, it is often ignored. Computer programs for performing power analysis are available, but most have limitations, particularly for complex multivariate designs. An SPSS procedure is presented that can be used for calculating power for univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures models with and without time-varying and time-constant covariates. Three examples provide a framework for calculating power via this method: an ANCOVA, a MANOVA, and a repeated measures ANOVA with two or more groups. The benefits and limitations of this procedure are discussed.

  16. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  17. Methods for analysing cardiovascular studies with repeated measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, T. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Ouwerkerk, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Repeated measurements in a single subject are generally more similar than unrepeated measurements in different subjects. Unrepeated analyses of repeated data cause underestimation of the treatment effects. Objective. To review methods adequate for the analysis of cardiovascular studies

  18. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measurements designs via SPSS: correction and extension of D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W

    2006-05-01

    D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001) published SPSS syntax to perform power analyses for three complex procedures: ANCOVA, MANOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA. Unfortunately, the published SPSS syntax for performing the repeated measures analysis needed some minor revision in order to perform the analysis correctly. This article presents the corrected syntax that will successfully perform the repeated measures analysis and provides some guidance on modifying the syntax to customize the analysis.

  19. Unstable systems and repeated measurements. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.

    1977-01-01

    Two examples are treated. In the first, the chamber structure is only assumed to be periodic and P(t) is an exponential. In the second example no specific assumption is made about the primary decay law and the measuring device is structured as an idealized spark chamber. This example contains the results by Beskow and Nilsson as a special case. (author)

  20. Stability of parameters in repeated TVA measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the limitations of human visual short-term memory or VSTM (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997; Wheeler & Treisman, 2002; Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2004). Usually researchers agree that VSTM is limited to a capacity of about 3 to 4 objects at any given moment (Cowan, 2001......). Capacity of short-term memory is measured in a range of studies often using the change detection paradigm (CD). However, the whole report paradigm (WR) may be a more reliable paradigm (Cusack, Lehmann, Veldsman, & Mitchell, 2009). Moreover, each individual WR trial yield more information compared to a CD...

  1. ANOVA-principal component analysis and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis: a comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, G.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jansen, J.J.; Smilde, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) is a recently developed tool to analyze multivariate data. In this paper, we enhance the explorative capability of ASCA by introducing a projection of the observations on the principal component subspace to visualize the variation among the measurements.

  2. Teaching Renewable Energy Using Online PBL in Investigating Its Effect on Behaviour towards Energy Conservation among Malaysian Students: ANOVA Repeated Measures Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Norfarah; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Harun, Abdul Hadi

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether online problem based learning (PBL) approach to teach renewable energy topic improves students' behaviour towards energy conservation. A renewable energy online problem based learning (REePBaL) instruction package was developed based on the theory of constructivism and adaptation of the online learning…

  3. Intra-examiner repeatability and agreement in accommodative response measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, B; Sanchez, I; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E

    2009-11-01

    Clinical measurement of the accommodative response (AR) identifies the focusing plane of a subject with respect to the accommodative target. To establish whether a significant change in AR has occurred, it is important to determine the repeatability of this measurement. This study had two aims: First, to determine the intraexaminer repeatability of AR measurements using four clinical methods: Nott retinoscopy, monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy, binocular crossed cylinder test (BCC) and near autorefractometry. Second, to study the level of agreement between AR measurements obtained with the different methods. The AR of the right eye at one accommodative demand of 2.50 D (40 cm) was measured on two separate occasions in 61 visually normal subjects of mean age 19.7 years (range 18-32 years). The intraexaminer repeatability of the tests, and agreement between them, were estimated by the Bland-Altman method. We determined mean differences (MD) and the 95% limits of agreement [coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement (COA)]. Nott retinoscopy and BCC offered the best repeatability, showing the lowest MD and narrowest 95% interval of agreement (Nott: -0.10 +/- 0.66 D, BCC: -0.05 +/- 0.75 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the four techniques were similar (COA = +/- 0.92 to +/-1.00 D) yet clinically significant, according to the expected values of the AR. The two dynamic retinoscopy techniques (Nott and MEM) had a better agreement (COA = +/-0.64 D) although this COA must be interpreted in the context of the low MEM repeatability (COR = +/-0.98 D). The best method of assessing AR was Nott retinoscopy. The BCC technique was also repeatable, and both are recommended as suitable methods for clinical use. Despite better agreement between MEM and Nott, agreement among the remaining methods was poor such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.

  4. Repeatability of Objective Measurements of Linear Udder and Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimates the repeatability of objective measurements on linear udder and body conformation traits and to evaluate the objectivity of the measurements in Friesian x Bunaji cows. Data from 50 (F1) Frisian X Bunaji cows collected between 2007 and 2008 at the Dairy Research Farm of the ...

  5. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

    2013-07-05

    In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

  6. The effect of repeated measurements and working memory on the most comfortable level in the ANL test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Holm, Lucas; Kastberg, Tobias; Ibertsson, Tina

    2014-11-01

    To study the effect of a large number of repetitions on the most comfortable level (MCL) when doing the acceptable noise level (ANL) test, and explore if MCL variability is related to central cognitive processes. Twelve MCL repetitions were measured within the ANL test using interleaved methodology during one session using a non-semantic version. Phonological (PWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) was measured. Thirty-two normal-hearing adults. Repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and the coefficient of repeatability (CR) were used to assess the repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA and CR indicated poor agreement between the two first repetitions. After excluding the first repetition, analyses showed that the MCL in the ANL test is reliable. A negative association was found between PWM and MCL variability indicating that subjects with higher PWM show less variability. The findings suggest that, after excluding the first repetition, the MCL in the ANL test is reliable. A single repetition of the MCL in the ANL test should be avoided. If an interleaved methodology is used, a single ANL repetition should be added prior to the actual testing. The findings also suggest that MCL variability is associated to PWM but not VSWM.

  7. ANOVA and ANCOVA A GLM Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Provides an in-depth treatment of ANOVA and ANCOVA techniques from a linear model perspective ANOVA and ANCOVA: A GLM Approach provides a contemporary look at the general linear model (GLM) approach to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of one- and two-factor psychological experiments. With its organized and comprehensive presentation, the book successfully guides readers through conventional statistical concepts and how to interpret them in GLM terms, treating the main single- and multi-factor designs as they relate to ANOVA and ANCOVA. The book begins with a brief history of the separate dev

  8. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Aysun Şanal; Gürdal, Canan; Köylü, Mehmet Talay

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy). Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198) and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366). Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90). The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  9. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Şanal Doğan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy. Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198 and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366. Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90. Conclusion: The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  10. Recommendations for analysis of repeated-measures designs: testing and correcting for sphericity and use of manova and mixed model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    A common experimental design in ophthalmic research is the repeated-measures design in which at least one variable is a within-subject factor. This design is vulnerable to lack of 'sphericity' which assumes that the variances of the differences among all possible pairs of within-subject means are equal. Traditionally, this design has been analysed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-anova) but increasingly more complex methods such as multivariate anova (manova) and mixed model analysis (MMA) are being used. This article surveys current practice in the analysis of designs incorporating different factors in research articles published in three optometric journals, namely Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (OPO), Optometry and Vision Science (OVS), and Clinical and Experimental Optometry (CXO), and provides advice to authors regarding the analysis of repeated-measures designs. Of the total sample of articles, 66% used a repeated-measures design. Of those articles using a repeated-measures design, 59% and 8% analysed the data using RM-anova or manova respectively and 33% used MMA. The use of MMA relative to RM-anova has increased significantly since 2009/10. A further search using terms to select those papers testing and correcting for sphericity ('Mauchly's test', 'Greenhouse-Geisser', 'Huynh and Feld') identified 66 articles, 62% of which were published from 2012 to the present. If the design is balanced without missing data then manova should be used rather than RM-anova as it gives better protection against lack of sphericity. If the design is unbalanced or with missing data then MMA is the method of choice. However, MMA is a more complex analysis and can be difficult to set up and run, and care should be taken first, to define appropriate models to be tested and second, to ensure that sample sizes are adequate. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Measuring Repeatability of the Focus-variable Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Řezníček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of photogrammetry, the optical system, usually represented by the glass lens, is used for metric purposes. Therefore, the aberration characteristics of such a lens, inducing deviations from projective imaging, has to be well known. However, the most important property of the metric lens is the stability of its glass and mechanical elements, ensuring long-term reliability of the measured parameters. In case of a focus-variable lens, the repeatability of the lens setup is important as well. Lenses with a fixed focal length are usually considered as “fixed” though, in fact, most of them contain one or more movable glass elements, providing the focusing function. In cases where the lens is not equipped with fixing screws, the repeatability of the calibration parameters should be known. This paper derives simple mathematical formulas that can be used for measuring the repeatability of the focus-variable lenses, and gives a demonstrative example of such measuring. The given procedure has the advantage that only demanded parameters are estimated, hence, no unwanted correlations with the additional parameters exist. The test arrangement enables us to measure each demanded magnification of the optical system, which is important in close-range photogrammetry.

  12. The effect of repeated applanation on subsequent IOP measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMubrad, Turki M; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2008-11-01

    In studies aimed at assessing the accuracy and repeatability of non-contact tonometers, the order in which these tonometers and the Goldmann tonometer are used is usually randomised despite studies in the literature that demonstrate an ocular massage effect that occurs post-applanation but not after non-contact tonometry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated corneal applanation on subsequent assessments of IOP. Data were obtained from 65 left eyes of 65 young, oculovisual normals. Three sets of IOP measurements were obtained, one set with the Goldmann applanation tonometer and two with the Topcon CT80 non-contact tonometer (one set each before and after applanation with the Goldmann tonometer), in each one of two separate measurement sessions, one week apart. The average (and SD) IOP measured with the Goldmann tonometer in the first session (14.8+/-2.9 mmHg) did not vary significantly from the IOP measured with the non-contact tonometer (pre-applanation) in both sessions or with the average Goldmann IOP in the second session. The bias (mean difference +/- SD) between methods was 0.3+/-1.4 mmHg and 0.4+/-1.4 mmHg, respectively, for the first and second sessions, with the CT80 (pre-applanation) recording the higher IOP in both sessions. The within-session repeatability coefficients were +/-2.3 mmHg, +/-2.6 mmHg, +/-2.1 mmHg and +/-2.0 mmHg for the CT80 (pre-applanation) in the first and second sessions, and the Goldmann tonometer in the first and second sessions, respectively. Test-retest repeatability coefficients were +/-2.8 mmHg and +/-2.5 mmHg for the CT80 (pre-applanation) and the Goldmann tonometer respectively. Post-applanation with the Goldmann tonometer, there was a statistically significant (pcontact tonometer in both sessions. These results suggest that repeated corneal applanation leads to a statistically significant reduction in IOP on subsequent measurements.

  13. Education for patients with chronic kidney disease in Taiwan: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Miaofen; Huang, Jeng-Jong; Teng, Hsiu-Lan

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the physical, knowledge and quality of life outcomes of an educational intervention for patients with early stage chronic kidney disease. A comprehensive predialysis education care team can be effective in slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease. A single group repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Participants were recruited through health department community health screen data banks. A predialysis, team-delivered educational intervention covering renal function health care, dietary management of renal function and the effects of Chinese herb medication on renal function was designed and implemented. Data were collected at baseline, six and 12 months. Study outcomes included physical indicators, knowledge (renal function protection, use of Chinese herbs and renal function and diet) and quality of life. Data were analysed using repeated measure anova to test for change over time in outcome variables. Sixty-six persons participated in this study. The predialysis educational intervention showed significant differences at the three time points in overall knowledge scores, waist-hip ratio, body mass index and global health status. Knowledge measures increased at month 6 and decreased at month 12. The primary indicator of renal function, glomerular filtration rate, remained stable throughout the 12 months of follow-up, despite the relatively older mean age of study participants. A predialysis education care team can provide effective disease-specific knowledge and may help retard deterioration of renal function in persons with early-stage chronic kidney disease. The intervention dose may need to be repeated every six months to maintain knowledge effects. A predialysis educational program with disease-specific knowledge and information is feasible and may provide positive outcomes for patients. Topics on the uses of Chinese herbs should be included for people who are likely to use alternative therapies.

  14. ANOVA for the behavioral sciences researcher

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Rudolf N

    2013-01-01

    This new book provides a theoretical and practical guide to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for those who have not had a formal course in this technique, but need to use this analysis as part of their research.From their experience in teaching this material and applying it to research problems, the authors have created a summary of the statistical theory underlying ANOVA, together with important issues, guidance, practical methods, references, and hints about using statistical software. These have been organized so that the student can learn the logic of the analytical techniques but also use the

  15. Modeling intraindividual variability with repeated measures data methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hershberger, Scott L

    2013-01-01

    This book examines how individuals behave across time and to what degree that behavior changes, fluctuates, or remains stable.It features the most current methods on modeling repeated measures data as reported by a distinguished group of experts in the field. The goal is to make the latest techniques used to assess intraindividual variability accessible to a wide range of researchers. Each chapter is written in a ""user-friendly"" style such that even the ""novice"" data analyst can easily apply the techniques.Each chapter features:a minimum discussion of mathematical detail;an empirical examp

  16. Permutation Tests for Stochastic Ordering and ANOVA

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Dario; Salmaso, Luigi; Solari, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Permutation testing for multivariate stochastic ordering and ANOVA designs is a fundamental issue in many scientific fields such as medicine, biology, pharmaceutical studies, engineering, economics, psychology, and social sciences. This book presents advanced methods and related R codes to perform complex multivariate analyses

  17. Measurement System Analyses - Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepova, Lenka; Kovacikova, Andrea; Cep, Robert; Klaput, Pavel; Mizera, Ondrej

    2018-02-01

    The submitted article focuses on a detailed explanation of the average and range method (Automotive Industry Action Group, Measurement System Analysis approach) and of the honest Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility method (Evaluating the Measurement Process approach). The measured data (thickness of plastic parts) were evaluated by both methods and their results were compared on the basis of numerical evaluation. Both methods were additionally compared and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. One difference between both methods is the calculation of variation components. The AIAG method calculates the variation components based on standard deviation (then a sum of variation components does not give 100 %) and the honest GRR study calculates the variation components based on variance, where the sum of all variation components (part to part variation, EV & AV) gives the total variation of 100 %. Acceptance of both methods among the professional society, future use, and acceptance by manufacturing industry were also discussed. Nowadays, the AIAG is the leading method in the industry.

  18. Unitarity, Feedback, Interactions - Dynamics Emergent from Repeated Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Ugalde, Paulina; Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert; Zych, Magdalena

    Modern measurement theory dispenses with the description of a measurement as a projection. Rather, the measurement is understood as an operation, whereby the system's final state is determined by an action of a completely positive trace non-increasing map and the outcomes are described by linear operators on the system, distributed according to a positive-operator valued measure (POVM). The POVM approach unifies the theory of measurements with a general description of dynamics, the theory of open quantum systems. Engineering a particular measurement and engineering a particular dynamics for the system are thus two complementary aspects of the same conceptual framework. This correspondence is directly applied in quantum simulations and quantum control theory . With this motivation, we study what types of dynamics can emerge from a model of repeated short interactions of a system with a set of ancillae. We show that contingent on the model parameters the resulting dynamics ranges from exact unitarity to arbitrary fast decoherence. For a series of measurements the effective dynamics includes feedback-control, which for a composite system yields effective interactions between the subsystems. We quantify the amount of decoherence accompanying such induced interactions. The simple framework used in the present study can find applications in devising novel quantum control protocols, or quantum simulations.

  19. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: yypspore@gmail.com, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-09-20

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  20. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  1. Validity and repeatability of inertial measurement units for measuring gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washabaugh, Edward P; Kalyanaraman, Tarun; Adamczyk, Peter G; Claflin, Edward S; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-06-01

    Inertial measurement units (IMUs) are small wearable sensors that have tremendous potential to be applied to clinical gait analysis. They allow objective evaluation of gait and movement disorders outside the clinic and research laboratory, and permit evaluation on large numbers of steps. However, repeatability and validity data of these systems are sparse for gait metrics. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and between-day repeatability of spatiotemporal metrics (gait speed, stance percent, swing percent, gait cycle time, stride length, cadence, and step duration) as measured with the APDM Opal IMUs and Mobility Lab system. We collected data on 39 healthy subjects. Subjects were tested over two days while walking on a standard treadmill, split-belt treadmill, or overground, with IMUs placed in two locations: both feet and both ankles. The spatiotemporal measurements taken with the IMU system were validated against data from an instrumented treadmill, or using standard clinical procedures. Repeatability and minimally detectable change (MDC) of the system was calculated between days. IMUs displayed high to moderate validity when measuring most of the gait metrics tested. Additionally, these measurements appear to be repeatable when used on the treadmill and overground. The foot configuration of the IMUs appeared to better measure gait parameters; however, both the foot and ankle configurations demonstrated good repeatability. In conclusion, the IMU system in this study appears to be both accurate and repeatable for measuring spatiotemporal gait parameters in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On model selections for repeated measurement data in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baiming; Jin, Bo; Koch, Gary G; Zhou, Haibo; Borst, Stephen E; Menon, Sandeep; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2015-05-10

    Repeated measurement designs have been widely used in various randomized controlled trials for evaluating long-term intervention efficacies. For some clinical trials, the primary research question is how to compare two treatments at a fixed time, using a t-test. Although simple, robust, and convenient, this type of analysis fails to utilize a large amount of collected information. Alternatively, the mixed-effects model is commonly used for repeated measurement data. It models all available data jointly and allows explicit assessment of the overall treatment effects across the entire time spectrum. In this paper, we propose an analytic strategy for longitudinal clinical trial data where the mixed-effects model is coupled with a model selection scheme. The proposed test statistics not only make full use of all available data but also utilize the information from the optimal model deemed for the data. The performance of the proposed method under various setups, including different data missing mechanisms, is evaluated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed analytic procedure is more powerful than the t-test when the primary interest is to test for the treatment effect at the last time point. Simulations also reveal that the proposed method outperforms the usual mixed-effects model for testing the overall treatment effects across time. In addition, the proposed framework is more robust and flexible in dealing with missing data compared with several competing methods. The utility of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing a clinical trial on the cognitive effect of testosterone in geriatric men with low baseline testosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [Analysis of binary classification repeated measurement data with GEE and GLMMs using SPSS software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shengli; Zhang, Yanhong; Chen, Zheng

    2012-12-01

    To analyze binary classification repeated measurement data with generalized estimating equations (GEE) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) using SPSS19.0. GEE and GLMMs models were tested using binary classification repeated measurement data sample using SPSS19.0. Compared with SAS, SPSS19.0 allowed convenient analysis of categorical repeated measurement data using GEE and GLMMs.

  4. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [ 3 H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  5. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  6. Diabetic Foot Prevention: Repeatability of the Loran Platform Plantar Pressure and Load Distribution Measurements in Nondiabetic Subjects during Bipedal Standing—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Zequera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the repeatability of the Loran Platform and evaluate the variability of plantar pressure and postural balance, during barefoot standing in nondiabetic subjects, for future diabetic foot clinical evaluation. Measurements were taken for eight nondiabetic subjects (4 females, 4 males, aged 47±7.2 years who had no musculoskeletal symptoms. Five variables were measured with the platform in the barefoot standing position. Ten measurements were taken using two different techniques for feet and posture positioning, during three sessions, once a week. For most measurements, no significant effect over time was found with Student's t-test (P<.000125. The ANOVA test of statistical significance confirmed that measurement differences between subjects showed higher variations than measurements taken from the same subject (P<.001. The measurements taken by the Loran Platform system were found to be repeatable.

  7. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  8. Comparison of Repeated Measurement Design and Mixed Models in Evaluation of the Entonox Effect on Labor Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In many medical studies, the response variable is measured repeatedly over time to evaluate the treatment effect that is known as longitudinal study. The analysis method for this type of data is repeated measures ANOVA that uses only one correlation structure and the results are not valid with inappropriate correlation structure. To avoid this problem, a convenient alternative is mixed models. So, the aim of this study was to compare of mixed and repeated measurement models for examination of the Entonox effect on the labor pain. Methods: This experimental study was designed to compare the effect of Entonox and oxygen inhalation on pain relief between two groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement and mixed models with different correlation structures. Selection and comparison of proper correlation structures performed using Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and restricted log-likelihood. Data were analyzed using SPSS-22. Results: Results of our study showed that all variables containing analgesia methods, labor duration of the first and second stages, and time were significant in these tests. In mixed model, heterogeneous first-order autoregressive, first-order autoregressive, heterogeneous Toeplitz and unstructured correlation structures were recognized as the best structures. Also, all variables were significant in these structures. Unstructured variance covariance matrix was recognized as the worst structure and labor duration of the first and second stages was not significant in this structure. Conclusions: This study showed that the Entonox inhalation has a significant effect on pain relief in primiparous and it is confirmed by all of the models.

  9. Acute caffeine effect on repeatedly measured P300

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jingbo; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2000-01-01

    The acute effect of a single-dose of caffeine on the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) was assessed in a study using a repeatedly presented auditory oddball button-press task. A dose (5mg/kg body-weight) of either caffeine or placebo lactose, dissolved in a cup of decaffeinated coffee, was administered double-blindly to coffee drinkers who had abstained from coffee for 24hrs, with the presentation order of the sessions counterbalanced and separated by 2–4 weeks. The caffeine-treatment ...

  10. On summary measure analysis of linear trend repeated measures data: performance comparison with two competing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Ayatollahi, S M T; Towhidi, Mina; Ketabchi, Farzaneh

    2012-03-22

    The summary measure approach (SMA) is sometimes the only applicable tool for the analysis of repeated measurements in medical research, especially when the number of measurements is relatively large. This study aimed to describe techniques based on summary measures for the analysis of linear trend repeated measures data and then to compare performances of SMA, linear mixed model (LMM), and unstructured multivariate approach (UMA). Practical guidelines based on the least squares regression slope and mean of response over time for each subject were provided to test time, group, and interaction effects. Through Monte Carlo simulation studies, the efficacy of SMA vs. LMM and traditional UMA, under different types of covariance structures, was illustrated. All the methods were also employed to analyze two real data examples. Based on the simulation and example results, it was found that the SMA completely dominated the traditional UMA and performed convincingly close to the best-fitting LMM in testing all the effects. However, the LMM was not often robust and led to non-sensible results when the covariance structure for errors was misspecified. The results emphasized discarding the UMA which often yielded extremely conservative inferences as to such data. It was shown that summary measure is a simple, safe and powerful approach in which the loss of efficiency compared to the best-fitting LMM was generally negligible. The SMA is recommended as the first choice to reliably analyze the linear trend data with a moderate to large number of measurements and/or small to moderate sample sizes.

  11. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  12. A default Bayesian hypothesis test for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, R.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Wagenmakers, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a Bayesian hypothesis test for analysis of variance (ANOVA) designs. The test is an application of standard Bayesian methods for variable selection in regression models. We illustrate the effect of various g-priors on the ANOVA hypothesis test. The Bayesian test for ANOVA

  13. Repeatability of Lucas chamber measurements; Powtarzalnosc pomiarow za pomoca komory Lucasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-12-31

    Results of investigations concerning the repeatability of the measurements carried out with Lucas chamber are presented in the report. The Lucas chamber is used for determination of radon concentration in air, and the Lucas chamber itself is measured in a laboratory stand. The repeatability of measurements is {+-}5.4% relative. The error due to instability of measuring channel gain is estimated to be 2-3% relative. (author). 5 refs, 17 figs, 5 tabs.

  14. High precision measurement of the micro-imaging system to check repeatability of precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Song Li; Ma Chuntao; Luo Hongxin; Wang Jie

    2010-01-01

    The beamlines slits of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) are required to have a repeatability of better than 1 μm. Before the slits installation, the off-line and/or on-line repeatability measurements must be conducted. A machine vision measuring system based on high resolution CCD and adjustable high magnification lens was used in this regard. A multi-level filtering method was used to treat the imaging data. After image binarization, the imaging noises were depressed effectively by using of algebraic mean filtering, statistics median filtering,and the least square filtering. Using the subtracted image between the images before and after slit movement, an average displacement of slit blades could be obtained, and the repeatability of slit could be measured, with a resolution of 0.3 μm of the measurement system. The experimental results show that this measurement system meets the requirements for non-contact measurements to the repeatability of slits. (authors)

  15. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: A North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Daniel D. Richter; Donald S. Ross; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Rock Ouimet; Richard A. F. Warby; Arthur H. Johnson; Henry Lin; James M. Kaste; Andrew G. Lapenis; Timothy J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest...

  16. Preventive maintenance measures and repeat tests on actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueren, H.

    1990-01-01

    At Biblis Nuclear Power Station, about 1500 electrical actuators and variable speed drives of various model ranges and with various driving end speeds and actuating times are installed and about 600 of these are located in important safety engineering systems. In order to optimize the preventive maintenance measures on the drives, a data bank has been established into which are stored, in addition to the fixed type data of each drive, inter alia, statements about location of application, valve type, inspection cycle, calendar year of next maintenance, findings during inspection measures and causes of faults. Before each unit inspection, in addition to the inspection lists, the maintenance and installation records and also the associated job instructions are produced from this data processing equipment. (orig.) [de

  17. Evaluation of the Repeatability and the Reproducibility of AL-Scan Measurements Obtained by Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of ocular biometry and intraocular lens (IOL power measurements obtained by ophthalmology residents using an AL-Scan device, a novel optical biometer. Methods. Two ophthalmology residents were instructed regarding the AL-Scan device. Both performed ocular biometry and IOL power measurements using AL-Scan, three times on each of 128 eyes, independently of one another. Corneal keratometry readings, horizontal iris width, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, pupil size, and axial length values measured by both residents were recorded together with IOL power values calculated on the basis of four different IOL calculation formulas (SRK/T, Holladay, and HofferQ. Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements obtained were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results. Repeatability (ICC, 0.872-0.999 for resident 1 versus 0.905-0.999 for resident 2 and reproducibility (ICC, 0.916-0.999 were high for all biometric measurements. Repeatability (ICC, 0.981-0.983 for resident 1 versus 0.995-0.996 for resident 2 and reproducibility were also high for all IOL power measurements (ICC, 0.996 for all. Conclusions. The AL-Scan device exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility in all biometric measurements and IOL power calculations, independent of the operator concerned.

  18. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind

  19. Maintaining confidentiality in prospective studies: anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Wasserman, Camilla; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Wasserman, Danuta

    2012-02-01

    Respecting and protecting the confidentiality of data and the privacy of individuals regarding the information that they have given as participants in a research project is a cornerstone of complying with accepted research standards. However, in longitudinal studies, establishing and maintaining privacy is often challenging because of the necessity of repeated contact with participants. A novel internet-based solution is introduced here, which maintains privacy while at the same time ensures linkage of data to individual participants in a repeated measures design. With the use of the anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure, two separate one-way communication systems are established through ad hoc email accounts and a secure study website. Strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  20. Convergence of repeated quantum nondemolition measurements and wave-function collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on quantum trapped fields, we give a rigorous proof that repeated indirect quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements converge to the collapse of the wave function as predicted by the postulates of quantum mechanics for direct measurements. We also relate the rate of convergence toward the collapsed wave function to the relative entropy of each indirect measurement, a result which makes contact with information theory.

  1. Repeatability of central corneal thickness measurement with the Pentacam HR system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Simonato Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the repeatability of central corneal thickness measurement at the geometrical center (Central Corneal Thickness - CCT given by the Pentacam High Resolution (HR Comprehensive Eye Scanner (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany over time. METHODS: Prospective, single center, observational study. Two separate CCT measurements were taken by the Pentacam corneal tomography exam (CTm 3 to 12 months apart, and compared. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen eyes (n=116 of 62 health patients were included in this study. Average CCT in first and last visits was 541.6±37 µm and 543.6±36.9 µm respectively. Mean difference between both measurements was 9.2±6.4 µm, and there was no statistically significant difference in CCT measurement between visits, with good correlation between them (P = 0.057, r² = 0,9209. CONCLUSION: Pentacam (HR CTm gives repeatable CCT measurements over time.

  2. Use of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms 62 (CCAPS-62) as a Repeated Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arpita; Rieder Bennett, Sara; Martin, Juanita K.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this initial, exploratory study was to examine the utility of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) as a repeated measure tool at one university counseling center. This study investigated whether clients engaged in individual counseling changed in symptomology while in treatment and when (e.g.,…

  3. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data...

  4. Counterbalancing and Other Uses of Repeated-Measures Latin-Square Designs: Analyses and Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hayne W.

    1997-01-01

    Recommends that when repeated-measures Latin-square designs are used to counterbalance treatments across a procedural variable or to reduce the number of treatment combinations given to each participant, effects be analyzed statistically, and that in all uses, researchers consider alternative interpretations of the variance associated with the…

  5. Parsimonious Structural Equation Models for Repeated Measures Data, with Application to the Study of Consumer Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Terry; Haubl, Gerald; Tipps, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reflects a growing awareness of the value of using structural equation models to analyze repeated measures data. However, such data, particularly in the presence of covariates, often lead to models that either fit the data poorly, are exceedingly general and hard to interpret, or are specified in a manner that is highly data…

  6. Cross-trimester repeated measures testing for Down's syndrome screening: an assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wright, D

    2010-07-01

    To provide estimates and confidence intervals for the performance (detection and false-positive rates) of screening for Down\\'s syndrome using repeated measures of biochemical markers from first and second trimester maternal serum samples taken from the same woman.

  7. Accuracy and repeatability of anthropometric facial measurements using cone beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Peter O.; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and repeatability of linear anthropometric measurements on the soft tissue surface model generated from cone beam computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of seven cadaver heads. The accuracy and

  8. Near-Peer Teaching in Paramedic Education: A Repeated Measures Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Nguyen, David

    2017-01-01

    The transition of the Australian paramedic discipline from vocation education and training to the higher education sector has seen a sharp rise in interest in near-peer teaching (NPT). The objective of this study was to examine satisfaction levels of NPT over one academic semester among undergraduate paramedic students. A repeated measured design…

  9. Repeatability of junctional zone measurements using three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in healthy, fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Kjærgaard; Glavind, Julie; Madsen, Lene Duch

    2016-01-01

    -observer repeatability was evaluated according to the Bland-Altman method and expressed as coefficient of repeatability (CoR). Results: Using 3D-TVS we visualised a thin and regular JZ in most women. The posterior uterine wall had the largest median (interquartile range; iqr) value of JZmax (5.2 (iqr 3.8-6.5)mm. Ten out....... Correlations between measurements were poor in the narrow range of JZ thickness. Conclusions: The JZ has an indistinct outline by 3D-TVS resulting in an error of JZ measurement within a broad range of ±2-4 mm, but reduced by average measurements. The thickness of JZ varied within a narrow range of this healthy......, fertile population and reliability measurements of JZ thickness has to be evaluated in women with a wider range of JZ thickness....

  10. Optimally Repeatable Kinetic Model Variant for Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements with 82Rb PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian F. Ocneanu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Myocardial blood flow (MBF quantification with Rb82 positron emission tomography (PET is gaining clinical adoption, but improvements in precision are desired. This study aims to identify analysis variants producing the most repeatable MBF measures. Methods. 12 volunteers underwent same-day test-retest rest and dipyridamole stress imaging with dynamic Rb82 PET, from which MBF was quantified using 1-tissue-compartment kinetic model variants: (1 blood-pool versus uptake region sampled input function (Blood/Uptake-ROI, (2 dual spillover correction (SOC-On/Off, (3 right blood correction (RBC-On/Off, (4 arterial blood transit delay (Delay-On/Off, and (5 distribution volume (DV constraint (Global/Regional-DV. Repeatability of MBF, stress/rest myocardial flow reserve (MFR, and stress/rest MBF difference (ΔMBF was assessed using nonparametric reproducibility coefficients (RPCnp = 1.45 × interquartile range. Results. MBF using SOC-On, RVBC-Off, Blood-ROI, Global-DV, and Delay-Off was most repeatable for combined rest and stress: RPCnp = 0.21 mL/min/g (15.8%. Corresponding MFR and ΔMBF RPCnp were 0.42 (20.2% and 0.24 mL/min/g (23.5%. MBF repeatability improved with SOC-On at stress (p<0.001 and tended to improve with RBC-Off at both rest and stress (p<0.08. DV and ROI did not significantly influence repeatability. The Delay-On model was overdetermined and did not reliably converge. Conclusion. MBF and MFR test-retest repeatability were the best with dual spillover correction, left atrium blood input function, and global DV.

  11. Joint modelling of repeated measurement and time-to-event data: an introductory tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asar, Özgür; Ritchie, James; Kalra, Philip A; Diggle, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    The term 'joint modelling' is used in the statistical literature to refer to methods for simultaneously analysing longitudinal measurement outcomes, also called repeated measurement data, and time-to-event outcomes, also called survival data. A typical example from nephrology is a study in which the data from each participant consist of repeated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements and time to initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Joint models typically combine linear mixed effects models for repeated measurements and Cox models for censored survival outcomes. Our aim in this paper is to present an introductory tutorial on joint modelling methods, with a case study in nephrology. We describe the development of the joint modelling framework and compare the results with those obtained by the more widely used approaches of conducting separate analyses of the repeated measurements and survival times based on a linear mixed effects model and a Cox model, respectively. Our case study concerns a data set from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Standards Implementation Study (CRISIS). We also provide details of our open-source software implementation to allow others to replicate and/or modify our analysis. The results for the conventional linear mixed effects model and the longitudinal component of the joint models were found to be similar. However, there were considerable differences between the results for the Cox model with time-varying covariate and the time-to-event component of the joint model. For example, the relationship between kidney function as measured by eGFR and the hazard for initiation of RRT was significantly underestimated by the Cox model that treats eGFR as a time-varying covariate, because the Cox model does not take measurement error in eGFR into account. Joint models should be preferred for simultaneous analyses of repeated measurement and survival data, especially when the former is measured with error and the association

  12. Antarctic Ice Sheet Slope and Aspect Based on Icesat's Repeat Orbit Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Xie, S.; Xiao, F.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate information of ice sheet surface slope is essential for estimating elevation change by satellite altimetry measurement. A study is carried out to recover surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) elevation measurements based on repeat orbits. ICESat provides repeat ground tracks within 200 meters in cross-track direction and 170 meters in along-track direction for most areas of Antarctic ice sheet. Both cross-track and along-track surface slopes could be obtained by adjacent repeat ground tracks. Combining those measurements yields a surface slope model with resolution of approximately 200 meters. An algorithm considering elevation change is developed to estimate the surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet. Three Antarctic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were used to calculate surface slopes. The surface slopes from DEMs are compared with estimates by using in situ GPS data in Dome A, the summit of Antarctic ice sheet. Our results reveal an average surface slope difference of 0.02 degree in Dome A. High resolution remote sensing images are also used in comparing the results derived from other DEMs and this paper. The comparison implies that our results have a slightly better coherence with GPS observation than results from DEMs, but our results provide more details and perform higher accuracy in coastal areas because of the higher resolution for ICESat measurements. Ice divides are estimated based on the aspect, and are weakly consistent with ice divides from other method in coastal regions.

  13. Comparability and repeatability of three commonly used methods for measuring endurance capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter-Gilbert, James; Mühlenhaupt, Max; Whiting, Martin J

    2017-12-01

    Measures of endurance (time to exhaustion) have been used to address a wide range of questions in ecomorphological and physiological research, as well as being used as a proxy for survival and fitness. Swimming, stationary (circular) track running, and treadmill running are all commonly used methods for measuring endurance. Despite the use of these methods across a broad range of taxa, how comparable these methods are to one another, and whether they are biologically relevant, is rarely examined. We used Australian water dragons (Intellagama lesueurii), a species that is morphologically adept at climbing, swimming, and running, to compare these three methods of endurance and examined if there is repeatability within and between trial methods. We found that time to exhaustion was not highly repeatable within a method, suggesting that single measures or a mean time to exhaustion across trials are not appropriate. Furthermore, we compared mean maximal endurance times among the three methods, and found that the two running methods (i.e., stationary track and treadmill) were similar, but swimming was distinctly different, resulting in lower mean maximal endurance times. Finally, an individual's endurance rank was not repeatable across methods, suggesting that the three endurance trial methods are not providing similar information about an individual's performance capacity. Overall, these results highlight the need to carefully match a measure of performance capacity with the study species and the research questions being asked so that the methods being used are behaviorally, ecologically, and physiologically relevant. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Intelligence is in the eye of the beholder: investigating repeated IQ measurements in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were computed, and each IQ score was categorized. Additionally, t-tests and regression analyses were performed. Differences of 10 points or more were found in 66% of the cases comparing WAIS-III with RAVEN scores. Fisher's exact test revealed differences between two WAIS-III scores and the WAIS categories. The WAIS-III did not predict other IQs (WAIS or RAVEN) in participants with intellectual disability. This study showed that stability or interchangeability of scores is lacking, especially in individuals with intellectual disability. Caution in interpreting IQ scores is therefore recommended, and the use of the unitary concept of IQ should be discouraged. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures using mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getchell Thomas V

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two or more factor mixed factorial experiments are becoming increasingly common in microarray data analysis. In this case study, the two factors are presence (Patients with Alzheimer's disease or absence (Control of the disease, and brain regions including olfactory bulb (OB or cerebellum (CER. In the design considered in this manuscript, OB and CER are repeated measurements from the same subject and, hence, are correlated. It is critical to identify sources of variability in the analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures and correlations among data points have to be considered. In addition, multiple testing problems are more complicated in experiments with multi-level treatments or treatment combinations. Results In this study we adopted a linear mixed model to analyze oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We first construct a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes. The Benjamini and Hochberg (BH procedure of controlling false discovery rate (FDR at 5% was applied to the P values of the generalized F test. For those genes with significant generalized F test, we then categorize them based on whether the interaction terms were significant or not at the α-level (αnew = 0.0033 determined by the FDR procedure. Since simple effects may be examined for the genes with significant interaction effect, we adopt the protected Fisher's least significant difference test (LSD procedure at the level of αnew to control the family-wise error rate (FWER for each gene examined. Conclusions A linear mixed model is appropriate for analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We constructed a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes, and then applied a specific sequence of tests to identify factorial effects. This sequence of tests applied was designed to control for gene based FWER.

  16. Repeatability in Color Measurements of a Spectrophotometer using Different Positioning Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Michael; Kwon, So Ran; Qian, Fang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability of color measurements of an intraoral spectrophotometer with the use of three different methods by two operators. A total of 60 teeth were obtained, comprising 30 human maxillary teeth [central incisors (n = 10); canines (n = 10); molars (n = 10)] and 30 artificial teeth [lateral incisors (n = 10); premolar (n = 20)]. Multiple repeated color measurements were obtained from each tooth using three measuring methods by each of the two operators. Five typodonts with alternating artificial and human teeth were made. Measurements were taken by two operators with the Vita EasyShade spectrophotometer using the custom tray (CT), custom jig (CJ) and free hand (FH) method, twice, at an interval of 2 to 7 days. Friedman test was used to detect difference among the three color measuring methods. Post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction applied was used for pair-wise comparison of color measurements among the three methods. Additionally, a paired-sample t-test was used to assess a significant difference between the two duplicated measurements made on the same tooth by the same operator for each color parameter and measuring method. For operator A, mean (SD) overall color change-ΔE* (SD) perceived for FH, CT and CJ were 2.21(2.00), 2.39 (1.58) and 2.86 (1.92), respectively. There was statistically significant difference in perceived ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.0107). However, there were no significant differences between FH and CT (p = 0.2829) or between CT and CJ (p = 0.1159). For operator B mean ΔE* (SD) for FH, CT and CJ were 3.24 (3.46), 1.95 (1.19) and 2.45 (1.56), respectively. There was a significant difference between FH and CT (p = 0.0031). However, there were no statistically significant differences in ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.3696) or CT vs CJ (p = 0.0809). The repeatability of color measurements was different among the three measuring methods by operators. Overall, the CT method worked well for both

  17. High-Dimensional Multivariate Repeated Measures Analysis with Unequal Covariance Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrar, Solomon W.; Kong, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, test statistics for repeated measures design are introduced when the dimension is large. By large dimension is meant the number of repeated measures and the total sample size grow together but either one could be larger than the other. Asymptotic distribution of the statistics are derived for the equal as well as unequal covariance cases in the balanced as well as unbalanced cases. The asymptotic framework considered requires proportional growth of the sample sizes and the dimension of the repeated measures in the unequal covariance case. In the equal covariance case, one can grow at much faster rate than the other. The derivations of the asymptotic distributions mimic that of Central Limit Theorem with some important peculiarities addressed with sufficient rigor. Consistent and unbiased estimators of the asymptotic variances, which make efficient use of all the observations, are also derived. Simulation study provides favorable evidence for the accuracy of the asymptotic approximation under the null hypothesis. Power simulations have shown that the new methods have comparable power with a popular method known to work well in low-dimensional situation but the new methods have shown enormous advantage when the dimension is large. Data from Electroencephalograph (EEG) experiment is analyzed to illustrate the application of the results. PMID:26778861

  18. A Network-Based Algorithm for Clustering Multivariate Repeated Measures Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslovsky, Matthew; Arellano, John; Schaefer, Caroline; Feiveson, Alan; Young, Millennia; Lee, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astronaut Corps is a unique occupational cohort for which vast amounts of measures data have been collected repeatedly in research or operational studies pre-, in-, and post-flight, as well as during multiple clinical care visits. In exploratory analyses aimed at generating hypotheses regarding physiological changes associated with spaceflight exposure, such as impaired vision, it is of interest to identify anomalies and trends across these expansive datasets. Multivariate clustering algorithms for repeated measures data may help parse the data to identify homogeneous groups of astronauts that have higher risks for a particular physiological change. However, available clustering methods may not be able to accommodate the complex data structures found in NASA data, since the methods often rely on strict model assumptions, require equally-spaced and balanced assessment times, cannot accommodate missing data or differing time scales across variables, and cannot process continuous and discrete data simultaneously. To fill this gap, we propose a network-based, multivariate clustering algorithm for repeated measures data that can be tailored to fit various research settings. Using simulated data, we demonstrate how our method can be used to identify patterns in complex data structures found in practice.

  19. Application of one-way ANOVA in completely randomized experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Zaharah; Izwan Latiff, Ahmad; Ahmad, Kartini

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes an application of a statistical technique one-way ANOVA in completely randomized experiments with three replicates. This technique was employed to a single factor with four levels and multiple observations at each level. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between chemical oxygen demand index and location on-sites. Two different approaches are employed for the analyses; critical value and p-value. It also presents key assumptions of the technique to be satisfied by the data in order to obtain valid results. Pairwise comparisons by Turkey method are also considered and discussed to determine where the significant differences among the means is after the ANOVA has been performed. The results revealed that there are statistically significant relationship exist between the chemical oxygen demand index and the location on-sites.

  20. Repeatability and Comparison of Keratometry Values Measured with Potec PRK-6000 Autorefractometer, IOLMaster, and Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Türk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To research the repeatability and intercompatibility of keratometry values measured with Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, IOL Master, and Pentacam. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, consecutive measurements were performed in two different sessions with the mentioned three devices on 110 eyes of 55 subjects who had no additional ocular pathology except for refraction error. The consistency of flat and steep keratometry, average keratometry, and corneal astigmatism values obtained in both sessions was compared by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. The measurement differences between the devices were statistically compared as well. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 23.05±3.01 (18-30 years. ICC values of average keratometry measurements obtained in the sessions were 0.996 for Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, 0.997 for IOL Master, and 0.999 for Pentacam. There was high compatibility between the three devices in terms of average keratometry values in Bland-Altman analysis. However, there were statistically significant differences between the devices in terms of parameters other than corneal astigmatism. Conclusion: The repeatability of the three devices was found considerably high in keratometry measurements. However, it is not appropriate for these devices to be substituted for each other in keratometry measurements. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 179-83

  1. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Compression Strength Measurements Conducted According to ASTM E9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, William E.; Ma, Li; Graham, Stephen M.; Adler, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Ten commercial laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of compression strength tests conducted according to ASTM International Standard Test Method E9. The test employed a cylindrical aluminum AA2024-T351 test specimen. Participants measured elastic modulus and 0.2 % offset yield strength, YS(0.2 % offset), using an extensometer attached to the specimen. The repeatability and reproducibility of the yield strength measurement, expressed as coefficient of variations were cv(sub r)= 0.011 and cv(sub R)= 0.020 The reproducibility of the test across the laboratories was among the best that has been reported for uniaxial tests. The reported data indicated that using diametrically opposed extensometers, instead of a single extensometer doubled the precision of the test method. Laboratories that did not lubricate the ends of the specimen measured yield stresses and elastic moduli that were smaller than those measured in laboratories that lubricated the specimen ends. A finite element analysis of the test specimen deformation for frictionless and perfect friction could not explain the discrepancy, however. The modulus measured from stress-strain data were reanalyzed using a technique that finds the optimal fit range, and applies several quality checks to the data. The error in modulus measurements from stress-strain curves generally increased as the fit range decreased to less than 40 % of the stress range.

  2. Spatial cluster detection for repeatedly measured outcomes while accounting for residential history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrea J; Gold, Diane R; Li, Yi

    2009-10-01

    Spatial cluster detection has become an important methodology in quantifying the effect of hazardous exposures. Previous methods have focused on cross-sectional outcomes that are binary or continuous. There are virtually no spatial cluster detection methods proposed for longitudinal outcomes. This paper proposes a new spatial cluster detection method for repeated outcomes using cumulative geographic residuals. A major advantage of this method is its ability to readily incorporate information on study participants relocation, which most cluster detection statistics cannot. Application of these methods will be illustrated by the Home Allergens and Asthma prospective cohort study analyzing the relationship between environmental exposures and repeated measured outcome, occurrence of wheeze in the last 6 months, while taking into account mobile locations.

  3. Effect of repeated contact on adhesion measurements involving polydimethylsiloxane structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroner, E; Arzt, E; Maboudian, R

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years several research groups have focused on the fabrication of artificial gecko inspired adhesives. For mimicking these structures, different polymers are used as structure material, such as polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), polyurethanes (PU), and polypropylene (PP). While these polymers can be structured easily and used for artificial adhesion systems, the effects of repeated adhesion testing have never been investigated closely. In this paper we report on the effect of repeated adhesion measurements on the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer kit Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning). We show that the adhesion force decreases as a function of contact cycles. The rate of change and the final value of adhesion are found to depend on the details of the PDMS synthesis and structuring.

  4. Estimating linear effects in ANOVA designs: the easy way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas, Michal; Tzelgov, Joseph; Ganor-Stern, Dana

    2012-09-01

    Research in cognitive science has documented numerous phenomena that are approximated by linear relationships. In the domain of numerical cognition, the use of linear regression for estimating linear effects (e.g., distance and SNARC effects) became common following Fias, Brysbaert, Geypens, and d'Ydewalle's (1996) study on the SNARC effect. While their work has become the model for analyzing linear effects in the field, it requires statistical analysis of individual participants and does not provide measures of the proportions of variability accounted for (cf. Lorch & Myers, 1990). In the present methodological note, using both the distance and SNARC effects as examples, we demonstrate how linear effects can be estimated in a simple way within the framework of repeated measures analysis of variance. This method allows for estimating effect sizes in terms of both slope and proportions of variability accounted for. Finally, we show that our method can easily be extended to estimate linear interaction effects, not just linear effects calculated as main effects.

  5. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  6. Intra- and Intersession Repeatability of an Optical Quality and Intraocular Scattering Measurement System in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Tian

    Full Text Available To evaluate intra- and intersession repeatability of objective optical quality and intraocular scattering measurements with a double-pass system in children.Forty-two eyes of 42 children were included in the study. An optical quality analysis system (OQAS was used to measure optical quality parameters, including modulation transfer function cutoff frequency (MTFcutoff, Strehl ratio (SR, OQAS values (OV at 3 different contrasts and objective scatter index (OSI. Three measurement sessions with 10-min intervals were operated by the same technician, and in each session four consecutive measurements were obtained.Mean values for MTFcutoff, SR and OSI were 46.85 ± 7.45cpd, 0.27 ± 0.06 and 0.34 ± 0.22 respectively. 1 The intraclass correlation coefficients were ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 and coefficients of variation from 0.06 to 0.16 for all the parameters in the first session; the relative repeatability were 11.1% (MTFcutoff, 22.5% (SR, 10.9% (OV100%, 16.6% (OV2%, 22.4% (OV9% and 56.3% (OSI. Similar results were found in the second and third sessions. 2 Bland-Altman analysis showed that narrow 95% confidence intervals (compared between the first and second sessions ranged from -5.42 to 5.28 (MTFcutoff, -0.05 to 0.07 (SR, -0.18 to 0.18 (OV100%, -0.26 to 0.29 (OV20%, -0.33 to 0.39 (OV9% and -0.11 to 0.09 (OSI; the comparison between any two of the three sessions showed similar results.Measurements of optical quality and intraocular scattering in children by the double-pass system showed good intra- and intersession repeatability. Retinal image quality is high and intraocular scattering is low in children.

  7. Cautionary Note on Reporting Eta-Squared Values from Multifactor ANOVA Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Charles A.; Block, Richard A.; Aguinis, Herman

    2004-01-01

    The authors provide a cautionary note on reporting accurate eta-squared values from multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) designs. They reinforce the distinction between classical and partial eta-squared as measures of strength of association. They provide examples from articles published in premier psychology journals in which the authors…

  8. Group-wise ANOVA simultaneous component analysis for designed omics experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saccenti, Edoardo; Smilde, Age K.; Camacho, José

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Modern omics experiments pertain not only to the measurement of many variables but also follow complex experimental designs where many factors are manipulated at the same time. This data can be conveniently analyzed using multivariate tools like ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis

  9. Statistical Validation for Clinical Measures: Repeatability and Agreement of Kinect™-Based Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Natalia; Perez, Elisa; Tello, Emanuel; Rodrigo, Alejandro; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2018-01-01

    The rehabilitation process is a fundamental stage for recovery of people's capabilities. However, the evaluation of the process is performed by physiatrists and medical doctors, mostly based on their observations, that is, a subjective appreciation of the patient's evolution. This paper proposes a tracking platform of the movement made by an individual's upper limb using Kinect sensor(s) to be applied for the patient during the rehabilitation process. The main contribution is the development of quantifying software and the statistical validation of its performance, repeatability, and clinical use in the rehabilitation process. The software determines joint angles and upper limb trajectories for the construction of a specific rehabilitation protocol and quantifies the treatment evolution. In turn, the information is presented via a graphical interface that allows the recording, storage, and report of the patient's data. For clinical purposes, the software information is statistically validated with three different methodologies, comparing the measures with a goniometer in terms of agreement and repeatability. The agreement of joint angles measured with the proposed software and goniometer is evaluated with Bland-Altman plots; all measurements fell well within the limits of agreement, meaning interchangeability of both techniques. Additionally, the results of Bland-Altman analysis of repeatability show 95% confidence. Finally, the physiotherapists' qualitative assessment shows encouraging results for the clinical use. The main conclusion is that the software is capable of offering a clinical history of the patient and is useful for quantification of the rehabilitation success. The simplicity, low cost, and visualization possibilities enhance the use of the software Kinect for rehabilitation and other applications, and the expert's opinion endorses the choice of our approach for clinical practice. Comparison of the new measurement technique with established

  10. REPEATABILITY AND ACCURACY OF EXOPLANET ECLIPSE DEPTHS MEASURED WITH POST-CRYOGENIC SPITZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingalls, James G.; Krick, J. E.; Carey, S. J.; Stauffer, John R.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Mail Code 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buzasi, Derek [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Stevenson, Kevin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Morello, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1 E6BT (United Kingdom); Wong, Ian, E-mail: ingalls@ipac.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5 μ m data set, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3b system during secondary eclipse, using seven different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique, the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 156 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 3 of the photon noise limit. All methods but one accurately assess their own errors: for these methods, the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10 epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as to clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated data set of 10 visits to XO-3b, for which the eclipse depth is known. We find that three of the methods (BLISS mapping, Pixel Level Decorrelation, and Independent Component Analysis) obtain results that are within three times the photon limit of the true eclipse depth. When averaged over the 10 epoch ensemble,  5 out of 7 techniques come within 60 ppm of the true value. Spitzer exoplanet data, if obtained following current best practices and reduced using methods such as those described here, can measure repeatable and accurate single eclipse depths, with close to photon-limited results.

  11. Validation of Repeated Endothelial Function Measurements Using EndoPAT in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aina S; Butt, Jawad H; Holm-Yildiz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decreased endothelial function (EF) may be a prognostic marker for stroke. Measuring pharmacological effects on EF may be of interest in the development of personalized medicine for stroke prevention. In this study, we assessed the reliability of repeated EF measurements using a pulse......%, mean age 35.85 ± 3.47 years) and 21 stroke patients (men 52%, mean age 66.38 ± 2.85 years, and mean NIHSS 4.09 ± 0.53) under standardized conditions. EF was measured as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), logarithm of RHI (lnRHI), and Framingham RHI (fRHI). Measurements were separated by 1.5 and 24 h...

  12. Characterisation and measurement of signals generated by DVB-H 'gap-filler' repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, M.; Barellini, A.; Bogi, L.; Licitra, G.; Silvi, A. M.; Zari, A.

    2009-01-01

    DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting Hand-held) is the standard developed by DVB Project and approved by ETSI with the aim of providing the reception of DVB signals even in mobility but also data transfers and multimedia services. The introduction and development of the DVB-H system is still ongoing. In this context, this work focuses on the temporal trend of electromagnetic impact of an urban DVB-H repeater (called 'gap-filler') for exposure assessment purposes; it also describes a method for its measurement by means of narrow band instrumental chains. (authors)

  13. Measuring Starlight Deflection during the 2017 Eclipse: Repeating the Experiment that made Einstein Famous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Donald

    2016-05-01

    In 1919, astronomers performed an experiment during a solar eclipse, attempting to measure the deflection of stars near the sun, in order to verify Einstein's theory of general relativity. The experiment was very difficult and the results were marginal, but the success made Albert Einstein famous around the world. Astronomers last repeated the experiment in 1973, achieving an error of 11%. In 2017, using amateur equipment and modern technology, I plan to repeat the experiment and achieve a 1% error. The best available star catalog will be used for star positions. Corrections for optical distortion and atmospheric refraction are better than 0.01 arcsec. During totality, I expect 7 or 8 measurable stars down to magnitude 9.5, based on analysis of previous eclipse measurements taken by amateurs. Reference images, taken near the sun during totality, will be used for precise calibration. Preliminary test runs performed during twilight in April 2016 and April 2017 can accurately simulate the sky conditions during totality, providing an accurate estimate of the final uncertainty.

  14. Repeated absolute gravity measurements for monitoring slow intraplate vertical deformation in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, M. J.; de Viron, O.; Scherneck, H.; Hinzen, K. G.; Williams, S. D.; Lecocq, T.; Quinif, Y.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2011-12-01

    In continental plate interiors, ground surface movements are at the limit of the noise level and close to or below the accuracy of current geodetic techniques. Absolute gravity measurements are valuable to quantify slow vertical movements, as this instrument is drift free and, unlike GPS, independent of the terrestrial reference frame. Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed in Oostende (Belgian coastline) and at 8 stations along a southwest-northeast profile across the Belgian Ardennes and the Roer Valley Graben (Germany), in order to estimate the tectonic deformation in the area. The AG measurements, repeated once or twice a year, can resolve elusive gravity changes with a precision better than 3.7 nm/s2/yr (95% confidence interval) after 11 years, even in difficult conditions. After 8-15 years (depending on the station), we find that the gravity rates of change lie in the [-3.1, 8.1] nm/s2/yr interval and result from a combination of anthropogenic, climatic, tectonic, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effects. After correcting for the GIA, the inferred gravity rates and consequently, the vertical land movements, reduce to zero within the uncertainty level at all stations except Jülich (due to man-induced subsidence) and Sohier (possibly, an artefact due to the shortness of the time series at that station).

  15. Predicting seed yield in perennial ryegrass using repeated canopy reflectance measurements and PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with first year seed crops using three sowing rates and three spring nitrogen (N) application rates. PLSR models were developed for each year and showed correlation coefficients of 0.71, 0.76, and 0.92, respectively. Regression coefficients showed in these experiments that the optimum time for canopy...... reflectance measurements was from approximately 600 cumulative growing degree-days (CGDD) to approximately 900 CGDD. This is the period just before and at heading of the seed crop. Furthermore, regression coefficients showed that information about N and water is important. The results support the development......Repeated canopy reflectance measurements together with partial least-squares regression (PLSR) were used to predict seed yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The measurements were performed during the spring and summer growing seasons of 2001 to 2003 in three field experiments...

  16. Characterization of the peripheral blood transcriptome in a repeated measures design using a panel of healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boever, Patrick; Wens, Britt; Forcheh, Anyiawung Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A repeated measures microarray design with 22 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (aging 32. ±. 5. years) was set up to study transcriptome profiles in whole blood samples. The results indicate that repeatable data can be obtained with high within-subject correlation. Probes that could discriminate b...

  17. Analyzing repeated measures data on individuals nested within groups: accounting for dynamic group effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Dean, Danielle; Zucker, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Researchers commonly collect repeated measures on individuals nested within groups such as students within schools, patients within treatment groups, or siblings within families. Often, it is most appropriate to conceptualize such groups as dynamic entities, potentially undergoing stochastic structural and/or functional changes over time. For instance, as a student progresses through school, more senior students matriculate while more junior students enroll, administrators and teachers may turn over, and curricular changes may be introduced. What it means to be a student within that school may thus differ from 1 year to the next. This article demonstrates how to use multilevel linear models to recover time-varying group effects when analyzing repeated measures data on individuals nested within groups that evolve over time. Two examples are provided. The 1st example examines school effects on the science achievement trajectories of students, allowing for changes in school effects over time. The 2nd example concerns dynamic family effects on individual trajectories of externalizing behavior and depression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing Repeated Measures Marginal Models on Sample Surveys with Resampling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Knoke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaged statistical software for analyzing categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample survey data with binary covariates does not appear to be available. Consequently, this report describes a customized SAS program which accomplishes such an analysis on survey data with jackknifed replicate weights for which the primary sampling unit information has been suppressed for respondent confidentiality. First, the program employs the Macro Language and the Output Delivery System (ODS to estimate the means and covariances of indicator variables for the response variables, taking the design into account. Then, it uses PROC CATMOD and ODS, ignoring the survey design, to obtain the design matrix and hypothesis test specifications. Finally, it enters these results into another run of CATMOD, which performs automated direct input of the survey design specifications and accomplishes the appropriate analysis. This customized SAS program can be employed, with minor editing, to analyze general categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample surveys with replicate weights. Finally, the results of our analysis accounting for the survey design are compared to the results of two alternate analyses of the same data. This comparison confirms that such alternate analyses, which do not properly account for the design, do not produce useful results.

  19. Tectonic, Climatic and Anthropogenic Vertical Land Movements in Western Europe by Repeated Absolute Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Camp, M. J.; de Viron, O.; Lecocq, T.; Hinzen, K. G.; Quinif, Y.; Williams, S. D.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2010-12-01

    In continental plate interiors, tectonic deformations are small and the associated ground surface movements remain close to or below the accuracy of current geodetic techniques, and at the limit of the noise level. An absolute gravimeter is an appropriate tool to quantify slow vertical movements, as this instrument, based on length and time standards, is drift free and does not depend on any terrestrial reference frame. Repeated absolute gravity (AG) measurements have been performed in Oostende (Belgian coastline) and at 8 stations along a southwest-northeast profile across the Belgian Ardennes and the Roer Valley Graben (Germany), in order to estimate the tectonic deformations in the area. After 7-13 years (depending on the station), we find evidence that the movements are no larger than a few millimeter per year and result from a combination of anthropogenic, climatic, tectonic, and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effects. This demonstrates the importance of precisely modeling the GIA effects in order to investigate intraplate tectonic deformations at the sub-millimeter level. This study also shows that AG measurements, repeated once or twice a year, can resolve vertical velocities at the 1.0 mm/yr level after 10 years, even in difficult conditions, provided that the gravimeter is carefully maintained.

  20. ±25ppm repeatable measurement of trapezoidal pulses with 5MHz bandwidth

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Cerqueira Bastos, Miguel; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    High-quality measurements of pulses are nowadays widely used in fields such as radars, pulsed lasers, electromagnetic pulse generators, and particle accelerators. Whilst literature is mainly focused on fast systems for nanosecond regime with relaxed metrological requirements, in this paper, the high-performance measurement of slower pulses in microsecond regime is faced. In particular, the experimental proof demonstration for a 15 MS/s,_25 ppm repeatable acquisition system to characterize the flat-top of 3 ms rise-time trapezoidal pulses is given. The system exploits a 5MHz bandwidth circuit for analogue signal processing based on the concept of flat-top removal. The requirements, as well as the conceptual and physical designs are illustrated. Simulation results aimed at assessing the circuit performance are also presented. Finally, an experimental case study on the characterization of a pulsed power supply for the klystrons modulators of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN is reported. In ...

  1. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  2. Theoretical repeatability assessment without repetitive measurements in gradient high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Akira; Tsutsumi, Risa; Shoji, Asaki; Hayashi, Yuzuru; Kusu, Fumiyo; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hakamata, Hideki

    2016-07-08

    This paper puts forward a time and material-saving method for evaluating the repeatability of area measurements in gradient HPLC with UV detection (HPLC-UV), based on the function of mutual information (FUMI) theory which can theoretically provide the measurement standard deviation (SD) and detection limits through the stochastic properties of baseline noise with no recourse to repetitive measurements of real samples. The chromatographic determination of terbinafine hydrochloride and enalapril maleate is taken as an example. The best choice of the number of noise data points, inevitable for the theoretical evaluation, is shown to be 512 data points (10.24s at 50 point/s sampling rate of an A/D converter). Coupled with the relative SD (RSD) of sample injection variability in the instrument used, the theoretical evaluation is proved to give identical values of area measurement RSDs to those estimated by the usual repetitive method (n=6) over a wide concentration range of the analytes within the 95% confidence intervals of the latter RSD. The FUMI theory is not a statistical one, but the "statistical" reliability of its SD estimates (n=1) is observed to be as high as that attained by thirty-one measurements of the same samples (n=31). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Modified Jonckheere Test Statistic for Ordered Alternatives in Repeated Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Tül Kübra AKDUR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a new test based on Jonckheere test [1] for  randomized blocks which have dependent observations within block is presented. A weighted sum for each block statistic rather than the unweighted sum proposed by Jonckheereis included. For Jonckheere type statistics, the main assumption is independency of observations within block. In the case of repeated measures design, the assumption of independence is violated. The weighted Jonckheere type statistic for the situation of dependence for different variance-covariance structure and the situation based on ordered alternative hypothesis structure of each block on the design is used. Also, the proposed statistic is compared to the existing test based on Jonckheere in terms of type I error rates by performing Monte Carlo simulation. For the strong correlations, circular bootstrap version of the proposed Jonckheere test provides lower rates of type I error.

  4. An ANOVA approach for statistical comparisons of brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Fraiman, Ricardo

    2018-03-16

    The study of brain networks has developed extensively over the last couple of decades. By contrast, techniques for the statistical analysis of these networks are less developed. In this paper, we focus on the statistical comparison of brain networks in a nonparametric framework and discuss the associated detection and identification problems. We tested network differences between groups with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test we developed specifically for networks. We also propose and analyse the behaviour of a new statistical procedure designed to identify different subnetworks. As an example, we show the application of this tool in resting-state fMRI data obtained from the Human Connectome Project. We identify, among other variables, that the amount of sleep the days before the scan is a relevant variable that must be controlled. Finally, we discuss the potential bias in neuroimaging findings that is generated by some behavioural and brain structure variables. Our method can also be applied to other kind of networks such as protein interaction networks, gene networks or social networks.

  5. Microcomputer-based tests for repeated-measures: Metric properties and predictive validities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Baltzley, Dennis R.; Dunlap, William P.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

    1989-01-01

    A menu of psychomotor and mental acuity tests were refined. Field applications of such a battery are, for example, a study of the effects of toxic agents or exotic environments on performance readiness, or the determination of fitness for duty. The key requirement of these tasks is that they be suitable for repeated-measures applications, and so questions of stability and reliability are a continuing, central focus of this work. After the initial (practice) session, seven replications of 14 microcomputer-based performance tests (32 measures) were completed by 37 subjects. Each test in the battery had previously been shown to stabilize in less than five 90-second administrations and to possess retest reliabilities greater than r = 0.707 for three minutes of testing. However, all the tests had never been administered together as a battery and they had never been self-administered. In order to provide predictive validity for intelligence measurement, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wonderlic Personnel Test were obtained on the same subjects.

  6. Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in Childhood in Prediction of Hypertension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonen, Mervi; Nuotio, Joel; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Jula, Antti; Cheung, Michael; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, Phypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Measurement of repeat effects in Chicago’s criminal social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kump

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The “near-repeat” effect is a well-known criminological phenomenon in which the occurrence of a crime incident gives rise to a temporary elevation of crime risk within close physical proximity to an initial incident. Adopting a social network perspective, we instead define a near repeat in terms of geodesic distance within a criminal social network, rather than spatial distance. Specifically, we report a statistical analysis of repeat effects in arrest data for Chicago during the years 2003–2012. We divide the arrest data into two sets (violent crimes and other crimes and, for each set, we compare the distributions of time intervals between repeat incidents to theoretical distributions in which repeat incidents occur only by chance. We first consider the case of the same arrestee participating in repeat incidents (“exact repeats” and then extend the analysis to evaluate repeat risks of those arrestees near one another in the social network. We observe repeat effects that diminish as a function of geodesic distance and time interval, and we estimate typical time scales for repeat crimes in Chicago.

  8. Testing Mean Differences among Groups: Multivariate and Repeated Measures Analysis with Minimal Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathke, Arne C; Friedrich, Sarah; Pauly, Markus; Konietschke, Frank; Staffen, Wolfgang; Strobl, Nicolas; Höller, Yvonne

    2018-03-22

    To date, there is a lack of satisfactory inferential techniques for the analysis of multivariate data in factorial designs, when only minimal assumptions on the data can be made. Presently available methods are limited to very particular study designs or assume either multivariate normality or equal covariance matrices across groups, or they do not allow for an assessment of the interaction effects across within-subjects and between-subjects variables. We propose and methodologically validate a parametric bootstrap approach that does not suffer from any of the above limitations, and thus provides a rather general and comprehensive methodological route to inference for multivariate and repeated measures data. As an example application, we consider data from two different Alzheimer's disease (AD) examination modalities that may be used for precise and early diagnosis, namely, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and electroencephalogram (EEG). These data violate the assumptions of classical multivariate methods, and indeed classical methods would not have yielded the same conclusions with regards to some of the factors involved.

  9. Developing the Pieta House Suicide Intervention Model: a quasi-experimental, repeated measures design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Paul Wg; Freeman, Joan; O'Connor, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    While most crisis intervention models adhere to a generalised theoretical framework, the lack of clarity around how these should be enacted has resulted in a proliferation of models, most of which have little to no empirical support. The primary aim of this research was to propose a suicide intervention model that would resolve the client's suicidal crisis by decreasing their suicidal ideation and improve their outlook through enhancing a range of protective factors. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of this model on negative and positive outlook. A quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test repeated measures design was employed. A questionnaire assessing self-esteem, depression, and positive and negative suicidal ideation was administered to the same participants pre- and post- therapy facilitating paired responses. Multiple analysis of variance and paired-samples t-tests were conducted to establish whether therapy using the PH-SIM had a significant effect on the clients' negative and positive outlook. Analyses revealed a statistically significant effect of therapy for depression, negative suicidal ideation, self-esteem, and positive suicidal ideation. Negative outlook was significantly lower after therapy and positive outlook significantly higher. The decreased negative outlook and increased positive outlook following therapy provide some support for the proposed model in fulfilling its role, though additional research is required to establish the precise role of the intervention model in achieving this.

  10. Psychosocial outcomes of Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with acute coronary syndromes: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dominic S K; Chau, Janita P C; Chang, Anne M

    2007-08-01

    Western studies have suggested that emotional stress and distress impacted on the morbidity and mortality in people following acute coronary events. Symptoms of anxiety and depression have been associated with re-infarction and death, prolonged recovery and disability and depression may precipitate the client's low self-esteem. This study examined perceived anxiety, depression and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese clients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) over a 6-month period following hospital admission. To examine: A prospective, repeated measures design with measures taken on two occasions over a 6-month period; (1) within the 1st week of hospital admission following the onset of ACS and (2) at 6 months follow up. Convenient sample of 182 voluntary consented clients admitted with ACS to a major public hospital in Hong Kong who could communicate in Chinese, complete questionnaires, cognitive intact, and were haemodynamically stable and free from acute chest pain at the time of interview. Baseline data were obtained within 1 week after hospital admission. The follow-up data was collected 6 months after hospital discharge. The Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State Self-esteem Scale (SSES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess anxiety and depression, state self-esteem, and trait self-esteem, respectively. Findings suggested gender differences in clients' perception in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Improvements in clients' perception of these variables were evident over the 6-month period following their acute coronary events. The study confirmed the western notion that psychosocial problems are common among coronary clients and this also applies to Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with ACS. Further studies to explore effective interventions to address these psychosocial issues are recommended.

  11. Effect of hip braces on brake response time: Repeated measures designed study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Huber, Dennis G; Krismer, Martin; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The question whether or not a patient with a hip brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because the advice given to patients to resume driving is often anecdotal as few scientific data are available on this specific subject. To assess driving ability (brake response time) with commonly used hip braces. Repeated measures design. Brake response time was assessed under six conditions: (1) without a brace (control), (2) with a typical postoperative hip brace with adjustable range of motion and the settings: unrestricted, (3) flexion limited to 70°, (4) extension blocked at 20° hip flexion, (5) both flexion and extension limited (20°/70°) and (6) an elastic hip bandage. Brake response time was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator as used in previous studies. The participants were a convenience sample of able-bodied participants. A total of 70 participants (35 women and 35 men) participated in our study. Mean age was 31.1 (standard deviation: 10.6; range: 21.7-66.4) years. A significant within-subject effect for brake response time was found ( p = 0.009), but subsequent post hoc analyses revealed no significant differences between control and the other settings. Based on our findings, it does not seem mandatory to recommend driving abstinence for patients wearing a hip orthosis. We suggest that our results be interpreted with caution, because (1) an underlying pathological hip condition needs to be considered, (2) the ability to drive a car safely is multifactorial and brake response time is only one component thereof and (3) brake response time measurements were performed only with healthy participants. Clinical relevance Hip braces are used in the context of joint-preserving and prosthetic surgery of the hip. Therefore, clinicians are confronted with the question whether to allow driving a car with the respective hip brace or not. Our data suggest that hip braces do not impair brake response time.

  12. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Reed

    Full Text Available Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75. Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74, = 12.2, p<0.001, for the increase in self-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74, = 0.13, p = 0.72. There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04 between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55. Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  13. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Katharine; Wood, Carly; Barton, Jo; Pretty, Jules N; Cohen, Daniel; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2013-01-01

    Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run) and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A) in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75). Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74), = 12.2, pself-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74), = 0.13, p = 0.72). There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04) between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55). Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  14. Repeatability of Computerized Tomography-Based Anthropomorphic Measurements of Frailty in Patients With Pulmonary Fibrosis Undergoing Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Taylor; Allen, Brian C; Kappus, Matthew; Bhatti, Lubna; Dafalla, Randa A; Snyder, Laurie D; Bashir, Mustafa R

    To determine interreader and intrareader repeatability and correlations among measurements of computerized tomography-based anthropomorphic measurements in patients with pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation. This was an institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study of 23 randomly selected subjects (19 male and 4 female; median age = 69 years; range: 66-77 years) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing pulmonary transplantation, who had also undergone preoperative thoracoabdominal computerized tomography. Five readers of varying imaging experience independently performed the following cross-sectional area measurements at the inferior endplate of the L3 vertebral body: right and left psoas muscles, right and left paraspinal muscles, total abdominal musculature, and visceral and subcutaneous fat. The following measurements were obtained at the inferior endplate of T6: right and left paraspinal muscles with and without including the trapezius muscles and subcutaneous fat. Three readers repeated all measurements to assess intrareader repeatability. Intrareader repeatability was nearly perfect (interclass correlation coefficients = 0.99, P < 0.001). Interreader agreement was excellent across all 5 readers (interclass correlation coefficients: 0.71-0.99, P < 0.001). Coefficients of variance between measures ranged from 3.2%-6.8% for abdominal measurements, but were higher for thoracic measurements, up to 23.9%. Correlation between total paraspinal and total psoas muscle area was strong (r 2 = 0.67, P < 0.001). Thoracic and abdominal musculature had a weaker correlation (r 2 = 0.35-0.38, P < 0.001). Measures of thoracic and abdominal muscle and fat area are highly repeatable in patients with pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation. Measures of muscle area are strongly correlated among abdominal locations, but inversely correlated between abdominal and thoracic locations

  15. Context matters! sources of variability in weekend physical activity among families: a repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Noonan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family involvement is an essential component of effective physical activity (PA interventions in children. However, little is known about the PA levels and characteristics of PA among families. This study used a repeated measures design and multiple data sources to explore the variability and characteristics of weekend PA among families. Methods Families (including a ‘target’ child aged 9–11 years, their primary caregiver(s and siblings aged 6–8 years were recruited through primary schools in Liverpool, UK. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 16 weekend days. ActiGraph.csv files were analysed using the R-package GGIR version 1.1–4. Mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA for each weekend of measurement were calculated using linear mixed models, and variance components were estimated for participant (inter-individual, weekend of measurement, and residual error (intra-individual. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were calculated from the proportion of total variance accounted for by inter-individual sources, and used as a measure of reliability. Diary responses were summed to produce frequency counts. To offer contextual insight into weekend PA among family units, demographic, accelerometer, and diary data were combined to form two case studies representative of low and high active families. Results Twenty-five participants from 7 families participated, including 7 ‘target’ children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 4 boys, 6 siblings (mean age 7.2 ± 0.7 years; 4 boys and 12 adults (7 mothers and 5 fathers. There was a high degree of variability in target children’s (ICC = 0.55, siblings (ICC = 0.38, and mothers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.58, but not in fathers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.83. Children’s weekend PA was mostly unstructured in nature and undertaken with friends, whereas a greater proportion of parents’ weekend

  16. Heart failure re-admission: measuring the ever shortening gap between repeat heart failure hospitalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Bakal

    Full Text Available Many quality-of-care and risk prediction metrics rely on time to first rehospitalization even though heart failure (HF patients may undergo several repeat hospitalizations. The aim of this study is to compare repeat hospitalization models. Using a population-based cohort of 40,667 patients, we examined both HF and all cause re-hospitalizations using up to five years of follow-up. Two models were examined: the gap-time model which estimates the adjusted time between hospitalizations and a multistate model which considered patients to be in one of four states; community-dwelling, in hospital for HF, in hospital for any reason, or dead. The transition probabilities and times were then modeled using patient characteristics and number of repeat hospitalizations. We found that during the five years of follow-up roughly half of the patients returned for a subsequent hospitalization for each repeat hospitalization. Additionally, we noted that the unadjusted time between hospitalizations was reduced ∼40% between each successive hospitalization. After adjustment each additional hospitalization was associated with a 28 day (95% CI: 22-35 reduction in time spent out of hospital. A similar pattern was seen when considering the four state model. A large proportion of patients had multiple repeat hospitalizations. Extending the gap between hospitalizations should be an important goal of treatment evaluation.

  17. Repeated Geophysical Surface Measurements to Estimate the Dynamics of Underground Coalfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Rüter, H.; Lindner, H.

    2009-04-01

    in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to the burning coal in firezone 18. The firezone in Wuda has been visited now for five, that in Queergou for two times. All the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. A so called fireindex deduced from the repeated measurements reveals the dynamics of the coal fire.

  18. Generic framework for high-dimensional fixed-effects ANOVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, A.K.; Timmerman, M.E.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Jansen, J.J.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    In functional genomics it is more rule than exception that experimental designs are used to generate the data. The samples of the resulting data sets are thus organized according to this design and for each sample many biochemical compounds are measured, e.g. typically thousands of gene-expressions

  19. Generic framework for high-dimensional fixed-effects ANOVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Age K.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Hendriks, Margriet M. W. B.; Jansen, Jeroen J.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.

    In functional genomics it is more rule than exception that experimental designs are used to generate the data. The samples of the resulting data sets are thus organized according to this design and for each sample many biochemical compounds are measured, e.g. typically thousands of gene-expressions

  20. Repeatability of measures of inflammatory cell number in bronchial biopsies in atopic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sont, J. K.; Willems, L. N.; Evertse, C. E.; Hooijer, R.; Sterk, P. J.; van Krieken, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    Airway pathology is increasingly considered to be a major outcome in asthma research. The aim of this study was to examine the intra-observer, within-section and between-biopsy repeatability, together with the implications for statistical power of a computerized quantitative analysis of inflammatory

  1. Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring biceps brachii oxygenation during sustained and repeated isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Quaresima, Valentina; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    We examine the test-retest reliability of biceps brachii tissue oxygenation index (TOI) parameters measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during a 10-s sustained and a 30-repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contraction task at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (30% MVC) and maximal (100% MVC) intensities. Eight healthy men (23 to 33 yr) were tested on three sessions separated by 3 h and 24 h, and the within-subject reliability of torque and each TOI parameter were determined by Bland-Altman+/-2 SD limits of agreement plots and coefficient of variation (CV). No significant (P>0.05) differences between the three sessions were found for mean values of torque and TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated tasks at both contraction intensities. All TOI parameters were within+/-2 SD limits of agreement. The CVs for torque integral were similar between the sustained and repeated task at both intensities (4 to 7%); however, the CVs for TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated task were lower for 100% MVC (7 to 11%) than for 30% MVC (22 to 36%). It is concluded that the reliability of the biceps brachii NIRS parameters during both sustained and repeated isometric contraction tasks is acceptable.

  2. Spatial Cluster Detection for Repeatedly Measured Outcomes while Accounting for Residential History

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Andrea J.; Gold, Diane R.; Li, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Spatial cluster detection has become an important methodology in quantifying the effect of hazardous exposures. Previous methods have focused on cross-sectional outcomes that are binary or continuous. There are virtually no spatial cluster detection methods proposed for longitudinal outcomes. This paper proposes a new spatial cluster detection method for repeated outcomes using cumulative geographic residuals. A major advantage of this method is its ability to readily incorporate information ...

  3. Measuring Aseismic Slip through Characteristically Repeating Earthquakes at the Mendocino Triple Junction, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materna, K.; Taira, T.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ), at the transition point between the San Andreas fault system, the Mendocino Transform Fault, and the Cascadia Subduction Zone, undergoes rapid tectonic deformation and produces more large (M>6.0) earthquakes than any region in California. Most of the active faults of the triple junction are located offshore, making it difficult to characterize both seismic slip and aseismic creep. In this work, we study aseismic creep rates near the MTJ using characteristically repeating earthquakes (CREs) as indicators of creep rate. CREs are generally interpreted as repeated failures of the same seismic patch within an otherwise creeping fault zone; as a consequence, the magnitude and recurrence time of the CREs can be used to determine a fault's creep rate through empirically calibrated scaling relations. Using seismic data from 2010-2016, we identify CREs as recorded by an array of eight 100-Hz PBO borehole seismometers deployed in the Cape Mendocino area. For each event pair with epicenters less than 30 km apart, we compute the cross-spectral coherence of 20 seconds of data starting one second before the P-wave arrival. We then select pairs with high coherence in an appropriate frequency band, which is determined uniquely for each event pair based on event magnitude, station distance, and signal-to-noise ratio. The most similar events (with median coherence above 0.95 at two or more stations) are selected as CREs and then grouped into CRE families, and each family is used to infer a local creep rate. On the Mendocino Transform Fault, we find relatively high creep rates of >5 cm/year that increase closer to the Gorda Ridge. Closer to shore and to the MTJ itself, we find many families of repeaters on and off the transform fault with highly variable creep rates, indicative of the complex deformation that takes place there.

  4. Intra-session repeatability of iridocorneal angle measurements provided by a Scheimpflug photography-based system in healthy eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Belda, Clara; Piñero, David P.; Ruiz Fortes, Pedro; Soto-Negro, Roberto; Moya, Myriam; Pérez Cambrodí, Rafael J.; Artola, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra-session repeatability of measurements of the iridocorneal angle at different meridians in the nasal and temporal areas in healthy eyes using the Sirius Scheimpflug photography-based system in glaucoma analysis mode. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients ranging in age from 36 to 79 years were enrolled in the study. All eyes received a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including a complete anterior segment analysis with the C...

  5. Application of a repeat-measure biomarker measurement error model to 2 validation studies: examination of the effect of within-person variation in biomarker measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Sarah Rosner; Spiegelman, Donna; Zhao, Barbara Bojuan; Moshfegh, Alanna; Baer, David J; Willett, Walter C

    2011-03-15

    Repeat-biomarker measurement error models accounting for systematic correlated within-person error can be used to estimate the correlation coefficient (ρ) and deattenuation factor (λ), used in measurement error correction. These models account for correlated errors in the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour diet recall and random within-person variation in the biomarkers. Failure to account for within-person variation in biomarkers can exaggerate correlated errors between FFQs and 24-hour diet recalls. For 2 validation studies, ρ and λ were calculated for total energy and protein density. In the Automated Multiple-Pass Method Validation Study (n=471), doubly labeled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) were measured twice in 52 adults approximately 16 months apart (2002-2003), yielding intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.43 for energy (DLW) and 0.54 for protein density (UN/DLW). The deattenuated correlation coefficient for protein density was 0.51 for correlation between the FFQ and the 24-hour diet recall and 0.49 for correlation between the FFQ and the biomarker. Use of repeat-biomarker measurement error models resulted in a ρ of 0.42. These models were similarly applied to the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (1999-2000). In conclusion, within-person variation in biomarkers can be substantial, and to adequately assess the impact of correlated subject-specific error, this variation should be assessed in validation studies of FFQs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability and Repeatability of Cone Density Measurements in Patients With Stargardt Disease and RPGR-Associated Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Preena; Kasilian, Melissa; Strauss, Rupert; Tee, James; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Tarima, Sergey; Visotcky, Alexis; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-07-01

    To assess reliability and repeatability of cone density measurements by using confocal and (nonconfocal) split-detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) imaging. It will be determined whether cone density values are significantly different between modalities in Stargardt disease (STGD) and retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR)-associated retinopathy. Twelve patients with STGD (aged 9-52 years) and eight with RPGR-associated retinopathy (aged 11-31 years) were imaged using both confocal and split-detector AOSLO simultaneously. Four graders manually identified cone locations in each image that were used to calculate local densities. Each imaging modality was evaluated independently. The data set consisted of 1584 assessments of 99 STGD images (each image in two modalities and four graders who graded each image twice) and 928 RPGR assessments of 58 images (each image in two modalities and four graders who graded each image twice). For STGD assessments the reliability for confocal and split-detector AOSLO was 67.9% and 95.9%, respectively, and the repeatability was 71.2% and 97.3%, respectively. The differences in the measured cone density values between modalities were statistically significant for one grader. For RPGR assessments the reliability for confocal and split-detector AOSLO was 22.1% and 88.5%, respectively, and repeatability was 63.2% and 94.5%, respectively. The differences in cone density between modalities were statistically significant for all graders. Split-detector AOSLO greatly improved the reliability and repeatability of cone density measurements in both disorders and will be valuable for natural history studies and clinical trials using AOSLO. However, it appears that these indices may be disease dependent, implying the need for similar investigations in other conditions.

  7. Reliability and Repeatability of Cone Density Measurements in Patients With Stargardt Disease and RPGR-Associated Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Preena; Kasilian, Melissa; Strauss, Rupert; Tee, James; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Tarima, Sergey; Visotcky, Alexis; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess reliability and repeatability of cone density measurements by using confocal and (nonconfocal) split-detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) imaging. It will be determined whether cone density values are significantly different between modalities in Stargardt disease (STGD) and retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR)–associated retinopathy. Methods Twelve patients with STGD (aged 9–52 years) and eight with RPGR-associated retinopathy (aged 11–31 years) were imaged using both confocal and split-detector AOSLO simultaneously. Four graders manually identified cone locations in each image that were used to calculate local densities. Each imaging modality was evaluated independently. The data set consisted of 1584 assessments of 99 STGD images (each image in two modalities and four graders who graded each image twice) and 928 RPGR assessments of 58 images (each image in two modalities and four graders who graded each image twice). Results For STGD assessments the reliability for confocal and split-detector AOSLO was 67.9% and 95.9%, respectively, and the repeatability was 71.2% and 97.3%, respectively. The differences in the measured cone density values between modalities were statistically significant for one grader. For RPGR assessments the reliability for confocal and split-detector AOSLO was 22.1% and 88.5%, respectively, and repeatability was 63.2% and 94.5%, respectively. The differences in cone density between modalities were statistically significant for all graders. Conclusions Split-detector AOSLO greatly improved the reliability and repeatability of cone density measurements in both disorders and will be valuable for natural history studies and clinical trials using AOSLO. However, it appears that these indices may be disease dependent, implying the need for similar investigations in other conditions. PMID:28738413

  8. EFFICIENCY OF REPEATED AND UNSCHEDULED TRAINING AS THE MEASURES TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS AT SUPPLY DEPOTS AND WAREHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharova Irina Nikolaevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of the state of occupational safety at supply depots and warehouses. It is revealed that most accidents involve the employees who have less than one year’s service. Experience has proven that the preventive activities to avoid occupational traumatism are efficient when a complex of workplace safety measures is implemented. The experts consider the repeated and unscheduled training to be very important events. This is supported by the fact that among the employees of the commercial establishments who underwent repeated and unscheduled training, the number of individuals who suffered an accident is small. The efficient functioning of the occupational safety training system is infeasible without ensuring the motivation for assimilating the knowledge and forming the complete foundation for safe labor. In order to reduce the number of accidents, one should proceed from the principle of responding to accidents to the system for professional risk management.

  9. Reproducibility and repeatability of a new computerized software for sagittal spinopelvic and scoliosis curvature radiologic measurements: Keops(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, C; Ferrero, E; Fort, D; Heyberger, C; Le Huec, J-C

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer variability of the computerized radiologic measurements using Keops(®) and to determine the bias between the software and the standard paper measurement. Four individuals measured all frontal and sagittal variables on the 30 X-rays randomly selected on two occasions (test and retest conditions). The Bland-Altman plot was used to determine the degree of agreement between the measurement on paper X-ray and the measurement using Keops(®) for all reviewers and for the two measures; the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for each pair of analyses to assess interobserver reproducibility among the four reviewers for the same patient using either paper X-ray or Keops(®) measurement and finally, concordance correlation coefficient (rc) was calculated to assess intraobserver repeatability among the same reviewer for one patient between the two measure using the same method (paper or Keops(®)). The mean difference calculated between the two methods was minimal at -0, 4° ± 3.41° [-7.1; 6.4] for frontal measurement and 0.1° ± 3.52° [-6.7; 6.8] for sagittal measurement. Keops(®) has a better interobserver reproducibility than paper measurement for determination of the sagittal pelvic parameter (ICC = 0.9960 vs. 0.9931; p = 0.0001). It has a better intraobserver repeatability than paper for determination of Cobbs angle (rc = 0.9872 vs. 0.9808; p rc = 0.9981 vs. 0.9953; p plane and that the use of this software can be recommended for clinical application. Diagnostic, level III.

  10. Intergenic and repeat transcription in human, chimpanzee and macaque brains measured by RNA-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augix Guohua Xu

    Full Text Available Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism's phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes' boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 20-28% of non-ribosomal transcripts correspond to annotated exons and 20-23% to introns. By contrast, transcripts originating within intronic and intergenic repetitive sequences constitute 40-48% of the total brain transcriptome. Notably, some repeat families show elevated transcription. In non-repetitive intergenic regions, we identify and characterize 1,093 distinct regions highly expressed in the human brain. These regions are conserved at the RNA expression level across primates studied and at the DNA sequence level across mammals. A large proportion of these transcripts (20% represents 3'UTR extensions of known genes and may play roles in alternative microRNA-directed regulation. Finally, we show that while transcriptome divergence between species increases with evolutionary time, intergenic transcripts show more expression differences among species and exons show less. Our results show that many yet uncharacterized evolutionary conserved transcripts exist in the human brain. Some of these transcripts may play roles in transcriptional regulation and contribute to evolution of human-specific phenotypic traits.

  11. The Repeated Administration of Resveratrol Has Measurable Effects on Circulating T-Cell Subsets in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that resveratrol exerts immunomodulatory effects with potential clinical value in the amelioration of autoimmune disorders and cancer prevention; however, little is known about the in vivo effects of this naturally occurring polyphenol on human immune cells. We assessed the effects of repeated doses of resveratrol (1000 mg/day for 28 days on circulating immune cells in healthy Japanese individuals. Resveratrol was safe and well tolerated and was associated with significant increases in the numbers of circulating γδ T cells and regulatory T cells and resulted in small, yet significant, decreases in the plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and MCP-1 and a significant increase in the plasma antioxidant activity compared with the corresponding antioxidant baseline activity and with that in four control individuals. In in vitro studies, resveratrol significantly improved the growth of γδ T cells and regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that resveratrol has some clear biological effects on human circulating immune cells. Further studies are necessary to interpret the long-term immunological changes associated with resveratrol treatment.

  12. Perspectives on repeated low-level blast and the measurement of neurotrauma in humans as an occupational exposure risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W.; Dell, K. C.; Yanagi, M. A.; Hassan, D. M.; LoPresti, M. L.

    2017-11-01

    A pressing question in military medical research is the nature and degree of effects on the human brain from occupational repeated exposure to low-level explosive blast, but reliable and effective means to objectively measure such effects remain elusive. In survey results, headache, difficulty sleeping, irritability, cognitive impairment, and a variety of other symptoms consistent with post-concussive syndrome have been reported by those exposed to blast and there was positive correlation between degree of blast exposure and degree of symptomology, but an important goal is to obtain more objective evidence of an effect than self-report alone. This review reflects recent efforts to measure and evaluate such hypothesized effects and current recommendations for ongoing study. Optimal measures are likely those with sensitivity and specificity to systemic effects in mild neurotrauma, that have minimal to no volitional component, and that can be sampled relatively quickly with minimal intrusion in prospective, observational field studies during routine training with explosives. An understanding of an association between parameters of exposure to repeated low-level blast and negative neurologic effects would support the evaluation of clinical implications and development of protective equipment and surveillance protocols where warranted. At present, low-level blast exposure surveillance measurements do not exist as a systematic record for any professional community.

  13. Repeatable aversion across threat types is linked with life-history traits but is dependent on how aversion is measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Reichert, Michael S; Crane, Jodie M S; O'Shea, William; Quinn, John L

    2018-02-01

    Personality research suggests that individual differences in risk aversion may be explained by links with life-history variation. However, few empirical studies examine whether repeatable differences in risk avoidance behaviour covary with life-history traits among individuals in natural populations, or how these links vary depending on the context and the way risk aversion is measured. We measured two different risk avoidance behaviours (latency to enter the nest and inspection time) in wild great tits ( Parus major ) in two different contexts-response to a novel object and to a predator cue placed at the nest-box during incubation---and related these behaviours to female reproductive success and condition. Females responded equally strongly to both stimuli, and although both behaviours were repeatable, they did not correlate. Latency to enter was negatively related to body condition and the number of offspring fledged. By contrast, inspection time was directly explained by whether incubating females had been flushed from the nest before the trial began. Thus, our inferences on the relationship between risk aversion and fitness depend on how risk aversion was measured. Our results highlight the limitations of drawing conclusions about the relevance of single measures of a personality trait such as risk aversion.

  14. Short-term Changes of Apparent Optical Properties in a Shallow Water Environment: Observations from Repeated Airborne Hyperspectral Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; English, D. C.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Toro-Farmer, G.; Herwitz, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm has been developed for AISA imagery over optically shallow waters in Sugarloaf Key of the Florida Keys. The AISA data were collected repeatedly during several days in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. A non-zero near-infrared (NIR) remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was accounted for through iterations, based on the relationship of field-measured Rrs between the NIR and red wavelengths. Validation showed mean ratios of 0.94 to 1.002 between AISA-derived and field-measured Rrs in the blue to red wavelengths, with uncertainties generally turbidity (light attenuation) and bottom contributions. Some of these changes are larger than two times of the Rrs uncertainties from the AISA retrievals, therefore representing statistically significant changes that can be well observed from airborne measurements. The case study suggests that repeated airborne measurements may be used to study short-term changes in shallow water environments, and such a capacity may be enhanced with future geostationary satellite missions specifically designed to observe coastal ecosystems.

  15. Reinforcing Sampling Distributions through a Randomization-Based Activity for Introducing ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura; Doehler, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a randomization-based activity to introduce the ANOVA F-test to students. The two main goals of this activity are to successfully teach students to comprehend ANOVA F-tests and to increase student comprehension of sampling distributions. Four sections of students in an advanced introductory statistics course…

  16. Measuring the Dynamic Soil Response During Repeated Wheeling Using Seismic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Carizzon, Marco; Berisso, Feto Esimo

    2013-01-01

    was performed with an agricultural tire (60 kN wheel load) on a gleyic Cambisol. We measured Vp using an acoustic (microseismic) device at various depths before, during (i.e., below the tire), and after wheeling. In addition, we measured bulk density and penetrometer resistance before and after wheeling...

  17. A DESCRIPTION OF QUASAR VARIABILITY MEASURED USING REPEATED SDSS AND POSS IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ivezić, Željko; Becker, Andrew C.; Anderson, Scott F.; Sesar, Branimir; De Vries, Wim; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Lupton, Robert H.; Hall, Patrick B.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description and statistical interpretation of the optical continuum variability of quasars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has obtained repeated imaging in five UV-to-IR photometric bands for 33,881 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. About 10,000 quasars have an average of 60 observations in each band obtained over a decade along Stripe 82 (S82), whereas the remaining ∼25,000 have 2-3 observations due to scan overlaps. The observed time lags span the range from a day to almost 10 years, and constrain quasar variability at rest-frame time lags of up to 4 years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 Å to 6000 Å. We publicly release a user-friendly catalog of quasars from the SDSS Data Release 7 that have been observed at least twice in SDSS or once in both SDSS and the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and we use it to analyze the ensemble properties of quasar variability. Based on a damped random walk (DRW) model defined by a characteristic timescale and an asymptotic variability amplitude that scale with the luminosity, black hole mass, and rest wavelength for individual quasars calibrated in S82, we can fully explain the ensemble variability statistics of the non-S82 quasars such as the exponential distribution of large magnitude changes. All available data are consistent with the DRW model as a viable description of the optical continuum variability of quasars on timescales of ∼5-2000 days in the rest frame. We use these models to predict the incidence of quasar contamination in transient surveys such as those from the Palomar Transient Factory and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  18. The use of a measure of acute irritation to predict the outcome of repeated usage of hand soap products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Wilkinson, M; McShane, P; Pennington, D; Fernandez, C; Pierce, S

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is an important worldwide problem that could be reduced by better hand hygiene practice. However, an increasing number of healthcare workers are experiencing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands as a result of repeated hand washing. This may lead to a reduced level of compliance with regard to hand hygiene. To assess whether a measure of acute irritation by hand soaps could predict the effects of repeated usage over a 2-week period. In a double-blind, randomized comparison study, the comparative irritation potential of four different hand soaps was assessed over a 24-h treatment period. The effect of repeated hand washing with the hand soap products over a 2-week period in healthy adult volunteers on skin barrier function was then determined by assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), epidermal hydration and a visual assessment using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) at days 0, 7 and 14. A total of 121 subjects from the 123 recruited completed phase 1 of the study. All four products were seen to be significantly different from each other in terms of the irritant reaction observed and all products resulted in a significantly higher irritation compared with the no-treatment control. Seventy-nine of the initial 121 subjects were then enrolled into the repeated usage study. A statistically significant worsening of the clinical condition of the skin as measured by HECSI was seen from baseline to day 14 in those subjects repeatedly washing their hands with two of the four soap products (products C and D) with P-values of 0·02 and 0·01, respectively. Subclinical assessment of the skin barrier function by measuring epidermal hydration was significantly increased from baseline to day 7 after repeated hand washing with products A, B and D but overall no significant change was seen in all four products tested by day 14. A statistically significant increase in TEWL at day 14 was seen for product A (P = 0·02) indicating a

  19. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction...... and measured on a COBAS Mira autoanalyser from Roche. The main findings were that samples for analysis of creatinine should be kept at a temperature of -20 degrees C or lower and frozen and thawed only once. The limit of detection, determined as 3 x SD of 20 determinations of a sample at a low concentration (6...

  20. Repeated stimulation, inter-stimulus interval and inter-electrode distance alters muscle contractile properties as measured by Tensiomyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I.; Francis, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Context The influence of methodological parameters on the measurement of muscle contractile properties using Tensiomyography (TMG) has not been published. Objective To investigate the; (1) reliability of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum muscle displacement (Dm), (2) effect of changing inter-stimulus interval on Dm (using a fixed stimulus amplitude) and contraction time (Tc), (3) the effect of changing inter-electrode distance on Dm and Tc. Design Within subject, repeated measures. Participants 10 participants for each objective. Main outcome measures Dm and Tc of the rectus femoris, measured using TMG. Results The coefficient of variance (CV) and the intra-class correlation (ICC) of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum Dm was 5.7% and 0.92 respectively. Dm was higher when using an inter-electrode distance of 7cm compared to 5cm [P = 0.03] and when using an inter-stimulus interval of 10s compared to 30s [P = 0.017]. Further analysis of inter-stimulus interval data, found that during 10 repeated stimuli Tc became faster after the 5th measure when compared to the second measure [P<0.05]. The 30s inter-stimulus interval produced the most stable Tc over 10 measures compared to 10s and 5s respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that the stimulus amplitude producing maximum Dm of the rectus femoris is reliable. Inter-electrode distance and inter-stimulus interval can significantly influence Dm and/ or Tc. Our results support the use of a 30s inter-stimulus interval over 10s or 5s. Future studies should determine the influence of methodological parameters on muscle contractile properties in a range of muscles. PMID:29451885

  1. Attrition from Web-Based Cognitive Testing: A Repeated Measures Comparison of Gamification Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Skinner, Andy; Coyle, David; Lawrence, Natalia; Munafo, Marcus

    2017-11-22

    The prospect of assessing cognition longitudinally and remotely is attractive to researchers, health practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies alike. However, such repeated testing regimes place a considerable burden on participants, and with cognitive tasks typically being regarded as effortful and unengaging, these studies may experience high levels of participant attrition. One potential solution is to gamify these tasks to make them more engaging: increasing participant willingness to take part and reducing attrition. However, such an approach must balance task validity with the introduction of entertaining gamelike elements. This study aims to investigate the effects of gamelike features on participant attrition using a between-subjects, longitudinal Web-based testing study. We used three variants of a common cognitive task, the Stop Signal Task (SST), with a single gamelike feature in each: one variant where points were rewarded for performing optimally; another where the task was given a graphical theme; and a third variant, which was a standard SST and served as a control condition. Participants completed four compulsory test sessions over 4 consecutive days before entering a 6-day voluntary testing period where they faced a daily decision to either drop out or continue taking part. Participants were paid for each session they completed. A total of 482 participants signed up to take part in the study, with 265 completing the requisite four consecutive test sessions. No evidence of an effect of gamification on attrition was observed. A log-rank test showed no evidence of a difference in dropout rates between task variants (χ 2 2 =3.0, P=.22), and a one-way analysis of variance of the mean number of sessions completed per participant in each variant also showed no evidence of a difference (F 2,262 =1.534, P=.21, partial η 2 =0.012). Our findings raise doubts about the ability of gamification to reduce attrition from longitudinal cognitive testing studies

  2. Direct and Repeated Clinical Measurements of pO2 for Enhancing Cancer Therapy and Other Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Harold M; Williams, Benjamin B; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Jarvis, Lesley A; Chen, Eunice Y; Schaner, Philip E; Ali, Arif; Gallez, Bernard; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Flood, Ann B

    2016-01-01

    The first systematic multi-center study of the clinical use of EPR oximetry has begun, with funding as a PPG from the NCI. Using particulate oxygen sensitive EPR, materials in three complementary forms (India Ink, "OxyChips", and implantable resonators) the clinical value of the technique will be evaluated. The aims include using repeated measurement of tumor pO2 to monitor the effects of treatments on tumor pO2, to use the measurements to select suitable subjects for the type of treatment including the use of hyperoxic techniques, and to provide data that will enable existing clinical techniques which provide data relevant to tumor pO2 but which cannot directly measure it to be enhanced by determining circumstances where they can give dependable information about tumor pO2.

  3. Looking back on a half century of repeat magnetic measurements in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Mioara Mandea; Gilder, Stuart; Courtillot, Vincent; Le Mouël, Jean Louis; Gilbert, Daniel

    Birds do it. Bees do it. And with the discovery of lodestone over 2200 years ago, humans too could incorporate the Earth's magnetic field into their daily lives. Some of the oldest applications for tracking the magnetic field were in land and sea navigation. Magnetic field measurements quickly became an important economic factor in world trade, with documented use dating from the 11th century in China.The measurements are important in other applications as well. For example, rapid field variations are generated by solar activity and its interaction with the terrestrial environment. Large magnetic storms can disrupt satellite operation, communication systems, power transmission networks, and so forth [Campbell, 1997].Geomagnetism also provides a unique opportunity to explore the Earth's outer core, which is mostly liquid (molten) iron, where the field is generated. Field measurements can also yield valuable insights into the location of mineral deposits and aid in applications in the petroleum industry.

  4. Repeated stimulation, inter-stimulus interval and inter-electrode distance alters muscle contractile properties as measured by Tensiomyography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah V Wilson

    Full Text Available The influence of methodological parameters on the measurement of muscle contractile properties using Tensiomyography (TMG has not been published.To investigate the; (1 reliability of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum muscle displacement (Dm, (2 effect of changing inter-stimulus interval on Dm (using a fixed stimulus amplitude and contraction time (Tc, (3 the effect of changing inter-electrode distance on Dm and Tc.Within subject, repeated measures.10 participants for each objective.Dm and Tc of the rectus femoris, measured using TMG.The coefficient of variance (CV and the intra-class correlation (ICC of stimulus amplitude needed to elicit maximum Dm was 5.7% and 0.92 respectively. Dm was higher when using an inter-electrode distance of 7cm compared to 5cm [P = 0.03] and when using an inter-stimulus interval of 10s compared to 30s [P = 0.017]. Further analysis of inter-stimulus interval data, found that during 10 repeated stimuli Tc became faster after the 5th measure when compared to the second measure [P<0.05]. The 30s inter-stimulus interval produced the most stable Tc over 10 measures compared to 10s and 5s respectively.Our data suggest that the stimulus amplitude producing maximum Dm of the rectus femoris is reliable. Inter-electrode distance and inter-stimulus interval can significantly influence Dm and/ or Tc. Our results support the use of a 30s inter-stimulus interval over 10s or 5s. Future studies should determine the influence of methodological parameters on muscle contractile properties in a range of muscles.

  5. Rule-of-thumb adjustment of sample sizes to accommodate dropouts in a two-stage analysis of repeated measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, John E; Tonidandel, Scott; Starbuck, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Recent contributions to the statistical literature have provided elegant model-based solutions to the problem of estimating sample sizes for testing the significance of differences in mean rates of change across repeated measures in controlled longitudinal studies with differentially correlated error and missing data due to dropouts. However, the mathematical complexity and model specificity of these solutions make them generally inaccessible to most applied researchers who actually design and undertake treatment evaluation research in psychiatry. In contrast, this article relies on a simple two-stage analysis in which dropout-weighted slope coefficients fitted to the available repeated measurements for each subject separately serve as the dependent variable for a familiar ANCOVA test of significance for differences in mean rates of change. This article is about how a sample of size that is estimated or calculated to provide desired power for testing that hypothesis without considering dropouts can be adjusted appropriately to take dropouts into account. Empirical results support the conclusion that, whatever reasonable level of power would be provided by a given sample size in the absence of dropouts, essentially the same power can be realized in the presence of dropouts simply by adding to the original dropout-free sample size the number of subjects who would be expected to drop from a sample of that original size under conditions of the proposed study.

  6. Reduced basis ANOVA methods for partial differential equations with high-dimensional random inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Qifeng, E-mail: liaoqf@shanghaitech.edu.cn [School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Lin, Guang, E-mail: guanglin@purdue.edu [Department of Mathematics & School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    In this paper we present a reduced basis ANOVA approach for partial deferential equations (PDEs) with random inputs. The ANOVA method combined with stochastic collocation methods provides model reduction in high-dimensional parameter space through decomposing high-dimensional inputs into unions of low-dimensional inputs. In this work, to further reduce the computational cost, we investigate spatial low-rank structures in the ANOVA-collocation method, and develop efficient spatial model reduction techniques using hierarchically generated reduced bases. We present a general mathematical framework of the methodology, validate its accuracy and demonstrate its efficiency with numerical experiments.

  7. Superficial Ultrasound Shear Wave Speed Measurements in Soft and Hard Elasticity Phantoms: Repeatability and Reproducibility Using Two Different Ultrasound Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R.; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S.; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W.; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. Purpose To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three different imaging methods, two different ultrasound systems, and multiple operators. Methods and Materials Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution #1 used an Acuson S3000 ultrasound system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.) and three different shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution #2 used an Aixplorer ultrasound system (Supersonic Imagine) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student’s t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single measure intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. Results For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (p=0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (p>0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5–6.8%), and inter-operator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth

  8. Superficial ultrasound shear wave speed measurements in soft and hard elasticity phantoms: repeatability and reproducibility using two ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L

    2015-03-01

    There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three imaging methods, two US systems and multiple operators. Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution No. 1 used an Acuson S3000 US system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Malvern, PA) and three shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution No. 2 used an Aixplorer US system (SuperSonic Imagine, Bothell, WA) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0 cm, 2.5 cm and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student's t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single-measure intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (P = 0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (P > 0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5-6.8%), and interoperator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥ 0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth significantly affected measured SWS (P

  9. Repeated serum creatinine measurement in primary care: Not all patients have chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentille Lorente, Delicia; Gentille Lorente, Jorge; Salvadó Usach, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of kidney failure in patients from a primary care centre in a basic healthcare district with laboratory availability allowing serum creatinine measurements. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study. A basic healthcare district serving 23,807 people aged ≥ 18 years. Prevalence of kidney failure among 17,240 patients having at least one laboratory measurement available was 8.5% (mean age 77.6 ± 12.05 years). In 33.2% of such patients an occult kidney failure was found (98.8% were women). Prevalence of chronic kidney failure among 10,011 patients having at least 2 laboratory measurements available (≥ 3 months apart) was 5.5% with mean age being 80.1 ± 10.0 years (most severely affected patients were those aged 75 to 84); 59.7% were men and 76.3% of cases were in stage 3. An occult kidney failure was found in 5.3% of patients with women being 86.2% of them (a glomerular filtration rate<60 ml/min was estimated for plasma creatinine levels of 0.9 mg/dl or higher). Comparison of present findings to those previously reported demonstrates the need for further studies on the prevalence of overall (chronic and acute) kidney failure in Spain in order to estimate the real scope of the disease. Primary care physicians play a critical role in disease detection, therapy, control and recording (in medical records). MDRD equation is useful and practical to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognostic value of repeated serum CA 125 measurements in first trimester pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Rein, D T; Foth, D; Eibach, H W; Kurbacher, C M; Mallmann, P; Römer, T

    2001-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of maternal CA 125 in patients with symptomatic first trimester pregnancy and to evaluate the prognostic significance of CA 125 versus beta-hCG in early pregnancies with intact fetal heartbeat, complicated by vaginal bleeding. Two prospective open-label studies with longitudinal follow-up in the second trial. Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cologne. Study 1: 168 patients presenting between gestational weeks 6 and 12 with: extrauterine pregnancy, 29; missed abortion, 50; incomplete spontaneous abortion, 38; imminent abortion, 33; and normal pregnancy (no history of endometriosis or ovarian mass), 18. Study 2: Fifty consecutive patients with vaginal bleeding during gestational weeks 6-12 all of whom having demostrable fetal heartbeat. Eighteen patients finally aborted whereas the remainder had normally continuing pregnancy until term. Study 1: Single serum determinations of CA 125 and beta-hCG were correlated with the different disorders observed. Study 2: Two sequential measurements of serum CA 125 and beta-hCG performed within a 5-7 days interval were related to the outcome of pregnancy as indicated by changes of the ultrasound presentation, miscarriage, future hospitalization, or delivery. Study 1: Patients with vaginal bleeding generally had higher median CA 125 values (38 IU/ml; range 1.3-540) compared to non-bleeding patients (17.8 IU/ml; range 1.0-157). No statistically significant differences in regard to median serum CA 125 levels between symptomatic and normal pregnancies occurred: normal pregnancy, 25.5 IU/ml (range 3.2-97); ectopic pregnancy, 26 IU/ml (range 1.3-157); missed abortion, 19.1IU/ml (range 1-242); threatened abortion, 48 IU/ml (range 5.2-540); spontaneous abortion, 40 IU/ml (range 5.4-442). Study 2: Initial CA 125 levels did not differ significantly between both groups of patients with 27/32 non-aborters and 13/18 aborters showing concentrations below 65 IU/ml. After 5-7 days, CA

  11. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing thresholds: an evaluation based on repeated measurements in the German printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäper, Michael; Seeber, Andreas; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. The study comprised four repeated examinations during 5 years and started with 333 male workers. Lifetime weighted average exposures (LWAE) to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings; recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study (toluene, active sampling; noise, stationary measurements). Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 kHz. Mean LWAE exposures to toluene and noise were 45+/-17 ppm plus 82+/-7 dB(A) for high toluene exposed and 10+/-7 ppm plus 82+/-4 dB(A) for low toluene exposed subjects, mean current exposures were 26+/-20 ppm plus 81+/-4 dB(A) and 3+/-3 ppm plus 82+/-4 dB(A). Mean exposure duration was 21.3+/-6.5 years for long exposed and 5.9+/-2.2 years for short exposed subjects. Repeated measurement analyses of variance did not reveal effects of toluene intensity, exposure duration and interactions between toluene intensity and noise intensity. Noise intensity [79+/-3 dB(A) vs. 84+/-1 dB(A)] was significant for auditory thresholds. A case concept utilising developments of individual auditory thresholds did not reveal significant toluene effects. Logistic models including age, exposure duration, toluene in ambient air, current noise and either hippuric acid or ortho-cresol (o-cresol) found only age to be significant for elevated OR of high frequency hearing loss. Due to missing toluene effects, it was concluded that the threshold level for developing hearing loss as a result of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise might be above the current limit of 50 ppm toluene.

  13. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  14. Repeated measurement of nasal lavage fluid chemokines in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Terry L; Tudor, Gail E; Ivins, Sally S; Murphy, Paula C; Peden, David B; Henderson, Frederick W

    2006-02-01

    Inflammatory processes at the mucosal surface may play a role in maintenance of asthma pathophysiology. Cross-sectional studies in asthmatic patients suggest that chemokines such as interleukin 8 (IL-8) are overproduced by respiratory epithelium. To test the hypothesis that chemokine levels are persistently elevated in the respiratory secretions of asthmatic children at a stable baseline. We measured nasal lavage fluid (NLF) levels of chemokines and other mediators at 3- to 4-month intervals in a longitudinal study of asthmatic children, with nonasthmatic siblings as controls. In a linear mixed-model analysis, both family and day of visit had significant effects on nasal mediators. Thus, data for 12 asthmatic-nonasthmatic sibling pairs who had 3 or more same-day visits were analyzed separately. For sibling pairs, median eosinophil cationic protein levels derived from serial measurements in NLF were elevated in asthmatic patients compared with nonasthmatic patients, with a near-significant tendency for elevation of total protein and eotaxin levels as well. However, no significant differences were found for IL-8 or several other chemokines. Ratios of IL-13 or IL-5 to interferon-gamma released by house dust mite antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, tested on a single occasion, were significantly increased for asthmatic patients. Substantial temporal and family-related variability exists in nasal inflammation in asthmatic children. Although higher levels of eosinophil cationic protein are usually present in NLF of patients with stable asthma compared with patients without asthma, chemokines other than eotaxin are not consistently increased. Eosinophil activation at the mucosal surface is a more consistent predictor of asthmatic symptoms than nonspecific elevation of epithelium-derived inflammatory chemokine levels.

  15. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eNoone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every six months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardised fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Patients with Insomnia: A Repeated Measurement Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Spiegelhalder

    Full Text Available Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system disorders. It is characterized by increased arousal levels, however, the neurobiological causes and correlates of hyperarousal in insomnia remain to be further determined. In the current study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used in the morning and evening in a well-characterized sample of 20 primary insomnia patients (12 females; 8 males; 42.7 ± 13.4 years and 20 healthy good sleepers (12 females; 8 males; 44.1 ± 10.6 years. The most important inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and glutamate/glutamine (Glx, were assessed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. The primary hypothesis, a diurnal effect on GABA levels in patients with insomnia, could not be confirmed. Moreover, the current results did not support previous findings of altered GABA levels in individuals with insomnia. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that GABA levels in the ACC may be positively associated with habitual sleep duration, and, thus, reduced GABA levels may be a trait marker of objective sleep disturbances. Moreover, there was a significant GROUP x MEASUREMENT TIME interaction effect on Glx in the DLPFC with increasing Glx levels across the day in the patients but not in the control group. Therefore, Glx levels may reflect hyperarousal at bedtime in those with insomnia. Future confirmatory studies should include larger sample sizes to investigate brain metabolites in different subgroups of insomnia.

  17. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Martha; Semkovska, Maria; Carton, Mary; Dunne, Ross; Horgan, John-Paul; O'Kane, Breige; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2014-01-01

    Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ) for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability, and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every 6 months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardized fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  18. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). METHODS: A prospective study consisting of patients...... with active nAMD enrolled in the Distance of Choroid Study at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Patients underwent three 12×9 mm macular raster scans using the deep range imaging (DRI) OCT-1 SS-OCT (Topcon) device in a single imaging session. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were calculated for the ETDRS...... macular subfields. Repeatability was calculated according to methods described by Bland and Altman. RESULTS: 39 eyes of 39 patients with nAMD were included with a mean (±SD) age of 73.9 (±7.2) years. The mean (±SD) retinal thickness of the central macular subfield was 225.7 μm (±12.4 μm...

  19. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  20. Use of count-based image reconstruction to evaluate the variability and repeatability of measured standardised uptake values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Kaneta

    Full Text Available Standardized uptake values (SUVs are the most widely used quantitative imaging biomarkers in PET. It is important to evaluate the variability and repeatability of measured SUVs. Phantom studies seem to be essential for this purpose; however, repetitive phantom scanning is not recommended due to the decay of radioactivity. In this study, we performed count-based image reconstruction to avoid the influence of decay using two different PET/CT scanners. By adjusting the ratio of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose solution to tap water, a NEMA IEC body phantom was set for SUVs of 4.0 inside six hot spheres. The PET data were obtained using two scanners (Aquiduo and Celesteion; Toshiba Medical Systems, Tochigi, Japan. We set the start time for image reconstruction when the total radioactivity in the phantom was 2.53 kBq/cc, and employed the counts of the first 2-min acquisition as the standard. To maintain the number of counts for each image, we set the acquisition time for image reconstruction depending on the decay of radioactivity. We obtained 50 images, and calculated the SUVmax and SUVpeak of all six spheres in each image. The average values of the SUVmax were used to calculate the recovery coefficients to compare those measured by the two different scanners. Bland-Altman analyses of the SUVs measured by the two scanners were also performed. The measured SUVs using the two scanners exhibited a 10-30% difference, and the standard deviation (SD of the measured SUVs was between 0.1-0.2. The Celesteion always exhibited higher values than the Aquiduo. The smaller sphere exhibited a larger SD, and the SUVpeak had a smaller SD than the SUVmax. The Bland-Altman analyses showed poor agreement between the SUVs measured by the two scanners. The recovery coefficient curves obtained from the two scanners were considerably different. The Celesteion exhibited higher recovery coefficients than the Aquiduo, especially at approximately 20-mm-diameter. Additionally, the curves

  1. Performance of bias-correction methods for exposure measurement error using repeated measurements with and without missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistatou, Evridiki; McNamee, Roseanne

    2012-12-10

    It is known that measurement error leads to bias in assessing exposure effects, which can however, be corrected if independent replicates are available. For expensive replicates, two-stage (2S) studies that produce data 'missing by design', may be preferred over a single-stage (1S) study, because in the second stage, measurement of replicates is restricted to a sample of first-stage subjects. Motivated by an occupational study on the acute effect of carbon black exposure on respiratory morbidity, we compare the performance of several bias-correction methods for both designs in a simulation study: an instrumental variable method (EVROS IV) based on grouping strategies, which had been recommended especially when measurement error is large, the regression calibration and the simulation extrapolation methods. For the 2S design, either the problem of 'missing' data was ignored or the 'missing' data were imputed using multiple imputations. Both in 1S and 2S designs, in the case of small or moderate measurement error, regression calibration was shown to be the preferred approach in terms of root mean square error. For 2S designs, regression calibration as implemented by Stata software is not recommended in contrast to our implementation of this method; the 'problematic' implementation of regression calibration although substantially improved with use of multiple imputations. The EVROS IV method, under a good/fairly good grouping, outperforms the regression calibration approach in both design scenarios when exposure mismeasurement is severe. Both in 1S and 2S designs with moderate or large measurement error, simulation extrapolation severely failed to correct for bias. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Determining Criteria to Predict Repeatability of Performance in Older Adults: Using Coefficients of Variation for Strength and Functional Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Isaac Selva; Bird, Stephen R; Westfold, Ben A; Shield, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measures of muscle strength and functional capacity in older adults are essential. The aim of this study was to determine whether coefficients of variation (CVs) of individuals obtained at the first session can infer repeatability of performance in a subsequent session. Forty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 68.6 ± 6.1 years; age range 60-80 years) completed two assessment sessions, and on each occasion undertook: dynamometry for isometric and isokinetic quadriceps strength, 6 meter fast walk (6MFWT), timed up and go (TUG), stair climb and descent, and vertical jump. Significant linear relationships were observed between CVs in session 1 and the percentage difference between sessions 1 and 2 for torque at 60, 120, 240 and 360°/s, 6MFWT, TUG, stair climb, and stair descent. The results of this study could be used to establish criteria for determining an acceptably reliable performance in strength and functional tests.

  3. Brachial artery responses to ambient pollution, temperature, and humidity in people with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Horton, Edward S; Cohen, Allison; Coull, Brent A; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schwartz, Joel D; Mittleman, Murray A; Li, Yongsheng; Stone, Peter H; de Souza, Celine; Lamparello, Brooke; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R

    2014-03-01

    Extreme weather and air pollution are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. In a population with diabetes, we conducted a novel assessment of vascular brachial artery responses both to ambient pollution and to weather (temperature and water vapor pressure, a measure of humidity). Sixty-four 49- to 85-year-old Boston residents with type 2 diabetes completed up to five study visits (279 repeated measures). Brachial artery diameter (BAD) was measured by ultrasound before and after brachial artery occlusion [i.e., flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] and before and after nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD). Ambient concentrations of fine particulate mass (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, particle number, and sulfate were measured at our monitoring site; ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were obtained from state monitors. Particle exposure in the home and during each trip to the clinic (home/trip exposure) was measured continuously and as a 5-day integrated sample. We used linear models with fixed effects for participants, adjusting for date, season, temperature, and water vapor pressure on the day of each visit, to estimate associations between our outcomes and interquartile range increases in exposure. Baseline BAD was negatively associated with particle pollution, including home/trip-integrated BC (-0.02 mm; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.003, for a 0.28 μg/m3 increase in BC), OC (-0.08 mm; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.03, for a 1.61 μg/m3 increase) as well as PM2.5, 5-day average ambient PM2.5, and BC. BAD was positively associated with ambient temperature and water vapor pressure. However, exposures were not consistently associated with FMD or NMD. Brachial artery diameter, a predictor of cardiovascular risk, decreased in association with particle pollution and increased in association with ambient temperature in our study population of adults with type 2 diabetes. Zanobetti A, Luttmann

  4. Toward a simple, repeatable, non-destructive approach to measuring stable-isotope ratios of water within tree stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulerson, S.; Volkmann, T.; Pangle, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional methodologies for measuring ratios of stable isotopes within the xylem water of trees involve destructive coring of the stem. A recent approach involves permanently installed probes within the stem, and an on-site assembly of pumps, switching valves, gas lines, and climate-controlled structure for field deployment of a laser spectrometer. The former method limits the possible temporal resolution of sampling, and sample size, while the latter may not be feasible for many research groups. We present results from initial laboratory efforts towards developing a non-destructive, temporally-resolved technique for measuring stable isotope ratios within the xylem flow of trees. Researchers have used direct liquid-vapor equilibration as a method to measure isotope ratios of the water in soil pores. Typically, this is done by placing soil samples in a fixed container, and allowing the liquid water within the soil to come into isotopic equilibrium with the headspace of the container. Water can also be removed via cryogenic distillation or azeotropic distillation, with the resulting liquid tested for isotope ratios. Alternatively, the isotope ratios of the water vapor can be directly measured using a laser-based water vapor isotope analyzer. Well-established fractionation factors and the isotope ratios in the vapor phase are then used to calculate the isotope ratios in the liquid phase. We propose a setup which would install a single, removable chamber onto a tree, where vapor samples could non-destructively and repeatedly be taken. These vapor samples will be injected into a laser-based isotope analyzer by a recirculating gas conveyance system. A major part of what is presented here is in the procedure of taking vapor samples at 100% relative humidity, appropriately diluting them with completely dry N2 calibration gas, and injecting them into the gas conveyance system without inducing fractionation in the process. This methodology will be helpful in making

  5. Accuracy and repeatability of quantitative fluoroscopy for the measurement of sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Alexander; Breen, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) was developed to measure intervertebral mechanics in vivo and has been found to have high repeatability and accuracy for the measurement of intervertebral rotations. However, sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation (FCR) are potential measures of stability but have not yet been fully validated for current QF. This study investigated the repeatability and accuracy of QF for measuring these variables. Repeatability was assessed from L2-S1 in 20 human volunteers. Accuracy was investigated using 10 consecutive measurements from each of two pairs of linked and instrumented dry human vertebrae as reference; one which tilted without translation and one which translated without tilt. The results found intra- and inter-observer repeatability for translation to be 1.1mm or less (SEM) with fair to substantial reliability (ICC 0.533-0.998). Intra-observer repeatability of FCR location for inter-vertebral rotations of 5° and above ranged from 1.5mm to 1.8mm (SEM) with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.626-0.988). Inter-observer repeatability for FCR ranged from 1.2mm to 5.7mm, also with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.621-0.878). Reliability was substantial (ICC>0.81) for 10/16 measures for translation and 5/8 for FCR location. Accuracy for translation was 0.1mm (fixed centre) and 2.2mm (moveable centre), with an FCR error of 0.3mm(x) and 0.4mm(y) (fixed centre). This technology was found to have a high level of accuracy and with a few exceptions, moderate to substantial repeatability for the measurement of translation and FCR from fluoroscopic motion sequences. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Repeated assessment of orthotopic glioma pO2 by multi-site EPR oximetry: A technique with the potential to guide therapeutic optimization by repeated measurements of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadeem; Mupparaju, Sriram; Hou, Huagang; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swartz, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia plays a vital role in therapeutic resistance. Consequently, measurements of tumor pO2 could be used to optimize the outcome of oxygen-dependent therapies, such as, chemoradiation. However, the potential optimizations are restricted by the lack of methods to repeatedly and quantitatively assess tumor pO2 during therapies, particularly in gliomas. We describe the procedures for repeated measurements of orthotopic glioma pO2 by multi-site electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. This oximetry approach provides simultaneous measurements of pO2 at more than one site in the glioma and contralateral cerebral tissue. The pO2 of intracerebral 9L, C6, F98 and U251 tumors, as well as contralateral brain, were measured repeatedly for five consecutive days. The 9L glioma was well oxygenated with pO2 of 27 - 36 mm Hg, while C6, F98 and U251 glioma were hypoxic with pO2 of 7 - 12 mm Hg. The potential of multi-site EPR oximetry to assess temporal changes in tissue pO2 was investigated in rats breathing 100% O2. A significant increase in F98 tumor and contralateral brain pO2 was observed on day 1 and day 2, however, glioma oxygenation declined on subsequent days. In conclusion, EPR oximetry provides the capability to repeatedly assess temporal changes in orthotopic glioma pO2. This information could be used to test and optimize the methods being developed to modulate tumor hypoxia. Furthermore, EPR oximetry could be potentially used to enhance the outcome of chemoradiation by scheduling treatments at times of increase in glioma pO2. PMID:22079559

  7. Validation and Reliability of a Smartphone Application for the International Prostate Symptom Score Questionnaire: A Randomized Repeated Measures Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Ko, Young Myoung; Chun, Dong-Il; Yang, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone-based assessment may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool for patients. There have been many attempts to create a smartphone diagnostic tool for clinical use in various medical fields but few have demonstrated scientific validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a smartphone application of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and to demonstrate its validity and reliability. Methods From June 2012 to May 2013, a total of 1581 male participants (≥40 years old), with or without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), visited our urology clinic via the health improvement center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Republic of Korea) and were enrolled in this study. A randomized repeated measures crossover design was employed using a smartphone application of the IPSS and the conventional paper form of the IPSS. Paired t test under a hypothesis of non-inferior trial was conducted. For the reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured. Results The total score of the IPSS (P=.289) and each item of the IPSS (P=.157-1.000) showed no differences between the paper version and the smartphone version of the IPSS. The mild, moderate, and severe LUTS groups showed no differences between the two versions of the IPSS. A significant correlation was noted in the total group (ICC=.935, Psmartphones could participate. Conclusions The validity and reliability of the smartphone application version were comparable to the conventional paper version of the IPSS. The smartphone application of the IPSS could be an effective method for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24513507

  8. An open source, 3D printed preclinical MRI phantom for repeated measures of contrast agents and reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B L; Ludwig, K D; Adamson, E B; Eliceiri, K W; Fain, S B

    2018-03-01

    In medical imaging, clinicians, researchers and technicians have begun to use 3D printing to create specialized phantoms to replace commercial ones due to their customizable and iterative nature. Presented here is the design of a 3D printed open source, reusable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom, capable of flood-filling, with removable samples for measurements of contrast agent solutions and reference standards, and for use in evaluating acquisition techniques and image reconstruction performance. The phantom was designed using SolidWorks, a computer-aided design software package. The phantom consists of custom and off-the-shelf parts and incorporates an air hole and Luer Lock system to aid in flood filling, a marker for orientation of samples in the filled mode and bolt and tube holes for assembly. The cost of construction for all materials is under $90. All design files are open-source and available for download. To demonstrate utility, B 0 field mapping was performed using a series of gadolinium concentrations in both the unfilled and flood-filled mode. An excellent linear agreement (R 2 >0.998) was observed between measured relaxation rates (R 1 /R 2 ) and gadolinium concentration. The phantom provides a reliable setup to test data acquisition and reconstruction methods and verify physical alignment in alternative nuclei MRI techniques (e.g. carbon-13 and fluorine-19 MRI). A cost-effective, open-source MRI phantom design for repeated quantitative measurement of contrast agents and reference standards in preclinical research is presented. Specifically, the work is an example of how the emerging technology of 3D printing improves flexibility and access for custom phantom design.

  9. Use of "t"-Test and ANOVA in Career-Technical Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Gemici, Sinan

    2012-01-01

    Use of t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures in published research from three scholarly journals in career and technical education (CTE) during a recent 5-year period was examined. Information on post hoc analyses, reporting of effect size, alpha adjustments to account for multiple tests, power, and examination of assumptions…

  10. Predictive value of repeated measurements of luteal progesterone and estradiol levels in patients with intrauterine insemination and controlled ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Simopoulou, Maria; Giner, Maria; Drakakis, Petros; Panagopoulos, Perikles; Vlahos, Nikolaos

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess if the difference of repeated measurements of estradiol and progesterone during luteal phase predict the outcome of intrauterine insemination. Prospective study. Reproductive clinic. 126 patients with infertility. Patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH (50-150 IU/d). The day of IUI patients were given p.o natural micronized progesterone in a dose of 100 mg/tds. The area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (ROC curve) in predicting clinical pregnancy for % change of estradiol level on days 6 and 10 was 0.892 with 95% CI: 0.82-0.94. A cutoff value of change > -29.5% had a sensitivity of 85.7 with a specificity of 90.2. The corresponding ROC curve for % change of progesterone level was 0.839 with 95% CI: 0.76-0.90. A cutoff value of change > -33% had a sensitivity of 85 with a specificity of 75. The % change of estradiol and progesterone between days 6 and 10 has a predictive ability of pregnancy after IUI with COS of 89.2% and 83.4%, respectively. The addition of % of progesterone to % change of estradiol does not improve the predictive ability of % estradiol and should not be used.

  11. Comparing a single case to a control group - Applying linear mixed effects models to repeated measures data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    In neuropsychological research, single-cases are often compared with a small control sample. Crawford and colleagues developed inferential methods (i.e., the modified t-test) for such a research design. In the present article, we suggest an extension of the methods of Crawford and colleagues employing linear mixed models (LMM). We first show that a t-test for the significance of a dummy coded predictor variable in a linear regression is equivalent to the modified t-test of Crawford and colleagues. As an extension to this idea, we then generalized the modified t-test to repeated measures data by using LMMs to compare the performance difference in two conditions observed in a single participant to that of a small control group. The performance of LMMs regarding Type I error rates and statistical power were tested based on Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that starting with about 15-20 participants in the control sample Type I error rates were close to the nominal Type I error rate using the Satterthwaite approximation for the degrees of freedom. Moreover, statistical power was acceptable. Therefore, we conclude that LMMs can be applied successfully to statistically evaluate performance differences between a single-case and a control sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohotoa Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289 and control group (n=244 were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs, intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048. Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09 and at six weeks (mean=1.09 were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11 and at six weeks (mean =1.07 with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their

  13. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the

  14. Adaptive surrogate modeling by ANOVA and sparse polynomial dimensional decomposition for global sensitivity analysis in fluid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Kunkun; Congedo, Pietro M.; Abgrall, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The Polynomial Dimensional Decomposition (PDD) is employed in this work for the global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ) of stochastic systems subject to a moderate to large number of input random variables. Due to the intimate connection between the PDD and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) approaches, PDD is able to provide a simpler and more direct evaluation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices, when compared to the Polynomial Chaos expansion (PC). Unfortunately, the number of PDD terms grows exponentially with respect to the size of the input random vector, which makes the computational cost of standard methods unaffordable for real engineering applications. In order to address the problem of the curse of dimensionality, this work proposes essentially variance-based adaptive strategies aiming to build a cheap meta-model (i.e. surrogate model) by employing the sparse PDD approach with its coefficients computed by regression. Three levels of adaptivity are carried out in this paper: 1) the truncated dimensionality for ANOVA component functions, 2) the active dimension technique especially for second- and higher-order parameter interactions, and 3) the stepwise regression approach designed to retain only the most influential polynomials in the PDD expansion. During this adaptive procedure featuring stepwise regressions, the surrogate model representation keeps containing few terms, so that the cost to resolve repeatedly the linear systems of the least-squares regression problem is negligible. The size of the finally obtained sparse PDD representation is much smaller than the one of the full expansion, since only significant terms are eventually retained. Consequently, a much smaller number of calls to the deterministic model is required to compute the final PDD coefficients.

  15. Adaptive surrogate modeling by ANOVA and sparse polynomial dimensional decomposition for global sensitivity analysis in fluid simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kunkun, E-mail: ktg@illinois.edu [The Center for Exascale Simulation of Plasma-Coupled Combustion (XPACC), University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, 1308 W Main St, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Inria Bordeaux – Sud-Ouest, Team Cardamom, 200 avenue de la Vieille Tour, 33405 Talence (France); Congedo, Pietro M. [Inria Bordeaux – Sud-Ouest, Team Cardamom, 200 avenue de la Vieille Tour, 33405 Talence (France); Abgrall, Rémi [Institut für Mathematik, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-06-01

    The Polynomial Dimensional Decomposition (PDD) is employed in this work for the global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification (UQ) of stochastic systems subject to a moderate to large number of input random variables. Due to the intimate connection between the PDD and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) approaches, PDD is able to provide a simpler and more direct evaluation of the Sobol' sensitivity indices, when compared to the Polynomial Chaos expansion (PC). Unfortunately, the number of PDD terms grows exponentially with respect to the size of the input random vector, which makes the computational cost of standard methods unaffordable for real engineering applications. In order to address the problem of the curse of dimensionality, this work proposes essentially variance-based adaptive strategies aiming to build a cheap meta-model (i.e. surrogate model) by employing the sparse PDD approach with its coefficients computed by regression. Three levels of adaptivity are carried out in this paper: 1) the truncated dimensionality for ANOVA component functions, 2) the active dimension technique especially for second- and higher-order parameter interactions, and 3) the stepwise regression approach designed to retain only the most influential polynomials in the PDD expansion. During this adaptive procedure featuring stepwise regressions, the surrogate model representation keeps containing few terms, so that the cost to resolve repeatedly the linear systems of the least-squares regression problem is negligible. The size of the finally obtained sparse PDD representation is much smaller than the one of the full expansion, since only significant terms are eventually retained. Consequently, a much smaller number of calls to the deterministic model is required to compute the final PDD coefficients.

  16. Long-term, repeated measurements of mouse cortical microflow at the same region of interest with high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Yutaka; Pinard, Elisabeth; Tran-Dinh, Alexy; Schiszler, Istvan; Kubis, Nathalie; Tomita, Minoru; Suzuki, Norihiro; Seylaz, Jacques

    2011-02-04

    A method for long-term, repeated, semi-quantitative measurements of cerebral microflow at the same region of interest (ROI) with high spatial resolution was developed and applied to mice subjected to focal arterial occlusion. A closed cranial window was chronically implanted over the left parieto-occipital cortex. The anesthetized mouse was placed several times, e.g., weekly, under a dynamic confocal microscope, and Rhodamine B-isothiocyanate-dextran was each time intravenously injected as a bolus, while microflow images were video recorded. Left and right tail veins were sequentially catheterized in a mouse three times at maximum over a 1.5 months' observation period. Smearing of the input function resulting from the use of intravenous injection was shown to be sufficiently small. The distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) was thermocoagulated through the cranial window in six mice, and five sham-operated mice were studied in parallel. Dye injection and video recording were conducted four times in this series, i.e., before and at 10 min, 7 and 30 days after sham operation or MCA occlusion. Pixelar microflow values (1/MTT) in a matrix of approximately 50×50 pixels were displayed on a two-dimensional (2-D) map, and the frequency distribution of the flow values was also calculated. No significant changes in microflow values over time were detected in sham-operated mice, while the time course of flow changes in the ischemic penumbral area in operated mice was similar to those reported in the literature. This method provides a powerful tool to investigate long-term changes in mouse cortical microflow under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Peristera, Paraskevi; Eib, Constanze; Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2017-12-08

    Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity. Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account. We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity. Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  18. ANOVA-HDMR structure of the higher order nodal diffusion solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokov, P. M.; Prinsloo, R. H.; Tomasevic, D. I.

    2013-01-01

    Nodal diffusion methods still represent a standard in global reactor calculations, but employ some ad-hoc approximations (such as the quadratic leakage approximation) which limit their accuracy in cases where reference quality solutions are sought. In this work we solve the nodal diffusion equations utilizing the so-called higher-order nodal methods to generate reference quality solutions and to decompose the obtained solutions via a technique known as High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR). This representation and associated decomposition of the solution provides a new formulation of the transverse leakage term. The HDMR structure is investigated via the technique of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), which indicates why the existing class of transversely-integrated nodal methods prove to be so successful. Furthermore, the analysis leads to a potential solution method for generating reference quality solutions at a much reduced calculational cost, by applying the ANOVA technique to the full higher order solution. (authors)

  19. Comparative study between EDXRF and ASTM E572 methods using two-way ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummenauer, A.; Veit, H. M.; Zoppas-Ferreira, J.

    2018-03-01

    Comparison with reference method is one of the necessary requirements for the validation of non-standard methods. This comparison was made using the experiment planning technique with two-way ANOVA. In ANOVA, the results obtained using the EDXRF method, to be validated, were compared with the results obtained using the ASTM E572-13 standard test method. Fisher's tests (F-test) were used to comparative study between of the elements: molybdenum, niobium, copper, nickel, manganese, chromium and vanadium. All F-tests of the elements indicate that the null hypothesis (Ho) has not been rejected. As a result, there is no significant difference between the methods compared. Therefore, according to this study, it is concluded that the EDXRF method was approved in this method comparison requirement.

  20. Comparison of diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire with measures from repeated 24-hour dietary recalls. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Andersen, Lene Frost; Lund, Eiliv

    2007-10-01

    To compare diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs). The participants answered an FFQ after completing four, repeated 24HDRs during a year. Norway, nationwide. Of 500 women randomly selected from The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (the Norwegian arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), 286 agreed to participate and 238 completed the study. On the group level, the FFQ overestimated absolute intake in seven and underestimated intake in six of 21 food groups. Intakes of energy, fat, added sugar and alcohol were lower in the FFQ than in the 24HDRs, whereas intake of fibre was higher. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ranged from 0.13 (desserts) to 0.82 (coffee) for foods, and from 0.25 (beta-carotene) to 0.67 (alcohol) for nutrients. Three per cent of the observations on nutrient intake fell in the opposite quintile when classified according to the FFQ as compared with the 24HDR. The median calibration coefficient, calculated by regression of the 24HDR data on the FFQ data, was 0.57 for foods and 0.38 for nutrients. The FFQ's ability to rank subjects was good for foods eaten frequently and fairly good for macronutrients in terms of energy percentages. Weaker ranking abilities were seen for foods eaten infrequently and for some micronutrients. The results underline the necessity of performing measurement error corrections.

  1. ANOVA Based Approch for Efficient Customer Recognition: Dealing with Common Names

    OpenAIRE

    Saberi , Morteza; Saberi , Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Artificial Intelligence for Knowledge Management; International audience; This study proposes an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique that focuses on the efficient recognition of customers with common names. The continuous improvement of Information and communications technologies (ICT) has led customers to have new expectations and concerns from their related organization. These new expectations bring various difficulties for organizations’ help desk to meet their customers’ needs....

  2. INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON AGROTEXTILES WATER ABSORBENCY USING ANOVA MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Iuliana G.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrotextiles are now days extensively being used in horticulture, farming and other agricultural activities. Agriculture and textiles are the largest industries in the world providing basic needs such as food and clothing. Agrotextiles plays a significant role to help control environment for crop protection, eliminate variations in climate, weather change and generate optimum condition for plant growth. Water absorptive capacity is a very important property of needle-punched nonwovens used as irrigation substrate in horticulture. Nonwovens used as watering substrate distribute water uniformly and act as slight water buffer owing to the absorbent capacity. The paper analyzes the influence of needling process parameters on water absorptive capacity of needle-punched nonwovens by using ANOVA model. The model allows the identification of optimal action parameters in a shorter time and with less material expenses than by experimental research. The frequency of needle board and needle depth penetration has been used as independent variables while the water absorptive capacity as dependent variable for ANOVA regression model. Based on employed ANOVA model we have established that there is a significant influence of needling parameters on water absorbent capacity. The higher of depth needle penetration and needle board frequency, the higher is the compactness of fabric. A less porous structure has a lower water absorptive capacity.

  3. A Hybrid One-Way ANOVA Approach for the Robust and Efficient Estimation of Differential Gene Expression with Multiple Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manir Hossain Mollah

    Full Text Available Identifying genes that are differentially expressed (DE between two or more conditions with multiple patterns of expression is one of the primary objectives of gene expression data analysis. Several statistical approaches, including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, are used to identify DE genes. However, most of these methods provide misleading results for two or more conditions with multiple patterns of expression in the presence of outlying genes. In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a hybrid one-way ANOVA approach that unifies the robustness and efficiency of estimation using the minimum β-divergence method to overcome some problems that arise in the existing robust methods for both small- and large-sample cases with multiple patterns of expression.The proposed method relies on a β-weight function, which produces values between 0 and 1. The β-weight function with β = 0.2 is used as a measure of outlier detection. It assigns smaller weights (≥ 0 to outlying expressions and larger weights (≤ 1 to typical expressions. The distribution of the β-weights is used to calculate the cut-off point, which is compared to the observed β-weight of an expression to determine whether that gene expression is an outlier. This weight function plays a key role in unifying the robustness and efficiency of estimation in one-way ANOVA.Analyses of simulated gene expression profiles revealed that all eight methods (ANOVA, SAM, LIMMA, EBarrays, eLNN, KW, robust BetaEB and proposed perform almost identically for m = 2 conditions in the absence of outliers. However, the robust BetaEB method and the proposed method exhibited considerably better performance than the other six methods in the presence of outliers. In this case, the BetaEB method exhibited slightly better performance than the proposed method for the small-sample cases, but the the proposed method exhibited much better performance than the BetaEB method for both the small- and large

  4. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  5. Does repeat Hb measurement within 2 hours after a normal initial Hb in stable trauma patients add value to trauma evaluation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierink, Joanne C.; Joosse, Pieter; de Castro, Steve M. M.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2014-01-01

    In our level I trauma center, it is considered common practice to repeat blood haemoglobin measurements in patients within 2 h after admission. However, the rationale behind this procedure is elusive and can be considered labour-intensive, especially in patients in whom haemorrhaging is not to be

  6. Comparison of anterior segment measurements using Sirius Topographer® and Nidek Axial Length-Scan® with assessing repeatability in patients with cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Duman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate anterior segment measurements obtained using CSO Sirius Topographer® (CSO, Firenze, Italy and Nidek Axial Length (AL-Scan® (Nidek CO., Gamagori, Japan. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients were included in this prospective study. The central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, white-to-white distance (WTW, flat keratometry (K1, steep keratometry (K2, and mean keratometry (K values were randomly measured three times with each device by the same examiner. The intraclass correlation coefficient of repeatability was analyzed. The compatibility of both devices was evaluated using the 95% limits of the agreement proposed by Bland and Altman. Results: Examiner achieved high repeatability for all parameters on each device except the WTW measured by Sirius. All measurements except WTW and K1 taken with the Sirius were higher than that taken with the Nidek AL-Scan®. The difference in CCT, ACD, and WTW values was statistically significant. Conclusion: High repeatability of the measurements was achieved on both devices. Although Km, K1, and K2 measurements of the Sirius and the AL-Scan® showed good agreement, WTW, CCT, and ACD measurements significantly differed between two devices. Thus, anterior segment measurements except for Km, K1, and K2 cannot be used interchangeably between Sirius and Nidek AL-Scan® devices.

  7. Absolute variation of the mechanical characteristics of halloysite reinforced polyurethane nanocomposites complemented by Taguchi and ANOVA approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Nassir, Mohamed H.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.

    The variation of the results of the mechanical properties of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) at different HNTs loadings was implemented as a tool for analysis. The preparation of HNTs-TPU nanocomposites was performed under four controlled parameters of mixing temperature, mixing speed, mixing time, and HNTs loading at three levels each to satisfy Taguchi method orthogonal array L9 aiming to optimize these parameters for the best measurements of tensile strength, Young's modulus, and tensile strain (known as responses). The maximum variation of the experimental results for each response was determined and analysed based on the optimized results predicted by Taguchi method and ANOVA. It was found that the maximum absolute variations of the three mentioned responses are 69%, 352%, and 126%, respectively. The analysis has shown that the preparation of the optimized tensile strength requires 1 wt.% HNTs loading (excluding 2 wt.% and 3 wt.%), mixing temperature of 190 °C (excluding 200 °C and 210 °C), and mixing speed of 30 rpm (excluding 40 rpm and 50 rpm). In addition, the analysis has determined that the mixing time at 20 min has no effect on the preparation. The mentioned analysis was fortified by ANOVA, images of FESEM, and DSC results. Seemingly, the agglomeration and distribution of HNTs in the nanocomposite play an important role in the process. The outcome of the analysis could be considered as a very important step towards the reliability of Taguchi method.

  8. Repeatability of Volume and Regional Body Composition Measurements of the Lower Limb Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Zerahn, Bo; Juul, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    was calculated using the density of bone mineral content, fat, and lean mass. The repeatability of the volume of the lower limb and regional thigh and lower leg tissue composition (bone mineral content, fat, and lean mass) was good with intraclass correlation coefficient values of 0.97 to 0.99, and narrow limits...

  9. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and heart rate variability and inflammation among non-smoking construction workers: a repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2013-10-02

    Although it has been well recognized that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with cardiovascular mortality, the mechanisms and time course by which SHS exposure may lead to cardiovascular effects are still being explored. Non-smoking workers were recruited from a local union and monitored inside a union hall while exposed to SHS over approximately 6 hours. Participants were fitted with a continuous electrocardiographic monitor upon enrollment which was removed at the end of a 24-hr monitoring period. A repeated measures study design was used where resting ECGs and blood samples were taken from individuals before SHS exposure (baseline), immediately following SHS exposure (post) and the morning following SHS exposure (next-morning).Inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were analyzed. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed from the ECG recordings in time (SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency (LF, HF) domain parameters over 5-minute periods. SHS exposure was quantified using a personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor.Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine within-person changes in inflammatory and HRV parameters across the 3 time periods. Exposure-response relationships with PM2.5 were examined using mixed effects models. All models were adjusted for age, BMI and circadian variation. A total of 32 male non-smokers were monitored between June 2010 and June 2012. The mean PM2.5 from SHS exposure was 132 μg/m3. Immediately following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with declines in HRV (7.8% [standard error (SE) =3%] SDNN, 8.0% (SE = 3.9%) rMSSD, 17.2% (SE = 6.3%) LF, 29.0% (SE = 10.1%) HF) and increases in WBC count 0.42 (SE = 0.14) k/μl. Eighteen hours following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 24.2% higher CRP levels. Our study suggest that short-term SHS exposure is associated

  10. Ambient temperature and cardiovascular biomarkers in a repeated-measure study in healthy adults: A novel biomarker index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Pan, Lu; Shan, Jiao; Li, Hongyu; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2017-07-01

    Associations of ambient temperature with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been well documented in numerous epidemiological studies, but the underlying pathways remain unclear. We investigated whether systemic inflammation, coagulation, systemic oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and endothelial function may be the mechanistic pathways associated with ambient temperature. Forty study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. Ambient temperature and air pollution data were measured in central monitors close to student residences. We created five indices as the sum of weighted biomarker percentiles to represent the overall levels of 15 cardiovascular biomarkers in five pathways (systemic inflammation: hs-CRP, TNF-α and fibrinogen; coagulation: fibrinogen, PAI-1, tPA, vWF and sP-selectin; systemic oxidative stress: Ox-LDL and sCD36: antioxidant activity: EC-SOD and GPX1; and endothelial function: ET-1, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). We used generalized mixed-effects models to estimate temperature effects controlling for air pollution and other covariates. There were significant decreasing trends in the adjusted means of biomarker indices over the lowest to the highest quartiles of daily temperatures before blood collection. A 10°C decrease at 2-d average daily temperature were associated with increases of 2.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 4.2], 1.6% (95% CI: 0.1, 3.1), 2.7% (95% CI: 0.5, 4.8), 5.5% (95% CI: 3.8, 7.3) and 2.0% (95% CI: 0.3, 3.8) in the indices for systemic inflammation, coagulation, systemic oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and endothelial function, respectively. In contrast, the associations between ambient temperature and individual biomarkers had substantial variation in magnitude and strength. The altered cardiovascular biomarker profiles in healthy adults associated with ambient temperature changes may help explain the temperature-related cardiovascular morbidity

  11. Repeating Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christian; Monticelli, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development...... and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show...... that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today....

  12. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005 [8] used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip

  13. Constrained statistical inference: sample-size tables for ANOVA and regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard eVanbrabant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in the social and behavioral sciences often have clear expectations about the order/direction of the parameters in their statistical model. For example, a researcher might expect that regression coefficient beta1 is larger than beta2 and beta3. The corresponding hypothesis is H: beta1 > {beta2, beta3} and this is known as an (order constrained hypothesis. A major advantage of testing such a hypothesis is that power can be gained and inherently a smaller sample size is needed. This article discusses this gain in sample size reduction, when an increasing number of constraints is included into the hypothesis. The main goal is to present sample-size tables for constrained hypotheses. A sample-size table contains the necessary sample-size at a prespecified power (say, 0.80 for an increasing number of constraints. To obtain sample-size tables, two Monte Carlo simulations were performed, one for ANOVA and one for multiple regression. Three results are salient. First, in an ANOVA the needed sample-size decreases with 30% to 50% when complete ordering of the parameters is taken into account. Second, small deviations from the imposed order have only a minor impact on the power. Third, at the maximum number of constraints, the linear regression results are comparable with the ANOVA results. However, in the case of fewer constraints, ordering the parameters (e.g., beta1 > beta2 results in a higher power than assigning a positive or a negative sign to the parameters (e.g., beta1 > 0.

  14. Global testing under sparse alternatives: ANOVA, multiple comparisons and the higher criticism

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Castro, Ery; Candès, Emmanuel J.; Plan, Yaniv

    2011-01-01

    Testing for the significance of a subset of regression coefficients in a linear model, a staple of statistical analysis, goes back at least to the work of Fisher who introduced the analysis of variance (ANOVA). We study this problem under the assumption that the coefficient vector is sparse, a common situation in modern high-dimensional settings. Suppose we have $p$ covariates and that under the alternative, the response only depends upon the order of $p^{1-\\alpha}$ of those, $0\\le\\alpha\\le1$...

  15. Visualizing Experimental Designs for Balanced ANOVA Models using Lisp-Stat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Iversen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, or Hasse, diagram described by Taylor and Hilton (1981, American Statistician provides a visual display of the relationships between factors for balanced complete experimental designs. Using the Hasse diagram, rules exist for determining the appropriate linear model, ANOVA table, expected means squares, and F-tests in the case of balanced designs. This procedure has been implemented in Lisp-Stat using a software representation of the experimental design. The user can interact with the Hasse diagram to add, change, or delete factors and see the effect on the proposed analysis. The system has potential uses in teaching and consulting.

  16. Analyzing repeated data collected by mobile phones and frequent text messages. An example of Low back pain measured weekly for 18 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Bodin, Lennart; Kongsted, Alice

    2012-01-01

    to recovery? This question was answered using survival analysis, illustrated in Kaplan-Meier curves, Proportional Hazard regression analyses and spline regression analyses. 4: How is the repeatedly measured data associated with baseline (predictor) variables? This question was answered using generalized...... involves some challenges. Vital issues to consider are the within-subject correlation, the between measurement occasion correlation and the presence of missing values. The overall aim of this commentary is to describe different methods of analyzing repeated data. It is meant to give an overview...... for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. METHODS: A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions...

  17. Backfitting in Smoothing Spline Anova, with Application to Historical Global Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen

    In the attempt to estimate the temperature history of the earth using the surface observations, various biases can exist. An important source of bias is the incompleteness of sampling over both time and space. There have been a few methods proposed to deal with this problem. Although they can correct some biases resulting from incomplete sampling, they have ignored some other significant biases. In this dissertation, a smoothing spline ANOVA approach which is a multivariate function estimation method is proposed to deal simultaneously with various biases resulting from incomplete sampling. Besides that, an advantage of this method is that we can get various components of the estimated temperature history with a limited amount of information stored. This method can also be used for detecting erroneous observations in the data base. The method is illustrated through an example of modeling winter surface air temperature as a function of year and location. Extension to more complicated models are discussed. The linear system associated with the smoothing spline ANOVA estimates is too large to be solved by full matrix decomposition methods. A computational procedure combining the backfitting (Gauss-Seidel) algorithm and the iterative imputation algorithm is proposed. This procedure takes advantage of the tensor product structure in the data to make the computation feasible in an environment of limited memory. Various related issues are discussed, e.g., the computation of confidence intervals and the techniques to speed up the convergence of the backfitting algorithm such as collapsing and successive over-relaxation.

  18. Prediction and Control of Cutting Tool Vibration in Cnc Lathe with Anova and Ann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Machining is a complex process in which many variables can deleterious the desired results. Among them, cutting tool vibration is the most critical phenomenon which influences dimensional precision of the components machined, functional behavior of the machine tools and life of the cutting tool. In a machining operation, the cutting tool vibrations are mainly influenced by cutting parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut and tool feed rate. In this work, the cutting tool vibrations are controlled using a damping pad made of Neoprene. Experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe where the tool holder is supported with and without damping pad. The cutting tool vibration signals were collected through a data acquisition system supported by LabVIEW software. To increase the buoyancy and reliability of the experiments, a full factorial experimental design was used. Experimental data collected were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA to understand the influences of the cutting parameters. Empirical models have been developed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Experimental studies and data analysis have been performed to validate the proposed damping system. Multilayer perceptron neural network model has been constructed with feed forward back-propagation algorithm using the acquired data. On the completion of the experimental test ANN is used to validate the results obtained and also to predict the behavior of the system under any cutting condition within the operating range. The onsite tests show that the proposed system reduces the vibration of cutting tool to a greater extend.

  19. Analyzing repeated data collected by mobile phones and frequent text messages. An example of Low back pain measured weekly for 18 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axén Iben

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated data collection is desirable when monitoring fluctuating conditions. Mobile phones can be used to gather such data from large groups of respondents by sending and receiving frequently repeated short questions and answers as text messages. The analysis of repeated data involves some challenges. Vital issues to consider are the within-subject correlation, the between measurement occasion correlation and the presence of missing values. The overall aim of this commentary is to describe different methods of analyzing repeated data. It is meant to give an overview for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. Methods A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions and analytic approaches were illustrated and discussed, as well as the handling of missing data. In the applications the weekly outcome “number of days with pain” was analyzed in relation to the patients’ “previous duration of pain” (categorized as more or less than 30 days in the previous year. Research questions with appropriate analytical methods 1: How many days with pain do patients experience? This question was answered with data summaries. 2: What is the proportion of participants “recovered” at a specific time point? This question was answered using logistic regression analysis. 3: What is the time to recovery? This question was answered using survival analysis, illustrated in Kaplan-Meier curves, Proportional Hazard regression analyses and spline regression analyses. 4: How is the repeatedly measured data associated with baseline (predictor variables? This question was answered using generalized Estimating Equations, Poisson regression and Mixed linear models analyses. 5: Are there subgroups of patients with similar courses of pain

  20. PTSD and DNA Methylation in Select Immune Function Gene Promoter Regions: A Repeated Measures Case-control Study of U.S. Military Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    other relevant exposures which may influ- ence DNA methylation , such as dietary factors ( folate , vitamin B12 intake) (Fenech, 2001; Piyathilake and...ARTICLE published: 24 June 2013 doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00056 PTSD and DNA methylation in select immune function gene promoter regions: a repeated measures...largely unknown. Dis- tinct expression signatures for PTSD have been found, in particular for immune activation transcripts. DNA methylation may be

  1. Effects of annealing on the sensitivity of LiF TLD-100 after repeated use for low dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunleye, O.T.; Richmond, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The changes in sensitivity of LiF TLD-100 extruded ribbons subjected to repeated use up to 100 times were investigated. Three different annealing regimes were compared. The dosemeters were annealed at 400 0 C followed by (i) a slow or (ii) fast cooling to room temperature or (iii) utilising a 20 s readout process in the reader without a high temperature annealing at 400 0 C. Each of the three groups consisted of two sets of 20 chips each, with one set receiving 500 μ Gy of 90 Sr beta radiation and the other unirradiated. Sensitivity evaluations were performed every five cycles through the first 50 cycles, and on each tenth cycle thereafter. On the average, the fast cooled group maintained their integrity best, while a maximum variation in sensitivity of about 15% was observed in the irradiated set of the slowly cooled group. A permanent increase in sensitivity of at least 10% was observed for the set of dosemeters receiving radiation without annealing. Glow curve analyses showed an increase in the ratio of peaks 4 and 5 with repeated use of this group. (author)

  2. ANOVA IN MARKETING RESEARCH OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT CATEGORIES IN GEORGIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUGZAR TODUA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior research was conducted on bank services and (non-alcohol soft drinks. Based on four different currencies and ten services there are analyses made on bank clients’ distribution by bank services and currencies, percentage distribution by bank services, percentage distribution of bank services by currencies. Similar results are also received in case of ten soft drinks with their five characteristics: consumers quantities split by types of soft drinks and attributes; Attributes percentage split by types of soft drinks; Types of soft drinks percentage split by attributes. With usage of ANOVA, based on the marketing research outcomes it is concluded that bank clients’ total quantities i.e. populations’ unknown mean scores do not differ from each other. In the soft drinks research case consumers’ total quantities i.e. populations’ unknown mean scores vary by characteristics

  3. An adaptive ANOVA-based PCKF for high-dimensional nonlinear inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2014-02-01

    The probabilistic collocation-based Kalman filter (PCKF) is a recently developed approach for solving inverse problems. It resembles the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in every aspect-except that it represents and propagates model uncertainty by polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) instead of an ensemble of model realizations. Previous studies have shown PCKF is a more efficient alternative to EnKF for many data assimilation problems. However, the accuracy and efficiency of PCKF depends on an appropriate truncation of the PCE series. Having more polynomial chaos basis functions in the expansion helps to capture uncertainty more accurately but increases computational cost. Selection of basis functions is particularly important for high-dimensional stochastic problems because the number of polynomial chaos basis functions required to represent model uncertainty grows dramatically as the number of input parameters (random dimensions) increases. In classic PCKF algorithms, the PCE basis functions are pre-set based on users' experience. Also, for sequential data assimilation problems, the basis functions kept in PCE expression remain unchanged in different Kalman filter loops, which could limit the accuracy and computational efficiency of classic PCKF algorithms. To address this issue, we present a new algorithm that adaptively selects PCE basis functions for different problems and automatically adjusts the number of basis functions in different Kalman filter loops. The algorithm is based on adaptive functional ANOVA (analysis of variance) decomposition, which approximates a high-dimensional function with the summation of a set of low-dimensional functions. Thus, instead of expanding the original model into PCE, we implement the PCE expansion on these low-dimensional functions, which is much less costly. We also propose a new adaptive criterion for ANOVA that is more suited for solving inverse problems. The new algorithm was tested with different examples and demonstrated

  4. Absolute variation of the mechanical characteristics of halloysite reinforced polyurethane nanocomposites complemented by Taguchi and ANOVA approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayser Sumer Gaaz

    Full Text Available The variation of the results of the mechanical properties of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU at different HNTs loadings was implemented as a tool for analysis. The preparation of HNTs-TPU nanocomposites was performed under four controlled parameters of mixing temperature, mixing speed, mixing time, and HNTs loading at three levels each to satisfy Taguchi method orthogonal array L9 aiming to optimize these parameters for the best measurements of tensile strength, Young’s modulus, and tensile strain (known as responses. The maximum variation of the experimental results for each response was determined and analysed based on the optimized results predicted by Taguchi method and ANOVA. It was found that the maximum absolute variations of the three mentioned responses are 69%, 352%, and 126%, respectively. The analysis has shown that the preparation of the optimized tensile strength requires 1 wt.% HNTs loading (excluding 2 wt.% and 3 wt.%, mixing temperature of 190 °C (excluding 200 °C and 210 °C, and mixing speed of 30 rpm (excluding 40 rpm and 50 rpm. In addition, the analysis has determined that the mixing time at 20 min has no effect on the preparation. The mentioned analysis was fortified by ANOVA, images of FESEM, and DSC results. Seemingly, the agglomeration and distribution of HNTs in the nanocomposite play an important role in the process. The outcome of the analysis could be considered as a very important step towards the reliability of Taguchi method. Keywords: Nanocomposite, Design-of-experiment, Taguchi optimization method, Mechanical properties

  5. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Mirian; Ferreras, Antonio; Pajarin, Ana B; Calvo, Pilar; Figus, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (COV), and test-retest variability (TRT) were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946) in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982) and inferior average (0.978) yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43%) in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression.

  6. Performance Analysis of Measurement Inaccuracies of IMU/GPS on Airborne Repeat-pass Interferometric SAR in the Presence of Squint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the MOtion COmpensation (MOCO approach to airborne repeat-pass interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR based on motion measurement data, the measurement inaccuracies of Inertial Measurement Unit/Global Positioning System (IMU/GPS and the positioning errors of the target, which may contribute to the residual uncompensated motion errors, affect the imaging result and interferometric measurement. Considering the effects of the two types of error, this paper builds a mathematical model of residual motion errors in presence of squint, and analyzes the effects on the residual motion errors induced by the measurement inaccuracies of IMU/GPS and the positioning errors of the target. In particular, the effects of various measurement inaccuracies of IMU/GPS on interferometric SAR image quality, interferometric phase, and digital elevation model precision are disscussed. Moreover, the paper quantitatively researches the effects of residual motion errors on airborne repeat-pass interferometric SAR through theoretical and simulated analyses and provides theoretical bases for system design and signal processing.

  7. Repeatability of two-dimensional chemical shift imaging multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for measuring human cerebral choline-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Basant K; Egan, Mary; Wallis, Fintan; Jakeman, Philip

    2018-03-22

    To investigate the repeatability of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the in vivo measurement of human cerebral levels of choline-containing compounds (Cho). Two consecutive scans were carried out in six healthy resting subjects at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T. On each occasion, neurospectroscopy data were collected from 64 voxels using the same 2D chemical shift imaging (CSI) sequence. The data were analyzed in the same way, using the same software, to obtain the values for each voxel of the ratio of Cho to creatine. The Wilcoxon related-samples signed-rank test, coefficient of variation (CV), repeatability coefficient (RC), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess the repeatability. The CV ranged from 2.75% to 33.99%, while the minimum RC was 5.68%. There was excellent reproducibility, as judged by significant ICC values, in 26 voxels. Just three voxels showed significant differences according to the Wilcoxon related-samples signed-rank test. It is therefore concluded that when CSI multivoxel proton neurospectroscopy is used to measure cerebral choline-containing compounds at 1.5 T, the reproducibility is highly acceptable.

  8. Comparing Young and Elderly Serial Reaction Time Task Performance on Repeated and Random Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ehsani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acquisition motor skill training in elderly is at great importance. The main purpose of this study was to compare young and elderly performance in serial reaction time task on different repeated and random conditions. Methods & Materials: A serial reaction time task by using software was applied for studying motor learning in 30 young and 30 elderly. Each group divided randomly implicitly and explicitly into subgroups. A task 4 squares with different colors appeared on the monitor and subjects were asked to press its defined key immediately after observing it. Subjects practiced 8 motor blocks (4 repeated blocks, then 2 random blocks and 2 repeated blocks. Block time that was dependent variable measured and Independent-samples t- test with repeated ANOVA measures were used in this test. Results: young groups performed both repeated and random sequences significantly faster than elderly (P0.05. Explicit older subgroup performed 7,8 blocks slower than 6 block with a significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion: Young adults discriminate high level performance than elderly in both repeated and random practice. Elderly performed random practice better than repeated practice.

  9. Repeatability of Brain Volume Measurements Made with the Atlas-based Method from T1-weighted Images Acquired Using a 0.4 Tesla Low Field MR Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Suzuki, Makoto; Mizukami, Shinya; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Fukuda, Michinari; Gomi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru

    2016-10-11

    An understanding of the repeatability of measured results is important for both the atlas-based and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods of magnetic resonance (MR) brain volumetry. However, many recent studies that have investigated the repeatability of brain volume measurements have been performed using static magnetic fields of 1-4 tesla, and no study has used a low-strength static magnetic field. The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability of measured volumes using the atlas-based method and a low-strength static magnetic field (0.4 tesla). Ten healthy volunteers participated in this study. Using a 0.4 tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and a quadrature head coil, three-dimensional T 1 -weighted images (3D-T 1 WIs) were obtained from each subject, twice on the same day. VBM8 software was used to construct segmented normalized images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) images]. The regions-of-interest (ROIs) of GM, WM, CSF, hippocampus (HC), orbital gyrus (OG), and cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) were generated using WFU PickAtlas. The percentage change was defined as[100 × (measured volume with first segmented image - mean volume in each subject)/(mean volume in each subject)]The average percentage change was calculated as the percentage change in the 6 ROIs of the 10 subjects. The mean of the average percentage changes for each ROI was as follows: GM, 0.556%; WM, 0.324%; CSF, 0.573%; HC, 0.645%; OG, 1.74%; and CPL, 0.471%. The average percentage change was higher for the orbital gyrus than for the other ROIs. We consider that repeatability of the atlas-based method is similar between 0.4 and 1.5 tesla MR scanners. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that the level of repeatability with a 0.4 tesla MR scanner is adequate for the estimation of brain volume change by the atlas-based method.

  10. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  11. (InConsistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Froio de Araujo Dias

    Full Text Available Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB.15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110% following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials or placebo (PL, 2 trials. Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD was recorded as the exercise outcome.SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001; absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05. Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001, and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05, although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none.The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  12. Very long Detection Times after High and repeated intake of Heroin and Methadone, measured in Oral Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindenes V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When detection times for psychoactive drugs in oral fluid are reported, they are most often based on therapeutic doses administered in clinical studies. Repeated ingestions of high doses, as seen after drug abuse, are however likely to cause positive samples for extended time periods. Findings of drugs of abuse in oral fluid might lead to negative sanctions, and the knowledge of detection times of these drugs are important to ensure correct interpretation. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection times of opioids in oral fluid. 25 patients with a history of heavy drug abuse admitted to a detoxification ward were included. Oral fluid and urine were collected daily and, if the patient gave consent, a blood sample was drawn during the first five days after admission. Morphine, codeine and/or 6-monoacetyl morphine (6-MAM were found in oral fluid and/or urine from 20 patients. The maximum detection times in oral fluid for codeine, morphine and 6-MAM were 1, 3 and 8 days, respectively. Positive oral fluid samples were interspersed with negative samples, mainly for concentrations around cut off. Elimination curves for methadone in oral fluid were found for two subjects, and the detection times were 5 and 8 days. Oral fluid is likely to become a good method for detection of drug abuse in the future

  13. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK). A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34-0.61; %CV=4.48%-9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85)-0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Weiss Telles

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK. Material and methods: A test–retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW measured at three different locations. Results: Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1 mm ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5 mm and ≤1.7 mm, respectively. Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference = 1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV = 54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (95%CI = 0.59 (0.34–0.77]; JSW [SD of mean difference = 0.34–0.61; %CV = 4.48%–9.80%; ICC (95%CI = 0.74 (0.55–0.85–0.94 (0.87–0.97]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Conclusions: Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10 mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK.

  15. Biomarker Detection in Association Studies: Modeling SNPs Simultaneously via Logistic ANOVA

    KAUST Repository

    Jung, Yoonsuh; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Hu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    In genome-wide association studies, the primary task is to detect biomarkers in the form of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that have nontrivial associations with a disease phenotype and some other important clinical/environmental factors. However, the extremely large number of SNPs comparing to the sample size inhibits application of classical methods such as the multiple logistic regression. Currently the most commonly used approach is still to analyze one SNP at a time. In this paper, we propose to consider the genotypes of the SNPs simultaneously via a logistic analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, which expresses the logit transformed mean of SNP genotypes as the summation of the SNP effects, effects of the disease phenotype and/or other clinical variables, and the interaction effects. We use a reduced-rank representation of the interaction-effect matrix for dimensionality reduction, and employ the L 1-penalty in a penalized likelihood framework to filter out the SNPs that have no associations. We develop a Majorization-Minimization algorithm for computational implementation. In addition, we propose a modified BIC criterion to select the penalty parameters and determine the rank number. The proposed method is applied to a Multiple Sclerosis data set and simulated data sets and shows promise in biomarker detection.

  16. The impact of sample non-normality on ANOVA and alternative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Björn

    2013-05-01

    In this journal, Zimmerman (2004, 2011) has discussed preliminary tests that researchers often use to choose an appropriate method for comparing locations when the assumption of normality is doubtful. The conceptual problem with this approach is that such a two-stage process makes both the power and the significance of the entire procedure uncertain, as type I and type II errors are possible at both stages. A type I error at the first stage, for example, will obviously increase the probability of a type II error at the second stage. Based on the idea of Schmider et al. (2010), which proposes that simulated sets of sample data be ranked with respect to their degree of normality, this paper investigates the relationship between population non-normality and sample non-normality with respect to the performance of the ANOVA, Brown-Forsythe test, Welch test, and Kruskal-Wallis test when used with different distributions, sample sizes, and effect sizes. The overall conclusion is that the Kruskal-Wallis test is considerably less sensitive to the degree of sample normality when populations are distinctly non-normal and should therefore be the primary tool used to compare locations when it is known that populations are not at least approximately normal. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Biomarker Detection in Association Studies: Modeling SNPs Simultaneously via Logistic ANOVA

    KAUST Repository

    Jung, Yoonsuh

    2014-10-02

    In genome-wide association studies, the primary task is to detect biomarkers in the form of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that have nontrivial associations with a disease phenotype and some other important clinical/environmental factors. However, the extremely large number of SNPs comparing to the sample size inhibits application of classical methods such as the multiple logistic regression. Currently the most commonly used approach is still to analyze one SNP at a time. In this paper, we propose to consider the genotypes of the SNPs simultaneously via a logistic analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, which expresses the logit transformed mean of SNP genotypes as the summation of the SNP effects, effects of the disease phenotype and/or other clinical variables, and the interaction effects. We use a reduced-rank representation of the interaction-effect matrix for dimensionality reduction, and employ the L 1-penalty in a penalized likelihood framework to filter out the SNPs that have no associations. We develop a Majorization-Minimization algorithm for computational implementation. In addition, we propose a modified BIC criterion to select the penalty parameters and determine the rank number. The proposed method is applied to a Multiple Sclerosis data set and simulated data sets and shows promise in biomarker detection.

  18. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  19. IMPLANTABLE RESONATORS – A TECHNIQUE FOR REPEATED MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN AT MULTIPLE DEEP SITES WITH IN VIVO EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Hou, Huagang; Sucheta, Artur; Williams, Benjamin B.; Lariviere, Jean P.; Khan, Nadeem; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2013-01-01

    EPR oximetry using implantable resonators allow measurements at much deeper sites than are possible with surface resonators (> 80 mm vs. 10 mm) and have greater sensitivity at any depth. We report here the development of an improvement of the technique that now enables us to obtain the information from multiple sites and at a variety of depths. The measurements from the various sites are resolved using a simple magnetic field gradient. In the rat brain multi-probe implanted resonators measured pO2 at several sites simultaneously for over 6 months to record under normoxic, hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. This technique also facilitates measurements in moving parts of the animal such as the heart, because the orientation of the paramagnetic material relative to the sensitive small loop is not altered by the motion. The measured response is very fast, enabling measurements in real time of physiological and pathological changes such as experimental cardiac ischemia in the mouse heart. The technique also is quite useful for following changes in tumor pO2, including applications with simultaneous measurements in tumors and adjacent normal tissues. PMID:20204802

  20. Repeated measurements of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin T or C-reactive protein do not predict future allograft rejection in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battes, Linda C; Caliskan, Kadir; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Constantinescu, Alina A; Robertus, Jan L; Akkerhuis, Martijn; Manintveld, Olivier C; Boersma, Eric; Kardys, Isabella

    2015-03-01

    Studies on the prognostic value of serial biomarker assays for future occurrence of allograft rejection (AR) are scarce. We examined whether repeated measurements of NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), troponin T (TropT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict AR. From 2005 to 2010, 77 consecutive heart transplantation (HTx) recipients were included. The NT-proBNP, TropT, and CRP were measured at 16 ± 4 (mean ± standard deviation) consecutive routine endomyocardial biopsy surveillance visits during the first year of follow-up. Allograft rejection was defined as International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) grade 2R or higher at endomyocardial biopsy. Joint modeling was used to assess the association between repeated biomarker measurements and occurrence of future AR. Joint modeling accounts for dependence among repeated observations in individual patients. The mean age of the patients at HTx was 49 ± 9.2 years, and 68% were men. During the first year of follow-up, 1,136 biopsies and concurrent blood samples were obtained, and 56 patients (73%) experienced at least one episode of AR. All biomarkers were elevated directly after HTx and achieved steady-state after ∼ 12 weeks, both in patients with or without AR. No associations were present between the repeated measurements of NT-proBNP, TropT, or CRP and AR both early (weeks 0-12) and late (weeks 13-52) in the course after HTx (hazard ratios for weeks 13-52: 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.68), 0.67 (0.27-1.69), and 1.44 (0.90-2.30), respectively, per ln[unit]). Combining the three biomarkers in one model also rendered null results. The temporal evolution of NT-proBNP, TropT, and CRP before AR did not predict occurrence of acute AR both in the early and late course of the first year after HTx.

  1. Discontinuous Patterns of Cigarette Smoking From Ages 18 to 50 in the United States: A Repeated-Measures Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2017-12-13

    Effective cigarette smoking prevention and intervention programming is enhanced by accurate understanding of developmental smoking pathways across the life span. This study investigated within-person patterns of cigarette smoking from ages 18 to 50 among a US national sample of high school graduates, focusing on identifying ages of particular importance for smoking involvement change. Using data from approximately 15,000 individuals participating in the longitudinal Monitoring the Future study, trichotomous measures of past 30-day smoking obtained at 11 time points were modeled using repeated-measures latent class analyses. Sex differences in latent class structure and membership were examined. Twelve latent classes were identified: three characterized by consistent smoking patterns across age (no smoking; smoking developing effective smoking prevention and intervention programming. This study examined cigarette smoking among a national longitudinal US sample of high school graduates from ages 18 to 50 and identified distinct latent classes characterized by patterns of movement between no cigarette use, light-to-moderate smoking, and the conventional definition of heavy smoking at 11 time points via repeated-measures latent class analysis. Membership probabilities for each smoking class were estimated, and critical ages of susceptibility to change in smoking behaviors were identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Investigation of flood pattern using ANOVA statistic and remote sensing in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya'acob, Norsuzila; Ismail, Nor Syazwani; Mustafa, Norfazira; Yusof, Azita Laily

    2014-01-01

    Flood is an overflow or inundation that comes from river or other body of water and causes or threatens damages. In Malaysia, there are no formal categorization of flood but often broadly categorized as monsoonal, flash or tidal floods. This project will be focus on flood causes by monsoon. For the last few years, the number of extreme flood was occurred and brings great economic impact. The extreme weather pattern is the main sector contributes for this phenomenon. In 2010, several districts in the states of Kedah neighbour-hoods state have been hit by floods and it is caused by tremendous weather pattern. During this tragedy, the ratio of the rainfalls volume was not fixed for every region, and the flood happened when the amount of water increase rapidly and start to overflow. This is the main objective why this project has been carried out, and the analysis data has been done from August until October in 2010. The investigation was done to find the possibility correlation pattern parameters related to the flood. ANOVA statistic was used to calculate the percentage of parameters was involved and Regression and correlation calculate the strength of coefficient among parameters related to the flood while remote sensing image was used for validation between the calculation accuracy. According to the results, the prediction is successful as the coefficient of relation in flood event is 0.912 and proved by Terra-SAR image on 4th November 2010. The rates of change in weather pattern give the impact to the flood

  3. Optimization of Parameters for Manufacture Nanopowder Bioceramics at Machine Pulverisette 6 by Taguchi and ANOVA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoten, Hendri; Gunawarman; Mulyadi, Ismet Hari; Kurniawan Mainil, Afdhal; Putra, Bismantoloa dan

    2018-02-01

    This research is about manufacture nanopowder Bioceramics from local materials used Ball Milling for biomedical applications. Source materials for the manufacture of medicines are plants, animal tissues, microbial structures and engineering biomaterial. The form of raw material medicines is a powder before mixed. In the case of medicines, research is to find sources of biomedical materials that will be in the nanoscale powders can be used as raw material for medicine. One of the biomedical materials that can be used as raw material for medicine is of the type of bioceramics is chicken eggshells. This research will develop methods for manufacture nanopowder material from chicken eggshells with Ball Milling using the Taguchi method and ANOVA. Eggshell milled using a variation of Milling rate on 150, 200 and 250 rpm, the time variation of 1, 2 and 3 hours and variations the grinding balls to eggshell powder weight ratio (BPR) 1: 6, 1: 8, 1: 10. Before milled with Ball Milling crushed eggshells in advance and calcinate to a temperature of 900°C. After the milled material characterization of the fine powder of eggshell using SEM to see its size. The result of this research is optimum parameter of Taguchi Design analysis that is 250 rpm milling rate, 3 hours milling time and BPR is 1: 6 with the average eggshell powder size is 1.305 μm. Milling speed, milling time and ball to powder weight of ratio have contribution successively equal to 60.82%, 30.76% and 6.64% by error equal to 1.78%.

  4. Repeatability of Retinal Sensitivity Measurements Using a Medmont Dark-Adapted Chromatic Perimeter in Healthy and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rose S; Guymer, Robyn H; Luu, Chi D

    2018-05-01

    To determine the intrasession and intersession test-retest repeatability of retinal sensitivity measurements using a dark-adapted chromatic perimeter (DACP). For intrasession testing, retinal sensitivity within the central 24° for the 505-nm stimulus was measured after 20, 30, and 40 minutes of dark adaptation (DA) and for the 625-nm stimulus was measured after the first and second 505-nm tests. For intersession testing, retinal sensitivity for both stimuli was measured after 30 minutes of DA at baseline and 1 month. The point-wise sensitivity (PWS) difference and coefficient of repeatability (CoR) of each stimulus and group were determined. For intrasession testing, 10 age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and eight control subjects were recruited. The overall CoR for the 505-nm stimulus was 8.4 dB for control subjects and 9.1 dB for AMD cases, and for the 625-nm stimulus was 6.7 dB for control subjects and 9.5 dB for AMD cases. For intersession testing, seven AMD cases and 13 control subjects returned an overall CoR for the 505-nm stimulus of 8.2 dB for the control and 11.7 dB for the AMD group. For the 625-nm stimulus the CoR was 6.2 dB for the control group and 8.4 dB for the AMD group. Approximately 80% of all test points had a PWS difference of ±5 dB between the two intrasession or intersession measurements for both stimuli. The CoR for the DACP is larger than that reported for scotopic perimeters; however, the majority of test points had a PWS difference of ±5 dB between tests. The DACP offers an opportunity to measure static and dynamic rod function at multiple locations with an acceptable reproducibility level.

  5. Repeatability and reproducibility of in situ measurements of sound reflection and airborne sound insulation index of noise barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garai, M.; Schoen, E.; Behler, G.; Bragado, B.; Chudalla, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Demizieux, P.; Glorieux, C.; Guidorzi, P.

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, in situ measurements of sound reflection and airborne sound insulation of noise barriers are usually done according to CEN/TS 1793-5. This method has been improved substantially during the EU funded QUIESST collaborative project. Within the same framework, an inter-laboratory test has

  6. Why we should use simpler models if the data allow this: relevance for ANOVA designs in experimental biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazic Stanley E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of variance (ANOVA is a common statistical technique in physiological research, and often one or more of the independent/predictor variables such as dose, time, or age, can be treated as a continuous, rather than a categorical variable during analysis – even if subjects were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While this is not common, there are a number of advantages of such an approach, including greater statistical power due to increased precision, a simpler and more informative interpretation of the results, greater parsimony, and transformation of the predictor variable is possible. Results An example is given from an experiment where rats were randomly assigned to receive either 0, 60, 180, or 240 mg/L of fluoxetine in their drinking water, with performance on the forced swim test as the outcome measure. Dose was treated as either a categorical or continuous variable during analysis, with the latter analysis leading to a more powerful test (p = 0.021 vs. p = 0.159. This will be true in general, and the reasons for this are discussed. Conclusion There are many advantages to treating variables as continuous numeric variables if the data allow this, and this should be employed more often in experimental biology. Failure to use the optimal analysis runs the risk of missing significant effects or relationships.

  7. Dynamic Pain Phenotypes are Associated with Spinal Cord Stimulation-Induced Reduction in Pain: A Repeated Measures Observational Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Buenaver, Luis F; Raja, Srinivasa N; Kiley, Kasey B; Swedberg, Lauren J; Wacnik, Paul W; Cohen, Steven P; Erdek, Michael A; Williams, Kayode A; Christo, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a widely used treatment option for a variety of pain conditions. Substantial variability exists in the degree of benefit obtained from SCS and patient selection is a topic of expanding interest and importance. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of dynamic quantitative sensory testing (QST) to develop objective measures of SCS outcomes or as a predictive tool to help patient selection. Psychological characteristics have been shown to play an important role in shaping individual differences in the pain experience and may aid in predicting responses to SCS. Static laboratory pain-induction measures have also been examined in their capacity for predicting SCS outcomes. The current study evaluated clinical, psychological and laboratory pain measures at baseline, during trial SCS lead placement, as well as 1 month and 3 months following permanent SCS implantation in chronic pain patients who received SCS treatment. Several QST measures were conducted, with specific focus on examination of dynamic models (central sensitization and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) and their association with pain outcomes 3 months post SCS implantation. Results suggest few changes in QST over time. However, central sensitization and CPM at baseline were significantly associated with clinical pain at 3 months following SCS implantation, controlling for psycho/behavioral factors and pain at baseline. Specifically, enhanced central sensitization and reduced CPM were associated with less self-reported pain 3 months following SCS implantation. These findings suggest a potentially important role for dynamic pain assessment in individuals undergoing SCS, and hint at potential mechanisms through which SCS may impart its benefit. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Repeated measures of body mass index and C-reactive protein in relation to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Jørgensen, Torben; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been linked with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and both have been associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have used a single 'baseline' measurement and such analyses cannot account for possible changes in these which...... may lead to a biased estimation of risk. Using four cohorts from CHANCES which had repeated measures in participants 50 years and older, multivariate time-dependent Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) to examine the relationship between......, they may participate in distinct/independent pathways. Accounting for independent changes in risk factors over time may be crucial for unveiling their effects on mortality and disease morbidity....

  9. Tolerability of the Oscar 2 ambulatory blood pressure monitor among research participants: a cross-sectional repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinderliter Alan L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is increasingly used to measure blood pressure (BP in research studies. We examined ease of use, comfort, degree of disturbance, reported adverse effects, factors associated with poor tolerability, and association of poor tolerability with data acquisition of 24-hour ABPM using the Oscar 2 monitor in the research setting. Methods Sixty adults participating in a research study of people with a history of borderline clinic BP reported on their experience with ABPM on two occasions one week apart. Poor tolerability was operationalized as an overall score at or above the 75th percentile using responses to questions adapted from a previously developed questionnaire. In addition to descriptive statistics (means for responses to Likert-scaled "0 to 10" questions and proportions for Yes/No questions, we examined reproducibility of poor tolerability as well as associations with poor tolerability and whether poor tolerability was associated with removal of the monitor or inadequate number of BP measurements. Results The mean ambulatory BP of participants by an initial ABPM session was 148/87 mm Hg. After wearing the monitor the first time, the degree to which the monitor was felt to be cumbersome ranged from a mean of 3.0 to 3.8, depending on whether at work, home, driving, or other times. The most bother was interference with normal sleeping pattern (mean 4.2. Wearers found the monitor straightforward to use (mean 7.5. Nearly 67% reported that the monitor woke them after falling asleep, and 8.6% removed it at some point during the night. Reported adverse effects included pain (32%, skin irritation (37%, and bruising (7%. Those categorized as having poor tolerability (kappa = 0.5 between sessions, p = 0.0003 were more likely to report being in fair/poor health (75% vs 22%, p = 0.01 and have elevated 24-hour BP average (systolic: 28% vs 17%, p = 0.56; diastolic: 30% vs 17%, p = 0.37. They were

  10. Test–retest repeatability of quantitative cardiac 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine measurements in rats by small animal positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, James T.; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Kordos, Myra; Klein, Ran; Kemp, Robert A. de; Beanlands, Rob S.B.; DaSilva, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The norepinephrine analogue 11 C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has been used to interrogate sympathetic neuronal reuptake in cardiovascular disease. Application for longitudinal studies in small animal models of disease necessitates an understanding of test–retest variability. This study evaluated the repeatability of multiple quantitative cardiac measurements of HED retention and washout and the pharmacological response to reuptake blockade and enhanced norepinephrine levels. Methods: Small animal PET images were acquired over 60 min following HED administration to healthy male Sprague Dawley rats. Paired test and retest scans were undertaken in individual animals over 7 days. Additional HED scans were conducted following administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine or continuous infusion of exogenous norepinephrine. HED retention was quantified by retention index, standardized uptake value (SUV), monoexponential and one-compartment washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Test retest variability was lower for retention index (15% ± 12%) and SUV (19% ± 15%) as compared to monoexponential washout rates (21% ± 13%). Desipramine pretreatment reduced myocardial HED retention index by 69% and SUV by 85%. Chase treatment with desipramine increased monoexponential HED washout by 197% compared to untreated controls. Norepinephrine infusion dose-dependently reduced HED accumulation, reflected by both retention index and SUV, with a corresponding increase in monoexponential washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine levels correlated with HED quantitative measurements. Conclusion: The repeatability of HED retention index, SUV, and monoexponential washout supports its suitability for longitudinal PET studies in rats. Uptake and washout of HED are sensitive to acute increases in norepinephrine concentration

  11. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  12. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedslund Geir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

  13. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. VIII. Estimation of time since death by repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T

    1994-10-21

    The development of the intensity of rigor mortis was monitored in nine groups of rats. The measurements were initiated after 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 15, 24, and 48 h post mortem (p.m.) and lasted 5-9 h, which ideally should correspond to the usual procedure after the discovery of a corpse. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. Measurements initiated early after death resulted in curves with a rising portion, a plateau, and a descending slope. Delaying the initial measurement translated into shorter rising portions, and curves initiated 8 h p.m. or later are comprised of a plateau and/or a downward slope only. Three different phases were observed suggesting simple rules that can help estimate the time since death: (1) if an increase in intensity was found, the initial measurements were conducted not later than 5 h p.m.; (2) if only a decrease in intensity was observed, the initial measurements were conducted not earlier than 7 h p.m.; and (3) at 24 h p.m., the resolution is complete, and no further changes in intensity should occur. Our results clearly demonstrate that repeated measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis allow a more accurate estimation of the time since death of the experimental animals than the single measurement method used earlier. A critical review of the literature on the estimation of time since death on the basis of objective measurements of the intensity of rigor mortis is also presented.

  14. The effect of technical replicate (repeats) on Nix Pro Color Sensor™ measurement precision for meat: A case-study on aged beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Kilgannon, Ashleigh K; Hopkins, David L

    2018-01-01

    The Nix Pro Colour Sensor™ (NIX) can be potentially used to measure meat colour, but procedural guidelines that assure measurement reproducibility and repeatability (precision) must first be established. Technical replicate number (r) will minimise response variation, measureable as standard error of predicted mean (SEM), and contribute to improved precision. Consequently, we aimed to explore the effects of r on NIX precision when measuring aged beef colour (colorimetrics; L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma values). Each colorimetric SEM declined with increasing r to indicate improved precision and followed a diminishing rate of improvement that allowed us to recommend r=7 for meat colour studies using the NIX. This definition was based on practical limitations and a* variability, as additional r would be required if other colorimetrics or advanced levels of precision are necessary. Beef ageing and display period, holding temperature, loin and sampled portion were also found to contribute to colorimetric variation, but were incorporated within our definition of r. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence of radiation-induced reduction of height and body weight from repeated measurements of adults exposed in childhood to the atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Fujikoshi, Yasunori; Schull, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Reduction of growth from exposure to atomic bomb radiation has been examined using individuals under 10 years old at the time of the bombing (ATB) and a growth curve analysis based on measurements of height and weight made in the course of the 4th-7th cycles of the Adult Health Study examinations (1964-1972). As expected, the largest difference in growth to emerge is between males and females. However, a highly significant reduction of growth associated with dose (DS86) was observed among those survivors for whom four repeated measurements of height and weight were available. Longitudinal analysis of a more extended data set (n = 821), using expected values based on simple linear regression models fitted to the three available sets of measurements of height and weight on the 254 individuals with a missing measurement, also indicates a significant radiation-related growth reduction. The possible contribution of such factors as poor nutrition and disruption of normal family life in the years immediately after the war is difficult to evaluate, but the effects of socioeconomic factors on the analysis of these data are discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Repeated tumor pO2 measurements by multi-site EPR oximetry as a prognostic marker for enhanced therapeutic efficacy of fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Huagang; Lariviere, Jean P.; Demidenko, Eugene; Gladstone, David; Swartz, Harold; Khan, Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the temporal effects of single or fractionated radiotherapy on subcutaneous RIF-1 tumor pO 2 and to determine the therapeutic outcomes when the timing of fractionations is guided by tumor pO 2 . Methods: The time-course of the tumor pO 2 changes was followed by multi-site electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. The tumors were treated with single 10, 20, and 10 Gy x 2 doses, and the tumor pO 2 was measured repeatedly for six consecutive days. In the 10 Gy x 2 group, the second dose of 10 Gy was delivered at a time when the tumors were either relatively oxygenated or hypoxic. The changes in tumor volumes were followed for nine days to determine the therapeutic outcomes. Results: A significant increase in tumor pO 2 was observed at 24 h post 10 Gy, while 20 Gy resulted in a significant increase in tumor pO 2 at 72-120 h post irradiation. The tumors irradiated with a second dose of 10 Gy at 24 h, when the tumors were oxygenated, had a significant increase in tumor doubling times (DTs), as compared to tumors treated at 48 h when they were hypoxic (p 2 repeatedly during fractionated schemes to optimize radiotherapeutic outcome. This technique could also be used to identify responsive and non-responsive tumors, which will facilitate the design of other therapeutic approaches for non-responsive tumors at early time points during the course of therapy.

  17. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  18. Repeat, Low Altitude Measurements of Vegetation Status and Biomass Using Manned Aerial and UAS Imagery in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofcheck, D. J.; Lippitt, C.; Loerch, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the above ground biomass of vegetation is a critical component of any ecological monitoring campaign. Traditionally, biomass of vegetation was measured with allometric-based approach. However, it is also time-consuming, labor-intensive, and extremely expensive to conduct over large scales and consequently is cost-prohibitive at the landscape scale. Furthermore, in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by vegetation with inconsistent growth morphologies (e.g., piñon-juniper woodlands), even ground-based conventional allometric approaches are often challenging to execute consistently across individuals and through time, increasing the difficulty of the required measurements and consequently the accuracy of the resulting products. To constrain the uncertainty associated with these campaigns, and to expand the extent of our measurement capability, we made repeat measurements of vegetation biomass in a semi-arid piñon-juniper woodland using structure-from-motion (SfM) techniques. We used high-spatial resolution overlapping aerial images and high-accuracy ground control points collected from both manned aircraft and multi-rotor UAS platforms, to generate digital surface model (DSM) for our experimental region. We extracted high-precision canopy volumes from the DSM and compared these to the vegetation allometric data, s to generate high precision canopy volume models. We used these models to predict the drivers of allometric equations for Pinus edulis and Juniperous monosperma (canopy height, diameter at breast height, and root collar diameter). Using this approach, we successfully accounted for the carbon stocks in standing live and standing dead vegetation across a 9 ha region, which contained 12.6 Mg / ha of standing dead biomass, with good agreement to our field plots. Here we present the initial results from an object oriented workflow which aims to automate the biomass estimation process of tree crown delineation and volume calculation, and partition

  19. Baseline repeated measures from controlled human exposure studies: associations between ambient air pollution exposure and the systemic inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M S; Zanobetti, Antonella; Silverman, Frances; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Brook, Jeffrey R; Manno, Michael; Gold, Diane R

    2010-01-01

    Systemic inflammation may be one of the mechanisms mediating the association between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen are biomarkers of systemic inflammation that are independent risk factors for cardio-vascular disease. We investigated the association between ambient air pollution and systemic inflammation using baseline measurements of IL-6 and fibrinogen from controlled human exposure studies. In this retrospective analysis we used repeated-measures data in 45 nonsmoking subjects. Hourly and daily moving averages were calculated for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter pollutants on systemic IL-6 and fibrinogen. Effect modification by season was considered. We observed a positive association between IL-6 and O3 [0.31 SD per O3 interquartile range (IQR); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.080.54] and between IL-6 and SO2 (0.25 SD per SO2 IQR; 95% CI, 0.060.43). We observed the strongest effects using 4-day moving averages. Responses to pollutants varied by season and tended to be higher in the summer, particularly for O3 and PM2.5. Fibrinogen was not associated with pollution. This study demonstrates a significant association between ambient pollutant levels and baseline levels of systemic IL-6. These findings have potential implications for controlled human exposure studies. Future research should consider whether ambient pollution exposure before chamber exposure modifies IL-6 response.

  20. Assessing a learning process with functional ANOVA estimators of EEG power spectral densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, David; Ramírez-Moreno, Mauricio A

    2016-04-01

    We propose to assess the process of learning a task using electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements. In particular, we quantify changes in brain activity associated to the progression of the learning experience through the functional analysis-of-variances (FANOVA) estimators of the EEG power spectral density (PSD). Such functional estimators provide a sense of the effect of training in the EEG dynamics. For that purpose, we implemented an experiment to monitor the process of learning to type using the Colemak keyboard layout during a twelve-lessons training. Hence, our aim is to identify statistically significant changes in PSD of various EEG rhythms at different stages and difficulty levels of the learning process. Those changes are taken into account only when a probabilistic measure of the cognitive state ensures the high engagement of the volunteer to the training. Based on this, a series of statistical tests are performed in order to determine the personalized frequencies and sensors at which changes in PSD occur, then the FANOVA estimates are computed and analyzed. Our experimental results showed a significant decrease in the power of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] rhythms for ten volunteers during the learning process, and such decrease happens regardless of the difficulty of the lesson. These results are in agreement with previous reports of changes in PSD being associated to feature binding and memory encoding.

  1. Fixed or adapted conditioning intensity for repeated conditioned pain modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegh, M; Petersen, K K; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-12-29

    Aims Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is used to assess descending pain modulation through a test stimulation (TS) and a conditioning stimulation (CS). Due to potential carry-over effects, sequential CPM paradigms might alter the intensity of the CS, which potentially can alter the CPM-effect. This study aimed to investigate the difference between a fixed and adaptive CS intensity on CPM-effect. Methods On the dominant leg of 20 healthy subjects the cuff pressure detection threshold (PDT) was recorded as TS and the pain tolerance threshold (PTT) was assessed on the non-dominant leg for estimating the CS. The difference in PDT before and during CS defined the CPM-effect. The CPM-effect was assessed four times using a CS with intensities of 70% of baseline PTT (fixed) or 70% of PTT measured throughout the session (adaptive). Pain intensity of the conditioning stimulus was assessed on a numeric rating scale (NRS). Data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results No difference was found comparing the four PDTs assessed before CSs for the fixed and the adaptive paradigms. The CS pressure intensity for the adaptive paradigm was increasing during the four repeated assessments (P CPM-effect was higher using the fixed condition compared with the adaptive condition (P CPM paradigms using a fixed conditioning stimulus produced an increased CPM-effect compared with adaptive and increasing conditioning intensities.

  2. Usefulness of repeated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide measurements as incremental predictor for long-term cardiovascular outcome after vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goei, Dustin; van Kuijk, Jan-Peter; Flu, Willem-Jan; Hoeks, Sanne E; Chonchol, Michel; Verhagen, Hence J M; Bax, Jeroen J; Poldermans, Don

    2011-02-15

    Plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels improve preoperative cardiac risk stratification in vascular surgery patients. However, single preoperative measurements of NT-pro-BNP cannot take into account the hemodynamic stress caused by anesthesia and surgery. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the incremental predictive value of changes in NT-pro-BNP during the perioperative period for long-term cardiac mortality. Detailed cardiac histories, rest left ventricular echocardiography, and NT-pro-BNP levels were obtained in 144 patients before vascular surgery and before discharge. The study end point was the occurrence of cardiovascular death during a median follow-up period of 13 months (interquartile range 5 to 20). Preoperatively, the median NT-pro-BNP level in the study population was 314 pg/ml (interquartile range 136 to 1,351), which increased to a median level of 1,505 pg/ml (interquartile range 404 to 6,453) before discharge. During the follow-up period, 29 patients (20%) died, 27 (93%) from cardiovascular causes. The median difference in NT-pro-BNP in the survivors was 665 pg/ml, compared to 5,336 pg/ml in the patients who died (p = 0.01). Multivariate Cox regression analyses, adjusted for cardiac history and cardiovascular risk factors (age, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, body mass index, type of surgery and the left ventricular ejection fraction), demonstrated that the difference in NT-pro-BNP level between pre- and postoperative measurement was the strongest independent predictor of cardiac outcome (hazard ratio 3.06, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 6.91). In conclusion, the change in NT-pro-BNP, indicated by repeated measurements before surgery and before discharge is the strongest predictor of cardiac outcomes in patients who undergo vascular surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of a person-centred dementia care training programme on hospital staff attitudes, role efficacy and perceptions of caring for people with dementia: A repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, C A; Smith, S J; Crossland, J; Robins, J

    2016-01-01

    People with dementia occupy up to one quarter of acute hospital beds. However, the quality of care delivered to this patient group is of national concern. Staff working in acute hospitals report lack of knowledge, skills and confidence in caring for people with dementia. There is limited evidence about the most effective approaches to supporting acute hospital staff to deliver more person-centred care. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a specialist training programme for acute hospital staff regarding improving attitudes, satisfaction and feelings of caring efficacy, in provision of care to people with dementia. A repeated measures design, with measures completed immediately prior to commencing training (T1), after completion of Foundation level training (T2: 4-6 weeks post-baseline), and following Intermediate level training (T3: 3-4 months post-baseline). One NHS Trust in the North of England, UK. 40 acute hospital staff working in clinical roles, the majority of whom (90%) were nurses. All participants received the 3.5 day Person-centred Care Training for Acute Hospitals (PCTAH) programme, comprised of two levels, Foundation (0.5 day) and Intermediate (3 days), delivered over a 3-4 months period. Staff demographics and previous exposure to dementia training were collected via a questionnaire. Staff attitudes were measured using the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ), satisfaction in caring for people with dementia was captured using the Staff Experiences of Working with Demented Residents questionnaire (SEWDR) and perceived caring efficacy was measured using the Caring Efficacy Scale (CES). The training programme was effective in producing a significant positive change on all three outcome measures following intermediate training compared to baseline. A significant positive effect was found on the ADQ between baseline and after completion of Foundation level training, but not for either of the other measures. Training acute hospital staff in

  4. Using the American alligator and a repeated-measures design to place constraints on in vivo shoulder joint range of motion in dinosaurs and other fossil archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel D; Hutson, Kelda N

    2013-01-15

    Using the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs (crocodylians and birds), recent work has reported that elbow joint range of motion (ROM) studies of fossil dinosaur forearms may be providing conservative underestimates of fully fleshed in vivo ROM. As humeral ROM occupies a more central role in forelimb movements, the placement of quantitative constraints on shoulder joint ROM could improve fossil reconstructions. Here, we investigated whether soft tissues affect the more mobile shoulder joint in the same manner in which they affect elbow joint ROM in an extant archosaur. This test involved separately and repeatedly measuring humeral ROM in Alligator mississippiensis as soft tissues were dissected away in stages to bare bone. Our data show that the ROMs of humeral flexion and extension, as well as abduction and adduction, both show a statistically significant increase as flesh is removed, but then decrease when the bones must be physically articulated and moved until they separate from one another and/or visible joint surfaces. A similar ROM pattern is inferred for humeral pronation and supination. All final skeletonized ROMs were less than initial fully fleshed ROMs. These results are consistent with previously reported elbow joint ROM patterns from the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs. Thus, studies that avoid separation of complementary articular surfaces may be providing fossil shoulder joint ROMs that underestimate in vivo ROM in dinosaurs, as well as other fossil archosaurs.

  5. The Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations (Q-MEGA). Study design, baseline characteristics, and repeatability of phenotype and sun exposure measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Hughes, Maria Celia; Kvaskoff, Marina; Siskind, Victor; Shekar, Sri; Aitken, Joanne F.; Green, Adele C.; Duffy, David L.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whiteman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a major health issue in Queensland, Australia which has the world’s highest incidence. Recent molecular and epidemiologic studies suggest that CMM arises through multiple etiological pathways involving gene-environment interactions. Understanding the potential mechanisms leading to CMM requires larger studies than those previously conducted. This article describes the design and baseline characteristics of Q-MEGA, the Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations, which followed-up four population-based samples of CMM patients in Queensland, including children, adolescents, men aged over 50, and a large sample of adult cases and their families, including twins. Q-MEGA aims to investigate the roles of genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction, in the etiology of melanoma. 3,471 participants took part in the follow-up study and were administered a computer-assisted telephone interview in 2002–2005. Updated data on environmental and phenotypic risk factors, and 2,777 blood samples were collected from interviewed participants as well as a subset of relatives. This study provides a large and well-described population-based sample of CMM cases with follow-up data. Characteristics of the cases and repeatability of sun exposure and phenotype measures between the baseline and the follow-up surveys, from six to 17 years later, are also described. PMID:18361720

  6. Effect of exposure to evening light on sleep initiation in the elderly: a longitudinal analysis for repeated measurements in home settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nezu, Satoko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated associations of sleep-onset insomnia with a variety of diseases, including depression, dementia, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Sleep initiation is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and endogenous melatonin, both of which are influenced by environmental light. Exposure to evening light is hypothesized to cause circadian phase delay and melatonin suppression before bedtime, resulting in circadian misalignment and sleep-onset insomnia; however, whether exposure to evening light disturbs sleep initiation in home settings remains unclear. In this longitudinal analysis of 192 elderly individuals (mean age: 69.9 years), we measured evening light exposure and sleep-onset latency for 4 days using a wrist actigraph incorporating a light meter and an accelerometer. Mixed-effect linear regression analysis for repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of evening light exposure on subsequent sleep-onset latency. The median intensity of evening light exposure and the median sleep-onset latency were 27.3 lux (interquartile range, 17.9-43.4) and 17 min (interquartile range, 7-33), respectively. Univariate models showed significant associations between sleep-onset latency and age, gender, daytime physical activity, in-bed time, day length and average intensity of evening and nighttime light exposures. In a multivariate model, log-transformed average intensity of evening light exposure was significantly associated with log-transformed sleep-onset latency independent of the former potential confounding factors (regression coefficient, 0.133; 95% CI, 0.020-0.247; p = 0.021). Day length and nighttime light exposure were also significantly associated with log-transformed sleep-onset latency (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, exposure to evening light in home setting prolongs subsequent sleep-onset latency in the elderly.

  7. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Weischer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77, current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3, increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14, physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17, but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10. At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300 and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27, but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  8. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim...... was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. METHODS: A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due...... to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent...

  9. Repeatability of quantitative 18F-FLT uptake measurements in solid tumors: an individual patient data multi-center meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G M; Liu, Y; de Langen, A J; Jansma, E P; Trigonis, I; Asselin, M-C; Jackson, A; Kenny, L; Aboagye, E O; Hoekstra, O S; Boellaard, R

    2018-06-01

    3'-deoxy-3'-[ 18 F]fluorothymidine ( 18 F-FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) provides a non-invasive method to assess cellular proliferation and response to antitumor therapy. Quantitative 18 F-FLT uptake metrics are being used for evaluation of proliferative response in investigational setting, however multi-center repeatability needs to be established. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of 18 F-FLT tumor uptake metrics by re-analyzing individual patient data from previously published reports using the same tumor segmentation method and repeatability metrics across cohorts. A systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE.com and the Cochrane Library from inception-October 2016 yielded five 18 F-FLT repeatability cohorts in solid tumors. 18 F-FLT avid lesions were delineated using a 50% isocontour adapted for local background on test and retest scans. SUV max , SUV mean , SUV peak , proliferative volume and total lesion uptake (TLU) were calculated. Repeatability was assessed using the repeatability coefficient (RC = 1.96 × SD of test-retest differences), linear regression analysis, and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The impact of different lesion selection criteria was also evaluated. Images from four cohorts containing 30 patients with 52 lesions were obtained and analyzed (ten in breast cancer, nine in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and 33 in non-small cell lung cancer patients). A good correlation was found between test-retest data for all 18 F-FLT uptake metrics (R 2  ≥ 0.93; ICC ≥ 0.96). Best repeatability was found for SUV peak (RC: 23.1%), without significant differences in RC between different SUV metrics. Repeatability of proliferative volume (RC: 36.0%) and TLU (RC: 36.4%) was worse than SUV. Lesion selection methods based on SUV max  ≥ 4.0 improved the repeatability of volumetric metrics (RC: 26-28%), but did not affect the repeatability of SUV metrics. In multi-center studies

  10. Repeatability and number of growing seasons for the selection of custard apple progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Do Vale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the repeatability coefficient and determine the minimum number of samplesrequired for effective selection for yield of custard apple. Twenty progenies were evaluated in randomized blocks, fivereplications and four plants per plot. The fruits were collected, counted and weighed every two days of the year. Estimates ofthe repeatability coefficients were obtained by the methods of analysis of variance - ANOVA and principal components - PC.The estimates from the repeatability analysis of biennial data are higher than those based on individual years. The estimatesof the PC method were accurate even in the first harvest, unlike ANOVA. Four biennia were sufficient to ensure effectiveprogeny selection of custard apple.

  11. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, K S; Rowe, K J

    1994-11-01

    To establish whether there is an association between the ingestion of synthetic food colorings and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of "hyperactivity." From approximately 800 children referred to the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) for assessment of suspected hyperactivity, 200 were included in a 6-week open trial of a diet free of synthetic food coloring. The parents of 150 children reported behavioral improvement with the diet, and deterioration on the introduction of foods noted to contain synthetic coloring. A 30-item behavioral rating inventory was devised from an examination of the clinical histories of 50 suspected reactors. Thirty-four other children (23 suspected reactors, 11 uncertain reactors) and 20 control subjects, aged 2 to 14 years, were studied. A 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study used each child as his or her own control. Placebo, or one of six dose levels of tartrazine (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg), was administered randomly each morning, and behavioral ratings were recorded by parents at the end of each 24 hours. The study identified 24 children as clear reactors (19 of 23 "suspected reactors," 3 of 11 "uncertain reactors," and 2 of 20 "control subjects"). They were irritable and restless and had sleep disturbance. Significant reactions were observed at all six dose levels. A dose response effect was obtained. With a dose increase greater than 10 mg, the duration of effect was prolonged. Behavioral changes in irritability, restlessness, and sleep disturbance are associated with the ingestion of tartrazine in some children. A dose response effect was observed.

  12. Knowledge and Skill Retention of In-Service versus Preservice Nursing Professionals following an Informal Training Program in Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Repeated-Measures Quasiexperimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuma Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants—28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals—were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P=0.08 while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P<0.001. Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups—in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P=0.01 and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P<0.001. Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills.

  13. The influence of speed abilities and technical skills in early adolescence on adult success in soccer: A long-term prospective analysis using ANOVA and SEM approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Several talent development programs in youth soccer have implemented motor diagnostics measuring performance factors. However, the predictive value of such tests for adult success is a controversial topic in talent research. This prospective cohort study evaluated the long-term predictive value of 1) motor tests and 2) players’ speed abilities (SA) and technical skills (TS) in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 14,178 U12 players from the German talent development program. Five tests (sprint, agility, dribbling, ball control, shooting) were conducted and players’ height, weight as well as relative age were assessed at nationwide diagnostics between 2004 and 2006. In the 2014/15 season, the players were then categorized as professional (n = 89), semi-professional (n = 913), or non-professional players (n = 13,176), indicating their adult performance level (APL). The motor tests’ prognostic relevance was determined using ANOVAs. Players’ future success was predicted by a logistic regression threshold model. This structural equation model comprised a measurement model with the motor tests and two correlated latent factors, SA and TS, with simultaneous consideration for the manifest covariates height, weight and relative age. Each motor predictor and anthropometric characteristic discriminated significantly between the APL (p < .001; η2 ≤ .02). The threshold model significantly predicted the APL (R2 = 24.8%), and in early adolescence the factor TS (p < .001) seems to have a stronger effect on adult performance than SA (p < .05). Both approaches (ANOVA, SEM) verified the diagnostics’ predictive validity over a long-term period (≈ 9 years). However, because of the limited effect sizes, the motor tests’ prognostic relevance remains ambiguous. A challenge for future research lies in the integration of different (e.g., person-oriented or multilevel) multivariate approaches that expand beyond the “traditional” topic of single tests’ predictive

  14. Carbohydrate mouth rinse does not improve repeated sprint performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ricardo Altimari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on the repeated sprint ability (RSA of young soccer players. Nine youth soccer players (15.0 ± 1.5 years; 60.7 ± 4.84 kg; 1.72 ± 0.05 m; 20.5 ± 1.25 kg/m2 were selected. The athletes were submitted to an RSA test consisting of six sprints of 40 m (going/return = 20 m + 20 m, separated by 20 s of passive recovery, under three experimental conditions: carbohydrate mouth rinse (CHO or placebo (PLA and control (CON. The mouth rinses containing CHO or PLA were administered 5 min and immediately before the beginning of the test in doses of 100 mL. The best sprint time (RSAbest, mean sprint time (RSAmean, and drop-off in sprint performance (fatigue index were determined for the different treatments. One-not identify significant differences (p> 0.05 in RSAbest (CHO way ANOVA for repeated measures did = 7.30 ± 0.31 s; PLA = 7.30 ± 0.30 s; CON = 7.26 ±0.16 s, RSA mean (CHO = 7.71 ± 0.30 s; PLA = 7.71 ± 0.25 s; CON = 7.66 ± 0.24s, or fatigue index (CHO = 5.58 ± 2.16%; PLA = 5.77 ± 3.04%; CON = 5.55 ±3.72%. The results suggest that a carbohydrate mouth rinse does not improve the repeated sprint performance of young soccer players.

  15. Reproducibility of repeated measures of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl ([11C]L-deprenyl-D2) binding in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; MacGregor, Robert R.; Shea, Colleen

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of repeated positron emission tomography (PET) measures of brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) using deuterium-substituted [ 11 C]L-deprenyl ([ 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2) in normal subjects and to validate the method used for estimating the kinetic constants from the irreversible 3-compartment model applied to the tracer binding. Five normal healthy subjects (age range 23-73 years) each received two PET scans with [ 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2. The time interval between scans was 7-27 days. Time-activity data from eight regions of interest and an arterial plasma input function was used to calculate λk 3 , a model term proportional to MAO B, and K 1 , the plasma to brain transfer constant that is related to blood flow. Linear (LIN) and nonlinear least-squares (NLLSQ) estimation methods were used to calculate the optimum model constants. A comparison of time-activity curves for scan 1 and scan 2 showed that the percent of change for peak uptake varied from -18.5 to 15.0% and that increases and decreases in uptake on scan 2 were associated with increases and decreases in the value of the arterial input of the tracer. Calculation of λk 3 showed a difference between scan 1 and scan 2 in the global value ranging between -6.97 and 4.5% (average -2.1±4.7%). The average percent change for eight brain regions for the five subjects was -2.84±7.07%. Values of λk 3 for scan 1 and scan 2 were highly correlated (r 2 =0.98; p 1 showed a significant correlation between scan 1 and scan 2 (r 2 =0.61; p 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2 varied between scan 1 and scan 2, driven by the differences in arterial tracer input. Application of a 3-compartment model to regional time-activity data and arterial input function yielded λk 3 values for scan 1 and scan 2 with an average difference of -2.84 ± 7.07%. Linear regression applied to values of λk 3 from the LIN and NLLSQ methods validated the use of the linear method for calculating λk 3

  16. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Chloe; Bremer, Emily; Campbell, Wenonah; Cairney, John

    2017-01-01

    School readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3-4 years. A within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies), 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc.) or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks), and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1-2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.). A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3) was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1), pre-intervention (Time 2), post-intervention (Time 3), and 5-week follow-up (Time 4). Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point. There was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks' lambda = 0.09, p  = .002), print-concept skills (Wilks' lambda = 0.09, p  = .001), and alphabet knowledge (Wilks' lambda = 0.29, p  = .046). Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3. Participation in a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy

  17. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Bedard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSchool readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3–4 years.MethodsA within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies, 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc. or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks, and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1–2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.. A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3 was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1, pre-intervention (Time 2, post-intervention (Time 3, and 5-week follow-up (Time 4. Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point.ResultsThere was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .002, print-concept skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .001, and alphabet knowledge (Wilks’ lambda = 0.29, p = .046. Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3.ConclusionParticipation in a

  18. A probit- log- skew-normal mixture model for repeated measures data with excess zeros, with application to a cohort study of paediatric respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Neil W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A zero-inflated continuous outcome is characterized by occurrence of "excess" zeros that more than a single distribution can explain, with the positive observations forming a skewed distribution. Mixture models are employed for regression analysis of zero-inflated data. Moreover, for repeated measures zero-inflated data the clustering structure should also be modeled for an adequate analysis. Methods Diary of Asthma and Viral Infections Study (DAVIS was a one year (2004 cohort study conducted at McMaster University to monitor viral infection and respiratory symptoms in children aged 5-11 years with and without asthma. Respiratory symptoms were recorded daily using either an Internet or paper-based diary. Changes in symptoms were assessed by study staff and led to collection of nasal fluid specimens for virological testing. The study objectives included investigating the response of respiratory symptoms to respiratory viral infection in children with and without asthma over a one year period. Due to sparse data daily respiratory symptom scores were aggregated into weekly average scores. More than 70% of the weekly average scores were zero, with the positive scores forming a skewed distribution. We propose a random effects probit/log-skew-normal mixture model to analyze the DAVIS data. The model parameters were estimated using a maximum marginal likelihood approach. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed mixture model if the underlying distribution of the positive response is different from log-skew normal. Results Viral infection status was highly significant in both probit and log-skew normal model components respectively. The probability of being symptom free was much lower for the week a child was viral positive relative to the week she/he was viral negative. The severity of the symptoms was also greater for the week a child was viral positive. The probability of being symptom free was

  19. Measurements of Repeated Tightening and Loosening Torque of Seven Different Implant/Abutment Connection Designs and Their Modifications: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevica, Alena; Nathanson, Dan; Pober, Richard; Strating, Herman

    2018-02-01

    Repeated tightening and loosening of the abutment screw may alter its mechanical and physical properties affecting the optimal torque and ultimate reliability of an implant/abutment connection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated tightening and loosening of implant/abutment screws on the loosening torque of implant/abutment connections of commercially available implant systems. Seven different implant/abutment connections and their modifications were tested. The screws of each system were tightened according to the manufacturer's specifications. After 20 minutes the screws were loosened. This procedure was repeated ten times, and the differences between the 1st and 10th cycle were expressed as a percentage change RTq(%) and correlated with initial torque, the number of threads, the length of shank, and thread surface area employing Spearman's analysis. All systems showed significant differences in residual torque (RTq) value (p 0.05). All connections but group 3 (p = 1.000) showed a significant change from the initial torque (ITq) to the RTq values. The first successive RTq values increased in two connection groups 1 and 2. The remaining connections showed reduced RTq values ranging from -1.2 % (group 5) to -23.5% (group 6). The RTq values declined gradually with every repeated tightening in groups 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12. In group 2, after the tenth tightening the RTq was still above the ITq value. Only length of shank demonstrated a correlation with the RTq(%) change over the successive tightening loosening cycles (p abutment screws caused varying torque level changes among the different systems. These observations can probably be attributed to connection design. Limiting the number of tightening/loosening cycles in clinical and laboratory procedures is advisable for most of the implant systems tested. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Alternativas de análises em dados de medidas repetidas de bovinos de corte Alternative analyses of repeated weight measurements of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar duas alternativas de análises de variâncias e covariâncias para dados de pesagens de bovinos. Foram utilizados dados de animais Nelore, Guzerá, Gir e Indubrasil, machos e fêmeas, pertencentes à Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu - ABCZ. De cada indivíduo, foram obtidas, em intervalos trimestrais, nove medidas repetidas de pesos, do nascimento aos dois anos de idade. Na primeira análise, a variável resposta y i foi transformada por meio da família de transformação de Box-Cox y ilambda = (ylambda-lambda/lambda, (l ¹ 0 ou y i = log y i, (lambda = 0. Essa transformação foi efetiva na redução dos coeficientes de assimetria e da heterogeneidade de variância para todas as pesagens e raças. Na segunda análise, foi selecionada a estrutura de covariâncias mais adequada para representar a variabilidade dentro de indivíduo, considerando-se um modelo misto usual para medidas repetidas. Utilizando-se os critérios fornecidos pelo procedimento MIXED do SAS: distribuição de chi2, AIC ("Akaike's Information Criterion" e SBC ("Schwarz's Bayesian Criterion", a estrutura de covariância mais adequada para todas as raças foi a Não-Estruturada, seguida da estrutura Fator-Analítico para Nelore, Gir e Indubrasil e Simetria Composta Heterogênea para Guzerá.Data consisting of individual records of male and female animals of purebred Bos Indicus beef cattle (Nellore, Guzerá, Gir and Indubrasil weighted every three months from birth to 24 months of age available from National Archive of Brazilian Zebu Breeders Association (ABCZ were used to evaluate two alternatives (covariance analyses for body weight. In the first analysis the Box-Cox family transformation y ilambda = (ylambda-lambda/lambda (l ¹ 0 or y i = log y i, for lambda=0 was effective in reducing the asymmetry of the coefficients and variance heterogeneity for all weights and breeds. In the second analysis a usual standard mixed model for repeated

  1. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: 1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), 2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and 3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (Pvel) was calculated for consecutive 5 s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the Pvel. Pvel was greater in older adults in all conditions (p Pvel of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between trial 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in Pvel following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization. PMID:18329878

  2. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  3. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  4. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  5. Incremental Value of Repeated Risk Factor Measurements for Cardiovascular Disease Prediction in Middle-Aged Korean Adults: Results From the NHIS-HEALS (National Health Insurance System-National Health Screening Cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Jeong; Sung, Ji Min; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chung, Namsik; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that repeatedly measured cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may have an additive predictive value compared with single measured levels. Thus, we evaluated the incremental predictive value of incorporating periodic health screening data for CVD prediction in a large nationwide cohort with periodic health screening tests. A total of 467 708 persons aged 40 to 79 years and free from CVD were randomly divided into development (70%) and validation subcohorts (30%). We developed 3 different CVD prediction models: a single measure model using single time point screening data; a longitudinal average model using average risk factor values from periodic screening data; and a longitudinal summary model using average values and the variability of risk factors. The development subcohort included 327 396 persons who had 3.2 health screenings on average and 25 765 cases of CVD over 12 years. The C statistics (95% confidence interval [CI]) for the single measure, longitudinal average, and longitudinal summary models were 0.690 (95% CI, 0.682-0.698), 0.695 (95% CI, 0.687-0.703), and 0.752 (95% CI, 0.744-0.760) in men and 0.732 (95% CI, 0.722-0.742), 0.735 (95% CI, 0.725-0.745), and 0.790 (95% CI, 0.780-0.800) in women, respectively. The net reclassification index from the single measure model to the longitudinal average model was 1.78% in men and 1.33% in women, and the index from the longitudinal average model to the longitudinal summary model was 32.71% in men and 34.98% in women. Using averages of repeatedly measured risk factor values modestly improves CVD predictability compared with single measurement values. Incorporating the average and variability information of repeated measurements can lead to great improvements in disease prediction. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02931500. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Mature clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats RNA (crRNA) length is measured by a ruler mechanism anchored at the precursor processing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum-Aslan, Asma; Maniv, Inbal; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2011-12-27

    Precise RNA processing is fundamental to all small RNA-mediated interference pathways. In prokaryotes, clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci encode small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that protect against invasive genetic elements by antisense targeting. CRISPR loci are transcribed as a long precursor that is cleaved within repeat sequences by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. In many organisms, this primary processing generates crRNA intermediates that are subject to additional nucleolytic trimming to render mature crRNAs of specific lengths. The molecular mechanisms underlying this maturation event remain poorly understood. Here, we defined the genetic requirements for crRNA primary processing and maturation in Staphylococcus epidermidis. We show that changes in the position of the primary processing site result in extended or diminished maturation to generate mature crRNAs of constant length. These results indicate that crRNA maturation occurs by a ruler mechanism anchored at the primary processing site. We also show that maturation is mediated by specific cas genes distinct from those genes involved in primary processing, showing that this event is directed by CRISPR/Cas loci.

  7. Repeated cycles of chemical and physical disinfection and their influence on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability measured by propidium monoazide F57 quantitative real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Petr; Babak, Vladimir; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2014-09-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has a high degree of resistance to chemical and physical procedures frequently used for the elimination of other bacteria. Recently, a method for the determination of viability by exposure of MAP to propidium monoazide (PMA) and subsequent real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was established and found to be comparable with culture. The aim of this study was to apply the PMA qPCR method to determine the impact of increasing concentration or time and repeated cycles of the application of selected disinfectants on MAP viability. Different MAP isolates responded to the same type of stress in different ways. The laboratory strain CAPM 6381 had the highest tolerance, while the 8819 low-passage field isolate was the most sensitive. Ultraviolet exposure caused only a partial reduction in MAP viability; all MAP isolates were relatively resistant to chlorine. Only the application of peracetic acid led to the total elimination of MAP. Repeated application of the treatments resulted in more significant decreases in MAP viability compared to single increases in the concentration or time of exposure to the disinfectant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  9. Pharmacokinetics of taurolidine following repeated intravenous infusions measured by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of the derivatives taurultame and taurinamide in glioblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Ruediger; Scheurer, Louis; Schlatterer, Kathrin; Stalder, Urs; Pfirrmann, Rolf W; Fiss, Ingo; Möhler, Hanns; Bigler, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Taurolidine is known to have antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, at lower concentrations, it has been found to exert a selective antineoplastic effect in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of taurolidine in vivo following repeated intravenous infusion in a schedule used for the treatment of glioblastoma. As a prerequisite, the pharmacokinetics of taurolidine in human blood plasma and whole blood in vitro was investigated. The pharmacokinetics of taurolidine and its derivatives taurultame and taurinamide were investigated in human blood plasma and in whole blood in vitro using blood from a healthy male volunteer. During repeated intravenous infusion therapy with taurolidine, plasma samples were taken every hour for a period of 13 hours per day in seven patients (three male, four female; mean age 48.4 +/- 12.8 years, range 27-66 years) with a glioblastoma. Following dansyl derivatisation, the concentrations of taurultame and taurinamide were determined using a new method based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) online coupled to electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Under the experimental conditions used, taurolidine could not be determined directly and was back-calculated from the taurultame and taurinamide values. The new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method demonstrated high accuracy and reproducibility. In vitro plasma concentrations of taurultame and taurinamide remained constant over the incubation period. In whole blood in vitro, a time-dependent formation of taurinamide was observed. At the start of the incubation, the taurultame-taurinamide ratio (TTR) was 0.95 at an initial taurolidine concentration of 50 microg/mL, and 1.69 at 100 microg/mL. The concentration of taurultame decreased at the same rate as the taurinamide concentration increased, showing logarithmic kinetics. The calculated taurolidine concentration remained largely constant over the

  10. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  11. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  12. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  13. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  14. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and haptoglobin concentration variations during repeated show jumping competition in horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Assenza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modifications of the iron profile in athlete horses during two international three star (*** show jumping competitions performed in two consecutive weekends were evaluated. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and haptoglobin were assessed in 12 well-trained Italian Saddle horses. Blood samplings were performed before the first day of competition (R1, within 10 min from the end of each competition (J1, J2 and on the day after competition (R2. The same plan was followed during the second weekend (J3, J4 and R3. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied on obtained data, and a significant effect of exercise (P < 0.05 on all studied indices was found. These results suggest that serum iron, transferrin, ferritin and haptoglobin are responsive to intense exercise and could be considered important indicators that may give important information about the horse’s performance.

  15. Ten days of repeated local forearm heating does not affect cutaneous vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Michael A; Brunt, Vienna E; Jensen, Krista Nicole; Lorenzo, Santiago; Minson, Christopher T

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether 10 days of repeated local heating could induce peripheral adaptations in the cutaneous vasculature and to investigate potential mechanisms of adaptation. We also assessed maximal forearm blood flow to determine whether repeated local heating affects maximal dilator capacity. Before and after 10 days of heat training consisting of 1-h exposures of the forearm to 42°C water or 32°C water (control) in the contralateral arm (randomized and counterbalanced), we assessed hyperemia to rapid local heating of the skin ( n = 14 recreationally active young subjects). In addition, sequential doses of acetylcholine (ACh, 1 and 10 mM) were infused in a subset of subjects ( n = 7) via microdialysis to study potential nonthermal microvascular adaptations following 10 days of repeated forearm heat training. Skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler red blood cell flux divided by mean arterial pressure. Maximal cutaneous vasodilation was achieved by heating the arm in a water-spray device for 45 min and assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated as forearm blood flow divided by mean arterial pressure. Repeated forearm heating did not increase plateau percent maximal CVC (CVC max ) responses to local heating (89 ± 3 vs. 89 ± 2% CVC max , P = 0.19), 1 mM ACh (43 ± 9 vs. 53 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.76), or 10 mM ACh (61 ± 9 vs. 85 ± 7% CVC max , P = 0.37, by 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA). There was a main effect of time at 10 mM ACh ( P = 0.03). Maximal FVC remained unchanged (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02 FVC, P = 0.30). No differences were observed in the control arm. Ten days of repeated forearm heating in recreationally active young adults did not improve the microvascular responsiveness to ACh or local heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show for the first time that 10 days of repeated

  16. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  17. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( < 0.0001). Overall, control calves had higher ADG than transported calves (1.34 ± 0.13 kg/d for control and 1.15 ± 0.12 kg/d for transport; = 0.006). No significant difference ( = 0.12) between treatments was detected for feed conversion. These results

  18. Optimizing Injection Molding Parameters of Different Halloysites Type-Reinforced Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites via Taguchi Complemented with ANOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayser Sumer Gaaz

    2016-11-01

    Taguchi and ANOVA approaches. Seemingly, mHNTs has shown its very important role in the resulting product.

  19. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  20. Fine-resolution repeat topographic surveying of dryland landscapes using UAS-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry: Assessing accuracy and precision against traditional ground-based erosion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aerial system (UAS) imagery is an emerging tool for repeat topographic surveying of dryland erosion. These methods are particularly appealing due to the ability to cover large landscapes compared to field methods and at reduced costs and finer spatial resolution compared to airborne laser scanning. Accuracy and precision of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from UAS imagery have been explored in many studies, typically by comparing image coordinates to surveyed check points or LiDAR datasets. In addition to traditional check points, this study compared 5 cm resolution DTMs derived from fixed-wing UAS imagery with a traditional ground-based method of measuring soil surface change called erosion bridges. We assessed accuracy by comparing the elevation values between DTMs and erosion bridges along thirty topographic transects each 6.1 m long. Comparisons occurred at two points in time (June 2014, February 2015) which enabled us to assess vertical accuracy with 3314 data points and vertical precision (i.e., repeatability) with 1657 data points. We found strong vertical agreement (accuracy) between the methods (RMSE 2.9 and 3.2 cm in June 2014 and February 2015, respectively) and high vertical precision for the DTMs (RMSE 2.8 cm). Our results from comparing SfM-generated DTMs to check points, and strong agreement with erosion bridge measurements suggests repeat UAS imagery and SfM processing could replace erosion bridges for a more synoptic landscape assessment of shifting soil surfaces for some studies. However, while collecting the UAS imagery and generating the SfM DTMs for this study was faster than collecting erosion bridge measurements, technical challenges related to the need for ground control networks and image processing requirements must be addressed before this technique could be applied effectively to large landscapes.

  1. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  2. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF EVALUATION OF A QUANTITATIVE VIDEO-FLUORESCENCE IMAGING SYSTEM AND FLUORESCENT TRACER FOR MEASURING TRANSFER OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES FROM SURFACES TO HANDS WITH REPEATED CONTACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A video imaging system and the associated quantification methods have been developed for measurement of the transfers of a fluorescent tracer from surfaces to hands. The highly fluorescent compound riboflavin (Vitamin B2), which is also water soluble and non-toxic, was chosen as...

  4. Classifying individuals based on a densely captured sequence of vital signs: An example using repeated blood pressure measurements during hemodialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin A; Chang, Tara I; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2015-10-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) present the opportunity to observe serial measurements on patients. While potentially informative, analyzing these data can be challenging. In this work we present a means to classify individuals based on a series of measurements collected by an EHR. Using patients undergoing hemodialysis, we categorized people based on their intradialytic blood pressure. Our primary criteria were that the classifications were time dependent and independent of other subjects. We fit a curve of intradialytic blood pressure using regression splines and then calculated first and second derivatives to come up with four mutually exclusive classifications at different time points. We show that these classifications relate to near term risk of cardiac events and are moderately stable over a succeeding two-week period. This work has general application for analyzing dense EHR data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changing the size of a mirror-reflected hand moderates the experience of embodiment but not proprioceptive drift: a repeated measures study on healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopf, Priscilla G; Lloyd, Donna M; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-06-01

    Mirror visual feedback is used for reducing pain and visually distorting the size of the reflection may improve efficacy. The findings of studies investigating size distortion are inconsistent. The influence of the size of the reflected hand on embodiment of the mirror reflection is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of magnifying and minifying mirror reflections of the hand on embodiment measured using an eight-item questionnaire and on proprioceptive drift. During the experiment, participants (n = 45) placed their right hand behind a mirror and their left hand in front of a mirror. Participants watched a normal-sized, a magnified and a minified reflection of the left hand while performing synchronised finger movements for 3 min (adaptive phase). Measurements of embodiment were taken before (pre) and after (post) synchronous movements of the fingers of both hands (embodiment adaptive phase). Results revealed larger proprioceptive drift post-adaptive phase (p = 0.001). Participants agreed more strongly with questionnaire items associated with location, ownership and agency of the reflection of the hand post-adaptive phase (p embodiment of the reflection of the hand. Magnifying and minifying the reflection of the hand has little effect on proprioceptive drift, but it weakens the subjective embodiment experience. Such factors need to be taken into account in future studies using this technique, particularly when assessing mirror visual feedback for pain management.

  6. Repetibilidade e número mínimo de medições para caracteres de cacho de bacabi (Oenocarpus mapora Repeatability and minimum number of measurements for characters of bacabi palm (Oenocarpus mapora racemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Padilha de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    potential for commercial and food uses, but has not been well studied. The objectives of this study were to estimate the repeatability coefficients, determine predictability and the number of measurements needed for raceme characters of this palm. 27 individuals of bacabi that belong to the Germplasm Bank of Oenocarpus/Jessenia at Embrapa Eastern Amazon, in Belém, PA, Brazil were evaluated. Three fully matured racemes from each plant were sampled to measure six characters: total weight of raceme (TWR and fruit weight per raceme (FWR, number of rachillae per raceme (NRR, rachis length per raceme (RLR, weight of 100 fruits (WHF and fruit yield per raceme (FER. The repeatability estimates were obtained by three statistical methods: analysis of variance; principal components; and structural analysis. For all characters, the estimates of repeatability coefficients presented values with very similar magnitudes in the three methods. The estimates of repeatability coefficients and determination coefficients were relatively high (r 0.60 and R2 81.7% for the characters FER and NRR, showing genotype regularity for these raceme measurements. For these characters, the minimum number of racemes necessary to estimate the true character value of the genotypes was thirteen (FER and five (NRR, with 95% reliability. The remaining characters showed repeatabilities and determination coefficients with medium to low values, indicating the need for better environmental control to make the measurements.

  7. The effects of repeated testing, simulated malingering, and traumatic brain injury on high-precision measures of simple visual reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Simple reaction time (SRT, the latency to respond to a stimulus, has been widely used as a basic measure of processing speed. In the current experiments, we examined clinically-relevant properties of a new SRT test that presents visual stimuli to the left or right hemifield at varying stimulus onset asynchronies. Experiment 1 examined test-retest reliability in participants who underwent three test sessions at weekly intervals. In the first test, log-transformed (log-SRT z-scores, corrected for the influence of age and computer-use, were well predicted by regression functions derived from a normative population of 189 control participants. Test-retest reliability of log-SRT z-scores was measured with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.83 and equaled or exceeded those of other SRT tests and other widely used tests of processing speed that are administered manually. No significant learning effects were observed across test sessions. Experiment 2 investigated the same participants when instructed to malinger during a fourth testing session: 94% showed abnormal log-SRT z-scores, with 83% producing log-SRT z-scores exceeding a cutoff of 3.0, a degree of abnormality never seen in full-effort conditions. Thus, a log-SRT z-score cutoff of 3.0 had a sensitivity (83% and specificity (100% that equaled or exceeded that of existing symptom validity tests. We argue that even expert malingerers, fully informed of the malingering-detection metric, would be unable to successfully feign impairments on the SRT test because of the precise control of SRT latencies that would be required. Experiment 3 investigated 26 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI tested more than one year post-injury. The 22 patients with mild TBI showed insignificantly faster SRTs than controls, but a small group of four patients with severe TBI showed slowed SRTs. Simple visual reaction time is a reliable measure of processing speed that is sensitive to the effects of

  8. County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W

    2006-12-01

    This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain. The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder. This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive

  9. Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaley Jill

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence indicates that dietary fats and physical activity influence bone health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 (N-3 supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, bone mineral density (BMD, and bone biomarkers in post-menopausal women. Methods Seventy-nine healthy sedentary post-menopausal women aged 58-78 years participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to one of 4 groups: exercise + supplement (E+S, n = 21, exercise (E, n = 20, supplement (S, n = 20, and control (Con, n = 18 groups. The subjects in the E+S and E groups performed aerobic exercise training (walking and jogging up to 65% of HRmax, three times a week for 24 weeks. Subjects in the E+S and S groups consumed 1000 mg/d N-3 for 24 weeks. The lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF α, interleukin (IL 6, prostaglandin (PG E2, estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 Vit D, C-telopeptide (CTX, parathyroid hormone (PTH and calcitonin (CT were measured at baseline, the end of week 12 and 24. Results Serum estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25 Vit D, CT, L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD measures increased (P 2 decreased (P 2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, estrogen, osteocalcin, and CT were negatively (P 2. PTH and CT were correlated positively and negatively with IL-6, respectively (P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that long-term aerobic exercise training plus N-3 supplementation have a synergistic effect in attenuating inflammation and augmenting BMD in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  10. Accuracy of repeated measurements of late-night salivary cortisol to screen for early-stage recurrence of Cushing's disease following pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danet-Lamasou, Marie; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Vivot, Alexandre; Nunes, Marie-Laure; Loiseau, Hugues; San-Galli, François; Cherifi-Gatta, Blandine; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît; Tabarin, Antoine

    2015-02-01

    The performance of late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) to accurately screen for postoperative recurrence of Cushing's disease (CD) at an early stage is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of multiple sampling strategies to suggest the optimal number of LNSC samples needed for diagnosing post-surgical recurrences of CD at an early stage. Retrospective analysis in a single centre. Thirty-six patients in surgical remission of CD had successive measurements of LNSC, defined as 'sequences', using a locally modified RIA assay as part of long-term follow-up (69·2 ± 10·6 months). Patients underwent an extensive biochemical evaluation within 3 months before or after a sequence of saliva sampling and were classified as being in remission or in early-stage recurrence. The accuracy of three diagnostic strategies combining two, three or four LNSC results from a sequence was estimated using areas under the ROC curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Forty-four sequences of LNSC measurements were available. Fifty-two percent of sequences were performed during early-stage recurrence. The intrasequence variability of LNSC was higher during recurrence than during remission (medians of SDs: 2·1 vs 0·5 nm; P recurrence of CD. However, due to a major within-patient variability of LNSC from 1 day to another, a screening strategy using three or four samples collected on successive days may be recommended to detect early-stage recurrence of CD with a high accuracy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of repeated measurements of radon-222 concentrations in well water sampled from bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont near Richmond, Virginia, USA: Effects of lithology and well characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Shelley A.; Billmeyer, Ernest R.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in 26 ground water wells of two distinct lithologies in the Piedmont of Virginia were measured to assess variation in ground water radon concentrations (GWRC), to evaluate differences in concentrations related to well characteristics, lithology, and spatial distributions, and to assess the feasibility of predicting GWRC. Wells were sampled in accordance with American Public Health Association Method 7500 Rn-B, with modifications to include a well shaft profile analysis that determined the minimum purge time sufficient to remove the equivalent of one column of water from each well. Statistically significant differences in GWRC were found in the Trssu (1482±1711 pCi/L) and Mpg (7750±5188 pCi/L) lithologies, however, no significant differences were found among GWRC at each well over time. Using multiple regression, 86% of the variability (R 2 ) in the GWRC was explained by the lithology, latitudinal class, and water table elevation of the wells. The GWRC in a majority of the wells studied exceed US Environmental Protection Agency designated maximum contaminant level and AMCL. Results support modifications to sampling procedures and indicate that, in previous studies, variations in GWRC concentrations over time may have been due in part to differences in sampling procedures and not in source water

  12. Assessment of denitrification gaseous end-products in the soil profile under two water table management practices using repeated measures analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Abdirashid A; Astatkie, Tess; Madramootoo, Chandra; Gordon, Robert; Burton, David

    2005-01-01

    The denitrification process and nitrous oxide (N2O) production in the soil profile are poorly documented because most research into denitrification has concentrated on the upper soil layer (0-0.15 m). This study, undertaken during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons, was designed to examine the effects of water table management (WTM), nitrogen (N) application rate, and depth (0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 m) on soil denitrification end-products (N2O and N2) from a corn (Zea mays L.) field. Water table management treatments were free drainage (FD) with open drains and subirrigation (SI) with a target water table depth of 0.6 m. Fertility treatments (ammonium nitrate) were 120 kg N ha(-1) (N120) and 200 kg N ha(-1) (N200). During both growing seasons greater denitrification rates were measured in SI than in FD, particularly in the surface soil (0-0.15 m) and at the intermediate (0.15-0.30 m) soil depths under N200 treatment. Greater denitrification rates under the SI treatment, however, were not accompanied with greater N2O production. The decrease in N2O production under SI was probably caused by a more complete reduction of N2O to N2, which resulted in lower N2O to (N2O + N2) ratios. Denitrification rate, N2O production and N2O to (N2O + N2) ratios were only minimally affected by N treatments, irrespective of sampling date and soil depth. Overall, half of the denitrification occurred at the 0.15- to 0.30- and 0.30- to 0.45-m soil layers, and under SI, regardless of fertility treatment level. Consequently, sampling of the 0- to 0.15-m soil layer alone may not give an accurate estimation of denitrification losses under SI practice.

  13. Real-World Massage Therapy Produces Meaningful Effectiveness Signal for Primary Care Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of a Repeated Measures Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, William G; Munk, Niki; Love, Margaret M; Bruckner, Geza G; Stewart, Kathryn E; Pearce, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    While efficacy of massage and other nonpharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain is established, stakeholders have called for pragmatic studies of effectiveness in "real-world" primary health care. The Kentucky Pain Research and Outcomes Study evaluated massage impact on pain, disability, and health-related quality of life for primary care patients with chronic low back pain. We report effectiveness and feasibility results, and make comparisons with established minimal clinically important differences. Primary care providers referred eligible patients for 10 massage sessions with community practicing licensed massage therapists. Oswestry Disability Index and SF-36v2 measures obtained at baseline and postintervention at 12 and 24 weeks were analyzed with mixed linear models and Tukey's tests. Additional analyses examined clinically significant improvement and predictive patient characteristics. Of 104 enrolled patients, 85 and 76 completed 12 and 24 weeks of data collection, respectively. Group means improved at 12 weeks for all outcomes and at 24 weeks for SF-36v2's Physical Component Summary and Bodily Pain Domain. Of those with clinically improved disability at 12 weeks, 75% were still clinically improved at 24 weeks ( P  < 0.01). For SF-36v2 Physical and Mental Component Summaries, 55.4% and 43.4%, respectively, showed clinically meaningful improvement at 12 weeks, 46.1% and 30.3% at 24 weeks. For Bodily Pain Domain, 49.4% were clinically improved at 12 weeks, 40% at 24 weeks. Adults older than age 49 years had better pain and disability outcomes than younger adults. Results provide a meaningful signal of massage effect for primary care patients with chronic low back pain and call for further research in practice settings using pragmatic designs with control groups. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Repeatability, correlation and path analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the number of measurements necessary to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits, study the relationships between them and their direct and indirect effects on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids. The characteristics skin and pulp color, fruit weight, suture, equatorial and polar diameters, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids were evaluated in 39 cultivars of peach and 3 cultivars of nectarine from the orchard of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The repeatability coefficient was estimated by ANOVA and CPCOR. Phenotypic correlation coefficients (rf were estimated and, after the multicollinearity diagnostics, they were unfolded to direct and indirect effects of the explanatory variables on the response variable using path analysis. There was agreement on the magnitude of repeatability coefficients obtained by the two methods; however, they varied among the 14 characteristics. The highest correlations were found between FW, SD, ED and PD. Seven fruits are sufficient to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of peach with a correlation coefficient of 90%. The characteristics considered in the path diagrams (b* skin, hº skin, b* pulp, hº pulp, ED, PD, FIR, SS, SS/AT and TC are not the main determinants of the ascorbic acid. The yellow hue of the pulp (hº pulp has the potential to be used in indirect selection for total carotenoids.

  15. Effects of two hospital bed design features on physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation: a repeated measures experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunwook; Barker, Linsey M; Jia, Bochen; Agnew, Michael J; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-03-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are prevalent among healthcare workers worldwide. While existing research has focused on patient-handling techniques during activities which require direct patient contact (e.g., patient transfer), nursing tasks also involve other patient-handling activities, such as engaging bed brakes and transporting patients in beds, which could render healthcare workers at risk of developing WMSDs. Effectiveness of hospital bed design features (brake pedal location and steering-assistance) was evaluated in terms of physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation tasks. Two laboratory-based studies were conducted. In simulated brake engagement tasks, three brake pedal locations (head-end vs. foot-end vs. side of a bed) and two hands conditions (hands-free vs. hands-occupied) were manipulated. Additionally, both in-room and corridor patient transportation tasks were simulated, in which activation of steering-assistance features (5th wheel and/or front wheel caster lock) and two patient masses were manipulated. Nine novice participants were recruited from the local student population and community for each study. During brake engagement, trunk flexion angle, task completion time, and questionnaires were used to quantify postural comfort and usability. For patient transportation, dependent measures were hand forces and questionnaire responses. Brake pedal locations and steering-assistance features in hospital beds had significant effects on physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation tasks. Specifically, a brake pedal at the head-end of a bed increased trunk flexion by 74-224% and completion time by 53-74%, compared to other pedal locations. Participants reported greater overall perceived difficulty and less postural comfort with the brake pedal at the head-end. During in-room transportation, participants generally reported "Neither Low nor High" physical demands

  16. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  17. Repetibilidade da mensuração de imagens das características de carcaça obtidas por ultrassonografia em fêmeas Nelore Repeatability of ultrasound image measurements of carcass traits in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a repetibilidade da mensuração de imagens de ultrassom da área do músculo longissimus dorsi (AOL e das espessuras de gordura subcutânea do lombo (EGL e da garupa (EGG. Imagens de ultrassom tomadas no lombo (entre a 12ª e a 13ª costela e na garupa (entre os músculos gluteus medium e biceps femoris de novilhas Nelore de 14 a 22 meses de idade foram classificadas em aceitáveis, marginais e rejeitáveis. As imagens aceitáveis e marginais foram mensuradas duas vezes por três técnicos em diferentes níveis de treinamento. Foram estimadas as repetibilidades entre e dentro de técnicos por classe de qualidade da imagem, para determinação do efeito da qualidade da imagem e do técnico no valor absoluto da diferença entre a primeira e a segunda mensuração dessas características. A repetibilidade para as imagens aceitáveis foi maior que para imagens marginais, tanto entre como dentro de técnicos. Na análise da diferença absoluta entre a primeira e a segunda interpretação, foram significativos os efeitos de técnico para AOL e EGL e de classe de qualidade da imagem para AOL. Em geral, o técnico com maior experiência apresentou maiores valores de repetibilidade. É recomendável que a mensuração de imagens de animais de mesmo grupo contemporâneo seja feita por um único técnico.The repeatability of ultrasound image measurements of the longissimus dorsi muscle (AOL and of the rumpfat (EGG and backfat (EGL subcutaneous thickness was evaluated. Ultrasound images taken from the back (between 12th and 13th ribs and from the rump (between gluteus medium and biceps femoris muscles of Nelore heifers at 14 and 22 months of age were classified as acceptable, marginal and rejected. The acceptable and marginal images were measured twice by three technicians at different levels of training. It was estimated repeatabilities among and within technicians by class of image quality in order to determine effect of image quality and of

  18. Optimization of Process Parameters During Drilling of Glass-Fiber Polyester Reinforced Composites Using DOE and ANOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Mohan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based composite material possesses superior properties such as high strength-to-weight ratio, stiffness-to-weight ratio and good corrosive resistance and therefore, is attractive for high performance applications such as in aerospace, defense and sport goods industries. Drilling is one of the indispensable methods for building products with composite panels. Surface quality and dimensional accuracy play an important role in the performance of a machined component. In machining processes, however, the quality of the component is greatly influenced by the cutting conditions, tool geometry, tool material, machining process, chip formation, work piece material, tool wear and vibration during cutting. Drilling tests were conducted on glass fiber reinforced plastic composite [GFRP] laminates using an instrumented CNC milling center. A series of experiments are conducted using TRIAC VMC CNC machining center to correlate the cutting parameters and material parameters on the cutting thrust, torque and surface roughness. The measured results were collected and analyzed with the help of the commercial software packages MINITAB14 and Taly Profile. The surface roughness of the drilled holes was measured using Rank Taylor Hobson Surtronic 3+ instrument. The method could be useful in predicting thrust, torque and surface roughness parameters as a function of process variables. The main objective is to optimize the process parameters to achieve low cutting thrust, torque and good surface roughness. From the analysis it is evident that among all the significant parameters, speed and drill size have significant influence cutting thrust and drill size and specimen thickness on the torque and surface roughness. It was also found that feed rate does not have significant influence on the characteristic output of the drilling process.

  19. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  20. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... coordinators estimate the effect on coordination fees? Does the supposed benefit that mobile repeater stations... allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and other mobile repeaters by public... email: [email protected] or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed instructions for...

  1. Buy three but get only two: the smallest effect in a 2 × 2 ANOVA is always uninterpretable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Brauer, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Loftus (Memory & Cognition 6:312-319, 1978) distinguished between interpretable and uninterpretable interactions. Uninterpretable interactions are ambiguous, because they may be due to two additive main effects (no interaction) and a nonlinear relationship between the (latent) outcome variable and its indicator. Interpretable interactions can only be due to the presence of a true interactive effect in the outcome variable, regardless of the relationship that it establishes with its indicator. In the present article, we first show that same problem can arise when an unmeasured mediator has a nonlinear effect on the measured outcome variable. Then we integrate Loftus's arguments with a seemingly contradictory approach to interactions suggested by Rosnow and Rosenthal (Psychological Bulletin 105:143-146, 1989). We show that entire data patterns, not just interaction effects alone, produce interpretable or noninterpretable interactions. Next, we show that the same problem of interpretability can apply to main effects. Lastly, we give concrete advice on what researchers can do to generate data patterns that provide unambiguous evidence for hypothesized interactions.

  2. Thermotactile perception thresholds measurement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Setsuo; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of posture, push force and rate of temperature change on thermotactile thresholds and to clarify suitable measuring conditions for Japanese people. Thermotactile (warm and cold) thresholds on the right middle finger were measured with an HVLab thermal aesthesiometer. Subjects were eight healthy male Japanese students. The effects of posture in measurement were examined in the posture of a straight hand and forearm placed on a support, the same posture without a support, and the fingers and hand flexed at the wrist with the elbow placed on a desk. The finger push force applied to the applicator of the thermal aesthesiometer was controlled at a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 N. The applicator temperature was changed to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 degrees C/s. After each measurement, subjects were asked about comfort under the measuring conditions. Three series of experiments were conducted on different days to evaluate repeatability. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that warm thresholds were affected by the push force and the rate of temperature change and that cold thresholds were influenced by posture and push force. The comfort assessment indicated that the measurement posture of a straight hand and forearm laid on a support was the most comfortable for the subjects. Relatively high repeatability was obtained under measurement conditions of a 1 degrees C/s temperature change rate and a 0.5 N push force. Measurement posture, push force and rate of temperature change can affect the thermal threshold. Judging from the repeatability, a push force of 0.5 N and a temperature change of 1.0 degrees C/s in the posture with the straight hand and forearm laid on a support are recommended for warm and cold threshold measurements.

  3. Initial study of stability and repeatability of measuring R2' and oxygen extraction fraction values in the healthy brain with gradient-echo sampling of spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Lihong; Zhang Xiaodong; He Chao; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang jue; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability and repeatability of gradient-echo sampling of spin- echo (GESSE) sequence in measuring the R 2 ' value in volunteers, by comparison with traditional GRE sequence (T 2 * ]nap and T 2 map). Methods: Eight normal healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study and written informed consents were obtained from all subjects. MR scanning including sequences of GESSE, T 2 map and T 2 * map were performed in these subjects at resting status. The same protocol was repeated one day later. Raw data from GESSE sequence were transferred to PC to conduct postprocessing with the software built in house. R 2 ' map and OEF map were got consequently. To obtain quantitative R 2 ' and OEF values in the brain parenchyma, six ROIs were equally placed in the anterior, middle and posterior part of bilateral hemispheres. Both mean and standard deviation of R 2 ' and OEF were recorded. All images from T 2 * map and T 2 map were transferred to the Workstation for postprocessing. The ROIs were put at the same areas as those for GESSE sequence. R 2 ' is defined as R 2 ' = R 2 * - R 2 , R 2 * = 1/T 2 * . The R 2 ' value of GESSE sequence were compared with that of GRE sequence. Results: The mean R 2 ' values of GESSE at the first and second scan and those of the GRE were (4.21±0.92), (4.45±0.94) Hz and (7.37±1.47), (6.42±2.33) Hz respectively. The mean OEF values of GESSE at the first and second scan is 0.327±0.036 and 0.336± 0.035 respectively. The R 2 ' value and OEF value obtained from GESSE were not significantly different between the first and second scan (t=-0.83, -1.48, P>0.05). The R 2 ' value of first GRE imaging had significantly statistical difference from that of second GRE imaging (t=1.80, P 2 ' value of GESSE sequence was less than that of GRE sequence, and there was significantly statistical difference between them (t=1.71, P<0.05). Conclusion: The GESSE sequence has good stability and repeatability with promising clinical practicability

  4. Repeated causal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Effect of repeated ceramic firings on the marginal and internal adaptation of metal-ceramic restorations fabricated with different CAD-CAM technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaağaoğlu, Hasan; Albayrak, Haydar; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Gümüs, Hasan Önder

    2017-11-01

    The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) for metal-ceramic restorations has increased with advances in the technology. However, little is known about the marginal and internal adaptation of restorations fabricated using laser sintering (LS) and soft milling (SM). Moreover, the effects of repeated ceramic firings on the marginal and internal adaptation of metal-ceramic restorations fabricated with LS and SM is also unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of repeated ceramic firings on the marginal and internal adaptation of metal-ceramic copings fabricated using the lost wax (LW), LS, and SM techniques. Ten LW, 10 LS, and 10 SM cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) copings were fabricated for an artificial tooth (Frasaco GmbH). After the application of veneering ceramic (VITA VMK Master; VITA Zahnfabrik), the marginal and internal discrepancies of these copings were measured with a silicone indicator paste and a stereomicroscope at ×100 magnification after the first, second, and third clinical simulated ceramic firing cycles. Repeated measures 2-way ANOVA and the Fisher LSD post hoc test were used to evaluate differences in marginal and internal discrepancies (α=.05). Neither fabrication protocol nor repeated ceramic firings had any statistically significant effect on internal discrepancy values (P>.05). Marginal discrepancy values were also statistically unaffected by repeated ceramic firings (P>.05); however, the fabrication protocol had a significant effect on marginal discrepancy values (Pmarginal discrepancy values than LS or SM (PMarginal discrepancy values did not vary between LS and SM (P>.05). All groups demonstrated clinically acceptable marginal adaptation after repeated ceramic firing cycles; however, the LS and SM groups demonstrated better marginal adaptation than that of LW group and may be appropriate clinical alternatives to LW. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of

  6. WE-H-207A-04: Impact of Lesion Location On the Repeatability of 18F-NaF PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C; Perk, T; Harmon, S; Perlman, S; Liu, G; Jeraj, R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Quantifying the repeatability of imaging biomarkers is critical for assessing therapeutic response. While {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT has shown to be a repeatable imaging method, research has not shown which factors may influence its repeatability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the location of the lesion impacts the repeatability of quantitative {sup 18}F-NaF PET-derived SUV metrics. Methods: Metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients with multiple bone lesions received whole-body test-retest NaF PET/CT scans. Malignant bone lesions of PET-defined volume greater than 1.5 cm{sup 3} were identified by a nuclear medicine physician and automatically delineated using a SUV>15 threshold. The maximum (SUVmax), average (SUVmean), and total (SUVtotal) SUV were extracted from each lesion. Atlas-based segmentation was used to divide each patient skeleton into 25 skeletal regions. Test-retest repeatability of each SUV metric was assessed with coefficient of variation (CV). Results: A total of 265 malignant bone lesions from 18 patients were identified by nuclear medicine physician. The largest proportion of bone lesions were localized to the spine (41%), with 41% of those lesions localized to the thoracic spine. One-way ANOVA showed that measurement differences differed significantly for all three metrics across locations (p<0.01 for each metrics). Overall, CV was smallest for SUVmean at 5.3%, followed by SUVmax at 11.5% and SUVtotal at 20.4%. Lesions in the pubis were consistently the most repeatable (CV(SUVmax)= 5.6%, CV(SUVmean)= 0.6%, CV(SUVtotal)= 2.9%). According to SUVmean, repeatability was poorest in the cervical spine (CV = 6.2%), whereas according to SUVmax and SUVtotal, repeatability was poorest in the ribs (CV(SUVmax)= 15.0%, CV(SUVtotal)= 29.8%). Conclusion: Location of the lesion affects the repeatability of {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT, with the ribs and cervical spine having the lowest repeatability and the pubis having the highest

  7. Ocular surface sensitivity repeatability with Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cecilia; Stapleton, Fiona; Badarudin, Ezailina; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2015-02-01

    To determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer on the same day and 3 months apart. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements made on the same day (n = 20 subjects) and 3 months apart (n = 29 subjects). The Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was used to measure corneal and inferior conjunctival thresholds using the ascending method of limits. The pressure exerted by the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was determined using an analytical balance, for both the 0.08- and 0.12-mm-diameter filaments. This calibration was then used to convert filament length measurements to pressure. Repeatability was determined using a Bland and Altman analysis. The pressure exerted at each filament length differed between the two filament diameters. The measured pressure also differed from values provided by the manufacturer. Repeatability of threshold measurements at the central cornea was shown to be good, with better repeatability for same-day measurements (coefficient of repeatability [CoR] = ±0.23 g/mm²) than for those 3 months apart (CoR = ±0.52 g/mm²). Threshold measurements at the inferior conjunctiva, in contrast, were poorly repeatable (CoR = ±12.78 g/mm²). Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry is repeatable when performed on the central cornea on the same day and 3 months apart, but this instrument is not recommended for conjunctival threshold measurements.

  8. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: The Common Swine Industry Audit: Future steps to assure positive on-farm animal welfare utilizing validated, repeatable and feasible animal-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M; Moeller, S J

    2017-03-01

    The Common Swine Industry Audit (CSIA) was developed and scientifically evaluated through the combined efforts of a task force consisting of university scientists, veterinarians, pork producers, packers, processers, and retail and food service personnel to provide stakeholders throughout the pork chain with a consistent, reliable, and verifiable system to ensure on-farm swine welfare and food safety. The CSIA tool was built from the framework of the Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) site assessment program with the purpose of developing a single, common audit platform for the U.S. swine industry. Twenty-seven key aspects of swine care are captured and evaluated in CSIA and cover the specific focal areas of animal records, animal observations, facilities, and caretakers. Animal-based measures represent approximately 50% of CSIA evaluation criteria and encompass critical failure criteria, including observation of willful acts of abuse and determination of timely euthanasia. Objective, science-based measures of animal well-being parameters (e.g., BCS, lameness, lesions, hernias) are assessed within CSIA using statistically validated sample sizes providing a detection ability of 1% with 95% confidence. The common CSIA platform is used to identify care issues and facilitate continuous improvement in animal care through a validated, repeatable, and feasible animal-based audit process. Task force members provide continual updates to the CSIA tool with a specific focus toward 1) identification and interpretation of appropriate animal-based measures that provide inherent value to pig welfare, 2) establishment of acceptability thresholds for animal-based measures, and 3) interpretation of CSIA data for use and improvement of welfare within the U.S. swine industry.

  9. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  10. The Influencing Factor Analysis on the Performance Evaluation of Assembly Line Balancing Problem Level 1 (SALBP-1) Based on ANOVA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hu, Jiangnan

    2017-06-01

    Industry 4.0 and lean production has become the focus of manufacturing. A current issue is to analyse the performance of the assembly line balancing. This study focus on distinguishing the factors influencing the assembly line balancing. The one-way ANOVA method is applied to explore the significant degree of distinguished factors. And regression model is built to find key points. The maximal task time (tmax ), the quantity of tasks (n), and degree of convergence of precedence graph (conv) are critical for the performance of assembly line balancing. The conclusion will do a favor to the lean production in the manufacturing.

  11. Hybrid FRC under repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibres - polypropylene and steel, were tested under repeated loading. Mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150/150/150 mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100/100/400 (for flexural strength), short cylinders 150/60 mm (for impact strength) have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading at the age of 28 days curing time. Mix proportions were designed after DIN 1045 with max. aggregate size 8 mm and grading curve B 8. Portland Cement PC 400 in the amount of 450 kg. m -3 was applied and W/C ratio 0.55. Workability of mixes was measured by Vebe method and regulated by plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. Maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene + steel) was 1.0%. Dynamic forces generated in Schenck testing machine with frequency 16 Hz had sinusoidal wave form varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR at static four point bending test and working diagram force-deflection was carried out as well. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of falling weight test. Relationships between composition of fibre composites with different combination of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3, 0.5% by volume) and steel (0.5, 0.7, and 0.8% by volume) fibre content were obtained and technological properties of mixes as well. (author)

  12. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  13. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  14. Optimum Combination and Effect Analysis of Piezoresistor Dimensions in Micro Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Using Design of Experiments and ANOVA: a Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirankumar B. Balavalad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoresistive (PZR pressure sensors have gained importance because of their robust construction, high sensitivity and good linearity. The conventional PZR pressure sensor consists of 4 piezoresistors placed on diaphragm and are connected in the form of Wheatstone bridge. These sensors convert stress applied on them into change in resistance, which is quantified into voltage using Wheatstone bridge mechanism. It is observed form the literature that, the dimensions of piezoresistors are very crucial in the performance of the piezoresistive pressure sensor. This paper presents, a novel mechanism of finding best combinations and effect of individual piezoresistors dimensions viz., Length, Width and Thickness, using DoE and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance method, following Taguchi experimentation approach. The paper presents a unique method to find optimum combination of piezoresistors dimensions and also clearly illustrates the effect the dimensions on the output of the sensor. The optimum combinations and the output response of sensor is predicted using DoE and the validation simulation is done. The result of the validation simulation is compared with the predicted value of sensor response i.e., V. Predicted value of V is 1.074 V and the validation simulation gave the response for V as 1.19 V. This actually validates that the model (DoE and ANOVA is adequate in describing V in terms of the variables defined.

  15. The use of the barbell cluster ANOVA design for the assessment of Environmental Pollution (1987): a case study, Wigierski National Park, NE Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migaszewski, Zdzislaw M. [Pedagogical University, Institute of Chemistry, Geochemistry and the Environment Div., ul. Checinska 5, 25-020 Kielce (Poland)]. E-mail: zmig@pu.kielce.pl; Galuszka, Agnieszka [Pedagogical University, Institute of Chemistry, Geochemistry and the Environment Div., ul. Checinska 5, 25-020 Kielce (Poland); Paslaski, Piotr [Central Chemical Laboratory of the Polish Geological Institute, ul. Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warsaw (Poland)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of chemical variability in natural ecosystems of Wigierski National Park (NE Poland) derived from the calculation of geochemical baselines using a barbell cluster ANOVA design. This method enabled us to obtain statistically valid information with a minimum number of samples collected. Results of summary statistics are presented for elemental concentrations in the soil horizons-O (Ol + Ofh), -A and -B, 1- and 2-year old Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) needles, pine bark and Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (lichen) thalli, as well as pH and TOC. The scope of this study also encompassed S and C stable isotope determinations and SEM examinations on Scots pine needles. The variability for S and trace metals in soils and plant bioindicators is primarily governed by parent material lithology and to a lesser extent by anthropogenic factors. This fact enabled us to study concentrations that are close to regional background levels. - The barbell cluster ANOVA design allowed the number of samples collected to be reduced to a minimum.

  16. Optimal and safe treatment of spider leg veins measuring less than 1.5 mm on skin type IV patients, using repeated low-fluence Nd:YAG laser pulses after polidocanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Hernández, Esteban; Royo, Josefina; Alcolea, Justo; Isarría, M Jose; Pascu, Mihail Lucian; Smarandache, Adriana; Trelles, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Treatment of micro-veins of less than 1.5 mm with laser and with chemical sclerosis is technically challenging because of their difficulty to remedy. Laser treatment is even more difficult when dark phototypes are involved.Three groups of 30 patients each, skin type IV, and vessels measuring less than 1.5 mm in diameter, were enrolled for two treatment sessions 8 weeks apart: group A, polidocanol (POL) micro-foam injection; group B, Nd:YAG laser alone; and group C, laser after POL injection. Repeated 8-Hz low-fluence pulses, moving the hand piece over a 3-cm vein segment with an average of five laser passes maximum and with a total time irradiation of 1 s were used. Sixteen weeks after the second treatment, statistically, degree of clearance after examining photographs and patients satisfaction index, plotted on a visual analogue scale and comparing results of all three groups, results were significantly better for group C (psafe and satisfactory in 96 % of patients using low-fluence laser pulses with a total cumulative energy in the 3 cm venous segment, lower than that of conventional treatment. Very few and transient complications were observed. POL foam injection followed by laser pulses is safe and efficient for vein treatment in dark-skinned patients.

  17. Assessment of the Variation Associated with Repeated Measurement of Gastrointestinal Transit Times and Assessment of the Effect of Oral Ranitidine on Gastrointestinal Transit Times Using a Wireless Motility Capsule System in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Lidbury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the variation associated with repeated measurement of gastrointestinal (GI transit times and the effect of oral ranitidine on GI transit times in healthy dogs using a wireless motility capsule (WMC system. Eight privately owned healthy adult dogs were enrolled, and one developed diarrhea and was removed from the study. For the first 3 repetitions, each dog was fed a standard meal followed by oral administration of a WMC. For the 4th repetition, each dog was given ranitidine hydrochloride (75 mg PO every 12 hours prior to and during assessment of GI transit times. Mean between-subject coefficients of variation for gastric emptying time (GET, small and large bowel transit time (SLBTT, and total transit time (TTT were 26.9%, 32.3%, and 19.6%, respectively. Mean within-subject coefficients of variation for GET, SLBTT, and TTT were 9.3%, 19.6%, and 15.9%, respectively. Median GET, SLBTT, and TTT without ranitidine were 719, 1,636, and 2,735 minutes, respectively. Median GET, SLBTT, and TTT with ranitidine were 757, 1,227, and 2,083 minutes, respectively. No significant differences in GI transit times were found between any of the 4 repetitions. Under these experimental conditions, no significant effects of oral ranitidine on GI transit times were observed.

  18. Film repeats in radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwan, A. Z.; Al-Shakharah, A. I

    1997-01-01

    During a one year period, 4910 radiographs of 55780 films were repeated. The objective of our study was to analyse and to classify the causes in order to minimize the repeats, cut the expenses and to provide optimal radiographs for accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the different factors revealed that, 43.6% of film repeats in our service were due to faults in exposure factors, centering comprises 15.9% of the repeats, while too much collimation was responsible for 7.6% of these repeats. All of which can be decreased by awareness and programmed training of technicians. Film blurring caused by patient motion was also responsible for 4.9% for radiographs reexamination, which can be minimized by detailed explanation to the patient and providing the necessary privacy. Fogging of X-Ray films by improper storage or inadequate handling or processing faults were responsible for 14.5% in repeats in our study. Methods and criteria for proper storage and handling of films were discussed. Recommendation for using modern day-light and laser processor has been high lighted. Artefacts are noticeably high in our cases, due to spinal dresses and frequent usage of precious metals for c osmotic purposes in this part of the world. The repeated films comprise 8.8% of all films We conclude that, the main factor responsible for repeats of up to 81.6% of cases was the technologists, thus emphasizing the importance of adequate training of the technologists. (authors). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 table

  19. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  20. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  1. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  2. Variable flip angle 3D ultrashort echo time (UTE) T1 mapping of mouse lung: A repeatability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamidi, Daniel F; Smailagic, Amir; Bidar, Abdel W; Parker, Nicole S; Olsson, Marita; Hockings, Paul D; Lagerstrand, Kerstin M; Olsson, Lars E

    2018-03-08

    Lung T 1 is a potential translational biomarker of lung disease. The precision and repeatability of variable flip angle (VFA) T 1 mapping using modern 3D ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging of the whole lung needs to be established before it can be used to assess response to disease and therapy. To evaluate the feasibility of regional lung T 1 quantification with VFA 3D-UTE and to investigate long- and short-term T 1 repeatability in the lungs of naive mice. Prospective preclinical animal study. Eight naive mice and phantoms. 3D free-breathing radial UTE (8 μs) at 4.7T. VFA 3D-UTE T 1 calculations were validated against T 1 values measured with inversion recovery (IR) in phantoms. Lung T 1 and proton density (S 0 ) measurements of whole lung and muscle were repeated five times over 1 month in free-breathing naive mice. Two consecutive T 1 measurements were performed during one of the imaging sessions. Agreement in T 1 between VFA 3D-UTE and IR in phantoms was assessed using Bland-Altman and Pearson 's correlation analysis. The T 1 repeatability in mice was evaluated using coefficient of variation (CV), repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and paired t-test. Good T 1 agreement between the VFA 3D-UTE and IR methods was found in phantoms. T 1 in lung and muscle showed a 5% and 3% CV (1255 ± 63 msec and 1432 ± 42 msec, respectively, mean ± SD) with no changes in T 1 or S 0 over a month. Consecutive measurements resulted in an increase of 2% in both lung T 1 and S 0 . VFA 3D-UTE shows promise as a reliable T 1 mapping method that enables full lung coverage, high signal-to-noise ratio (∼25), and spatial resolution (300 μm) in freely breathing animals. The precision of the VFA 3D-UTE method will enable better design and powering of studies. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Demonstration of the test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 as a measure of functional recovery post burn injury: a cross-sectional repeated measures study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Margaret E; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wood, Fiona M; Phillips, Michael; Edgar, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Lower limb burns can significantly delay recovery of function. Measuring lower limb functional outcomes is challenging in the unique burn patient population and necessitates the use of reliable and valid tools. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and internal consistency of Sections 1 and 3 of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 (LLFI-10) questionnaire for measuring functional ability in patients with lower limb burns over time. Twenty-nine adult patients who had sustained a lower limb burn injury in the previous 12 months completed the test-retest procedure of the study. In addition, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10. Section 1 is focused on the activity limitations experienced by patients with a lower limb disorder whereas Section 3 involves patients indicating their current percentage of pre-injury duties. Section 1 of the LLFI-10 demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.98, 95 % CI 0.96-0.99) whilst Section 3 demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC 0.88, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94). MDC scores for Sections 1 and 3 were 1.27 points and 30.22 %, respectively. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a significant negative association (r s  = -0.83) between Sections 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10 (p reliable for measuring functional ability in patients who have sustained lower limb burns in the previous 12 months, and furthermore, Section 1 is sensitive to changes in patient function over time.

  4. Prognostic usefulness of repeated echocardiographic evaluation after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korup, E; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of repeated echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated. We found that repeated measurements of wall motion index in survivors of acute myocardial infarction, with no reinfarction, provide important prognostic...

  5. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver’s cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51–71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction

  6. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  7. Strategi Mengatasi Common Measures Bias dalam Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekar Akrom Faradiza

    2016-06-01

    Balanced Scorecard (BSC is a comprehensive performance measurement. BSC is not only used financial indicators but also non financial indicators there are customer, internal process business and learning and growth perspective. By using BSC, evaluators have common and unique measures. When evaluate manager performance, evaluator tends to only use common measures and ignore unique measures. This is called common measures bias. This study aims to investigate whether dissaggregated and aggregated BSC and management communication can overcome common measures bias and intent to BSC approach. This study also will evaluate whether these approach will affect evaluator decision when allocated compensation. We conduct 2x2x2 experiment of undergraduate accounting students. Participant act as a senior manager and evaluate the performance of two divisions and then allocated the bonus. ANOVA repeated measurement are used to conduct hypothesis test. The results showed that dissaggregated BSC and management communication could not overcome common measures bias but effected  management decision when allocated compensation.

  8. DSC, FT-IR, NIR, NIR-PCA and NIR-ANOVA for determination of chemical stability of diuretic drugs: impact of excipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumieniczek Anna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that drugs can directly react with excipients. In addition, excipients can be a source of impurities that either directly react with drugs or catalyze their degradation. Thus, binary mixtures of three diuretics, torasemide, furosemide and amiloride with different excipients, i.e. citric acid anhydrous, povidone K25 (PVP, magnesium stearate (Mg stearate, lactose, D-mannitol, glycine, calcium hydrogen phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO4 and starch, were examined to detect interactions. High temperature and humidity or UV/VIS irradiation were applied as stressing conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, FT-IR and NIR were used to adequately collect information. In addition, chemometric assessments of NIR signals with principal component analysis (PCA and ANOVA were applied.

  9. 重複觀測量數之分析:多群體多變項線性成長模式的估計Data Analysis of Repeated Measures: Estimating a Multi-Group Multivariate Linear Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    溫福星 Fur-Hsing Wen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究利用「台灣教育長期追蹤資料庫」的一般分析能力與數學分析能力的四波調查結果,配合男、女學生樣本進行多群體多條追蹤資料的線性成長模式估計。在考慮重複觀測資料誤差項在不同時點的變異數非同質與不同時點間的共變數非獨立情況下,以及男、女學生的不同成長軌跡,將誤差項結構設為無限制結構,利用虛擬變項交互項法與虛擬變項多樣本法同時估計不同性別、不同能力的線性成長軌跡變化。由於全部追蹤資料樣本存在遺失值的情形,本研究以階層線性模式(hierarchical linear modeling, HLM)軟體對完整資料2,806位學生進行分析,其估計結果發現,在完整資料的兩條成長軌跡模式中,男、女學生誤差項共變異數矩陣結構相同,但線性成長軌跡不恆等。除此之外,本文並對競爭模式比較的結果在文章最後進行討論並提出相關的建議。 This paper demonstrates the data analysis of the repeated measures from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey (TEPS. Based on the four data waves on the TEPS, we consider two abilities (general and mathematic and two population groups (male and female students to construct a multi-group multivariate linear growth model. Because the two-group multivariate repeated measures belong to the different populations and the different research variables, the residual terms of linear growth models may imply heterogeneity of the error covariance structure. We treat the error covariance structure as an unrestricted structure to compare the various types of models. The results from the HLM on the complete data (2,806 students reveal that the male and female students in this study have the same error covariance structure but have distinct linear growth trajectories. In addition, comparisons of the competitive models and related suggestions are discussed in the results and conclusion

  10. A repeated-measures analysis of the effects of soft tissues on wrist range of motion in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs: Implications for the functional origins of an automatic wrist folding mechanism in Crocodilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel David; Hutson, Kelda Nadine

    2014-07-01

    A recent study hypothesized that avian-like wrist folding in quadrupedal dinosaurs could have aided their distinctive style of locomotion with semi-pronated and therefore medially facing palms. However, soft tissues that automatically guide avian wrist folding rarely fossilize, and automatic wrist folding of unknown function in extant crocodilians has not been used to test this hypothesis. Therefore, an investigation of the relative contributions of soft tissues to wrist range of motion (ROM) in the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs, and the quadrupedal function of crocodilian wrist folding, could inform these questions. Here, we repeatedly measured wrist ROM in degrees through fully fleshed, skinned, minus muscles/tendons, minus ligaments, and skeletonized stages in the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis and the ostrich Struthio camelus. The effects of dissection treatment and observer were statistically significant for alligator wrist folding and ostrich wrist flexion, but not ostrich wrist folding. Final skeletonized wrist folding ROM was higher than (ostrich) or equivalent to (alligator) initial fully fleshed ROM, while final ROM was lower than initial ROM for ostrich wrist flexion. These findings suggest that, unlike the hinge/ball and socket-type elbow and shoulder joints in these archosaurs, ROM within gliding/planar diarthrotic joints is more restricted to the extent of articular surfaces. The alligator data indicate that the crocodilian wrist mechanism functions to automatically lock their semi-pronated palms into a rigid column, which supports the hypothesis that this palmar orientation necessitated soft tissue stiffening mechanisms in certain dinosaurs, although ROM-restricted articulations argue against the presence of an extensive automatic mechanism. Anat Rec, 297:1228-1249, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  12. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  13. Governing conditions of repeatable Barkhausen noise response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, O.; Pal'a, J.; Takagi, T.; Uchimoto, T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the establishment of experimental conditions, which ensure the repeatability of magnetic Barkhausen noise testing in practice. For this task, the measurements were performed on open flat samples using different experimental configurations, including: different magnetization frequencies, sampling rates, and filter cut-off frequencies; using a sample-wrapped coil and using attached pick-up coils of various dimensions, with different lift-offs of a single yoke magnet and of the attached coil. The sample magnetization was controlled by a vertical array of three Hall sensors; their readings were extrapolated to the sample surface to precisely define its field. After analysis of the results, a scheme for an optimized sensor with a controlled field waveform was suggested to improve the measurement repeatability. The important issues of signal processing and parameter applicability were also discussed in detail.

  14. Immediate Effects of a Single Session of Motor Skill Training on the Lumbar Movement Pattern During a Functional Activity in People With Low Back Pain: A Repeated-Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marich, Andrej V; Lanier, Vanessa M; Salsich, Gretchen B; Lang, Catherine E; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2018-04-06

    People with low back pain (LBP) may display an altered lumbar movement pattern of early lumbar motion compared to people with healthy backs. Modifying this movement pattern during a clinical test decreases pain. It is unknown whether similar effects would be seen during a functional activity. The objective of this study is was to examine the lumbar movement patterns before and after motor skill training, effects on pain, and characteristics that influenced the ability to modify movement patterns. The design consisted of a repeated-measures study examining early-phase lumbar excursion in people with LBP during a functional activity test. Twenty-six people with chronic LBP received motor skill training, and 16 people with healthy backs were recruited as a reference standard. Twenty minutes of motor skill training to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion during the performance of a functional activity were used as a treatment intervention. Early-phase lumbar excursion was measured before and after training. Participants verbally reported increased pain, decreased pain, or no change in pain during performance of the functional activity test movement in relation to their baseline pain. The characteristics of people with LBP that influenced the ability to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion were examined. People with LBP displayed greater early-phase lumbar excursion before training than people with healthy backs (LBP: mean = 11.2°, 95% CI = 9.3°-13.1°; healthy backs: mean = 7.1°, 95% CI = 5.8°-8.4°). Following training, the LBP group showed a decrease in the amount of early-phase lumbar excursion (mean change = 4.1°, 95% CI = 2.4°-5.8°); 91% of people with LBP reported that their pain decreased from baseline following training. The longer the duration of LBP (β = - 0.22) and the more early-phase lumbar excursion before training (β = - 0.82), the greater the change in early-phase lumbar excursion following training. The long

  15. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  16. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  17. Com aplicar les proves paramètriques bivariades t de Student i ANOVA en SPSS. Cas pràctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Rubio-Hurtado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les proves paramètriques són un tipus de proves de significació estadística que quantifiquen l'associació o independència entre una variable quantitativa i una categòrica. Les proves paramètriques són exigents amb certs requisits previs per a la seva aplicació: la distribució Normal de la variable quantitativa en els grups que es comparen, l'homogeneïtat de variàncies en les poblacions de les quals procedeixen els grups i una n mostral no inferior a 30. El seu no compliment comporta la necessitat de recórrer a proves estadístiques no paramètriques. Les proves paramètriques es classifiquen en dos: prova t (per a una mostra o per a dues mostres relacionades o independents i prova ANOVA (per a més de dues mostres independents.

  18. Ground measured evapotranspiration scaled to stand level using MODIS and Landsat sensors to study Tamarix spp.response to repeated defoliation by the Tamarix leaf beetle at two sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlstein, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Hultine, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Dolores River in Southern Utah and the Virgin River in Southern Nevada are ecosystems under pressure from increased groundwater withdrawal due to growing populations and introduced riparian species. We studied the impact of the biocontrol Tamarix leaf beetles (Dirohabda carinulata and D. elongata) on the introduced riparian species, Tamarix spp., phenology and water use over multiple cycles of annual defoliation. Heat balance sap flow measurements, leaf area index (LAI), well data, allometry and satellite imagery from Landsat Thematic Mapper 5 and EOS-1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors were used to assess the distribution of beetle defoliation and its effect on evapotranspiration (ET). Study objectives for the Virgin River were to measure pre-beetle arrival ET, while the Dolores River site has had defoliation since 2004 and is a site of long-term beetle effect monitoring. This study focuses on measurements conducted over two seasons, 2010 and 2011. At the Dolores River site, results from 2010 were inconclusive due to sensor malfunctions but plant ET by sap flow in 2011 averaged 1.02 mm/m^2 leaf area/day before beetle arrival, dropping to an average of 0.75 mm/m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival. Stand level estimations from May - December, 2010 by MODIS were about 0.63 mm/ day, results from Landsat were 0.51 mm/day in June and 0.78 in August. For January -September, 2011, MODIS values were about 0.6 mm/day, and Landsat was 0.57 mm/day in June and 0.62 mm/day in August. These values are lower than previously reported ET values for this site meaning that repeated defoliation does diminish stand level water use. The Virgin River site showed plant ET from sap flow averaged about 3.9-4 mm/m^2 leaf area/day from mid-May - September, 2010. In 2011, ET from sap flow averaged 3.83 mm/m^2 leaf area/day during June - July, but dropped to 3.73 mm/ m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival in August. The slight drop in plant ET is not significant

  19. Avaliação do desempenho zootécnico de genótipos de frangos de corte utilizando-se a análise de medidas repetidas Performance evaluation of broiler genotypes by repeated measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millor Fernandes do Rosário

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar genótipos de frangos de corte por meio do desempenho zootécnico utilizando-se medidas repetidas. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro genótipos (A, B, C e D e dois sexos avaliados em seis idades (7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias. As variáveis analisadas foram: consumo médio de alimento (CONS, peso vivo médio (PV e conversão alimentar (CA. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos incompletos desbalanceados, em esquema fatorial 4x2 nas parcelas experimentais, com seis medidas realizadas no decorrer do experimento. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do procedimento MIXED do SAS®, sendo testadas cinco estruturas de variância e covariância do erro. As médias foram estimadas por quadrados mínimos e comparadas pelo teste Tukey-Kramer. Foram estimadas funções de resposta quadrática para CONS e CA e Gompertz para PV e seus respectivos coeficientes de determinação, pelo procedimento NLIN do SAS®. Detectaram-se efeitos de algumas interações triplas ou duplas para todas as variáveis. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas entre genótipos dentro de cada idade e sexo para CONS e PV e para CA entre genótipos e sexos, dentro de cada idade, apenas aos 42 e a partir dos 21 dias, respectivamente. Constatou-se que o genótipo D, apesar de apresentar maiores médias de CONS e PV, não mostrou menor CA, que foi verificada nos genótipos C e B. As funções de resposta estimadas explicaram adequadamente cada variável em função da idade, constatando-se que o CONS e PV dos machos do genótipo D foram maiores a partir dos 14 dias e dos 28 aos 42 dias, distinguindo este tratamento dos demais. A melhor CA foi verificada nos machos e no genótipo C. É possível avaliar o desempenho zootécnico de frangos de corte por medidas repetidas, sendo que os genótipos B e C apresentaram melhor desempenho zootécnico.The objetive of this study was to evaluate the performance of broiler genotypes using repeated measurements

  20. A novel Hartman Shack-based topography system: repeatability and agreement for corneal power with Scheimpflug+Placido topographer and rotating prism auto-keratorefractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Srivastava, Dhruv; Choudhuri, Sounak

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the repeatability and agreement of corneal power using a new Hartman type topographer in comparison to Scheimpflug+Placido and autorefractor devices. In this cross sectional, observational study performed at the cornea services of a specialty hospital, 100 normal eyes (100 consecutive candidates) without any previous ocular surgery or morbidity except refractive error were evaluated. All candidates underwent three measurements each on a Full gradient, Hartman type topographer (FG) (iDesign, AMO), Scheimpflug+Placido topographer (SP) (Sirius, CSO) and rotating prism auto-keratorefractor (AR) (KR1, Nidek). The parameters assessed were flat keratometry (K1), steep keratometry (K2), steep axis (K2 axis), mean K, J 0 and J 45. Intra-device repeatability and inter-device agreement were evaluated. On repeatability analysis, the intra-device means were not significantly different (ANOVA, p > 0.05). Intraclass correlations (ICC) were >0.98 except for J 0 and J 45. In terms of intra-measurement standard deviation (Sw), the SP and FG groups fared better than AR group (p 0.05, R (2) 0.05). ICC ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 (p < 0.001). Regression fits on Bland-Altman plots suggested no clinically significant effect of average values over difference in means. The repeatability of Hartman type topographer in normal eyes is comparable to SP combination device and better than AR. The agreement between the three devices is good. However, we recommend against interchanging these devices between follow-ups or pooling their data.

  1. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  2. Repeated checking causes memory distrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits

  3. Optimization of friction welding by taguchi and ANOVA method on commercial aluminium tube to Al 2025 tube plate with backing block using an external tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanna, S.; Kumaraswamidhs, L. A.; Kumaran, S. Senthil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to optimize the Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) with clearance fit of commercial aluminum tube to Al 2025 tube plate using an external tool. Conventional frictional welding is suitable to weld only symmetrical joints either tube to tube or rod to rod but in this research with the help of external tool, the welding has been done by unsymmetrical shape of tube to tube plate also. In this investigation, the various welding parameters such as tool rotating speed (rpm), projection of tube (mm) and depth of cut (mm) are determined according to the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The two conditions were considered in this process to examine this experiment; where condition 1 is flat plate with plain tube Without holes [WOH] on the circumference of the surface and condition 2 is flat plate with plane tube has holes on its circumference of the surface With holes [WH]. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was utilized to find the most significant control factors which will yield better joint strength. Besides, the most influential process parameter has been determined using statistical Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the comparison of each result has been done for conditions by means percentage of contribution and regression analysis. The general regression equation is formulated and better strength is obtained and it is validated by means of confirmation test. It was observed that value of optimal welded joint strength for both tube without holes and tube with holes are to be 319.485 MPa and 264.825 MPa, respectively.

  4. Optimization of friction welding by taguchi and ANOVA method on commercial aluminium tube to Al 2025 tube plate with backing block using an external tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanna, S.; Kumaraswamidhs, L. A. [Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad (India); Kumaran, S. Senthil [RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul (India)

    2016-05-15

    The aim of the present work is to optimize the Friction welding of tube to tube plate using an external tool (FWTPET) with clearance fit of commercial aluminum tube to Al 2025 tube plate using an external tool. Conventional frictional welding is suitable to weld only symmetrical joints either tube to tube or rod to rod but in this research with the help of external tool, the welding has been done by unsymmetrical shape of tube to tube plate also. In this investigation, the various welding parameters such as tool rotating speed (rpm), projection of tube (mm) and depth of cut (mm) are determined according to the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The two conditions were considered in this process to examine this experiment; where condition 1 is flat plate with plain tube Without holes [WOH] on the circumference of the surface and condition 2 is flat plate with plane tube has holes on its circumference of the surface With holes [WH]. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was utilized to find the most significant control factors which will yield better joint strength. Besides, the most influential process parameter has been determined using statistical Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, the comparison of each result has been done for conditions by means percentage of contribution and regression analysis. The general regression equation is formulated and better strength is obtained and it is validated by means of confirmation test. It was observed that value of optimal welded joint strength for both tube without holes and tube with holes are to be 319.485 MPa and 264.825 MPa, respectively.

  5. Effect of fasting ramadan in diabetes control status - application of extensive diabetes education, serum creatinine with HbA1c statistical ANOVA and regression models to prevent hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2013-09-01

    Ramadan fasting is an obligatory duty for Muslims. Unique physiologic and metabolic changes occur during fasting which requires adjustments of diabetes medications. Although challenging, successful fasting can be accomplished if pre-Ramadan extensive education is provided to the patients. Current research was conducted to study effective Ramadan fasting with different OHAs/insulins without significant risk of hypoglycemia in terms of HbA1c reductions after Ramadan. ANOVA model was used to assess HbA1c levels among different education statuses. Serum creatinine was used to measure renal functions. Pre-Ramadan diabetes education with alteration of therapy and dosage adjustments for OHAs/insulin was done. Regression models for HbA1c before Ramadan with FBS before sunset were also synthesized as a tool to prevent hypoglycemia and successful Ramadan fasting in future. Out of 1046 patients, 998 patients fasted successfully without any episodes of hypoglycemia. 48 patients (4.58%) experienced hypoglycemia. Χ(2) Test for CRD/CKD with hypoglycemia was also significant (p-value Ramadan diabetes management. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this paper.

  6. Online learning in repeated auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Weed, Jonathan; Perchet, Vianney; Rigollet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by online advertising auctions, we consider repeated Vickrey auctions where goods of unknown value are sold sequentially and bidders only learn (potentially noisy) information about a good's value once it is purchased. We adopt an online learning approach with bandit feedback to model this problem and derive bidding strategies for two models: stochastic and adversarial. In the stochastic model, the observed values of the goods are random variables centered around the true value of t...

  7. Reproducibility and Reliability of Repeated Quantitative Fluorescence Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Knudsen, Kristine Bach Korsholm; Ambrus, Rikard

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When using fluorescence angiography (FA) in perioperative perfusion assessment, repeated measures with re-injections of fluorescent dye (ICG) may be required. However, repeated injections may cause saturation of dye in the tissue, exceeding the limit of fluorescence intensity...... that the camera can detect. As the emission of fluorescence is dependent of the excitatory light intensity, reduction of this may solve the problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and reliability of repeated quantitative FA during a reduction of excitatory light....

  8. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  10. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  11. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  12. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  13. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  14. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  15. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  16. Application of UAV-SfM photogrammetry and aerial lidar to a disastrous flood: repeated topographic measurement of a newly formed crevasse splay of the Kinu River, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Atsuto; Uchiyama, Shoichiro; Sugai, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Geomorphic impacts of a disastrous crevasse splay that formed in September 2015 and its post-formation modifications were quantitatively documented by using repeated, high-definition digital surface models (DSMs) of an inhabited and cultivated floodplain of the Kinu River, central Japan. The DSMs were based on pre-flood (resolution: 2 m) and post-flood (resolution: 1 m) aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data from January 2007 and September 2015, respectively, and on structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry data (resolution: 3.84 cm) derived from aerial photos taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in December 2015. After elimination of systematic errors among the DSMs and down-sampling of the SfM-derived DSM, elevation changes on the order of 10-1 m - including not only topography but also growth of vegetation, vanishing of flood waters, and restoration and repair works - were detected. Comparison of the DSMs showed that the volume eroded by the flood was more than twice the deposited volume in the area within 300-500 m of the breached artificial levee, where the topography was significantly affected. The results suggest that DSMs based on a combination of UAV-SfM and lidar data can be used to quantify, rapidly and in rich detail, topographic changes on floodplains caused by floods.

  17. Repetibilidade de características forrageiras do capim-elefante Repeatability of elephantgrass forage traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Shimoya

    2002-06-01

    value from successive measurements on individuals. It also allows to estimate whether the number of evaluations is sufficient to determine genotype superiority within a certain degree of reliability. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the coefficient of repeatability of crude protein concentration on stems and leaves, in 77 accesses of the Embrapa's Elephantgrass Germplasm Active Bank. The experimental design consisted of was randomized blocks, with two replicates. Forage was cut on 30, 45, 60 and 75 days of croping, using 15 sprouts of each experimental unit. ANOVA was performed for each trait data set, and genetic and environmental parameters were determined. The repeatability coefficients were estimated by the methods: Analysis of variance, principal components - correlation matrix, principal components - co-variance matrix and structural analysis - correlation matrix. Genetic variability was found among the genotypes for the appraised traits, which allowed the identification of genetically superior material that can be used in breeding programs. The coefficients of estimated repeatability were not different for the traits studied. Four cuts were enough for a coefficient of determination of 0.80, for all the methods. The use of seven cuts may enable predictions with 0.90 reliability for the studied traits, using any method.

  18. Quantum key distribution with two-segment quantum repeaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters represent one possible way to achieve long-distance quantum key distribution. One way of improving the repeater rate and decreasing the memory coherence time is the usage of multiplexing. Motivated by the experimental fact that long-range connections are practically demanding, we extend the analysis of the quantum repeater multiplexing protocol to the case of short-range connections. We derive formulas for the repeater rate and we show that short-range connections lead to most of the benefits of a full-range multiplexing protocol. A less demanding QKD-protocol without quantum memories was recently introduced by Lo et al. We generalize this measurement-device-independent quantum key Distribution protocol to the scenario where the repeater Station contains also heralded quantum memories. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decay states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. We give formulas in terms of device imperfections i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate.

  19. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  20. Repeatability and reproducibility of ribotyping and its computer interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefresne, Gwénola; Latrille, Eric; Irlinger, Françoise; Grimont, Patrick A D

    2004-04-01

    Many molecular typing methods are difficult to interpret because their repeatability (within-laboratory variance) and reproducibility (between-laboratory variance) have not been thoroughly studied. In the present work, ribotyping of coryneform bacteria was the basis of a study involving within-gel and between-gel repeatability and between-laboratory reproducibility (two laboratories involved). The effect of different technical protocols, different algorithms, and different software for fragment size determination was studied. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed, within a laboratory, that there was no significant added variance between gels. However, between-laboratory variance was significantly higher than within-laboratory variance. This may be due to the use of different protocols. An experimental function was calculated to transform the data and make them compatible (i.e., erase the between-laboratory variance). The use of different interpolation algorithms (spline, Schaffer and Sederoff) was a significant source of variation in one laboratory only. The use of either Taxotron (Institut Pasteur) or GelCompar (Applied Maths) was not a significant source of added variation when the same algorithm (spline) was used. However, the use of Bio-Gene (Vilber Lourmat) dramatically increased the error (within laboratory, within gel) in one laboratory, while decreasing the error in the other laboratory; this might be due to automatic normalization attempts. These results were taken into account for building a database and performing automatic pattern identification using Taxotron. Conversion of the data considerably improved the identification of patterns irrespective of the laboratory in which the data were obtained.

  1. Measuring performance improvement: total organizational commitment or clinical specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Aleece; Jones, Paul; Neuhauser, Duncan; Aron, David C

    2004-01-01

    Resources for hospitals are limited when they are faced with multiple publicly reported performance measures as tools to assess quality. The leadership in these organizations may choose to focus on 1 or 2 of these outcomes. An alternative approach is that the leadership may commit resources or create conditions that result in improved quality over a broad range of measures. We used aggregated data on mortality, length of stay, and obstetrical outcomes from Greater Cleveland Health Quality Choice data to test these theories. We used Pearson correlation analysis to determine of outcomes were correlated with one another. We used repeated-measures ANOVA to determine if an association existed between outcome and time and outcome and hospital. All of the outcomes across all hospitals demonstrate a trend of overall improvement. Both the Pearson and ANOVA result support the hypothesis for the organization-wide approach to quality improvement. Hospital that make improvements in one clinical area trend to make improvements in others. Hospitals that produce improvements in limited clinical or administrative areas may not have completely adopted CQI into their culture or may not have yet realized the benefits of their organizational commitments, but use some of the concepts to improve quality outcomes.

  2. Three-dimensional evaluation of the repeatability of scans of stone models and impressions using a blue LED scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Hun; Jung, Il-Do; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Woong-Chul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of scans of stone models and impressions of abutment teeth using a blue LED scanner and compared the findings between different abutment teeth types. For the stone models as well as impression of the canines, premolars, and molars, we generated 10 color-difference-maps and reports for each tooth type (n=10 per tooth type). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent t-tests were performed to evaluate the repeatability of scans of the stone models and impressions obtained from a blue LED scanner. Our results indicate a high repeatability of scans of stone models and impressions of abutment teeth using the blue LED scanner and suggest a possible clinical advantage for scanning impressions of different abutment teeth types.

  3. Attentional and visual demands for sprint performance in non-fatigued and fatigued conditions: reliability of a repeated sprint test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diercks Ron L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical performance measures are widely used to assess physical function, providing information about physiological and biomechanical aspects of motor performance. However they do not provide insight into the attentional and visual demands for motor performance. A figure-of-eight sprint test was therefore developed to measure the attentional and visual demands for repeated-sprint performance. The aims of the study were: 1 to assess test-retest reliability of the figure-of-eight sprint test, and 2 to study the attentional and visual demands for sprint performance in a non-fatigued and fatigued condition. Methods Twenty-seven healthy athletes were included in the study. To determine test-retest reliability, a subgroup of 19 athletes performed the figure-of-eight sprint test twice. The figure-of-eight sprint test consisted of nine 30-second sprints. The sprint test consisted of three test parts: sprinting without any restriction, with an attention-demanding task, and with restricted vision. Increases in sprint times with the attention-demanding task or restricted vision are reflective of the attentional and visual demands for sprinting. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and mean difference between test and retest with 95% confidence limits (CL were used to assess test-retest reliability. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used for comparisons between the sprint times and fatigue measurements of the test parts in both a non-fatigued and fatigued condition. Results The figure-of-eight sprint test showed good test-retest reliability, with ICCs ranging from 0.75 to 0.94 (95% CL: 0.40-0.98. Zero lay within the 95% CL of the mean differences, indicating that no bias existed between sprint performance at test and retest. Sprint times during the test parts with attention-demanding task (P = 0.01 and restricted vision (P Conclusions High ICCs and the absence of systematic variation indicate good test-retest reliability of the figure

  4. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  5. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  6. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeat ... Cluster analysis revealed a high genetic similarity among the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines which could reduce the genetic gain in ..... The multiple allele characteristic of SSR com-.

  7. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan; Manolescu, Ioana; Afanasiev, Loredana; Feng, Jieling; Gou, G.; Hadjieleftheriou, Marios; Harizopoulos, Stavros; Kalnis, Panos; Karanasos, Konstantinos; Laurent, Dominique; Lupu, M.; Onose, N.; Ré , C.; Sans, Virginie; Senellart, Pierre; Wu, T.; Shasha, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  8. Blood pressure and heart rate response to posteriorly directed pressure applied to the cervical spine in young, pain-free individuals: a randomized, repeated-measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Emmanuel; Wong, Michael; Williams, Haddie; Mache, Kyle

    2014-08-01

    Randomized clinical trial. Objectives To compare the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response of healthy volunteers to posteriorly directed (anterior-to-posterior [AP]) pressure applied to the cervical spine versus placebo. Manual therapists employ cervical spine AP mobilizations for various cervical-shoulder pain conditions. However, there is a paucity of literature describing the procedure, cardiovascular response, and safety profile. Thirty-nine (25 female) healthy participants (mean ± SD age, 24.7 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 received a placebo, consisting of light touch applied to the right C6 costal process. Group 2 received AP pressure at the same location. Blood pressure and HR were measured prior to, during, and after the application of AP pressure. One-way analysis of variance and paired-difference statistics were used for data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for mean systolic BP, mean diastolic BP, and mean HR (P >.05) for all time points. Within-group comparisons indicated statistically significant differences between baseline and post-AP pressure HR (-2.8 bpm; 95% confidence interval: -4.6, -1.1) and between baseline and post-AP pressure systolic BP (-2.4 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -3.7, -1.0) in the AP group, and between baseline and postplacebo systolic BP (-2.6 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -4.2, -1.0) in the placebo group. No participants reported any adverse reactions or side effects within 24 hours of testing. AP pressure caused a statistically significant physiologic response that resulted in a minor drop in HR (without causing asystole or vasodepression) after the procedure, whereas this cardiovascular change did not occur for those in the placebo group. Within both groups, there was a small but statistically significant reduction in systolic BP following the procedure.

  9. ONE WAY ANOVA RANDOMIZED COMPLETE BLOCKS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ******

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Key words: Grey mullet, growth, foreign DNA, genetically modified. INTRODUCTION ... ration, food quality and preservation (Shears et al., 1991;. Chen et al. ... fish eggs (Khoo et al., 1992) and 4) direct injection of foreign DNA ...

  10. Default Bayes factors for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.; Speckman, Paul L.; Province, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Bayes factors have been advocated as superior to p-values for assessing statistical evidence in data. Despite the advantages of Bayes factors and the drawbacks of p-values, inference by p-values is still nearly ubiquitous. One impediment to the adoption of Bayes factors is a lack of practical

  11. Development of analog watch with minute repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigami, Tomio; Aoyama, Shigeru; Osa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kiyotaka; Ikegami, Tomomi

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor with large scale integration was developed for an electronic minute repeater. It is equipped with the synthetic struck sound circuit to generate natural struck sound necessary for the minute repeater. This circuit consists of an envelope curve drawing circuit, frequency mixer, polyphonic mixer, and booster circuit made by using analog circuit technology. This large scale integration is a single chip microcomputer with motor drivers and input ports in addition to the synthetic struck sound circuit, and it is possible to make an electronic system of minute repeater at a very low cost in comparison with the conventional type.

  12. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  13. iphones, Androids, and history repeating

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    Remember when everyone was bashing Bill Gates because his operating system was insecure and a primary target for malicious software? While Microsoft has (tried to) improved on this, the IT world keeps on turning and the new target is your mobile phone. The Android and iPhone market is still growing. Can you live without your mobile phone today? Probably not. Mobile phones have become part of our identity.   They are with us all the time and record every step we take (see the iPhoneTracker application). Do you worry that your iPhone sends a unique token to every app company who wants to pin-point you and your activity? 15 years ago there was a rebellion and legal measures against Intel’s Pentium II/III unique serial number intended to do the same (see this CNN article). Also, think about how much confidential or sensitive stuff you already store on your phone (e.g. your mail, music, photos, credentials). In the future, you might even be able to pay with your phone - initial plans hav...

  14. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.

  15. Repeated passive stretching : Acute effect on the passive muscle moment and extensibility of short hamstrings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, JPK; Mulder, [No Value; Goeken, LNH; Eisma, WH; Mulder, I.; Göeken, L.N.

    Objective: To examine the response of short hamstring muscles to repeated passive stretching. Design: A repeated measures design. Setting: A university laboratory for human movement analysis in a department of rehabilitation. Subjects: Students (7 men, 10 women) from the Department of Human Movement

  16. Repeatability of Bolus Kinetics Ultrasound Perfusion Imaging for the Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Elisabeth J.; Eyding, Jens; de Korte, Chris L.; Slump, Cornelis H.; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W.E.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound perfusion imaging (UPI) can be used for the quantification of cerebral perfusion. In a neuro-intensive care setting, repeated measurements are required to evaluate changes in cerebral perfusion and monitor therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of UPI in

  17. Repeatability of oral fluid collection methods for THC measurement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, S. Smink, B.E. Legrand, S.-A. Mathijssen, M.P.M. Verstraete, A.G. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the influence of sample collection for two different collection methods on THC concentrations and to compare THC concentrations collected by both methods. A total of 136 pairs of oral fluid samples from subjects who had recently smoked Cannabis were obtained by

  18. Repeatability of oral fluid collection methods for THC measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Smink, Beitske E.; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Mathijssen, Rene P. M.; Verstraete, Alain G.; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2012-01-01

    Study objectives: To determine the influence of sample collection for two different collection methods on THC concentrations and to compare THC concentrations collected by both methods. Methods: A total of 136 pairs of oral fluid samples from subjects who had recently smoked Cannabis were obtained

  19. Estimation of individual growth trajectories when repeated measures are missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Mollie Elizabeth; Clements, Christopher; Pemberton, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    Individuals in a population vary in their growth due to hidden and observed factors such as age, genetics, environment, disease, and carryover effects from past environments. Because size affects fitness, growth trajectories scale up to affect population dynamics. However, it can be difficult to ...

  20. The genetic analysis of repeated measures I: Simplex models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    Extends the simplex model to a model that may be used for the genetic and environmental analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) structures. This "double" simplex structure can be specified as a linear structural relationships model. It is shown that data that give rise to a simplex correlation structure,

  1. Repeatability and consistency of individual behaviour in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C.; Carl, Teresa; Foerster, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on animal personality has provided new insights into evolutionary biology and animal ecology, as behavioural types have been shown to affect fitness. Animal personality is characterized by repeatable and consistent between-individual behavioural differences throughout time and across different situations. Behavioural repeatability within life history stages and consistency between life history stages should be checked for the independence of sex and age, as recent data have shown that males and females in some species may differ in the repeatability of behavioural traits, as well as in their consistency. We measured the repeatability and consistency of three behavioural and one cognitive traits in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice ( Micromys minutus). We found that exploration, activity and boldness were repeatable in juveniles and adults. Spatial recognition measured in a Y Maze was only repeatable in adult mice. Exploration, activity and boldness were consistent before and after maturation, as well as before and after first sexual contact. Data on spatial recognition provided little evidence for consistency. Further, we found some evidence for a litter effect on behaviours by comparing different linear mixed models. We concluded that harvest mice express animal personality traits as behaviours were repeatable across sexes and consistent across life history stages. The tested cognitive trait showed low repeatability and was less consistent across life history stages. Given the rising interest in individual variation in cognitive performance, and in its relationship to animal personality, we suggest that it is important to gather more data on the repeatability and consistency of cognitive traits.

  2. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  3. The repeatability of an intraoral dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Francis F; Goldstein, Gary R; Jang, Sungkoo; Hittelman, Eugene

    2002-12-01

    Characterizing and reproducing color remain one of the most challenging aspects of dentistry. A relatively new intraoral colorimeter measures the color of natural teeth and metal-ceramic restorations and prints out a color recipe for the Vintage Halo Porcelain System. The reliability of the colorimeter is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a contact dental colorimeter and to correlate the shade registered by the colorimeter with the shade selected by experienced clinicians. In part I of the study, 2 examiners (A and B) took 2 colorimeter measurements from the maxillary right central incisors of 11 subjects. The examiners were blinded to their own data and those of other investigators. The readings were repeated 3 weeks later with the same protocol. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was used to analyze the collected data. In part II of the study, 2 experienced clinicians (examiners D and E) selected a shade from the classic Vita Lumin Vacuum shade guide for the maxillary right central incisors of the same 11 subjects. The clinicians were blinded to each other's selections and the colorimeter readings. It should be noted that the manufacturer of the colorimeter uses the terms shade, value, and hue to represent chroma, value, and hue, respectively, as defined in the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms (J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:39-110). The reliability analysis results for each of the combined trials for shade, value, and hue were all >.94. The interexaminer reliability alpha values were >.9 for shade and value and.64 to.74 for hue. The interexaminer alpha represented the value range of each of 4 measurements. The intraexaminer reliability alpha values for shade, value, and hue were.99,.95, and.96 for examiner A and.99,.93, and.97 for examiner B, respectively. In part II of the study, the colorimeter agreed with itself 82% of the time, whereas clinicians agreed with each other on the selected shade 73% of the time. Selections made

  4. Using the multiple regression analysis with respect to ANOVA and 3D mapping to model the actual performance of PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell at various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hadeethi, Farqad; Al-Nimr, Moh'd; Al-Safadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The performance of PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell was experimentally investigated at three temperatures (30, 50 and 70 °C), four flow rates (5, 10, 15 and 20 ml/min) and two flow patterns (co-current and counter current) in order to generate two correlations using multiple regression analysis with respect to ANOVA. Results revealed that increasing the temperature for co-current and counter current flow patterns will increase both hydrogen and oxygen diffusivities, water management and membrane conductivity. The derived mathematical correlations and three dimensional mapping (i.e. surface response) for the co-current and countercurrent flow patterns showed that there is a clear interaction among the various variables (temperatures and flow rates). - Highlights: • Generating mathematical correlations using multiple regression analysis with respect to ANOVA for the performance of the PEM fuel cell. • Using the 3D mapping to diagnose the optimum performance of the PEM fuel cell at the given operating conditions. • Results revealed that increasing the flow rate had direct influence on the consumption of oxygen. • Results assured that increasing the temperature in co-current and counter current flow patterns increases the performance of PEM fuel cell.

  5. Perceived importance of attributes on hotel guests' repeat visit intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Emir, Oktay; Kozak, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Based on the empirical evidence in the related literature, we can emphasize that customer satisfaction and repeat patronage in the hotel industry has been well researched. Over the past two decades, many researchers as well as businesses have conducted surveys on visitors' satisfaction in order to measure customer perceptions of quality attributes of hotel or hospitality services. However, there is a lack of research paying attention to the empirical investigation of the self-perceived direct...

  6. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beige, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lim, Y L [DSO National Laboratories, 20 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118230, Singapore (Singapore); Kwek, L C [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes.

  7. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beige, A; Lim, Y L; Kwek, L C

    2007-01-01

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes

  8. Effect of a Trampoline Exercise on the Anthropometric Measures and Motor Performance of Adolescent Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalizadeh, Bahman; Mohammadzadeh, Hassan; Khazani, Ali; Dadras, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercises can influence some anthropometric and fitness components differently. The aim of present study was to evaluate how a relatively long-term training program in 11-14-year-old male Iranian students affects their anthropometric and motor performance measures. Measurements were conducted on the anthropometric and fitness components of participants (n = 28) prior to and following the program. They trained 20 weeks, 1.5 h/session with 10 min rest, in 4 times trampoline training programs per week. Motor performance of all participants was assessed using standing long jump and vertical jump based on Eurofit Test Battery. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measurement test showed a statistically significant main effect of time in calf girth P = 0.001, fat% P = 0.01, vertical jump P = 0.001, and long jump P = 0.001. The ANOVA repeated measurement test revealed a statistically significant main effect of group in fat% P = 0.001. Post hoc paired t-tests indicated statistical significant differences in trampoline group between the two measurements about calf girth (t = -4.35, P = 0.001), fat% (t = 5.87, P = 0.001), vertical jump (t = -5.53, P = 0.001), and long jump (t = -10.00, P = 0.001). We can conclude that 20-week trampoline training with four physical activity sessions/week in 11-14-year-old students seems to have a significant effect on body fat% reduction and effective results in terms of anaerobic physical fitness. Therefore, it is suggested that different training model approach such as trampoline exercises can help students to promote the level of health and motor performance.

  9. Effect of a trampoline exercise on the anthropometric measures and motor performance of adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Aalizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercises can influence some anthropometric and fitness components differently. The aim of present study was to evaluate how a relatively long-term training program in 11-14-year-old male Iranian students affects their anthropometric and motor performance measures. Methods: Measurements were conducted on the anthropometric and fitness components of participants (n = 28 prior to and following the program. They trained 20 weeks, 1.5 h/session with 10 min rest, in 4 times trampoline training programs per week. Motor performance of all participants was assessed using standing long jump and vertical jump based on Eurofit Test Battery. Results: The analysis of variance (ANOVA repeated measurement test showed a statistically significant main effect of time in calf girth P = 0.001, fat% P = 0.01, vertical jump P = 0.001, and long jump P = 0.001. The ANOVA repeated measurement test revealed a statistically significant main effect of group in fat% P = 0.001. Post hoc paired t-tests indicated statistical significant differences in trampoline group between the two measurements about calf girth (t = −4.35, P = 0.001, fat% (t = 5.87, P = 0.001, vertical jump (t = −5.53, P = 0.001, and long jump (t = −10.00, P = 0.001. Conclusions: We can conclude that 20-week trampoline training with four physical activity sessions/week in 11-14-year-old students seems to have a significant effect on body fat% reduction and effective results in terms of anaerobic physical fitness. Therefore, it is suggested that different training model approach such as trampoline exercises can help students to promote the level of health and motor performance.

  10. The number of measurements needed to obtain high reliability for traits related to enzymatic activities and photosynthetic compounds in soybean plants infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tássia Boeno; Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Alvarenga, Amauri Alves; Bhering, Leonardo Lopes; Campo, Clara Beatriz Hoffmann

    2018-01-01

    Asian rust affects the physiology of soybean plants and causes losses in yield. Repeatability coefficients may help breeders to know how many measurements are needed to obtain a suitable reliability for a target trait. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the repeatability coefficients of 14 traits in soybean plants inoculated with Phakopsora pachyrhizi and to establish the minimum number of measurements needed to predict the breeding value with high accuracy. Experiments were performed in a 3x2 factorial arrangement with three treatments and two inoculations in a random block design. Repeatability coefficients, coefficients of determination and number of measurements needed to obtain a certain reliability were estimated using ANOVA, principal component analysis based on the covariance matrix and the correlation matrix, structural analysis and mixed model. It was observed that the principal component analysis based on the covariance matrix out-performed other methods for almost all traits. Significant differences were observed for all traits except internal CO2 concentration for the treatment effects. For the measurement effects, all traits were significantly different. In addition, significant differences were found for all Treatment x Measurement interaction traits except coumestrol, chitinase and chlorophyll content. Six measurements were suitable to obtain a coefficient of determination higher than 0.7 for all traits based on principal component analysis. The information obtained from this research will help breeders and physiologists determine exactly how many measurements are needed to evaluate each trait in soybean plants infected by P. pachyrhizi with a desirable reliability. PMID:29438380

  11. Role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kraus, B.; Briegel, H.-J.; Duer, W.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory and (ii) introducing two operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e., without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication

  12. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  13. Readout Distance Enhancement of the Passive Wireless Multi-Parameter Sensing System Using a Repeater Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A repeater coil is used to extend the detection distance of a passive wireless multi-parameter sensing system. The passive wireless sensing system has the ability of simultaneously monitoring three parameters by using backscatter modulation together with channel multiplexing. Two different repeater coils are designed and fabricated for readout distance enhancement of the sensing system: one is a PCB (printed circuit board repeater coil, and the other is a copper wire repeater coil. Under the conditions of fixed voltage and adjustable voltage, the maximum readout distance of the sensing system with and without a repeater coil is measured. Experimental results show that larger power supply voltage can help further increase the readout distance. The maximum readout distance of the sensing system with a PCB repeater coil has been extended 2.3 times, and the one with a copper wire repeater coil has been extended 3 times. Theoretical analysis and experimental results both indicate that the high Q factor repeater coil can extend the readout distance more. With the copper wire repeater coil as well as a higher power supply voltage, the passive wireless multi-parameter sensing system finally achieves a maximum readout distance of 13.5 cm.

  14. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubuchon, Adam C.; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Balamucki, Christopher J.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80–90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60–90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  15. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  16. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  17. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author).

  18. A high stability and repeatability electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-12-15

    We present a home built electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) with very high stability and repeatability. Its coarse approach is driven by a closely stacked piezo motor of GeckoDrive type with four rigid clamping points, which enhances the rigidity, compactness, and stability greatly. It can give high clarity atomic resolution images without sound and vibration isolations. Its drifting rates in XY and Z directions in solution are as low as 84 pm/min and 59 pm/min, respectively. In addition, repeatable coarse approaches in solution within 2 mm travel distance show a lateral deviation less than 50 nm. The gas environment can be well controlled to lower the evaporation rate of the cell, thus reducing the contamination and elongating the measurement time. Atomically resolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} image on Au (111) work electrode is demonstrated to show the performance of the ECSTM.

  19. A high stability and repeatability electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-12-01

    We present a home built electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) with very high stability and repeatability. Its coarse approach is driven by a closely stacked piezo motor of GeckoDrive type with four rigid clamping points, which enhances the rigidity, compactness, and stability greatly. It can give high clarity atomic resolution images without sound and vibration isolations. Its drifting rates in XY and Z directions in solution are as low as 84 pm/min and 59 pm/min, respectively. In addition, repeatable coarse approaches in solution within 2 mm travel distance show a lateral deviation less than 50 nm. The gas environment can be well controlled to lower the evaporation rate of the cell, thus reducing the contamination and elongating the measurement time. Atomically resolved SO4(2-) image on Au (111) work electrode is demonstrated to show the performance of the ECSTM.

  20. On the crustal bias of repeat stations in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Dobrica

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic induction model has been applied to recordings obtained in 2010 during the field campaigns for geomagnetic measurements at the 26 repeat stations of the Romanian secular variation network. The model is based on the observation that a variable external magnetic field induces a response of the Earth's interior not only by electromagnetic induction, but also by magnetic induction in the magnetic rocks above the Curie temperature. The model computes coefficients of a linear relationship between recorded values of a certain geomagnetic element (X, Y, Z, or F at the repeat station and recorded X, Y, Z values at a reference station (in this case, SUA observatory. Coefficients depend on magnetic permeabilities of rocks beneath the station and stand as a proxy for the anomaly bias characterizing the site. Maps of the lateral variation of this type of information were obtained and discussed.

  1. Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K

    2017-01-01

    is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression.......Objective To study whether cognitive behavioural therapy decreases suicide attempts in people with previous suicide attempts. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Randomised trials that compare cognitive behavioural therapy with treatment as usual. Participants Patients who had...... engaged in any type of suicide attempt in the six months prior to trial entry resulting in presentation to clinical services. Main outcome measure Suicide attempt. Results We included ten trials, eight from Cochrane reviews and two from our updated searches (1241 patients, 219 of whom had at least one new...

  2. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection.

    OpenAIRE

    Reitz, J.; Reader, A.; Nist, R.; Beck, M.; Meyers, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a repeated-measures design, we randomly assigned 38 subjects to receive two combinations of injections at two separate appointments. The combinations w...

  3. Repeating and non-repeating fast radio bursts from binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Totani, Tomonori; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2018-04-01

    Most fast radio bursts (FRB) do not show evidence of repetition, and such non-repeating FRBs may be produced at the time of a merger of binary neutron stars (BNS), provided that the BNS merger rate is close to the high end of the currently possible range. However, the merger environment is polluted by dynamical ejecta, which may prohibit the radio signal from propagating. We examine this by using a general-relativistic simulation of a BNS merger, and show that the ejecta appears about 1 ms after the rotation speed of the merged star becomes the maximum. Therefore there is a time window in which an FRB signal can reach outside, and the short duration of non-repeating FRBs can be explained by screening after ejecta formation. A fraction of BNS mergers may leave a rapidly rotating and stable neutron star, and such objects may be the origin of repeating FRBs like FRB 121102. We show that a merger remnant would appear as a repeating FRB on a time scale of ˜1-10 yr, and expected properties are consistent with the observations of FRB 121102. We construct an FRB rate evolution model that includes these two populations of repeating and non-repeating FRBs from BNS mergers, and show that the detection rate of repeating FRBs relative to non-repeating ones rapidly increases with improving search sensitivity. This may explain why only the repeating FRB 121102 was discovered by the most sensitive FRB search with Arecibo. Several predictions are made, including the appearance of a repeating FRB 1-10 yr after a BNS merger that is localized by gravitational waves and subsequent electromagnetic radiation.

  4. Validity and repeatability of goniometry in normal horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Henry S; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Levine, David

    2016-07-19

    To assess validity and inter- and intra-tester reliability of equine goniometry and to establish values for carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal flexion and extension in horses. Seventeen healthy equine subjects of varied breeds were used. Three investigators blindly and independently measured in triplicate the extension and flexion of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints of 17 horses after sedation. Radiographs of these joints in flexion and extension were acquired while under sedation. Goniometric and radiographic measurements were compared statistically and were correlated. A Bland-Altman plot was constructed. Inter- and intra-tester repeatability of goniometry were evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean flexion and extension of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints were calculated. Goniometric and radiographic measurements did not differ statistically and were significantly correlated (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.59 - 0.89). The mean difference between goniometric and radiographic measurements was 0.4°. Triplicate measurements collected by the three raters did not differ significantly within raters (ICC ranging from 0.950 - 0.995) and between raters (ICC ranging from 0.942 - 0.989). Goniometry is a valid and repeatable tool for evaluation of the range of motion of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints in standing, sedated healthy horses.

  5. Ecological Panel Inference from Repeated Cross Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, Ben; Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents a Markov chain model for the estimation of individual-level binary transitions from a time series of independent repeated cross-sectional (RCS) samples. Although RCS samples lack direct information on individual turnover, it is demonstrated here that it is possible with these

  6. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  7. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  8. On Solving Intransitivities in Repeated Pairwise Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Maas (Arne); Th.G.G. Bezembinder (Thom); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAn operational method is presented for deriving a linear ranking of alternatives from repeated paired comparisons of the alternatives. Intransitivities in the observed preferences are cleared away by the introduction of decision errors of varying importance. An observed preference

  9. Repeated checking induces uncertainty about future threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; Damstra, Marianne; Douma, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive (OC) -like repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study tested if checking also induces uncertainty about future threat by impairing the distinction between danger and safety cues. Participants (n = 54) engaged in a simulated

  10. FRB 121102: A Starquake-induced Repeater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyang; Luo, Rui; Yue, Han; Chen, Xuelei; Lee, Kejia; Xu, Renxin

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial discovery, the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 121102 has been found to be repeating with millisecond-duration pulses. Very recently, 14 new bursts were detected by the Green Bank Telescope during its continuous monitoring observations. In this paper, we show that the burst energy distribution has a power-law form which is very similar to the Gutenberg–Richter law of earthquakes. In addition, the distribution of burst waiting time can be described as a Poissonian or Gaussian distribution, which is consistent with earthquakes, while the aftershock sequence exhibits some local correlations. These findings suggest that the repeating FRB pulses may originate from the starquakes of a pulsar. Noting that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) also exhibit such distributions, the FRB could be powered by some starquake mechanisms associated with the SGRs, including the crustal activity of a magnetar or solidification-induced stress of a newborn strangeon star. These conjectures could be tested with more repeating samples.

  11. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  12. Estimativas de correlação e repetibilidade para caracteres do fruto de bacurizeiro Estimates correlation and repeatability for characters of the bacurizeiro fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tomé de Farias Neto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estimar os coeficientes de correlação e de repetibilidade envolvendo doze caracteres do fruto de bacurizeiro: comprimento do fruto (CF, diâmetro do fruto (DF, espessura da casca (EC, peso da casca (PC, peso das sementes (PS, número de sementes (NS, volume da cavidade interna (VCI, peso do fruto (PF, peso total de polpa (PTP, porcentagens de casca (%C, sementes (%S e polpa total (%PTP. As estimativas dos coeficientes de repetibilidade das características CF, DF, EC, PC, PS, VCI, PTP, %C e %PTP demonstraram alta regularidade nos indivíduos, e quatro a doze medições são necessárias para obter predições com confiabilidade em torno de 95%. Com exceção do caráter EC, não foram observadas grandes diferenças entre as estimativas dos coeficientes de repetibilidade obtidos pelo método da ANOVA e pelos métodos de análise multivariada. O aumento na precisão em termos de predição do valor real dos indivíduos além de 95% implicará aumentar, sobremaneira, o número de medições, que, por sua vez, pouco acrescentará em termos de precisão, sendo, então, injustificado seu uso. PTP apresentou associações positivas com o DF, VCI e PF.This work had as aim to estimate the repeatability and correlation coefficients involving twelve characters of the bacurizeiro fruit: length of the fruit (CF, diameter of the fruit (DF, thickness of the rind (EC, weight of the rind (PC, weight of the seeds (PS, number of seeds (NS, volume of internal cavity (VCI, weight of the fruit (PF, total weight of pulp (PTP, percentages of rind (%C, seeds (%S and total pulp (%PTP. The estimates of the coefficients of repeatability of characteristics CF, DF, EC, PC, PS, VCI, PTP, %C and %PTP demonstrated high regularity in the individuals and four to twelve measurements are necessary to get predictions with around 95% of reliability. With exception of character EC, had not been observed great differences between the

  13. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A

    2003-07-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m{sup 2}. As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  14. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m 2 . As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  15. The relationship of social support concept and repeat mammography among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadifar, Fariba; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Bahrami, Mitra; Zarea, Shamsy

    2015-10-24

    Breast cancer ranks as the first most common cancer among the Iranian women. The regular repeat of mammography with 1-2 year intervals leads to the increased efficiency of early detection of breast cancer. The present study examined the predictors of repeat mammography. It was hypothesized that higher social support is connected with mammography repeat. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 400 women 50 years and older in Sanandaj, Iran. Data was collected by the questionnaire including information on socio demographical variables and measuring social support level. Data was analyzed by SPSS16 software. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictive power of demographic variables and dimensions of social support for repeat mammography. Women aged 50-55 years had three times odds of repeat mammography compared to women aged 56-60 years) OR, 3.02). Married women had greater odds of repeat mammography compared to single women (P women with higher social support was 0.93 times greater than the women with lower social support (OR, 0.93; 95 % CI, 0.91-0.95; P women are less likely repeat mammography than other Asian women. Identifying the associations between perceived social support and repeat mammography may offer detailed information to allow for future study and guide the development of interventions not only for Iranian women but also for similar cultural that received pay too little attention to date in the breast cancer literature.

  16. Unusual structures are present in DNA fragments containing super-long Huntingtin CAG repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Duzdevich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD, expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeat length beyond about 300 repeats induces a novel phenotype associated with a reduction in transcription of the transgene.We analysed the structure of polymerase chain reaction (PCR-generated DNA containing up to 585 CAG repeats using atomic force microscopy (AFM. As the number of CAG repeats increased, an increasing proportion of the DNA molecules exhibited unusual structural features, including convolutions and multiple protrusions. At least some of these features are hairpin loops, as judged by cross-sectional analysis and sensitivity to cleavage by mung bean nuclease. Single-molecule force measurements showed that the convoluted DNA was very resistant to untangling. In vitro replication by PCR was markedly reduced, and TseI restriction enzyme digestion was also hindered by the abnormal DNA structures. However, significantly, the DNA gained sensitivity to cleavage by the Type III restriction-modification enzyme, EcoP15I."Super-long" CAG repeats are found in a number of neurological diseases and may also appear through CAG repeat instability. We suggest that unusual DNA structures associated with super-long CAG repeats decrease transcriptional efficiency in vitro. We also raise the possibility that if these structures occur in vivo, they may play a role in the aetiology of CAG repeat diseases such as HD.

  17. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze-le Rest, Catherine; Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  18. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  19. Thermal, cardiac and adrenergic responses to repeated local cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janský, L; Matousková, E; Vávra, V; Vybíral, S; Janský, P; Jandová, D; Knízková, I; Kunc, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether repeated local cooling induces the same or different adaptational responses as repeated whole body cooling. Repeated cooling of the legs (immersion into 12 degrees C water up to the knees for 30 min, 20 times during 4 weeks = local cold adaptation - LCA) attenuated the initial increase in heart rate and blood pressure currently observed in control subjects immersed in cold water up to the knees. After LCA the initial skin temperature decrease tended to be lower, indicating reduced vasoconstriction. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure appeared to be generally lower during rest and during the time course of cooling in LCA humans, when compared to controls. All these changes seem to indicate attenuation of the sympathetic tone. In contrast, the sustained skin temperature in different areas of the body (finger, palm, forearm, thigh, chest) appeared to be generally lower in LCA subjects than in controls (except for temperatures on the forehead). Plasma levels of catecholamines (measured 20 and 40 min after the onset of cooling) were also not influenced by local cold adaptation. Locally cold adapted subjects, when exposed to whole body cold water immersion test, showed no change in the threshold temperature for induction of cold thermogenesis. This indicates that the hypothermic type of cold adaptation, typically occurring after systemic cold adaptation, does not appear after local cold adaptation of the intensity used. It is concluded that in humans the cold adaptation due to repeated local cooling of legs induces different physiological changes than systemic cold adaptation.

  20. Repeated wildfires alter forest recovery of mixed-conifer ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Rumann, Camille; Morgan, Penelope

    2016-09-01

    Most models project warmer and drier climates that will contribute to larger and more frequent wildfires. However, it remains unknown how repeated wildfires alter post-fire successional patterns and forest structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that the number of wildfires, as well as the order and severity of wildfire events interact to alter forest structure and vegetation recovery and implications for vegetation management. In 2014, we examined forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration in stands that burned 1-18 yr before a subsequent 2007 wildfire. Three important findings emerged: (1) Repeatedly burned forests had 15% less woody surface fuels and 31% lower tree seedling densities compared with forests that only experienced one recent wildfire. These repeatedly burned areas are recovering differently than sites burned once, which may lead to alternative ecosystem structure. (2) Order of burn severity (high followed by low severity compared with low followed by high severity) did influence forest characteristics. When low burn severity followed high, forests had 60% lower canopy closure and total basal area with 92% fewer tree seedlings than when high burn severity followed low. (3) Time between fires had no effect on most variables measured following the second fire except large woody fuels, canopy closure and tree seedling density. We conclude that repeatedly burned areas meet many vegetation management objectives of reduced fuel loads and moderate tree seedling densities. These differences in forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration have implications not only for the trajectories of these forests, but may reduce fire intensity and burn severity of subsequent wildfires and may be used in conjunction with future fire suppression tactics. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Simple sequence repeats in Neurospora crassa: distribution, polymorphism and evolutionary inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jongsun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs have been successfully used for various genetic and evolutionary studies in eukaryotic systems. The eukaryotic model organism Neurospora crassa is an excellent system to study evolution and biological function of SSRs. Results We identified and characterized 2749 SSRs of 963 SSR types in the genome of N. crassa. The distribution of tri-nucleotide (nt SSRs, the most common SSRs in N. crassa, was significantly biased in exons. We further characterized the distribution of 19 abundant SSR types (AST, which account for 71% of total SSRs in the N. crassa genome, using a Poisson log-linear model. We also characterized the size variation of SSRs among natural accessions using Polymorphic Index Content (PIC and ANOVA analyses and found that there are genome-wide, chromosome-dependent and local-specific variations. Using polymorphic SSRs, we have built linkage maps from three line-cross populations. Conclusion Taking our computational, statistical and experimental data together, we conclude that 1 the distributions of the SSRs in the sequenced N. crassa genome differ systematically between chromosomes as well as between SSR types, 2 the size variation of tri-nt SSRs in exons might be an important mechanism in generating functional variation of proteins in N. crassa, 3 there are different levels of evolutionary forces in variation of amino acid repeats, and 4 SSRs are stable molecular markers for genetic studies in N. crassa.

  2. The effect of single and repeated UVB radiation on rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fris, Miroslav; Tessem, May-Britt; Cejková, Jitka; Midelfart, Anna

    2006-12-01

    Cumulative effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important aspect of UV corneal damage. The purpose of this study was to apply high resolution magic angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS 1H NMR) spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of single and repeated UV radiation exposure of the same overall dose on the rabbit cornea. Corneal surfaces of 24 normal rabbit eyes were examined for the effects of UVB exposure (312 nm). In the first group (UVB1), animals were irradiated with a single dose (3.12 J/cm2; 21 min) of UVB radiation. The animals in the second group (UVB2) were irradiated three times for 7 min every other day (dose of 1.04 J/cm2; days 1, 3, 5) to give the same overall dose (3.12 J/cm2). The third group served as an untreated control group. One day after the last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed, and the corneas were removed and frozen. HR-MAS 1H NMR spectra from intact corneas were obtained. Special grouping patterns among the tissue samples and the relative percentage changes in particular metabolite concentrations were evaluated using modern statistical methods (multivariate analysis, one-way ANOVA). The metabolic profile of both groups of UVB-irradiated samples was significantly different from the control corneas. Substantial decreases in taurine, hypo-taurine and choline-derivatives concentrations and substantial elevation in glucose and betaine levels were observed following the UVR exposure. There was no significant difference between the effect of a single and repeated UVB irradiation of the same overall dose. For the first time, the effects of single and repeated UVR doses on the metabolic profile of the rabbit cornea were analysed and compared. The combination of HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy and modern statistical methods (multivariate analysis, one-way ANOVA) proved suitable to assess the overall view of the metabolic alterations in the rabbit corneal tissue following UVB radiation exposure.

  3. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  4. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles; Croson; Murnighan

    2000-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Anonymous dyads exchanged messages and offers in a series of four ultimatum bargaining games that had prospects for relatively large monetary outcomes. Variations in each party's knowledge of the other's resources and alternatives created opportunities for deception. Revelation of prior unknowns exposed deceptions and created opportunities for retribution in subsequent interactions. Results showed that although proposers and responders chose deceptive strategies almost equally, proposers told more outright lies. Both were more deceptive when their private information was never revealed, and proposers were most deceptive when their potential profits were largest. Revelation of proposers' lies had little effect on their subsequent behavior even though responders rejected their offers more than similar offers from truthful proposers or proposers whose prior deceit was never revealed. The discussion and conclusions address the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated bargaining interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  6. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  7. Toxicological characteristics of petroleum products repeated exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Rubin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The ability of petroleum products to initiate cumulative effects was assessed in experimental intragastric admission to male albino rats for one month. The analysis of skin-resorptive effects was performed using "test-tube" method on the skin of rats’ tails. It has been established that petroleum products can penetrate the intact skin and, with repeated admission, cause a general toxic effect. There were reductions bodyweights, the negative effect on the function of the kidneys and liver, changes of hematological parameters, as well as activation of the antioksidatnoy system. Repeated intragastric administration does not lead to the death of the animals testifying to the lack of accumulation capacity for petroleum products at the level of functional mortal effects, the cumulation coefficient being > 5.1. Negative impact on urinary function and hepatobiliary system, changes in hematological parameters and activation of the «lipid peroxidation – antioksidant defense» were observed.

  8. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood....... It is commonly agreed that the experience in childhood of suicidal behavior among family members or other persons in the close environment is of importance in future suicidal risk. The results of this study indicate that the predictive value of this factor mainly applies to attempts with no fatal outcome...

  9. Repeated radiation injuries by fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to repeated radiation injuries during internal irradiation of theoretical and practical interest, particularly in case of the intake into organism of young products of nuclear fission (PNF). The results of experiments with dogs with repeated radioactive iodine injury the isotopes of which (131-135sub(I)) constitute a considerable part of PNF activity are discussed. The blood reaction and protein metabolism state have been studied. Observations for dogs have been continued for about 4 years. The doses for thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and liver subjected to the most intensive irradiation consituted in the first series of experiments after the first intake about 3;0.3;0.05 Gy, after the second - 5;0.5;0.08 Gy and in the second series of experiments - 3;0.3;0.05 Gy and 0.6;0.06;0.01 Gy, respectively. Hematologic factors,thyroid function, changes in exchange and immunologic reactivity have been studied. The dogs have been under observation for 5 years. It is shown in case of repeated intake of Isup(131) PNF into animals organism in quantity which does not cause during the acute period a clinically outlined sickness, substantial differences in the organism reaction as compared with the first intake of radionuclides have not been found. The presence of residual radiation injuries did not cause charging action during the acute period during PNF and repeated intake which in the author's opinion testifies to perfection of compensator mechanisms in case of intake of such quantities of radioactive products. At the remote periods blastomogenic action manifested which is estimated as a result of general biological action of radionuclides administered to the organism. The necessity in subsequent investigations for obtaining the data on organism reactivity, clinic and pathogenesis with the aim of prophylaxis and treatment of such injuries is indicated

  10. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  11. Electrochemical detection of DNA triplet repeat expansion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Havran, Luděk; Vojtíšková, Marie; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 21 (2004), s. 6532-6533 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004402; GA AV ČR IBS5004355; GA AV ČR KJB4004302; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : DNA triplet repeat expansion * PCR amplification * neurodegenerative diseases Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.903, year: 2004

  12. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  13. Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay M.Ch.; Flannery, Thomas J.; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for acoustic neuromas, we assessed tumor control, clinical outcomes, and the risk of adverse radiation effects in patients whose tumors progressed after initial management. Methods and Materials: During a 21-year experience at our center, 1,352 patients underwent SRS as management for their acoustic neuromas. We retrospectively identified 6 patients who underwent SRS twice for the same tumor. The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-71 years). All patients had imaging evidence of tumor progression despite initial SRS. One patient also had incomplete surgical resection after initial SRS. All patients were deaf at the time of the second SRS. The median radiosurgery target volume at the time of the initial SRS was 0.5 cc and was 2.1 cc at the time of the second SRS. The median margin dose at the time of the initial SRS was 13 Gy and was 11 Gy at the time of the second SRS. The median interval between initial SRS and repeat SRS was 63 months (range, 25-169 months). Results: At a median follow-up of 29 months after the second SRS (range, 13-71 months), tumor control or regression was achieved in all 6 patients. No patient developed symptomatic adverse radiation effects or new neurological symptoms after the second SRS. Conclusions: With this limited experience, we found that repeat SRS for a persistently enlarging acoustic neuroma can be performed safely and effectively.

  14. Foliar Sprays of Citric Acid and Malic Acid Modify Growth, Flowering, and Root to Shoot Ratio of Gazania (Gazania rigens L.: A Comparative Analysis by ANOVA and Structural Equations Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Talebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar application of two levels of citric acid and malic acid (100 or 300 mg L−1 was investigated on flower stem height, plant height, flower performance and yield indices (fresh yield, dry yield and root to shoot ratio of Gazania. Distilled water was applied as control treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that while the experimental treatments had no significant effect on fresh weight and the flower count, the plant dry weight was significantly increased by 300 mg L−1 malic acid. Citric acid at 100 and 300 mg L−1 and 300 mg L−1 malic acid increased the root fresh weight significantly. Both the plant height and peduncle length were significantly increased in all applied levels of citric acid and malic acid. The display time of flowers on the plant increased in all treatments compared to control treatment. The root to shoot ratio was increased significantly in 300 mg L−1 citric acid compared to all other treatments. These findings confirm earlier reports that citric acid and malic acid as environmentally sound chemicals are effective on various aspects of growth and development of crops. Structural equations modeling is used in parallel to ANOVA to conclude the factor effects and the possible path of effects.

  15. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-01-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  16. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Manjari, E-mail: manjari@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc-HBNI), 4th Cross Road, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  17. Repeatability, number of harvests, and phenotypic stability of dry matter yield and quality traits of Panicum maximum jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior forage genotypes is based on agronomic traits assayed in repeated measures. The questions are how repeatable the performance of individual genotypes is and how many harvests are needed to select the best genotypes. The objectives were to estimate repeatability coefficients of dry matter yield (DMY and forage quality, their phenotypic stability and the number of harvests needed for an accurate selection. Two randomized complete block design experiments data with 24 genotypes each, undergoing 12 and 16 harvests, over a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively, were used. The DMY repeatability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.55, suggesting a low heritability. The mean numbers of repeated measures were 5 and 7 harvests for 0.80 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. The inclusion of the first two harvests negatively affects the estimates. Repeatability for quality traits ranged from 0.30 to 0.69, indicating low to moderate heritability.

  18. Can a clinical placement influence stigma? An analysis of measures of social distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Lorna; Taylor, Ellie; Patterson, Christopher; Perlman, Dana; Brighton, Renee; Sumskis, Susan; Keough, Emily; Heffernan, Tim

    2016-09-01

    The way people who experience mental illness are perceived by health care professionals, which often includes stigmatising attitudes, can have a significant impact on treatment outcomes and on their quality of life. To determine whether stigma towards people with mental illness varied for undergraduate nursing students who attended a non-traditional clinical placement called Recovery Camp compared to students who attended a 'typical' mental health clinical placement. Quasi-experimental. Seventy-nine third-year nursing students were surveyed; n=40 attended Recovery Camp (intervention), n=39 (comparison group) attended a 'typical' mental health clinical placement. All students completed the Social Distance Scale (SDS) pre- and post-placement and at three-month follow-up. Data analysis consisted of a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) exploring parameter estimates between group scores across three time points. Two secondary repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to demonstrate the differences in SDS scores for each group across time. Pairwise comparisons demonstrated the differences between time intervals. A statistically significant difference in ratings of stigma between the intervention group and the comparison group existed. Parameter estimates revealed that stigma ratings for the intervention group were significantly reduced post-placement and remained consistently low at three-month follow-up. There was no significant difference in ratings of stigma for the comparison group over time. Students who attended Recovery Camp reported significant decreases in stigma towards people with a mental illness over time, compared to the typical placement group. Findings suggest that a therapeutic recreation based clinical placement was more successful in reducing stigma regarding mental illness in undergraduate nursing students compared to those who attended typical mental health clinical placements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-invasive measurements of exhaled NO and CO associated with methacholine responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameredes Bill T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath are considered obtainable biomarkers of physiologic mechanisms. Therefore, obtaining their measures simply, non-invasively, and repeatedly, is of interest, and was the purpose of the current study. Methods Expired NO (ENO and CO (ECO were measured non-invasively using a gas micro-analyzer on several strains of mice (C57Bl6, IL-10-/-, A/J, MKK3-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/- and NOS-3-/- with and without allergic airway inflammation (AI induced by ovalbumin systemic sensitization and aerosol challenge, compared using independent-sample t-tests between groups, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA within groups over time of inflammation induction. ENO and ECO were also measured in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, ages 8–58 weeks old, the relationship of which was determined by regression analysis. S-methionyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC, and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP were used to inhibit neuronal/constitutive NOS-1 and heme-oxygenase, respectively, and alter NO and CO production, respectively, as assessed by paired t-tests. Methacholine-associated airway responses (AR were measured by the enhanced pause method, with comparisons by repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc testing. Results ENO was significantly elevated in naïve IL-10-/- (9–14 ppb and NOS-2-/- (16 ppb mice as compared to others (average: 5–8 ppb, whereas ECO was significantly higher in naïve A/J, NOS-3-/- (3–4 ppm, and MKK3-/- (4–5 ppm mice, as compared to others (average: 2.5 ppm. As compared to C57Bl6 mice, AR of IL-10-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/-, and NOS-3-/- mice were decreased, whereas they were greater for A/J and MKK3-/- mice. SMTC significantly decreased ENO by ~30%, but did not change AR in NOS-2-/- mice. SnPP reduced ECO in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, and increased AR in NOS-2-/- mice. ENO decreased as a function of age in IL-10-/- mice, remaining unchanged in C57Bl6 mice. Conclusion These results are

  20. Kinematic repeatability of a multi-segment foot model for dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah L; Sato, Nahoko; Hopper, Luke S

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intra and inter-assessor repeatability of a modified Rizzoli Foot Model for analysing the foot kinematics of ballet dancers. Six university-level ballet dancers performed the movements; parallel stance, turnout plié, turnout stance, turnout rise and flex-point-flex. The three-dimensional (3D) position of individual reflective markers and marker triads was used to model the movement of the dancers' tibia, entire foot, hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot and hallux. Intra and inter-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0.75) repeatability for the first metatarsophalangeal joint in the sagittal plane. Intra-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0.75) repeatability during flex-point-flex across all inter-segmental angles except for the tibia-hindfoot and hindfoot-midfoot frontal planes. Inter-assessor repeatability ranged from poor to excellent (0.5 > ICC ≥ 0.75) for the 3D segment rotations. The most repeatable measure was the tibia-foot dorsiflexion/plantar flexion articulation whereas the least repeatable measure was the hindfoot-midfoot adduction/abduction articulation. The variation found in the inter-assessor results is likely due to inconsistencies in marker placement. This 3D dance specific multi-segment foot model provides insight into which kinematic measures can be reliably used to ascertain in vivo technical errors and/or biomechanical abnormalities in a dancer's foot motion.

  1. Optimizing occupational exposure measurement strategies when estimating the log-scale arithmetic mean value--an example from the reinforced plastics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Erik G; Nilsson, Leif; Liljelind, Ingrid E; Bergdahl, Ingvar A

    2006-06-01

    When assessing occupational exposures, repeated measurements are in most cases required. Repeated measurements are more resource intensive than a single measurement, so careful planning of the measurement strategy is necessary to assure that resources are spent wisely. The optimal strategy depends on the objectives of the measurements. Here, two different models of random effects analysis of variance (ANOVA) are proposed for the optimization of measurement strategies by the minimization of the variance of the estimated log-transformed arithmetic mean value of a worker group, i.e. the strategies are optimized for precise estimation of that value. The first model is a one-way random effects ANOVA model. For that model it is shown that the best precision in the estimated mean value is always obtained by including as many workers as possible in the sample while restricting the number of replicates to two or at most three regardless of the size of the variance components. The second model introduces the 'shared temporal variation' which accounts for those random temporal fluctuations of the exposure that the workers have in common. It is shown for that model that the optimal sample allocation depends on the relative sizes of the between-worker component and the shared temporal component, so that if the between-worker component is larger than the shared temporal component more workers should be included in the sample and vice versa. The results are illustrated graphically with an example from the reinforced plastics industry. If there exists a shared temporal variation at a workplace, that variability needs to be accounted for in the sampling design and the more complex model is recommended.

  2. Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

    2004-12-01

    Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments).

  3. Repeat Sequence Proteins as Matrices for Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummy, L.; Koerner, H; Phillips, D; McAuliffe, J; Kumar, M; Farmer, B; Vaia, R; Naik, R

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant protein-inorganic nanocomposites comprised of exfoliated Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) in a recombinant protein matrix based on silk-like and elastin-like amino acid motifs (silk elastin-like protein (SELP)) were formed via a solution blending process. Charged residues along the protein backbone are shown to dominate long-range interactions, whereas the SELP repeat sequence leads to local protein/MMT compatibility. Up to a 50% increase in room temperature modulus and a comparable decrease in high temperature coefficient of thermal expansion occur for cast films containing 2-10 wt.% MMT.

  4. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  5. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s{sup -1}, chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s{sup -1}, as planned. (author).

  6. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T.

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s -1 , chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s -1 , as planned. (author)

  7. Muscle Damage and Metabolic Responses to Repeated-Sprint Running With and Without Deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahan, Clare L; Poke, Daniel P; Morrison, Jaime; Bellinger, Phillip M

    2018-04-04

    Minahan, CL, Poke, DP, Morrison, J, and Bellinger, PM. Muscle damage and metabolic responses to repeated-sprint running with and without deceleration. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study aimed to determine whether repeated-sprint running with deceleration aggravates markers of muscle damage or delays the recovery of performance compared with repeated-sprint running without deceleration. Fourteen male team-sport athletes performed 2 randomly ordered testing sessions on a nonmotorized treadmill with one session requiring participants to decelerate (TMd) within 4 seconds before stopping or immediately step to the side of the treadmill belt at the completion of each sprint (TMa). Peak and mean velocities, speed decrement, blood lactate concentrations, and oxygen uptake were monitored during the repeated-sprint running protocols. Countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) performance, perceived muscle soreness, sit-and-reach flexibility, plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myoglobin (Mb) concentrations were quantified immediately before and after and 45 minutes, 24 and 48 hours after repeated-sprint running protocols. Although muscle damage was indicated by increases in CK, LDH, and Mb (p ≤ 0.05) in both groups, there was no significant effect of condition (TMa vs. TMd) on any of the measured performance or physiological variables (p > 0.05). The present study indicated that the removal of deceleration from repeated-sprint running on a nonmotorized treadmill has no effect on metabolism or performance during or after repeated-sprint running or markers of muscle damage.

  8. Evaluation of corrosion of steel embedded in concrete exposed to carbonation AAS using a factorial experiment with repeated measures. Evaluación de la corrosión del acero embebido en concreto AAS, expuesto a carbonatación mediante un experimento factorial con medidas repetidas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Aperador Chaparro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents various techniques for assessing corrosion, the linear polarization resistance and galvanostatic pulse, the analysis was performed using analysis of variance models using a factorial experiment with three factors, one repeated measure, because on the same experimental unit (reinforced concrete, it experienced several samples to be measured in time (0 h=1, 350 h=2, 700 h=3, 1050 h=4, 1700 h=5 y 2600 h=6. This makes the observations are not independent, the other two factors relate to, the binder (ce: 1 = activatedslag [AAS] and 2 = ordinary Portland concrete [OPC] and the exposure condition (ca: 1 = y 2 = environmental exposure accelerated carbonation. These factors were discussed according to the results of the electrochemical properties. Initially performed the statistical processing of each of the variables in relation to the properties and analyzed the interaction between them. Where they established the differences in materials used as coating steel, concrete, OPC and AAS. OPC concrete specimens, exhibited a resting potential, polarization resistance and ohmic (CO2 condition than those obtained for reinforced concrete in AAS.En este artículo se presentan las técnicas de evaluación de la corrosión, tales como potencial de corrosión, resistencia lineal a la polarización y pulso galvanostático a los concretos de activación alcalina (AAS y Portland tipo I (OPC. El estudio se realizó por medio de modelos de análisis de varianza, aplicando un experimento factorial con tres factores, uno de ellos medida repetida, debido a que sobre la misma unidad experimental (concreto armado AAS y OPC se ensayaron varias muestras para medirlas en el tiempo (0 h=1, 350 h=2, 700 h=3, 1050 h=4, 1700 h=5 y 2600 h=6, lo que hace que las observaciones no sean independientes; los otros dos factores corresponden al cementante (ce: 1=escoria activada alcalinamente [AAS] y 2=concreto Portland ordinario [OPC] y la condición de exposici

  9. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  10. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tokuuye, Koichi; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Hata, Masaharu; Kagei, Kenji; Sugahara, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  11. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  12. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  13. Precision of a photogrammetric method to perform 3D wound measurements compared to standard 2D photographic techniques in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labens, R; Blikslager, A

    2013-01-01

    Methods of 3D wound imaging in man play an important role in monitoring of healing and determination of the prognosis. Standard photographic assessments in equine wound management consist of 2D analyses, which provide little quantitative information on the wound bed. 3D imaging of equine wounds is feasible using principles of stereophotogrammetry. 3D measurements differ significantly and are more precise than results with standard 2D assessments. Repeated specialised photographic imaging of 4 clinical wounds left to heal by second intention was performed. The intraoperator variability in measurements due to imaging and 3D processing was compared to that of a standard 2D technique using descriptive statistics and multivariate repeated measures ANOVA. Using a custom made imaging system, 3D analyses were successfully performed. Area and circumference measurements were significantly different between imaging modalities. The intraoperator variability of 3D measurements was up to 2.8 times less than that of 2D results. On average, the maximum discrepancy between repeated measurements was 5.8% of the mean for 3D and 17.3% of the mean for 2D assessments. The intraoperator repeatability of 3D wound measurements based on principles of stereophotogrammetry is significantly increased compared to that of a standard 2D photographic technique indicating it may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool. The equine granulation bed plays an important role in equine wound healing. When compared to 2D analyses 3D monitoring of the equine wound bed allows superior quantitative characterisation, contributing to clinical and experimental investigations by offering potential new parameters. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Of repeat stations and tectonic regionalization of Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Doneva, Blagitsa; Delipetrov, Todor; Rasson, L. Jean

    2010-01-01

    Geomagnetic field is vector sum of causes deep in the Earth's interior and their influence can be felt in the whole Earth. There are sources of magnetic fields which are characterized for larger regions and local anomalous geomagnetic fields. When selecting the location of base station, regions where local geomagnetic anomalies are present, should be avoided, with aim to receive measured results which gives the geomagnetic field characteristic for that region. The territory of the Republic of Macedonia has complex relief, and also has complex geological structure and these features have high influence on the regional geomagnetic field. Bearing in mind the complex relief and geological structure, strict procedure of geomagnetic field observations were conducted for every selected location for repeat station. Maps from the measurements in 2004 are also presented in this paper. (Author)

  15. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  16. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362 and repeat attempters (n = 61 presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034. In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020. Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts.

  17. Performance Comparisons of Improved Regular Repeat Accumulate (RA and Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA Turbo Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.

  18. TRStalker: an efficient heuristic for finding fuzzy tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Marco; Renda, M Elena; Vecchio, Alessio

    2010-06-15

    Genomes in higher eukaryotic organisms contain a substantial amount of repeated sequences. Tandem Repeats (TRs) constitute a large class of repetitive sequences that are originated via phenomena such as replication slippage and are characterized by close spatial contiguity. They play an important role in several molecular regulatory mechanisms, and also in several diseases (e.g. in the group of trinucleotide repeat disorders). While for TRs with a low or medium level of divergence the current methods are rather effective, the problem of detecting TRs with higher divergence (fuzzy TRs) is still open. The detection of fuzzy TRs is propaedeutic to enriching our view of their role in regulatory mechanisms and diseases. Fuzzy TRs are also important as tools to shed light on the evolutionary history of the genome, where higher divergence correlates with more remote duplication events. We have developed an algorithm (christened TRStalker) with the aim of detecting efficiently TRs that are hard to detect because of their inherent fuzziness, due to high levels of base substitutions, insertions and deletions. To attain this goal, we developed heuristics to solve a Steiner version of the problem for which the fuzziness is measured with respect to a motif string not necessarily present in the input string. This problem is akin to the 'generalized median string' that is known to be an NP-hard problem. Experiments with both synthetic and biological sequences demonstrate that our method performs better than current state of the art for fuzzy TRs and that the fuzzy TRs of the type we detect are indeed present in important biological sequences. TRStalker will be integrated in the web-based TRs Discovery Service (TReaDS) at bioalgo.iit.cnr.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  20. Gender, obesity and repeated elevation of C-reactive protein: data from the CARDIA cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Ishii

    Full Text Available C-reactive Protein (CRP measurements above 10 mg/L have been conventionally treated as acute inflammation and excluded from epidemiologic studies of chronic inflammation. However, recent evidence suggest that such CRP elevations can be seen even with chronic inflammation. The authors assessed 3,300 participants in The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, who had two or more CRP measurements between 1992/3 and 2005/6 to a investigate characteristics associated with repeated CRP elevation above 10 mg/L; b identify subgroups at high risk of repeated elevation; and c investigate the effect of different CRP thresholds on the probability of an elevation being one-time rather than repeated. 225 participants (6.8% had one-time and 103 (3.1% had repeated CRP elevation above 10 mg/L. Repeated elevation was associated with obesity, female gender, low income, and sex hormone use. The probability of an elevation above 10 mg/L being one-time rather than repeated was lowest (51% in women with body mass index above 31 kg/m(2, compared to 82% in others. These findings suggest that CRP elevations above 10 mg/L in obese women are likely to be from chronic rather than acute inflammation, and that CRP thresholds above 10 mg/L may be warranted to distinguish acute from chronic inflammation in obese women.

  1. The 1 Repetition Maximum Mechanics of a High-Handle Hexagonal Bar Deadlift Compared With a Conventional Deadlift as Measured by a Linear Position Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Risso, Fabrice G; Liu, Tricia M; Stage, Alyssa A; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Torne, Ibett A; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Davis, DeShaun L; Orjalo, Ashley J; Callaghan, Samuel J

    2018-01-01

    Lockie, RG, Moreno, MR, Lazar, A, Risso, FG, Liu, TM, Stage, AA, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Torne, IA, Stokes, JJ, Giuliano, DV, Davis, DL, Orjalo, AJ, and Callaghan, SJ. The 1 repetition maximum mechanics of a high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift compared with a conventional deadlift as measured by a linear position transducer. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 150-161, 2018-The high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift (HHBD), a variation of the conventional deadlift (CD), is said to reduce the lift range of motion, which may change the mechanics of the lift. However, no research has investigated this. This study compared the mechanics between a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) CD and HHBD. Thirty-one strength-trained subjects (21 men, 10 women) completed a 1RM CD and HHBD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance, duration, and work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. The presence of a sticking region (SR) was determined for each lift. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculated differences between 1RM CD and HHBD mechanics. A one-way ANOVA compared the mechanics of each lift between subjects who exhibited an SR or not, and the SR between the CD and HHBD. Significance was set at p mechanics between subjects with or without an SR, and no differences in SR region distance or duration between the CD and HHBD. Greater force can be generated in the HHBD, which could have implications for strength-training adaptations over time.

  2. Validation, repeatability and reproducibility of a noninvasive instrument for measuring thoracic and lumbar curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane Validade, repetibilidade e reprodutibilidade de um instrumento não-invasivo para medição das curvaturas torácica e lombar da coluna vertebral no plano sagital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana O. Chaise

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The need for early identification of postural abnormalities without exposing patients to constant radiation has stimulated the development of instruments aiming to measure the spinal curvatures. OBJECTIVE: To verify the validity, repeatability and reproducibility of angular measures of sagittal curvatures of the spine obtained using an adapted arcometer, by comparing them with Cobb angles of the respective curvatures obtained by using X-rays. METHODS: 52 participants were submitted to two procedures designed to evaluate the thoracic and lumbar curvatures: (1 X-ray examination from which the Cobb angles (CA of both curvatures were obtained, and (2 measuring the angles with the arcometer (AA. Two evaluators collected the data using the arcometer, with the rods placed at T1, T12, L1 and L5 spinous processes levels in a way as to permit linear measurements which, with aid of trigonometry, supplied the AA. RESULTS: There was a very strong and significant correlation between AA and CA (r=0.94; pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A necessidade de identificação precoce de alterações posturais, sem expor as pessoas à radiação constante, tem estimulado a construção de instrumentos para medir as curvaturas da coluna vertebral. OBJETIVO: Verificar a validade, repetibilidade e reprodutibilidade dos ângulos das curvaturas sagitais da coluna vertebral, obtidos por meio de um arcômetro adaptado, comparando-os com os ângulos de Cobb (AC das respectivas curvaturas, obtidos por meio de exames radiográficos. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e dois indivíduos foram submetidos a dois procedimentos destinados a avaliar as curvaturas torácica e lombar: (1 exame de raios-X, a partir do qual os AC de ambas as curvaturas foram obtidos e (2 medição dos ângulos das curvaturas com o arcômetro (AA. Dois avaliadores coletaram os dados usando o arcômetro com as hastes sobre os processos espinhosos T1, T12, L1 e L5, de modo a permitir medidas que, com auxílio de

  3. Clinical usefulness of facial soft tissues thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Han, Seung Ho; Choi, Seong Ho; Kim, Chong Kwan; Park, Chang Seo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate clinical usefulness of facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D computed tomographic images. One cadaver that had sound facial soft tissues was chosen for the study. The cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT under following scanning protocols about slice thickness and table speed: 3 mm and 3 mm/sec, 5 mm and 5 mm/sec, 7 mm and 7 mm/sec. The acquired data were reconstructed 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 mm reconstruction interval respectively and the images were transferred to a personal computer. Using a program developed to measure facial soft tissue thickness in 3D image, the facial soft tissue thickness was measured. After the ten-time repeation of the measurement for ten times, repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements using the three scanning protocols. Comparison according to the areas was analysed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant intraobserver differences in the measurements of the facial soft tissue thickness using the three scanning protocols (p>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between measurements in the 3 mm slice thickness and those in the 5 mm, 7 mm slice thickness (p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the 14 of the total 30 measured points in the 5 mm slice thickness and 22 in the 7 mm slice thickness. The facial soft tissue thickness measurement using 3D images of 7 mm slice thickness is acceptable clinically, but those of 5 mm slice thickness is recommended for the more accurate measurement

  4. Thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy: which nodules should be considered for repeat biopsy or surgery rather than follow-up?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Na Lae; Chang, Hang Seok; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Jun [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Mi Ri [Dept. of Radiology, Dongjak Kyunghee Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ah Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat ultrasonography (US)-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) according to size and the number of suspicious findings and to determine the proper management of nodules with consecutive nondiagnostic results. This retrospective study included 297 nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat FNAB that were evaluated by US over the course of at least 12 months of follow-up, a follow-up biopsy, or an operation. We compared clinical and US variables between benign and malignant nodules in thyroid nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results. The comparison of benign and malignant nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results revealed that age, marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and nonparallel shape were significantly associated with malignancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in malignant nodules revealed that microcalcifications and irregular or microlobulated margins were independently associated with malignancy. Among them, only irregular or microlobulated margins were independently significant as a predictor of malignancy in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules measuring >10 mm. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the best cutoff value for the “number of suspicious findings” between benign and malignant nodules was three in nodules of all sizes, three in nodules measuring ≤10 mm, and two in nodules measuring >10 mm. Irregular or microlobulated margins may be the most frequent US features in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules >10 mm. The presence of “two or more suspicious findings” can be used as the cutoff for distinguishing benign and malignant nodules.

  5. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives ... findings, the level of repeat abortions in Europe, .... and contraceptive history, and post-abortion ..... working women.

  6. The absolute number of repeat operations for complex intra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal sepsis, questions about futility of treatment frequently arise. This study focuses specifically on patients who required two or more repeat laparotomies and describes the spectrum of disease necessitating multiple repeat laparotomies ...

  7. Repeated Plyometric Exercise Attenuates Blood Glucose in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, Saldiam R; Watkins, Casey M; Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Archer, David C; Munger, Cameron N; Galpin, Andrew J; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-01-01

    Plyometric exercise is popular in commercial exercise programs aiming to maximize energy expenditure for weight loss. However, the effect of plyometric exercise on blood glucose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of relatively high intensity plyometric exercise on blood glucose. Thirteen subjects (6 females age= 21.8 ± 1.0 yrs.; height= 163.7 ± 7.8 cm; mass= 60.8 ± 6.7 kg and 7 males age= 22.0 ± 2.6 yrs.; height= 182.3 ± 3.6 cm; mass= 87.4 ± 12.5 kg) volunteered to participate. Subjects completed two random conditions on two separate days, consisting of either five sets of 10 maximal effort countermovement squat jumps (SJ) with 50 seconds' rest between sets or quiet sitting (SIT) for the time equated to the SJ duration (~4min). Immediately after each condition, subjects drank 75g of anhydrous glucose (CHO) in 100ml of water. Blood glucose measurements were taken via finger prick pre and immediately post SJ or SIT, and 5, 15, 30, and 60 min post. A 2×6 (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a significant interaction where SJ blood glucose was lower at 15 (114.0 ± 14.6 mg/dl) and 30 (142.1 ± 22.5 mg/dl) min compared to SIT (15min 130.8 ± 14.0 mg/dl and 30min 159.3 ± 21.0 mg/dl). The current plyometric protocol attenuated CHO-induced blood glucose at 15 and 30 min. This may be due to increased physiological stress applied to the muscles, thus increasing muscular glucose uptake.

  8. Novel expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using different bioinformatic criteria, the SUCEST database was used to mine for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among 42,189 clusters, 1,425 expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in silico. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. Of 212 primer pairs ...

  9. Erroneous Memories Arising from Repeated Attempts to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…

  10. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly...... select an inference from a probability distribution with full support the set of steady states is a subset of the set of Nash equilibria in which only stage game Nash equilibria are played. When players make ‘cautious' inferences the set of steady states is the subset of self-confirming equilibria...... with Nash outcome paths. When players use different inference rules, the set of steady states can lie between the previous two cases...

  11. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  12. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  13. Evidence for a Creative Dilemma Posed by Repeated Collaborations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyasu Inoue

    Full Text Available We focused on how repeat collaborations in projects for inventions affect performance. Repeat collaborations have two contradictory aspects. A positive aspect is team development or experience, and a negative aspect is team degeneration or decline. Since both contradicting phenomena are observed, inventors have a dilemma as to whether they should keep collaborating in a team or not. The dilemma has not previously been quantitatively analyzed. We provide quantitative and extensive analyses of the dilemma in creative projects by using patent data from Japan and the United States. We confirm three predictions to quantitatively validate the existence of the dilemma. The first prediction is that the greater the patent a team achieves, the longer the team will work together. The second prediction is that the impact of consecutive patents decreases after a team makes a remarkable invention, which is measured by the impact of patents. The third prediction is that the expectation of impact with new teams is greater than that with the same teams successful in the past. We find these predictions are validated in patents published in Japan and the United States. On the basis of these three predictions, we can quantitatively validate the dilemma in creative projects. We also propose preventive strategies for degeneration. One is developing technological diversity, and another is developing inventor diversity in teams. We find the two strategies are both effective by validating with the data.

  14. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wierike, Sanne C M; de Jong, Mark C; Tromp, Eveline J Y; Vuijk, Pieter J; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Malina, Robert M; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14-19 years of age (16.1 ± 1.7 years). Players were observed on 6 occasions during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons. Three following basketball-specific field tests were administered on each occasion: the shuttle sprint test for RSA, the vertical jump for lower body explosive strength (power), and the interval shuttle run test for interval endurance capacity. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated (percent fat, lean body mass). Multilevel modeling of RSA development curve was used with 32 players (16.0 ± 1.7 years) who had 2 or more observations. The 16 players (16.1 ± 1.8 years) measured on only 1 occasion were used as a control group to evaluate the appropriateness of the model. Age, lower body explosive strength, and interval endurance capacity significantly contributed to RSA (p ≤ 0.05). Repeated sprint ability improved with age from 14 to 17 years (p ≤ 0.05) and reached a plateau at 17-19 years. Predicted RSA did not significantly differ from measured RSA in the control group (p ≥ 0.05). The results suggest a potentially important role for the training of lower body explosive strength and interval endurance capacity in the development of RSA among youth basketball players. Age-specific reference values for RSA of youth players may assist basketball coaches in setting appropriate goals for individual players.

  15. Accuracy and reliability of linear cephalometric measurements from cone-beam computed tomography scans of a dry human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berco, Mauricio; Rigali, Paul H; Miner, R Matthew; DeLuca, Stephelynn; Anderson, Nina K; Will, Leslie A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 3-dimensional craniofacial measurements obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of a dry human skull. Seventeen landmarks were identified on the skull. CBCT scans were then obtained, with 2 skull orientations during scanning. Twenty-nine interlandmark linear measurements were made directly on the skull and compared with the same measurements made on the CBCT scans. All measurements were made by 2 operators on 4 separate occasions. The method errors were 0.19, 0.21, and 0.19 mm in the x-, y- and z-axes, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no significant intraoperator or interoperator differences. The mean measurement error was -0.01 mm (SD, 0.129 mm). Five measurement errors were found to be statistically significantly different; however, all measurement errors were below the known voxel size and clinically insignificant. No differences were found in the measurements from the 2 CBCT scan orientations of the skull. CBCT allows for clinically accurate and reliable 3-dimensional linear measurements of the craniofacial complex. Moreover, skull orientation during CBCT scanning does not affect the accuracy or the reliability of these measurements.

  16. In situ detection of tandem DNA repeat length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.; Smith, C.L. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    A simple method for scoring short tandem DNA repeats is presented. An oligonucleotide target, containing tandem repeats embedded in a unique sequence, was hybridized to a set of complementary probes, containing tandem repeats of known lengths. Single-stranded loop structures formed on duplexes containing a mismatched (different) number of tandem repeats. No loop structure formed on duplexes containing a matched (identical) number of tandem repeats. The matched and mismatched loop structures were enzymatically distinguished and differentially labeled by treatment with S1 nuclease and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Accuracy of repeated kidney size estimation by ultrasonography and urography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hederstroem, E.; Forsberg, L.

    1985-01-01

    The accuracy of repeated sonographic and urographic kidney length measurements in kidney size evaluation was investigated in 80 children 0 to 14 years of age, mean age 4.5 years. At sonography 250 kidney lengths were compared. A difference of 0 to 1.0 cm in repeated length measurement was considered to be good accuracy and 94 per cent of right and 96 per cent of left kidney length were found within this interval-a better result than for urography with 76 per cent of repeated right kidney and 79 per cent of kidney lengths within the same interval (94 lengths). Both methods display a variation of kidney lengths which may lead to under- and overestimation of kidney size and growth. The investigation thus indicates good accuracy for repeated sonographic kidney size assessment which should be repeated often enough to estabilish a growth chart displaying the trend rather than rely too much on single measurements. Sonography can be highly recommended as a convenient and harmless alternative to urography. (orig.)

  18. Comparison of step-by-step kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this study was to compare kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players. Seventeen subjects performed seven 30m sprints every 30s in one session. Kinematics were measured with an infrared contact mat and laser gun, and running times with an electronic timing device. The main findings were that sprint times increased in the repeated sprint ability test. The main changes in kinematics during the repeated sprint ability test were increased contact time and decreased step frequency, while no change in step length was observed. The step velocity increased in almost each step until the 14, which occurred around 22m. After this, the velocity was stable until the last step, when it decreased. This increase in step velocity was mainly caused by the increased step length and decreased contact times. It was concluded that the fatigue induced in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players resulted in decreased step frequency and increased contact time. Employing this approach in combination with a laser gun and infrared mat for 30m makes it very easy to analyse running kinematics in repeated sprints in training. This extra information gives the athlete, coach and sports scientist the opportunity to give more detailed feedback and help to target these changes in kinematics better to enhance repeated sprint performance.

  19. Thermal stability of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin repeat 17: a spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Annette K. [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Kieffer, Bruno [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, IGBMC Biomolecular NMR Group, CNRS UMR 7104 (France); Trave, Gilles [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Equipe Oncoproteines, IREBS, UMR 7242 (France); Froystein, Nils Age [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Raae, Arnt J., E-mail: arnt.raae@mbi.uib.no [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    Spectrin is a rod-like multi-modular protein that is mainly composed of triple-helical repeats. These repeats show very similar 3D-structures but variable conformational and thermodynamical stabilities, which may be of great importance for the flexibility and dynamic behaviour of spectrin in the cell. For instance, repeat 17 (R17) of the chicken brain spectrin {alpha}-chain is four times less stable than neighbouring repeat 16 (R16) in terms of Increment G. The structure of spectrin repeats has mainly been investigated by X-ray crystallography, but the structures of a few repeats, e.g. R16, have also been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Here, we undertook a detailed characterization of the neighbouring R17 by NMR spectroscopy. We assigned most backbone resonances and observed NOE restraints, relaxation values and coupling constants that all indicated that the fold of R17 is highly similar to that of R16, in agreement with previous X-ray analysis of a tandem repeat of the two domains. However, {sup 15}N heteronuclear NMR spectra measured at different temperatures revealed particular features of the R17 domain that might contribute to its lower stability. Conformational exchange appeared to alter the linker connecting R17 to R16 as well as the BC-loop in close proximity. In addition, heat-induced splitting was observed for backbone resonances of a few spatially related residues including V99 of helix C, which in R16 is replaced by the larger hydrophobic tryptophan residue that is relatively conserved among other spectrin repeats. These data support the view that the substitution of tryptophan by valine at this position may contribute to the lower stability of R17.

  20. The Enigma of Rapid Repeat Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study of Teen Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, K N; Engelhart, T G; Martins, Y; Huntington, N L; Snyder, A F; Coletti, K D; Cox, J E

    2016-06-01

    Rapid repeat pregnancy accounts for 18% of teen pregnancies and leads to adverse health, economic, and developmental outcomes for teen mothers and their children. Few interventions have been successful in reducing rapid repeat pregnancy. In this qualitative study we examined adolescent mothers' perceptions of their decision-making and behaviors that helped prevent or promote a rapid repeat pregnancy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 31 adolescent mothers, aged 16-21 years; 15 of these subjects experienced a repeat pregnancy within a year of their first child's birth and 16 had not. Two researchers used a grounded, inductive technique to identify emergent themes; interviews were subsequently coded accordingly. Counts were tabulated of the number of times themes were endorsed among those with or without a repeat pregnancy. Four overarching themes emerged from the interviews: intentionality regarding pregnancy planning, patients' degree of independence in making contraceptive choices, sense of control over life experience, and barriers to follow-through on contraceptive planning. Teens who had not experienced a rapid repeat pregnancy more often endorsed themes of intentionality in preventing or promoting a pregnancy, independence in decision-making, and feelings of control over their experience. Ambivalence and lack of decision-making about seeking another pregnancy were frequently endorsed by mothers who had experienced a second pregnancy. Decision-making regarding seeking or preventing a rapid repeat pregnancy is complex for teen mothers; techniques to help support decision-making or to delay pregnancy until decision-repeat making is complete might be important in reducing rapid pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  2. Repeatability and responsiveness of exercise tests in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, Vincent; Malenfant, Simon; Neyron, Anne-Sophie; Bonnet, Sébastien; Maltais, François; Saey, Didier; Provencher, Steeve

    2013-08-01

    Exercise tolerance in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is most commonly assessed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Whether endurance exercise tests are more responsive than the 6MWT remains unknown. 20 stable PAH patients (mean±sd age 53±15 years and mean pulmonary arterial pressure 44±16 mmHg) already on PAH monotherapy completed the 6MWT, the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) and the cycle endurance test (CET) before and after the addition of sildenafil citrate 20 mg three times daily or placebo for 28 days in a randomised double-blind crossover setting. Pre- or post-placebo tests were used to assess repeatability of each exercise test, whereas pre- or post-sildenafil citrate tests were used to assess their responsiveness. Sildenafil citrate led to placebo-corrected changes in exercise capacity of 18±25 m (p = 0.02), 58±235 s (p = 0.58) and 29±77 s (p = 0.09) for the 6MWT, the ESWT and the CET, respectively. The 6MWT was associated with a lower coefficient of variation between repeated measures (3% versus 18% versus 13%), resulting in a higher standardised response mean compared with endurance tests (0.72, 0.25 and 0.38 for the 6MWT, the ESWT and the CET, respectively). The 6MWT had the best ability to capture changes in exercise capacity when sildenafil citrate was combined with patients' baseline monotherapy, supporting its use as an outcome measure in PAH.

  3. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  4. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  5. Reliability of cervical lordosis measurement techniques on long-cassette radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusz, Piotr; Tyrakowski, Marcin; Yu, Hailong; Siemionow, Kris

    2016-11-01

    Lateral radiographs are commonly used to assess cervical sagittal alignment. Three assessment methods have been described and are commonly utilized in clinical practice. These methods are described for perfect lateral cervical radiographs, however in everyday practice radiograph quality varies. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and reproducibility of 3 cervical lordosis (CL) measurement methods. Forty-four standing lateral radiographs were randomly chosen from a lateral long-cassette radiograph database. Measurements of CL were performed with: Cobb method C2-C7 (CM), C2-C7 posterior tangent method (PTM), sum of posterior tangent method for each segment (SPTM). Three independent orthopaedic surgeons measured CL using the three methods on 44 lateral radiographs. One researcher used the three methods to measured CL three times at 4-week time intervals. Agreement between the methods as well as their intra- and interobserver reliability were tested and quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and median error for a single measurement (SEM). ICC of 0.75 or more reflected an excellent agreement/reliability. The results were compared with repeated ANOVA test, with p  0.05). All three methods appeared to be highly reliable. Although, high agreement between all measurement methods was shown, we do not recommend using Cobb measurement method interchangeably with PTM or SPTM within a single study as this could lead to error, whereas, such a comparison between tangent methods can be considered.

  6. Studies on Section XI ultrasonic repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, T.D.; McDearman, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    A block representative of a nuclear component has been welded containing intentional defects. Acoustic emission data taken during the welding correlate well with ultrasonic data. Repetitive ultrasonic examinations have been performed by skilled operators using a procedure based on that desribed in ASME Section XI. These examinations were performed by different examination teams using different ultrasonic equipment in such a manner that the effects on the repeatability of the ultrasonic test method caused by the operator and by the use of different equipment could be estimated. It was tentatively concluded that when considering a large number of inspections: (1) there is no significant difference in indication sizing between operators, and (2) there is a significant difference in amplitude and defect sizing when instruments having different, Code acceptable operating characteristics are used. It was determined that the Section XI sizing parameters follow a bivariate normal distribution. Data derived from ultrasonically and physically sizing indications in nuclear components during farication show that the Section XI technique tends to overestimate the size of the reflectors

  7. Short tandem repeat analysis in Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiyada, M