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Sample records for repeated initial studies

  1. Repeat Colonoscopy within 6 Months after Initial Outpatient Colonoscopy in Ontario: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this study is to examine utilization of early repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure. Methods. We identified persons having repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months following outpatient colonoscopy without prior colonoscopy ≤ 5 years or prior diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC. We modeled repeat colonoscopy using a generalized estimating equation with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for clustering of patients by endoscopist. Results. The population included 334,663 persons, 7,892 (2.36% of whom had an early repeat colonoscopy within 6 months. Overall, endoscopist prior year colonoscopy volume was inversely related to repeat ≤ 6 months. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months varied by the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy (adjusted OR = 1.41 (95% CI 1.29–1.55 at nonhospital facilities compared to teaching or community hospitals. Among those who had polypectomy or biopsy, the adjusted OR for early repeat ≤ 6 months was elevated among those whose index colonoscopy was at a nonhospital facility (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.30–1.60, compared to those at a teaching hospital or community hospital. Conclusions. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure is associated with the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy.

  2. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  3. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  4. Value of repeat brain MRI in children with focal epilepsy and negative findings on initial MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jee Hun; Yoo, So Young; Hwang, Sook Min; Lee, Mun Hyang [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the value of repeat brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying potential epileptogenic lesions in children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy. Our Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. During a 15-year period, 257 children (148 boys and 109 girls) with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy were included. After re-evaluating both initial and repeat MRIs, positive results at repeat MRI were classified into potential epileptogenic lesions (malformation of cortical development and hippocampal sclerosis) and other abnormalities. Contributing factors for improved lesion conspicuity of the initially overlooked potential epileptogenic lesions were analyzed and classified into lesion factors and imaging factors. Repeat MRI was positive in 21% (55/257) and negative in 79% cases (202/257). Of the positive results, potential epileptogenic lesions comprised 49% (27/55) and other abnormalities comprised 11% of the cases (28/257). Potential epileptogenic lesions included focal cortical dysplasia (n = 11), hippocampal sclerosis (n = 10), polymicrogyria (n = 2), heterotopic gray matter (n = 2), microlissencephaly (n = 1), and cortical tumor (n = 1). Of these, seven patients underwent surgical resection. Contributing factors for new diagnoses were classified as imaging factors alone (n = 6), lesion factors alone (n = 2), both (n = 18), and neither (n = 1). Repeat MRI revealed positive results in 21% of the children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy, with 50% of the positive results considered as potential epileptogenic lesions. Enhanced MRI techniques or considering the chronological changes of lesions on MRI may improve the diagnostic yield for identification of potential epileptogenic lesions on repeat MRI.

  5. Value of repeat brain MRI in children with focal epilepsy and negative findings on initial MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Tae Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jee Hun; Yoo, So Young; Hwang, Sook Min; Lee, Mun Hyang

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the value of repeat brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying potential epileptogenic lesions in children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy. Our Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. During a 15-year period, 257 children (148 boys and 109 girls) with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy were included. After re-evaluating both initial and repeat MRIs, positive results at repeat MRI were classified into potential epileptogenic lesions (malformation of cortical development and hippocampal sclerosis) and other abnormalities. Contributing factors for improved lesion conspicuity of the initially overlooked potential epileptogenic lesions were analyzed and classified into lesion factors and imaging factors. Repeat MRI was positive in 21% (55/257) and negative in 79% cases (202/257). Of the positive results, potential epileptogenic lesions comprised 49% (27/55) and other abnormalities comprised 11% of the cases (28/257). Potential epileptogenic lesions included focal cortical dysplasia (n = 11), hippocampal sclerosis (n = 10), polymicrogyria (n = 2), heterotopic gray matter (n = 2), microlissencephaly (n = 1), and cortical tumor (n = 1). Of these, seven patients underwent surgical resection. Contributing factors for new diagnoses were classified as imaging factors alone (n = 6), lesion factors alone (n = 2), both (n = 18), and neither (n = 1). Repeat MRI revealed positive results in 21% of the children with initial MRI-negative focal epilepsy, with 50% of the positive results considered as potential epileptogenic lesions. Enhanced MRI techniques or considering the chronological changes of lesions on MRI may improve the diagnostic yield for identification of potential epileptogenic lesions on repeat MRI

  6. Repeat syphilis has a different immune response compared with initial syphilis: an analysis of biomarker kinetics in two cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Tsoumanis, Achilleas; Osbak, Kara; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Florence, Eric; Crucitti, Tania; Kestens, Luc

    2017-10-11

    We aimed to asses if there are differences in the clinical presentation and immune response of repeat as compared with initial syphilis. Prospective study: we prospectively recruited all patients with a new diagnosis of syphilis and tested their plasma for a range of cytochemokines and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) at baseline pretreatment and 6 months following therapy. Retrospective study: we compared RPR assay response kinetics between initial and repeat syphilis in persons attending our HIV/STI clinic from 1993 to 2016. Prospective study: a total of 91 individuals, 36 with initial syphilis and 55 with repeat syphilis, were included in the study. At baseline visit, those with initial syphilis were more likely to be symptomatic and have higher levels of interleukin-10 than repeaters. At baseline, median RPR titres were higher in the repeat than the initial infection groups. Repeaters were less likely than those with initial infections to serorevert to a negative RPR and be serofast (<4-fold RPR titre decline) at 6 months.Retrospective study: syphilis was diagnosed in 1027/43 870 individuals tested. At diagnosis, repeaters had higher RPR titres and a stepwise increase in RPR titre with number of syphilis episodes. They had a different RPR test response kinetic: they were less likely to be serofast and to serorevert than initial syphilis at 6 and 12 months. No individuals with four or more previous episodes of syphilis seroreverted. Repeat syphilis has a different clinical presentation and immunological response to initial infection. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Anterior prostate biopsy at initial and repeat evaluation: is it useful to detect significant prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pepe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Detection rate for anterior prostate cancer (PCa in men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy has been prospectively evaluated. Materials and Methods: From January 2013 to March 2014, 400 patients all of Caucasian origin (median age 63.5 years underwent initial (285 cases and repeat (115 cases prostate biopsy; all the men had negative digital rectal examination and the indications to biopsy were: PSA values > 10 ng/mL, PSA between 4.1-10 or 2.6-4 ng/mL with free/total PSA≤25% and ≤20%, respectively. A median of 22 (initial biopsy and 31 cores (repeat biopsy were transperineally performed including 4 cores of the anterior zone (AZ and 4 cores of the AZ plus 2 cores of the transition zone (TZ, respectively. Results: Median PSA was 7.9 ng/mL; overall, a PCa was found in 180 (45% patients: in 135 (47.4% and 45 (36% of the men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. An exclusive PCa of the anterior zone was found in the 8.9 (initial biopsy vs 13.3% (repeat biopsy of the men: a single microfocus of cancer was found in the 61.2% of the cases; moreover, in 7 out 18 AZ PCa the biopsy histology was predictive of significant cancer in 2 (28.5% and 5 (71.5% men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. Conclusions: However AZ biopsies increased detection rate for PCa (10% of the cases, the majority of AZ PCa with histological findings predictive of clinically significant cancer were found at repeat biopsy (about 70% of the cases.

  8. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  9. Methods for analysing cardiovascular studies with repeated measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, T. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Ouwerkerk, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Repeated measurements in a single subject are generally more similar than unrepeated measurements in different subjects. Unrepeated analyses of repeated data cause underestimation of the treatment effects. Objective. To review methods adequate for the analysis of cardiovascular studies

  10. The utility of repeat sestamibi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after an initial negative scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vikram D; Sound, Sara; Okoh, Alexis K; Yazici, Pinar; Yigitbas, Hakan; Neumann, Donald; Doshi, Krupa; Berber, Eren

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed the utility of repeated sestambi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and its effects on operative referral. We carried out a retrospective review of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent repeated sestambi scans exclusively within our health system between 1996-2015. Patient demographic, presentation, laboratory, imaging, operative, and pathologic data were reviewed. Univariate analysis with JMP Pro v12 was used to identify factors associated with conversion from an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan. After exclusion criteria (including reoperations), we identified 49 patients in whom 59% (n = 29) of subsequent scans remained negative and 41% (n = 20) converted to positive. Factors associated with an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan included classic presentation and second scans with iodine subtraction (P = .04). Nonsurgeons were less likely to order an iodine-subtraction scan (P < .05). Fewer patients with negative imaging were referred to surgery (33% vs 100%, P = .005), and median time to operation after the first negative scan was 25 months (range 1.4-119). Surgeon-performed ultrasonography had greater sensitivity and positive predictive value than repeated sestamibi scans. Negative sestambi scans decreased and delayed operative referral. Consequently, we identified several process improvement initiatives, including education regarding superior institutional imaging. Combining all findings, we created an algorithm for evaluating patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after initially negative sestamibi scans, which incorporates surgeon-performed ultrasonography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. C9orf72 nucleotide repeat structures initiate molecular cascades of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Aaron R; Donnelly, Christopher J; Periz, Goran; Simko, Eric A J; Shaw, Patrick G; Kim, Min-Sik; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Troncoso, Juan C; Pandey, Akhilesh; Sattler, Rita; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Wang, Jiou

    2014-03-13

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE), (GGGGCC)n, in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here we identify a molecular mechanism by which structural polymorphism of the HRE leads to ALS/FTD pathology and defects. The HRE forms DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes with distinct structures and promotes RNA•DNA hybrids (R-loops). The structural polymorphism causes a repeat-length-dependent accumulation of transcripts aborted in the HRE region. These transcribed repeats bind to ribonucleoproteins in a conformation-dependent manner. Specifically, nucleolin, an essential nucleolar protein, preferentially binds the HRE G-quadruplex, and patient cells show evidence of nucleolar stress. Our results demonstrate that distinct C9orf72 HRE structural polymorphism at both DNA and RNA levels initiates molecular cascades leading to ALS/FTD pathologies, and provide the basis for a mechanistic model for repeat-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Initial study of stability and repeatability of measuring R2' and oxygen extraction fraction values in the healthy brain with gradient-echo sampling of spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Lihong; Zhang Xiaodong; He Chao; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang jue; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability and repeatability of gradient-echo sampling of spin- echo (GESSE) sequence in measuring the R 2 ' value in volunteers, by comparison with traditional GRE sequence (T 2 * ]nap and T 2 map). Methods: Eight normal healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study and written informed consents were obtained from all subjects. MR scanning including sequences of GESSE, T 2 map and T 2 * map were performed in these subjects at resting status. The same protocol was repeated one day later. Raw data from GESSE sequence were transferred to PC to conduct postprocessing with the software built in house. R 2 ' map and OEF map were got consequently. To obtain quantitative R 2 ' and OEF values in the brain parenchyma, six ROIs were equally placed in the anterior, middle and posterior part of bilateral hemispheres. Both mean and standard deviation of R 2 ' and OEF were recorded. All images from T 2 * map and T 2 map were transferred to the Workstation for postprocessing. The ROIs were put at the same areas as those for GESSE sequence. R 2 ' is defined as R 2 ' = R 2 * - R 2 , R 2 * = 1/T 2 * . The R 2 ' value of GESSE sequence were compared with that of GRE sequence. Results: The mean R 2 ' values of GESSE at the first and second scan and those of the GRE were (4.21±0.92), (4.45±0.94) Hz and (7.37±1.47), (6.42±2.33) Hz respectively. The mean OEF values of GESSE at the first and second scan is 0.327±0.036 and 0.336± 0.035 respectively. The R 2 ' value and OEF value obtained from GESSE were not significantly different between the first and second scan (t=-0.83, -1.48, P>0.05). The R 2 ' value of first GRE imaging had significantly statistical difference from that of second GRE imaging (t=1.80, P 2 ' value of GESSE sequence was less than that of GRE sequence, and there was significantly statistical difference between them (t=1.71, P<0.05). Conclusion: The GESSE sequence has good stability and repeatability with promising clinical practicability

  13. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze-le Rest, Catherine; Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  14. The association of 22 Y chromosome short tandem repeat loci with initiative-aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Ba, Huajie; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Hanqing; Yu, Haiying; Gao, Zhiqin; Wang, Binbin

    2018-05-15

    Aggressive behavior represents an important public concern and a clinical challenge to behaviorists and psychiatrists. Aggression in humans is known to have an important genetic basis, so to investigate the association of Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci with initiative-aggressive behavior, we compared allelic and haplotypic distributions of 22 Y-STRs in a group of Chinese males convicted of premeditated extremely violent crimes (n = 271) with a normal control group (n = 492). Allelic distributions of DYS533 and DYS437 loci differed significantly between the two groups (P initiative aggression in non-psychiatric subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 网络零售中的新客户与老客户购买行为差异基于淘宝网的实证对比研究%The Initial Buyers and Repeat Buyers in Online Retailing: an Empirical Study based on TaoBao. com

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦二娃; 卢向华

    2012-01-01

    traditional markets in terms of shopping environment, transaction process, consumer decision making process et al. It is rea sonable to doubt if we can simply copy the method of traditional market to manage the initial buyers and repeat buy ers to online. As the best of our knowledge, there is very few research differentiates the initial buyer and repeat buyers in the online retailing customer relationship management. With the rapid development and maturing of the online retailing market in China, it is necessary to study the differenceservice requirements between initial buyers and repeat buyers in the online retailing context. In the prior researches, many researchers studied online service quality focused on the perceptions of all cus tomers. Furthermore, some researchers focused on the different needs of the online retailers' service quality between the loyal customers and information searchers from Internet users' perceptions. Unfortunately, the role of customers experience is always not been taken seriously in online retailing. In this paper, we focus on the perspective of on line retailers to investigate the influence of customers' direct experience in online purchase intention, which is help ful for online retailers to promote differently when they try to retain repeat customers or attract initial customers. Based on the theoretical framework of "anchoring and adjustment", this paper analyzes the different services re quirements between initial buyers and repeat buyer by combining the characteristics of online shopping. The serv ices we examined in this paper include information retrieval services, product comparison services, reputation sys tems services and postpurchase services obtained according to buyers' purchase process. Four pairs of hypothesis are put forward based on the theoretical analysis and comprehensive literature review. Our empirical test is followed with the data from Taobao. com. We collect 2384 online retailers' information from Nov

  16. Studies on Section XI ultrasonic repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, T.D.; McDearman, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    A block representative of a nuclear component has been welded containing intentional defects. Acoustic emission data taken during the welding correlate well with ultrasonic data. Repetitive ultrasonic examinations have been performed by skilled operators using a procedure based on that desribed in ASME Section XI. These examinations were performed by different examination teams using different ultrasonic equipment in such a manner that the effects on the repeatability of the ultrasonic test method caused by the operator and by the use of different equipment could be estimated. It was tentatively concluded that when considering a large number of inspections: (1) there is no significant difference in indication sizing between operators, and (2) there is a significant difference in amplitude and defect sizing when instruments having different, Code acceptable operating characteristics are used. It was determined that the Section XI sizing parameters follow a bivariate normal distribution. Data derived from ultrasonically and physically sizing indications in nuclear components during farication show that the Section XI technique tends to overestimate the size of the reflectors

  17. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  18. Initial high anti-emetic efficacy of granisetron with dexamethasone is not maintained over repeated cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, R.; van den Berg, H.; Burghouts, J.; Nortier, J.; Slee, P.; Rodenburg, C.; Keizer, J.; Fonteyn, M.; Verweij, J.; Wils, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have reported previously that the anti-emetic efficacy of single agent 5HT3 antagonists is not maintained when analysed with the measurement of cumulative probabilities. Presently, the most effective anti-emetic regimen is a combination of a 5HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone. We, therefore, assessed the sustainment of efficacy of such a combination in 125 patients, scheduled to receive cisplatin > or = 70 mg m(-2) either alone or in combination with other cytotoxic drugs. Anti-emetic therapy was initiated with 10 mg of dexamethasone and 3 mg of granisetron intravenously, before cisplatin. On days 1-6, patients received 8 mg of dexamethasone and 1 mg of granisetron twice daily by oral administration. Protection was assessed during all cycles and calculated based on cumulative probability analyses using the method of Kaplan-Meier and a model for transitional probabilities. Irrespective of the type of analysis used, the anti-emetic efficacy of granisetron/dexamethasone decreased over cycles. The initial complete acute emesis protection rate of 66% decreased to 30% according to the method of Kaplan-Meier and to 39% using the model for transitional probabilities. For delayed emesis, the initial complete protection rate of 52% decreased to 21% (Kaplan-Meier) and to 43% (transitional probabilities). In addition, we observed that protection failure in the delayed emesis period adversely influenced the acute emesis protection in the next cycle. We conclude that the anti-emetic efficacy of a 5HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone is not maintained over multiple cycles of highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and that the acute emesis protection is adversely influenced by protection failure in the delayed emesis phase. PMID:9652766

  19. Detection of Repeating Earthquakes within the Cascadia Subduction Zone Using 2013-2014 Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefic, L.; Morton, E.; Bilek, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that subduction zones create the largest earthquakes in the world, like the magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake in 1960, or the more recent 9.1 magnitude Japan earthquake in 2011, both of which are in the top five largest earthquakes ever recorded. However, off the coast of the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S., the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) remains relatively quiet and modern seismic instruments have not recorded earthquakes of this size in the CSZ. The last great earthquake, a magnitude 8.7-9.2, occurred in 1700 and is constrained by written reports of the resultant tsunami in Japan and dating a drowned forest in the U.S. Previous studies have suggested the margin is most likely segmented along-strike. However, variations in frictional conditions in the CSZ fault zone are not well known. Geodetic modeling indicates that the locked seismogenic zone is likely completely offshore, which may be too far from land seismometers to adequately detect related seismicity. Ocean bottom seismometers, as part of the Cascadia Initiative Amphibious Network, were installed directly above the inferred seismogenic zone, which we use to better detect small interplate seismicity. Using the subspace detection method, this study looks to find new seismogenic zone earthquakes. This subspace detection method uses multiple previously known event templates concurrently to scan through continuous seismic data. Template events that make up the subspace are chosen from events in existing catalogs that likely occurred along the plate interface. Corresponding waveforms are windowed on the nearby Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismometers and coastal land seismometers for scanning. Detections that are found by the scan are similar to the template waveforms based upon a predefined threshold. Detections are then visually examined to determine if an event is present. The presence of repeating event clusters can indicate persistent seismic patches, likely corresponding to

  20. A study on the repeatability of ultrasonic testing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fukumoto, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Reliability improvement of ultrasonic testing data is strongly desired in ultrasonic testing working of nuclear power plants. This paper deals with the problems of the testing by the manual and the remote control apparatus, and with the factors which influence the repeatability of ultrasonic testing data. Following results are found in it. (1) In the testing by the manual, working time and posture influence the repeatability of testing data. (2) Glycerin in suitable for the couplant in the respect of the repeatability of testing data. In the case of using machine oil, the pressure to the probe necessitates to be over 0.2 kg/cm 2 . (3) In the testing by the remote control apparatus, working time, working environment and defect position does not influence the repeatability of testing data. (author)

  1. Initial characterisation of low and high seed dormancy populations of Lolium rigidum produced by repeated selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Danica E; Emery, R J Neil; Powles, Stephen B; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2010-10-15

    The physiological and biochemical bases of seed dormancy in Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) are largely unknown, and study of this process is complicated by the outcrossing nature of the species and the strong influence of environment on seed dormancy. In order to identify heritable biochemical factors contributing to seed dormancy in L. rigidum, seeds from a field-collected population were used to select sub-populations with consistently low or high seed dormancy over four generations. Low-dormancy seeds showed constitutive alpha-amylase activity prior to imbibition, higher concentrations of polyphenols and cis-zeatin, and lower abscisic acid and cis-zeatin riboside concentrations than high-dormancy seeds. Selection for high dormancy was associated with a reduction in response to dark-stratification for 21d at 20 degrees C (an effective means of releasing dormancy in the original, unselected population) over successive generations, but fluridone remained effective in breaking dormancy. Crossing of low- and high-dormancy populations indicated that dormancy level was not dependent upon the maternal genotype of the seed, and that the constitutive alpha-amylase activity and high seed anthocyanin concentrations characteristic of the low-dormancy populations were not correlated to high basal germination ability. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  3. [Study on causes and treatment of repeated vulvovaginitis in girlhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di-kai; Li, Xiu-yun; Yang, Dong-zi; Kuang, Jian-quan

    2006-07-01

    To explore the causes and treatment of repeated vulvovaginitis in girlhood in order to improve its prevention and treatment. Fifty-one girls with repeated vulvovaginitis (age vulvovaginitis and 14 ones (27%) suffering from posterior recto-vaginal fistula with in 51 patients. Five girls (10%) were smitten with vulval ulcer and 3 ones (6%) had been were found with vaginal foreign bodies. One girl (2%) was smitten with adhesion of labia minora. The vaginal discharges taken from 21 girls were cultured. Seventeen cases found bacteria. The positive rate of bacteria culture in the 21 cases reached 81%, in which, E.coli accounted for 5 cases (24%), staphylococcus and streptococcus accounted for 3 cases (14%) respectively. Patients suffering from non-specific vulvovaginitis and vulval ulcer accepted external lotion, antibiotic ointment or combining with antibiotics. Patients suffering from posterior recto-vaginal fistula accepted fistulectomy. Three girls who found vaginal foreign bodies took out of foreign bodies by hysteroscope. Fifty-one girls all were cured after appropriate therapy. Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecologic diagnosis in girlhood. The principal cause of repeated invasion is non-specific vulvovaginitis and the secondly one is posterior recto-vaginal fistula. It need overhaul during the diagnosis. It is very availability to use hysteroscopy and do bacteria culture + antibiotic sensitivity test for repeated pediatric vulvovaginitis.

  4. Study of simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism for biotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... G. Siva Kumar1, K. Aruna Kumari1*, Ch. V. Durga Rani1, R. M. Sundaram2, S. Vanisree3, Md. ..... review by Jena and Mackill (2008) provided the list of .... repeat protein and is a member of a resistance gene cluster on rice.

  5. Primary Sjögren syndrome that initially presented with repeated hypergammaglobulinemic purpura after prolonged sitting: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhihua; Jiang, Weiqiang; Wang, Ming; Liu, Yongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Manping; Liang, Donghui

    2017-12-01

    Purpura is a common dermatologic manifestation in Sjögren syndrome (SS). When a patient presents with sicca symptoms, the diagnosis of SS is not difficult. Here, we reported a case of a 52-year-old Chinese woman who initially presented with nonpalpable purpura on both lower extremities, and these lesions had developed soon after prolonged sitting. In the past 2 years, she had repeated cutaneous nonpalpable purpura 4 times. She had no sicca symptoms, dry eyes, or dry mouth. Combining the laboratory findings, Schirmer test, and labial gland biopsy, primary SS was confirmed. The patient was placed on a trial of hydroxychloroquine (200 mg once daily). The purpura on both lower extremities had faded at the sixth day after onset and at the third day after hydroxychloroquine treatment. These case was not easy to diagnosis primary SS because she had no sicca symptoms. A patient with primary SS who initially presented with recurrent purpura associated with prolonged sitting. Prolonged sitting had been a possible aggravating factor for the cutaneous purpura of this patient with primary SS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of Optimal Perimetric Testing in Children (OPTIC: Feasibility, Reliability and Repeatability of Perimetry in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh E Patel

    Full Text Available To investigate feasibility, reliability and repeatability of perimetry in children.A prospective, observational study recruiting 154 children aged 5-15 years, without an ophthalmic condition that affects the visual field (controls, identified consecutively between May 2012 and November 2013 from hospital eye clinics. Perimetry was undertaken in a single sitting, with standardised protocols, in a randomised order using the Humphrey static (SITA 24-2 FAST, Goldmann and Octopus kinetic perimeters. Data collected included test duration, subjective experience and test quality (incorporating examiner ratings on comprehension of instructions, fatigue, response to visual and auditory stimuli, concentration and co-operation to assess feasibility and reliability. Testing was repeated within 6 months to assess repeatability.Overall feasibility was very high (Goldmann=96.1%, Octopus=89% and Humphrey=100% completed the tests. Examiner rated reliability was 'good' in 125 (81.2% children for Goldmann, 100 (64.9% for Octopus and 98 (63.6% for Humphrey perimetry. Goldmann perimetry was the most reliable method in children under 9 years of age. Reliability improved with increasing age (multinomial logistic regression (Goldmann, Octopus and Humphrey, p<0.001. No significant differences were found for any of the three test strategies when examining initial and follow-up data outputs (Bland-Altman plots, n=43, suggesting good test repeatability, although the sample size may preclude detection of a small learning effect.Feasibility and reliability of formal perimetry in children improves with age. By the age of 9 years, all the strategies used here were highly feasible and reliable. Clinical assessment of the visual field is achievable in children as young as 5 years, and should be considered where visual field loss is suspected. Since Goldmann perimetry is the most effective strategy in children aged 5-8 years and this perimeter is no longer available, further

  7. Repeat biopsy in patients with initial diagnosis of PIN; La biopsia ripetuta nei pazienti con diagnosi iniziale di PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Matteis, Massimo [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Albertoni; Poggi, Cristina; De Martino, Antonietta; Pavlica, Pietro [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia Palagi, Dipartimento area radiologica; Corti, Barbara [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Anatomia ed istologia patologica, Dipartimento oncologico ed ematologico; Barozzi, Libero [Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy). UO Radiologia d' urgenza, Dipartimento emergenze ed accettazione

    2005-09-15

    Purpose. Prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN) is considered a pre-malignant lesion and the main precursor of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. A PIN diagnosis established by prostate needle biopsy poses a difficult clinical management. problem. We retrospectively reviewed our three-year experience in order to identify criteria for referring patients to repeat biopsy. Materials and methods. We reviewed the repeat biopsy records of 72 patients in whom PIN had been detected on initial US-guided needle biopsy of the prostate. All the patients had a minimum of 6 biopsy cores taken, and they all had PSA > 4 ng/ml. Results. Adenocarcinoma was detected in 15 patients out of 50 (30%) with an initial diagnosis of low-grade PIN and in 10 patients out of 22 (45.4%) with high grade PIN, in 7 out of 18 (39%) in whom PSA levels had decreased during the observation interval, in 16 patients out of 46 (35%) in whom the PSA had increased and in 2 patients out of 8 (25%) with stable PSA. Conclusions. Our results seem to confirm that PIN can be considered a precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma or a histological alteration often associated with it. Patients with low-grade PIN and particularly those with high-grade PIN should be regularly subjected to repeat biopsy at short intervals due to the high frequency of the final diagnosis of carcinoma. No agreement has been reached on the time interval between the first and the second biopsy. The PSA changes during the observation period are not a statistically significant parameter to suggest the repetition of prostatic biopsy. [Italian] Scopo. La neoplasia prostatica intraepiteliale (PIN) e considerata una lesione premaligna ed il precursore principale dell'adenocarcinoma prostatico infiltrante. La diagnosi di PIN ottenuta con l'agobiopsia della prostata rappresenta un difficile problema gestionale clinico. In una valutazione retrospettiva della nostra esperienza di 3 anni si e cercato di individuare i criteri che possano

  8. Acute effects of two different initial heart rates on testing the Repeated Sprint Ability in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, B; Briotti, G; Tozzo, N; Partipilo, F; Taraborelli, M; Zeppetella, A; Padulo, J; D'Ottavio, S

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effects of two different initial heart rates intensities when testing the repeated sprint ability (RSA) performances in young soccer players. Since there are many kinds of pre-match warm-ups, we chose to take as an absolute indicator of internal load the heart rate reached at the end of two different warm-up protocols (60 vs. 90% HRmax) and to compare the respective RSA performances. The RSA tests were performed on fifteen male soccer players (age: 17.9±1.5 years) with two sets of ten shuttle-sprints (15+15 m) with a 1:3 exercise to rest ratio, in different days (randomized order) with different HR% (60 & 90% HRmax). In order to compare the different sprint performances a Fatigue Index (FI%) was computed, while the blood lactate concentrations (BLa-) were measured before and after testing, to compare metabolic demand. Significant differences among trials within each sets (Psoccer player operates during a real match. This background may be partially reproduced by warming up protocols that, by duration and metabolic commitment, can reproduce conveniently the physiological conditions encountered in a real game (e.g. HRmax≈85-95%; BLa->4 mmol/L(-1)).

  9. On model selections for repeated measurement data in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baiming; Jin, Bo; Koch, Gary G; Zhou, Haibo; Borst, Stephen E; Menon, Sandeep; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2015-05-10

    Repeated measurement designs have been widely used in various randomized controlled trials for evaluating long-term intervention efficacies. For some clinical trials, the primary research question is how to compare two treatments at a fixed time, using a t-test. Although simple, robust, and convenient, this type of analysis fails to utilize a large amount of collected information. Alternatively, the mixed-effects model is commonly used for repeated measurement data. It models all available data jointly and allows explicit assessment of the overall treatment effects across the entire time spectrum. In this paper, we propose an analytic strategy for longitudinal clinical trial data where the mixed-effects model is coupled with a model selection scheme. The proposed test statistics not only make full use of all available data but also utilize the information from the optimal model deemed for the data. The performance of the proposed method under various setups, including different data missing mechanisms, is evaluated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed analytic procedure is more powerful than the t-test when the primary interest is to test for the treatment effect at the last time point. Simulations also reveal that the proposed method outperforms the usual mixed-effects model for testing the overall treatment effects across time. In addition, the proposed framework is more robust and flexible in dealing with missing data compared with several competing methods. The utility of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing a clinical trial on the cognitive effect of testosterone in geriatric men with low baseline testosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Repeat Courses of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), Deferring Whole-Brain Irradiation, for New Brain Metastases After Initial SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, David B.; Modlin, Leslie A.; Jayachandran, Priya; Von Eyben, Rie; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Choi, Clara Y.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California (United States); Chang, Steven D.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Li, Gordon; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Hancock, Steven L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Soltys, Scott G., E-mail: sgsoltys@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), deferring whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), for distant intracranial recurrences and identify factors associated with prolonged overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively identified 652 metastases in 95 patients treated with 2 or more courses of SRS for brain metastases, deferring WBRT. Cox regression analyzed factors predictive for OS. Results: Patients had a median of 2 metastases (range, 1-14) treated per course, with a median of 2 courses (range, 2-14) of SRS per patient. With a median follow-up after first SRS of 15 months (range, 3-98 months), the median OS from the time of the first and second course of SRS was 18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-24) and 11 months (95% CI 6-17), respectively. On multivariate analysis, histology, graded prognostic assessment score, aggregate tumor volume (but not number of metastases), and performance status correlated with OS. The 1-year cumulative incidence, with death as a competing risk, of local failure was 5% (95% CI 4-8%). Eighteen (24%) of 75 deaths were from neurologic causes. Nineteen patients (20%) eventually received WBRT. Adverse radiation events developed in 2% of SRS sites. Conclusion: Multiple courses of SRS, deferring WBRT, for distant brain metastases after initial SRS, seem to be a safe and effective approach. The graded prognostic assessment score, updated at each course, and aggregate tumor volume may help select patients in whom the deferral of WBRT might be most beneficial.

  11. Implementation of repeat HIV testing during pregnancy in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anna Joy; Weke, Elly; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2016-07-11

    Repeat HIV testing in late pregnancy has the potential to decrease rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by identifying mothers who seroconvert after having tested negative for HIV in early pregnancy. Despite being national policy in Kenya, the available data suggest that implementation rates are low. We conducted 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers and managers to explore barriers and enablers to implementation of repeat HIV testing guidelines for pregnant women. Participants were from the Nyanza region of Kenya and were purposively selected to provide variation in socio-demographics and job characteristics. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed in Dedoose software using a thematic analysis approach. Four themes were identified a priori using Ferlie and Shortell's Framework for Change and additional themes were allowed to emerge from the data. Participants identified barriers and enablers at the client, provider, facility, and health system levels. Key barriers at the client level from the perspective of providers included late initial presentation to antenatal care and low proportions of women completing the recommended four antenatal visits. Barriers to offering repeat HIV testing for providers included heavy workloads, time limitations, and failing to remember to check for retest eligibility. At the facility level, inconsistent volume of clients and lack of space required for confidential HIV retesting were cited as barriers. Finally, at the health system level, there were challenges relating to the HIV test kit supply chain and the design of nationally standardized antenatal patient registers. Enablers to improving the implementation of repeat HIV testing included client dissemination of the benefits of antenatal care through word-of-mouth, provider cooperation and task shifting, and it was suggested that use of an electronic health record system could provide automatic reminders for retest eligibility. This study

  12. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A

    2003-07-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m{sup 2}. As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  13. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m 2 . As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  14. Reasons of repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, J; Bagher, S; Felemban, O; Rich, A; Loo, C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this chart review study was to investigate the common factors that exist in paediatric patients requiring a repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA2) within four years after the initial dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA1). The Electronic Health Records of one to 12 year-old children who received dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) between April 2004 and October 2009 were identified and analysed by a single examiner. Children who had GA2, within a four year period following GA1 were categorised as cases. Children who had only one dental treatment under GA were considered the control pool. Each case was matched to three controls based on sex and age range at GA1 of ± 6 months. Other recorded variables included: date of birth, date of GAs (GA1 and GA2 for cases; GA1 for controls), type of payment, dmfs before GA1, dental treatments provided under GA, return of 1-week post-GA1 follow-up, frequency of recare/recall visits following one-year post-GA1 visit and the type and frequency of post GA1 emergency visits. Out of 581 subjects, 29 (4.99%) cases were matched to 87 controls. Medically compromised patients had four times the risk of GA2. At GA1, cases received statistically significant less sealants (p=0.026), less extractions (pdental treatment under general anaesthesia were more likely to have a repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia within 4 years.

  15. The Jasmonate-ZIM-domain proteins interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes to regulate Jasmonate-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-05-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)-based SCF(COI1) complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation.

  16. The Jasmonate-ZIM-Domain Proteins Interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB Complexes to Regulate Jasmonate-Mediated Anthocyanin Accumulation and Trichome Initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Ren, Qingcuo; Wu, Dewei; Huang, Huang; Chen, Yan; Fan, Meng; Peng, Wen; Ren, Chunmei; Xie, Daoxin

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) mediate plant responses to insect attack, wounding, pathogen infection, stress, and UV damage and regulate plant fertility, anthocyanin accumulation, trichome formation, and many other plant developmental processes. Arabidopsis thaliana Jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, substrates of the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)–based SCFCOI1 complex, negatively regulate these plant responses. Little is known about the molecular mechanism for JA regulation of anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we revealed that JAZ proteins interact with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. Genetic and physiological evidence showed that JA regulates WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in a COI1-dependent manner. Overexpression of the MYB transcription factor MYB75 and bHLH factors (GL3 and EGL3) restored anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in the coi1 mutant, respectively. We speculate that the JA-induced degradation of JAZ proteins abolishes the interactions of JAZ proteins with bHLH and MYB factors, allowing the transcriptional function of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes, which subsequently activate respective downstream signal cascades to modulate anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. PMID:21551388

  17. Using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to study genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that ISSR-PCR analysis is quick, reliable and produces sufficient polymorphisms for large-scale DNA fingerprinting purposes. The total of 111 bands of which 60 were polymorphic, (with 54.04%) was amplified by the six primers, an average of seven bands per primer. The total number of amplified ...

  18. t2prhd: a tool to study the patterns of repeat evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pénzes Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The models developed to characterize the evolution of multigene families (such as the birth-and-death and the concerted models have also been applied on the level of sequence repeats inside a gene/protein. Phylogenetic reconstruction is the method of choice to study the evolution of gene families and also sequence repeats in the light of these models. The characterization of the gene family evolution in view of the evolutionary models is done by the evaluation of the clustering of the sequences with the originating loci in mind. As the locus represents positional information, it is straightforward that in the case of the repeats the exact position in the sequence should be used, as the simple numbering according to repeat order can be misleading. Results We have developed a novel rapid visual approach to study repeat evolution, that takes into account the exact repeat position in a sequence. The "pairwise repeat homology diagram" visualizes sequence repeats detected by a profile HMM in a pair of sequences and highlights their homology relations inferred by a phylogenetic tree. The method is implemented in a Perl script (t2prhd available for downloading at http://t2prhd.sourceforge.net and is also accessible as an online tool at http://t2prhd.brc.hu. The power of the method is demonstrated on the EGF-like and fibronectin-III-like (Fn-III domain repeats of three selected mammalian Tenascin sequences. Conclusion Although pairwise repeat homology diagrams do not carry all the information provided by the phylogenetic tree, they allow a rapid and intuitive assessment of repeat evolution. We believe, that t2prhd is a helpful tool with which to study the pattern of repeat evolution. This method can be particularly useful in cases of large datasets (such as large gene families, as the command line interface makes it possible to automate the generation of pairwise repeat homology diagrams with the aid of scripts.

  19. Tools for analyzing genetic variants from sequencing data Case study: short tandem repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Gymrek, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This was presented as a BitesizeBio Webinar entitled "Tools for analyzing genetic variants from sequencing data Case study: short tandem repeats"Accompanying scripts can be accessed on github:https://github.com/mgymrek/mgymrek-bitesizebio-webinar 

  20. [Computer optical topography: a study of the repeatability of the results of human body model examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnadskiĭ, V N

    2007-01-01

    The problem of repeatability of the results of examination of a plastic human body model is considered. The model was examined in 7 positions using an optical topograph for kyphosis diagnosis. The examination was performed under television camera monitoring. It was shown that variation of the model position in the camera view affected the repeatability of the results of topographic examination, especially if the model-to-camera distance was changed. A study of the repeatability of the results of optical topographic examination can help to increase the reliability of the topographic method, which is widely used for medical screening of children and adolescents.

  1. The triplet repeats of the Sin Nombre hantavirus 5' untranslated region are sufficient in cis for nucleocapsid-mediated translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Mohammad A; Panganiban, Antonito T

    2010-09-01

    Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) can replace the cellular cap-binding complex, eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), to mediate translation initiation. Although N can augment translation initiation of nonviral mRNA, initiation of viral mRNA by N is superior. All members of the Bunyaviridae family, including the species of the hantavirus genus, express either three or four primary mRNAs from their tripartite negative-sense genomes. The 5' ends of the mRNAs contain nonviral heterologous oligonucleotides that originate from endonucleolytic cleavage of cellular mRNA during the process of cap snatching. In the hantaviruses these caps terminate with a 3' G residue followed by nucleotides arising from the viral template. Further, the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNA uniformly contains, near the 5' end, either two or three copies of the triplet repeat sequence, UAGUAG or UAGUAGUAG. Through analysis of a panel of mutants with mutations in the viral UTR, we found that the sequence GUAGUAG is sufficient for preferential N-mediated translation initiation and for high-affinity binding of N to the UTR. This heptanucleotide sequence is present in viral mRNA containing either two or three copies of the triplet repeat.

  2. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  3. Computational study of the human dystrophin repeats: interaction properties and molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Legrand

    Full Text Available Dystrophin is a large protein involved in the rare genetic disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. It functions as a mechanical linker between the cytoskeleton and the sarcolemma, and is able to resist shear stresses during muscle activity. In all, 75% of the dystrophin molecule consists of a large central rod domain made up of 24 repeat units that share high structural homology with spectrin-like repeats. However, in the absence of any high-resolution structure of these repeats, the molecular basis of dystrophin central domain's functions has not yet been deciphered. In this context, we have performed a computational study of the whole dystrophin central rod domain based on the rational homology modeling of successive and overlapping tandem repeats and the analysis of their surface properties. Each tandem repeat has very specific surface properties that make it unique. However, the repeats share enough electrostatic-surface similarities to be grouped into four separate clusters. Molecular dynamics simulations of four representative tandem repeats reveal specific flexibility or bending properties depending on the repeat sequence. We thus suggest that the dystrophin central rod domain is constituted of seven biologically relevant sub-domains. Our results provide evidence for the role of the dystrophin central rod domain as a scaffold platform with a wide range of surface features and biophysical properties allowing it to interact with its various known partners such as proteins and membrane lipids. This new integrative view is strongly supported by the previous experimental works that investigated the isolated domains and the observed heterogeneity of the severity of dystrophin related pathologies, especially Becker muscular dystrophy.

  4. The Enigma of Rapid Repeat Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study of Teen Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, K N; Engelhart, T G; Martins, Y; Huntington, N L; Snyder, A F; Coletti, K D; Cox, J E

    2016-06-01

    Rapid repeat pregnancy accounts for 18% of teen pregnancies and leads to adverse health, economic, and developmental outcomes for teen mothers and their children. Few interventions have been successful in reducing rapid repeat pregnancy. In this qualitative study we examined adolescent mothers' perceptions of their decision-making and behaviors that helped prevent or promote a rapid repeat pregnancy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 31 adolescent mothers, aged 16-21 years; 15 of these subjects experienced a repeat pregnancy within a year of their first child's birth and 16 had not. Two researchers used a grounded, inductive technique to identify emergent themes; interviews were subsequently coded accordingly. Counts were tabulated of the number of times themes were endorsed among those with or without a repeat pregnancy. Four overarching themes emerged from the interviews: intentionality regarding pregnancy planning, patients' degree of independence in making contraceptive choices, sense of control over life experience, and barriers to follow-through on contraceptive planning. Teens who had not experienced a rapid repeat pregnancy more often endorsed themes of intentionality in preventing or promoting a pregnancy, independence in decision-making, and feelings of control over their experience. Ambivalence and lack of decision-making about seeking another pregnancy were frequently endorsed by mothers who had experienced a second pregnancy. Decision-making regarding seeking or preventing a rapid repeat pregnancy is complex for teen mothers; techniques to help support decision-making or to delay pregnancy until decision-repeat making is complete might be important in reducing rapid pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Repeat film analysis and its implications for quality assurance in dental radiology: An institutional case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The goal of any radiologist is to produce the highest quality diagnostic radiographs, while keeping patient exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA. Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the reasons for radiograph rejections through a repeat film analysis in an Indian dental school. Settings and Design: An observational study conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Materials and Methods: During a 6-month study period, a total of 9,495 intra-oral radiographs and 2339 extraoral radiographs taken in the Radiology Department were subjected to repeat film analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Version 16. Descriptive analysis used. Results: The results showed that the repeat rates were 7.1% and 5.86% for intraoral and extraoral radiographs, respectively. Among the causes for errors reported, positioning error (38.7% was the most common, followed by improper angulations (26.1%, and improper film placement (11.2% for intra-oral radiographs. The study found that the maximum frequency of repeats among extraoral radiographs was for panoramic radiographs (49% followed by lateral cephalogram (33%, and paranasal sinus view (14%. It was also observed that repeat rate of intraoral radiographs was highest for internees (44.7%, and undergraduate students (28.2%. Conclusions: The study pointed to a need for more targeted interventions to achieve the goal of keeping patient exposure ALARA in a dental school setting.

  6. Study of domain depinning during repeated polarization reversal in hard PZT ceramics using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakar, K; Rao, S P Mallikarjun

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) has been studied during repeated polarization reversals (at 50 Hz) in hard PZT-8 ceramics. The AE and hysteresis loop were monitored at regular intervals of electric field (±20 kV cm -1 peak) application till 10 8 cycles. The sample did not fatigue and an increase in saturation polarization (Ps) was observed. AE was observed with zero threshold till 10 5 cycles when the field was increasing in both half cycles of the applied field. The initial increase in AE activity with increasing number of field cycles till 10 5 was explained on the basis of defect dipoles encouraging the 90 deg. domain switches, i.e. domain depinning. The decrease in AE activity, an increase in threshold field for the observed AE and a further increase in Ps after 10 5 cycles were explained based on the changes in the orientation of defect dipoles with respect to Ps due to the applied field cycles. This was found to encourage the 180 0 domain switches but pin the 90 deg. domains. An increase in AE at 10 8 cycles after applying a higher field of ±25 kV cm -1 was found to be mainly due to microcracking

  7. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Myall, Michelle

    2011-11-03

    To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Ethnographic case study. Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as "exceptions" by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge. Clinicians were often unaware of this input and it did not feature in policy

  8. Maintaining confidentiality in prospective studies: anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Wasserman, Camilla; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Wasserman, Danuta

    2012-02-01

    Respecting and protecting the confidentiality of data and the privacy of individuals regarding the information that they have given as participants in a research project is a cornerstone of complying with accepted research standards. However, in longitudinal studies, establishing and maintaining privacy is often challenging because of the necessity of repeated contact with participants. A novel internet-based solution is introduced here, which maintains privacy while at the same time ensures linkage of data to individual participants in a repeated measures design. With the use of the anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure, two separate one-way communication systems are established through ad hoc email accounts and a secure study website. Strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  9. [A case-control study of factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy based on a sample from a university maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréa de Albuquerque Arruda; Coutinho, Isabela C; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland

    2013-03-01

    Repeat teen pregnancy is a frequent issue and is considered an aggravating factor for increased maternal and fetal morbidity and social problems. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted in 90 postpartum adolescents with more than one pregnancy (cases) and 90 adult women with a history of only one pregnancy during adolescence (controls). Statistical analysis used hierarchical logistic regression with 5% significance. Early sexual initiation (pregnancy (pregnancy, while partner change was inversely associated. Repeat teen pregnancy was mainly associated with reproductive and socioeconomic factors. Partner change appeared as a protective factor. Measures should be adopted during the postpartum period of teenage mothers in order to avoid repeat pregnancy.

  10. Comparative study of radioprotective properties of serotin derivatives repeatedly applied before gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelova, N.V.; Antipov, V.V.; Vasin, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    In the experiments on albino mice, the phenomenon of desensitization has been studied by a specific activity and some pharmacologic properties of serotonin, mexamin and 5-acetyloxytryptamine, the time-intervals between injections of the preparations being 5, 30 and 60 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. A correlation has been found between changes in radioprotective and pharmacologic properties (as determined by the accumulation of the dye in the splenic tissue) after repeated administration of mexamin. The phenomenon of desensitization is probably dependent not only on the chemical nature and mechanism of action of the protectors but also on the conditions under which they are repeatedly applied

  11. Determinants of repeated abortion among women of reproductive age attending health facilities in Northern Ethiopia: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Alemayehu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, an estimated 19–20 million unsafe abortions take place, almost all in developing countries, leading to 68,000 deaths and millions more injured many permanently. Many women throughout the world, experience more than one abortion in their lifetimes. Repeat abortion is an indicator of the larger problem of unintended pregnancy. This study aimed to identify determinants of repeat abortion in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Methods Unmatched case–control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia, from November 2014 to June 2015. The sample included 105 cases and 204 controls, recruited from among women seeking abortion care at public hospitals. Clients having two or more abortions (“repeat abortion” were taken as cases and those who had a total of one abortion were taken as controls (“single abortion”. Cases were selected consecutive based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results Mean age of cases was 24 years (±6.85 and 22 years (±6.25 for controls. 79.0% of cases had their sexual debut in less than 18 years of age compared to 57% of controls. 42.2% of controls and 23.8% of cases cited rape as the reason for having an abortion. Study participants who did not understand their fertility cycle and when they were most likely to conceive after menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.7, having a previous abortion using medication (AOR = 3.3, CI: 1.83, 6.11, having multiple sexual partners in the preceding 12 months (AOR = 4.4, CI: 2.39,8.45, perceiving that the abortion procedure is not painful (AOR = 2.3, CI: 1.31,4.26, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years (AOR = 2.7, CI: 1.49, 5.23 and disclosure to a third

  12. An interdisciplinary study in initial teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Larraz Rada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment of innovative university education shows the interdisciplinary work carried out in the studies of the Bachelor of Science in Education at the University of Andorra. The study was developed within two subjects: Communication Technology (TAC and Cultural Heritage Education in Andorra. The main objective of this experiment is to foster the use of technological resources and digital materials, with the aim of drawing cultural heritage closer to the classroom. Based on a previous study of documentation and an analysis of online educational materials, the students have to design an e-book, which is understood to be digital material in the curricular field of cultural heritage. This digital material is a didactic proposal that focuses on the construction of knowledge by primary school students. During the elaboration of the materials the instructors introduce follow-up activities. The results of the experiment show that, from an interdisciplinary approach, and a problem-solving, learning-centered methodology, specific and transferable abilities in initial teacher training can be studied and evaluated.

  13. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  14. Prolonged Repeated Acupuncture Stimulation Induces Habituation Effects in Pain-Related Brain Areas: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. PMID:24821143

  15. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  16. Prognostic usefulness of repeated echocardiographic evaluation after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korup, E; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of repeated echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated. We found that repeated measurements of wall motion index in survivors of acute myocardial infarction, with no reinfarction, provide important prognostic...

  17. Studies on serum macro and micro minerals status in repeat breeder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user01

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... as well as 11.5% to gross domestic product. Repeat breeding is one of ... signs with no clinical detectable reproductive disorders. *Corresponding ... repeat breeding includes abnormal recommencement of postpartum ovarian ...

  18. Fundamental study of crack initiation and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, D.M. Jr.; Reaugh, J.E.; Moran, B.; Quinones, D.F.; Wilkins, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Objective is to determine the fracture toughness of A533B-1 steel by computer modeling Charpy V-notch tests. A computer model of ductile fracture was developed that predicts fracture initiation. The model contains a set of material-dependent parameters obtained by computer simulations of small specimen tests. The computer calculations give detailed stress and strain histories up to the time of fracture, which are used to determine the model parameter values. The calibrated fracture model, that correctly predicts fracture initiation (and initiation energy) in the Charpy specimen, may then be used to simulate tests of accepted fracture-toughness specimens and hence obtain fracture toughness. The model parameters were calibrated to predict fracture in four different test specimens: two different notched-tension specimens, a simple tension specimen, and a precracked compact-tension specimen. The model was then used in a computer simulation of the Charpy V-notch specimen to initiate and advance a flat fracture. Results were compared with interrupted Charpy tests. Calibration of the model for two additional heat treatments of A533B-1 steel is in progress

  19. Factors associated with repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh: qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayedul Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis is an acute, febrile disease of warm blooded animals including humans. Social norms and poverty in addition to climatic factors such as soil conditions, seasons of year, ambient temperature and rainfall influence the persistence of the B. anthracis and anthrax outbreaks. The present study was designed to reveal the factors influencing the repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh. Considering the previous outbreaks of anthrax, Sirajganj, Bogra, Kushtia, Tangail and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh were selected for this study. To elucidate the factors, qualitative data relating to the animal management, knowledge and behavior of the people; and quantitative data relating to soil conditions, ambient temperature and rainfall were acquired, and analyzed critically. Based on the outbreak histories, a year was divided into two seasons, anthrax prone season (May-November and anthrax dry season (December-April. Anthrax spores could be isolated from 11.67% (n=14/120 of the soil samples collected from the study areas. The present study revealed that poor knowledge, lack of awareness, improper carcass disposal, inadequate vaccination, high Ca content and moisture in the soil along with high ambient temperature and rainfall during the anthrax prone season were the possible influencing factors of repeated outbreaks of anthrax in the study areas. Intensive propaganda to create public awareness of anthrax together with proper vaccination may reduce anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh.

  20. Education for patients with chronic kidney disease in Taiwan: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Miaofen; Huang, Jeng-Jong; Teng, Hsiu-Lan

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the physical, knowledge and quality of life outcomes of an educational intervention for patients with early stage chronic kidney disease. A comprehensive predialysis education care team can be effective in slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease. A single group repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Participants were recruited through health department community health screen data banks. A predialysis, team-delivered educational intervention covering renal function health care, dietary management of renal function and the effects of Chinese herb medication on renal function was designed and implemented. Data were collected at baseline, six and 12 months. Study outcomes included physical indicators, knowledge (renal function protection, use of Chinese herbs and renal function and diet) and quality of life. Data were analysed using repeated measure anova to test for change over time in outcome variables. Sixty-six persons participated in this study. The predialysis educational intervention showed significant differences at the three time points in overall knowledge scores, waist-hip ratio, body mass index and global health status. Knowledge measures increased at month 6 and decreased at month 12. The primary indicator of renal function, glomerular filtration rate, remained stable throughout the 12 months of follow-up, despite the relatively older mean age of study participants. A predialysis education care team can provide effective disease-specific knowledge and may help retard deterioration of renal function in persons with early-stage chronic kidney disease. The intervention dose may need to be repeated every six months to maintain knowledge effects. A predialysis educational program with disease-specific knowledge and information is feasible and may provide positive outcomes for patients. Topics on the uses of Chinese herbs should be included for people who are likely to use alternative therapies.

  1. Study of problems associated with the ultrasonic examination of repeatedly repaired austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaratnam, R.; Palaniappan, M.; Baskaran, A.; Chandramohan, R.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the ultrasonic examination of austenitic stainless steel weldments has gained increased importance as an NDE technique for the volumetric examination in the nuclear power plant construction and other industries. A study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of multiple repairs on austenitic stainless steel weldments, for the successful ultrasonic examination. The test welds have been subjected to repeated welding cycles and the ultrasonic parameters including the defect characterization have been evaluated for analysis. The paper discusses the approach followed, analysis, results obtained and the recommendations based on the above. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aten, Jan Jaap; Oudega, Mardien; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; van Waarde, Jeroen A

    2015-06-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment characteristics, clinical outcome, and cognitive functioning after ECT. Thirty-nine unipolar depressed patients dosed using repeated DTM and 40 matched patients treated with ABM were compared. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the index course, as well as the total number of ECT sessions. Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, psychotic features, mean baseline MADRS, and median baseline MMSE. At the end of the index course, the two methods showed equal outcome (mean end MADRS, 11.6 ± 8.3 in DTM and 9.5 ± 7.6 in ABM (P = 0.26); median end MMSE, 28 (25-29) and 28 (25-29.8), respectively (P = 0.81). However, the median number of all ECT sessions differed 16 (11-22) in DTM versus 12 (10-14.8) in ABM; P = 0.02]. Using regression analysis, dosing method and age were independently associated with the total number of ECT sessions, with less sessions needed in ABM (P = 0.02) and in older patients (P = 0.001). In this comparative cohort study, ABM and DTM showed equal outcome for depression and cognition. However, the median ECT course duration in repeated DTM appeared longer. Additionally, higher age was associated with shorter ECT courses regardless of the dosing method. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Effect of exposure to evening light on sleep initiation in the elderly: a longitudinal analysis for repeated measurements in home settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Junko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nezu, Satoko; Ikada, Yoshito; Kurumatani, Norio

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated associations of sleep-onset insomnia with a variety of diseases, including depression, dementia, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Sleep initiation is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and endogenous melatonin, both of which are influenced by environmental light. Exposure to evening light is hypothesized to cause circadian phase delay and melatonin suppression before bedtime, resulting in circadian misalignment and sleep-onset insomnia; however, whether exposure to evening light disturbs sleep initiation in home settings remains unclear. In this longitudinal analysis of 192 elderly individuals (mean age: 69.9 years), we measured evening light exposure and sleep-onset latency for 4 days using a wrist actigraph incorporating a light meter and an accelerometer. Mixed-effect linear regression analysis for repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of evening light exposure on subsequent sleep-onset latency. The median intensity of evening light exposure and the median sleep-onset latency were 27.3 lux (interquartile range, 17.9-43.4) and 17 min (interquartile range, 7-33), respectively. Univariate models showed significant associations between sleep-onset latency and age, gender, daytime physical activity, in-bed time, day length and average intensity of evening and nighttime light exposures. In a multivariate model, log-transformed average intensity of evening light exposure was significantly associated with log-transformed sleep-onset latency independent of the former potential confounding factors (regression coefficient, 0.133; 95% CI, 0.020-0.247; p = 0.021). Day length and nighttime light exposure were also significantly associated with log-transformed sleep-onset latency (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, exposure to evening light in home setting prolongs subsequent sleep-onset latency in the elderly.

  4. Potential Role of the Last Half Repeat in TAL Effectors Revealed by a Molecular Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TAL effectors (TALEs contain a modular DNA-binding domain that is composed of tandem repeats. In all naturally occurring TALEs, the end of tandem repeats is invariantly a truncated half repeat. To investigate the potential role of the last half repeat in TALEs, we performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal structure of DNA-bound TALE AvrBs3 lacking the last half repeat and its modeled structure having the last half repeat. The structural stability analysis indicates that the modeled system is more stable than the nonmodeled system. Based on the principle component analysis, it is found that the AvrBs3 increases its structural compactness in the presence of the last half repeat. The comparison of DNA groove parameters of the two systems implies that the last half repeat also causes the change of DNA major groove binding efficiency. The following calculation of hydrogen bond reveals that, by stabilizing the phosphate binding with DNA at the C-terminus, the last half repeat helps to adopt a compact conformation at the protein-DNA interface. It further mediates more contacts between TAL repeats and DNA nucleotide bases. Finally, we suggest that the last half repeat is required for the high-efficient recognition of DNA by TALE.

  5. Psychological Processes and Repeat Suicidal Behavior: A Four-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although suicidal behavior is a major public health concern, understanding of individually sensitive suicide risk mechanisms is limited. In this study, the authors investigated, for the first time, the utility of defeat and entrapment in predicting repeat suicidal behavior in a sample of suicide attempters. Method: Seventy patients hospitalized after a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, defeat, and entrapment) while in hospital. Four years later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. Results: Over 4 years, 24.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital after a suicidal attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, defeat and entrapment as well as depression, hopelessness, past suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation all predicted suicidal behavior over this interval. However, in the multivariate analysis, entrapment and past frequency of suicide attempts were the only significant predictors of suicidal behavior. Conclusions: This longitudinal study supports the utility of a new theoretical model in the prediction of suicidal behavior. Individually sensitive suicide risk processes like entrapment could usefully be targeted in treatment interventions to reduce the risk of repeat suicidal behavior in those who have been previously hospitalized after a suicide attempt. PMID:23855989

  6. Study of damage of graphite/epoxy composites submitted to repeated quasi-static shear loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadhraoui-Lattreche, Malika

    1984-01-01

    Quasi static loading tests on composite materials with organic matrix allow the behaviour of the materials under repeated loadings to be studied while avoiding viscoelastic effects. In this research thesis, the author reports the study of one-directional composite samples submitted to static pure shear loadings which represent the most severe stress state for this type of material. The material behaviour has been determined by application of loads greater than the yield strength, and of zero torque unloads. This allowed cumulative residual deformations to be monitored, and the increasing evolution of this parameter to be studied with respect to the number of applied cycles. The author deduces from these results a characteristic law for the material which introduces a decoupling between the stress and the cumulative residual deformation. Thus, a method of prediction of cumulative residual deformations is developed. Besides, a brief application to another material seems to confirm this type of law, and suggests that its generalisation should be studied [fr

  7. Single molecule study of the intrinsically disordered FG-repeat nucleoporin 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Sigrid; Lemke, Edward A

    2011-10-05

    Nucleoporins (Nups), which are intrinsically disordered, form a selectivity filter inside the nuclear pore complex, taking a central role in the vital nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanism. These Nups display a complex and nonrandom amino-acid architecture of phenylalanine glycine (FG)-repeat clusters and intra-FG linkers. How such heterogeneous sequence composition relates to function and could give rise to a transport mechanism is still unclear. Here we describe a combined chemical biology and single-molecule fluorescence approach to study the large human Nup153 FG-domain. In order to obtain insights into the properties of this domain beyond the average behavior, we probed the end-to-end distance (R(E)) of several ∼50-residues long FG-repeat clusters in the context of the whole protein domain. Despite the sequence heterogeneity of these FG-clusters, we detected a reoccurring and consistent compaction from a relaxed coil behavior under denaturing conditions (R(E)/R(E,RC) = 0.99 ± 0.15 with R(E,RC) corresponding to ideal relaxed coil behavior) to a collapsed state under native conditions (R(E)/R(E,RC) = 0.79 ± 0.09). We then analyzed the properties of this protein on the supramolecular level, and determined that this human FG-domain was in fact able to form a hydrogel with physiological permeability barrier properties. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NMR study of hexanucleotide d(CCGCGG)2 containing two triplet repeats of fragile X syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monleon, Daniel; Esteve, Vicent; Celda, Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Long repeated stretches of d(CCG) and tri-nucleotide are crucial mutations that cause hereditary forms of mental retardation (fragile X-syndrome). Moreover, the alternating (CG) di-nucleotide is one of the candidates for Z-DNA conformation. Solution NMR structure of d(CCGCGG) 2 has been solved and is discussed. The determined NMR solution structure is a distorted highly bent B-DNA conformation with increased flexibility in both terminal residues. This conformation differs significantly from the Z-DNA tetramer structure reported for the same hexamer in the crystal state at similar ionic strength by Malinina and co-workers. Crystal structure of d(CCGCGG) 2 at high salt concentration includes a central alternating tetramer in Z-DNA conformation, while the initial cytosine swings out and forms a Watson-Crick base-pair with the terminal guanine of a symmetry-related molecule. In solution, NMR data for sugar ring puckering combined with restrained molecular dynamics simulations starting from a Z-DNA form show that terminal furanose residues could adopt the conformation required for aromatic bases swinging out. Therefore, tetramer formation could be considered possible once the hexanucleotide had previously adopted the Z-DNA form. This work gives some insight into correlations between anomalous crystal structures and their accessibility in the solution state

  9. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  11. Initial DEMO tokamak design configuration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Christian, E-mail: christian.bachmann@efda.org [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aiello, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Arbeiter, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Aubert, J. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Boccaccini, L.; Carloni, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Federici, G. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kovari, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Loving, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maione, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Mattei, M. [ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Naples (Italy); Mazzone, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Meszaros, B. [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Riccardo, V. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A definition of main DEMO requirements. • A description of the DEMO tokamak design configuration. • A description of issues yet to be solved. - Abstract: To prepare the DEMO conceptual design phase a number of physics and engineering assessments were carried out in recent years in the frame of EFDA concluding in an initial design configuration of a DEMO tokamak. This paper gives an insight into the identified engineering requirements and constraints and describes their impact on the selection of the technologies and design principles of the main tokamak components. The EU DEMO program aims at making best use of the technologies developed for ITER (e.g., magnets, vessel, cryostat, and to some degree also the divertor). However, other systems in particular the breeding blanket require design solutions and advanced technologies that will only partially be tested in ITER. The main differences from ITER include the requirement to breed, to extract, to process and to recycle the tritium needed for plasma operation, the two orders of magnitude larger lifetime neutron fluence, the consequent radiation dose levels, which limit remote maintenance options, and the requirement to use low-activation steel for in-vessel components that also must operate at high temperature for efficient energy conversion.

  12. Trends in Scottish newborn screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism 1980-2014: strategies for reducing age at notification after initial and repeat sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Chourouk; Ouarezki, Yasmine; Jones, Jeremy; Fitch, Moira; Smith, Sarah; Mason, Avril; Donaldson, Malcolm

    2017-10-01

    To determine ages at first capillary sampling and notification and age at notification after second sampling in Scottish newborns referred with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Referrals between 1980 and 2014 inclusive were grouped into seven 5-year blocks and analysed according to agreed standards. Of 2 116 132 newborn infants screened, 919 were referred with capillary TSH elevation ≥8 mU/L of whom 624 had definite (606) or probable (18) congenital hypothyroidism. Median age at first sampling fell from 7 to 5 days between 1980 and 2014 (standard 4-7 days), with 22, 8 and 3 infants sampled >7 days during 2000-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Median age at notification was consistently ≤14 days, range falling during 2000-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 from 6 to 78, 7-52 and 7-32 days with 12 (14.6%), 6 (5.6%) and 5 (4.3%) infants notified >14 days. However 18/123 (14.6%) of infants undergoing second sampling from 2000 onwards breached the ≤26-day standard for notification. By 2010-2014, the 91 infants with confirmed congenital hypothyroidism had shown favourable median age at first sample (5 days) with start of treatment (10.5 days) approaching age at notification. Most standards for newborn thyroid screening are being met by the Scottish programme, but there is a need to reduce age range at notification, particularly following second sampling. Strategies to improve screening performance include carrying out initial capillary sampling as close to 96 hours as possible; introducing 6-day laboratory reporting and use of electronic transmission for communicating repeat requests. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  14. Discrepancies in autobiographical memories— implications for the assessment of asylum seekers: repeated interviews study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Jane; Scragg, Peter; Turner, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the consistency of autobiographical memory of people seeking asylum, in light of the assumption that discrepancies in asylum seekers' accounts of persecution mean that they are fabricating their stories. Design Repeated interviews. Setting England, 1999 and 2000. Participants Community sample of 27 Kosovan and 12 Bosnian refugees. Main outcome measures Discrepancies in repeated descriptions of one traumatic and one non-traumatic event, including specific details, rated as central or peripheral to the event. Self report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Discrepancies between an individual's accounts were common. For participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress, the number of discrepancies increased with length of time between interviews. More discrepancies occurred in details peripheral to the account than in details that were central to the account. Conclusion The assumption that inconsistency of recall means that accounts have poor credibility is questionable. Discrepancies are likely to occur in repeated interviews. For refugees showing symptoms of high levels of post-traumatic stress, the length of the application process may also affect the number of discrepancies. Recall of details rated by the interviewee as peripheral to the account is more likely to be inconsistent than recall of details that are central to the account. Thus, such inconsistencies should not be relied on as indicating a lack of credibility. What is already known on this topicDiscrepancies between accounts of an event are often used to judge the credibility of asylum seekersWhat this study addsDiscrepancies arise between two accounts of the same event even when there is no reason for fabricationRefugees with high levels of post-traumatic stress are more likely to give inconsistent accounts if they have a long time to wait between interviewsInterviewees are more likely to be inconsistent in details that they rate as peripheral

  15. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be.

  16. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be

  17. Ramakrishna Mission initiative impact study: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A.

    2000-07-06

    This report has been prepared by the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It presents the results of the evaluation and impact assessment of solar photovoltaic lighting systems in the region of Sunderbans, West Bengal, that were deployed by a reputable non-governmental organization (Ramakrishna Mission) under the auspices of the INDO-US collaborative project. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the solar photovoltaic systems for their impact on the individual households as well as on the community, to assess the effectiveness of the implementation and financial mechanisms, and to draw a long-term strategy for NREL's activities in Sunderbans based on case studies of similar interventions. Under the project, provision was made to supply 300 domestic lighting systems (DLS) based on 53-Wp module capacity to individual households and a few other systems such as for lighting, medical refrigeration, and pumping water to community centers. For this study, 152 households were surveyed, of which 29 had also been a part of earlier pre- and post-installation surveys, 47 had been a part of the earlier post-installation survey, and 76 were households that were surveyed for the first time. A set of 46, out of the total 152 households, was selected for evaluating the systems for their technical performance with respect to module output, condition of the battery, and daily energy consumption. Of the total 300 modules, 2 had been stolen, 9 out of the total 300 batteries needed to be replaced, and 10 out of the 300 charge controllers were non-functional. The statistics for the surveyed households indicate 32 luminaire-related faults (blackening or flickering of compact fluorescent lights) and 11 other faults related to fuses, switches, etc.

  18. Initial studies of reflectometer for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    ITER-related activities taking place over the last year were concentrated primarily on the area of advanced reflectometry systems. In particular, we have concentrated on reflectometer systems for density profile and density fluctuation studies on ITER. This interest has led us to spend much of our time investigating the pulsed radar time-of-flight reflectometer approaches (i.e. moderate pulse and ultrashort pulse). Pulsed radar systems offer the ability to make detailed profile measurements using fixed frequency sources, avoiding the need for highly stable sweepable sources as required by the more traditional FM radar systems

  19. Virtual interconnection platform initiative scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kou, Gefei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pan, Zuohong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); King Jr., Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Due to security and liability concerns, the research community has limited access to realistic large-scale power grid models to test and validate new operation and control methodologies. It is also difficult for industry to evaluate the relative value of competing new tools without a common platform for comparison. This report proposes to develop a large-scale virtual power grid model that retains basic features and represents future trends of major U.S. electric interconnections. This model will include realistic power flow and dynamics information as well as a relevant geospatial distribution of assets. This model will be made widely available to the research community for various power system stability and control studies and can be used as a common platform for comparing the efficacies of various new technologies.

  20. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the

  1. Initial studies of a competition agressivity scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartholomeu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of an aggressivity measure among athletes. Participants included 172 athletes, from five different sports, ranging in age from 14 to 58 years old (mean age 21 years, DP=5,99. The scale was composed of 54 items (on a three-point Likert scale that described various aggressive behaviors. The subjects were asked to indicate the frequency of the behaviors from “always” to “sometimes” and “never.”. The differential item functioning results by sex pointed to six items favoring one of the groups. The data were analyzed by means of principal components analysis with a varimax rotation and suggested a three factor structure explaining 44,31% of the variance. The dimensions were, Intimidation, External Aggression and Internal Aggression. Chronbach’s alphas ranged from 0,74 to 0,90. No significant differences of the dimensions were observed between the studied sports. These data enables the instrument to be used in future research.   Keywords: aggressivity; psychological assessment; sport psychology; factorial analysis; differential item functioning.

  2. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  3. Thermal stability of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin repeat 17: a spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Annette K. [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Kieffer, Bruno [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, IGBMC Biomolecular NMR Group, CNRS UMR 7104 (France); Trave, Gilles [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Equipe Oncoproteines, IREBS, UMR 7242 (France); Froystein, Nils Age [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Raae, Arnt J., E-mail: arnt.raae@mbi.uib.no [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    Spectrin is a rod-like multi-modular protein that is mainly composed of triple-helical repeats. These repeats show very similar 3D-structures but variable conformational and thermodynamical stabilities, which may be of great importance for the flexibility and dynamic behaviour of spectrin in the cell. For instance, repeat 17 (R17) of the chicken brain spectrin {alpha}-chain is four times less stable than neighbouring repeat 16 (R16) in terms of Increment G. The structure of spectrin repeats has mainly been investigated by X-ray crystallography, but the structures of a few repeats, e.g. R16, have also been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Here, we undertook a detailed characterization of the neighbouring R17 by NMR spectroscopy. We assigned most backbone resonances and observed NOE restraints, relaxation values and coupling constants that all indicated that the fold of R17 is highly similar to that of R16, in agreement with previous X-ray analysis of a tandem repeat of the two domains. However, {sup 15}N heteronuclear NMR spectra measured at different temperatures revealed particular features of the R17 domain that might contribute to its lower stability. Conformational exchange appeared to alter the linker connecting R17 to R16 as well as the BC-loop in close proximity. In addition, heat-induced splitting was observed for backbone resonances of a few spatially related residues including V99 of helix C, which in R16 is replaced by the larger hydrophobic tryptophan residue that is relatively conserved among other spectrin repeats. These data support the view that the substitution of tryptophan by valine at this position may contribute to the lower stability of R17.

  4. Inter- and intra-operator reliability and repeatability of shear wave elastography in the liver: a study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John M; Milot, Laurent; Parry, Craig; Williams, Ross; Burns, Peter N

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the liver of healthy volunteers. Intra- and inter-operator reliability and repeatability were quantified in three different liver segments in a sample of 15 subjects, scanned during four independent sessions (two scans on day 1, two scans 1 wk later) by two operators. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Reproducibility was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and a repeated measures analysis of variance. The shear wave speed was measured and used to estimate Young's modulus using the Supersonics Imagine Aixplorer. The median Young's modulus measured through the inter-costal space was 5.55 ± 0.74 kPa. The intra-operator reliability was better for same-day evaluations (ICC = 0.91) than the inter-operator reliability (ICC = 0.78). Intra-observer agreement decreased when scans were repeated on a different day. Inter-session repeatability was between 3.3% and 9.9% for intra-day repeated scans, compared with to 6.5%-12% for inter-day repeated scans. No significant difference was observed in subjects with a body mass index greater or less than 25 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Study on the Ferrokinetics and Acquired Immunity in Repeated Hookworm Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Lee, Pyl Ung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    In order to confirm whether acquired immunity or resistance can be developed by the repeated hookworm infections, the 150 mature actively moving filariform ancylostoma duodenale larvae obtained from the severe hookworm anemia patients were orally given to 8 healthy volunteers in three divided doses, 50 in each, at 5 day interval. Also the hematological changes as well as several ferrokinetics using {sup 59}Fe were done and were compared with 10 controls. The clinical symptoms and signs were checked every day for the first 3 weeks and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment. The appearance of the ova in the stool was examined by the formalin ether method and the ova was counted by the Stoll's method. The following laboratory tests were done:1) Red blood cell count, venous blood hematocrit (micromethod), hemoglobin count (cyanomethemoglobin method) were checked every 5 to 7 day interval. 2) Plasma iron concentration (Barkan's modified method) was determined every 2 to 3 week interval. 3) Radioisotope studies:a) Ferrokinetics: Huff et al and Bothwell's method were applied. Erythropoietic Index (% of normal)= ['Subject's turnover/100 ml whole bloodX100'] over ['Average normal turnover/100 ml whole blood'] b) Quantitative measurement of the gastrointestinal absorption of iron:Radioiron ({sup 59}Fe) balance method was applied. c) Determination of the plasma erythropoietin activity: Fried's method was applied. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron level was lower. The red cell volume was decreased, but with relative increase of plasma volume. 2) The plasma iron disappearance time was accelerated and the plasma iron turnover rate was decreased. The red cell iron turnover rate was markedly increased, while all of the red cell iron concentration, circulating red cell iron, plasma iron pool were decreased. The daily iron pool turnover and red cell renewal rate were increased. 3) The erythropoietic index, erythropoietin activity and intestinal absorption of

  6. The Study on the Ferrokinetics and Acquired Immunity in Repeated Hookworm Infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Lee, Pyl Ung

    1967-01-01

    In order to confirm whether acquired immunity or resistance can be developed by the repeated hookworm infections, the 150 mature actively moving filariform ancylostoma duodenale larvae obtained from the severe hookworm anemia patients were orally given to 8 healthy volunteers in three divided doses, 50 in each, at 5 day interval. Also the hematological changes as well as several ferrokinetics using 59 Fe were done and were compared with 10 controls. The clinical symptoms and signs were checked every day for the first 3 weeks and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment. The appearance of the ova in the stool was examined by the formalin ether method and the ova was counted by the Stoll's method. The following laboratory tests were done:1) Red blood cell count, venous blood hematocrit (micromethod), hemoglobin count (cyanomethemoglobin method) were checked every 5 to 7 day interval. 2) Plasma iron concentration (Barkan's modified method) was determined every 2 to 3 week interval. 3) Radioisotope studies:a) Ferrokinetics: Huff et al and Bothwell's method were applied. Erythropoietic Index (% of normal)= [ S ubject's turnover/100 ml whole bloodX100 ] over [ A verage normal turnover/100 ml whole blood ] b) Quantitative measurement of the gastrointestinal absorption of iron:Radioiron ( 59 Fe) balance method was applied. c) Determination of the plasma erythropoietin activity: Fried's method was applied. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron level was lower. The red cell volume was decreased, but with relative increase of plasma volume. 2) The plasma iron disappearance time was accelerated and the plasma iron turnover rate was decreased. The red cell iron turnover rate was markedly increased, while all of the red cell iron concentration, circulating red cell iron, plasma iron pool were decreased. The daily iron pool turnover and red cell renewal rate were increased. 3) The erythropoietic index, erythropoietin activity and intestinal absorption of iron

  7. Brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury: an exploratory study by repeated magnetic resonance examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannsjö, Marianne; Raininko, Raili; Bustamante, Mariana; von Seth, Charlotta; Borg, Jörgen

    2013-09-01

    To explore brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury by repeated magnetic resonance examination. A prospective follow-up study. Nineteen patients with mild traumatic brain injury presenting with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 14-15. The patients were examined on day 2 or 3 and 3-7 months after the injury. The magnetic resonance protocol comprised conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences including fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), two susceptibility-weighted sequences to reveal haemorrhages, and diffusion-weighted sequences. Computer-aided volume comparison was performed. Clinical outcome was assessed by the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). At follow-up, 7 patients (37%) reported ≥  3 symptoms in RPQ, 5 reported some anxiety and 1 reported mild depression. Fifteen patients reported upper level of good recovery and 4 patients lower level of good recovery (GOSE 8 and 7, respectively). Magnetic resonance pathology was found in 1 patient at the first examination, but 4 patients (21%) showed volume loss at the second examination, at which 3 of them reported GOSE scores of 8. Loss of brain volume, demonstrated by computer-aided magnetic resonance imaging volumetry, may be a feasible marker of brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury.

  8. Use of Different Furnaces to Study Repeatability and Reproducibility of Three Pd-C Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battuello, M.; Florio, M.; Girard, F.

    2010-09-01

    Three different Pd-C eutectic fixed-point cells were prepared and investigated at INRIM. Several tens of phase transition runs were carried out and recorded with both a Si-based radiation thermometer at 950 nm and a precision InGaAs-based thermometer at 1.6 μm. Two of the cells were of the same design with an inner volume of 12 cm3. The third one was smaller with a useful inner volume of 3.6 cm3. The three cells were filled with palladium powder 4N5 or 4N8 pure and graphite powder 6N pure. The repeatability and stability of the inflection point were investigated over a period of 1 year. The noticeably different external dimensions of the two cells, namely, 110 mm and 40 mm in length, allowed the influence of the longitudinal temperature distribution to be investigated. For this purpose, two different furnaces, a single-zone with SiC heaters and a three-zone with MoSi2 heaters, were used. Different operative conditions, namely, temperature steps, melting rate, longitudinal temperature distributions, and position of cells within the furnace, were tested to investigate the reproducibility of the cells. Effects on the duration and shape of the plateaux were also studied. This article gives details of the measurement setup and analyses of the melting plateaux obtained with the different conditions.

  9. Smooth muscle fatigue due to repeated urinary bladder neurostimulation: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, S; Schumacher, S; Scheepe, J R; Seif, C; Jünemann, K P; Alken, P

    1999-01-01

    The presented study investigates the influence of different pause lengths between two consecutive stimulations of the S3 roots on intravesical pressure during bladder neurostimulation. In eight male foxhounds (aged 7-18 months), laminectomy and placement of a modified Brindley electrode were performed. In four series with different pause lengths between two consecutive stimulations (1, 3, 5, and 15 min), the maximum intravesical pressure was measured during stimulation. The changes in intravesical pressure were registered in these four series, each series with six stimulations. A 15-min interval elapsed before the commencement of each series. In the series with a pause length of 15 min, the consecutive stimulations did not result in significant changes in maximum intravesical pressure. In the 5-min series, a significant decrease in intravesical pressure was not observed after the third stimulation. In the 3-min series, a significant decrease was seen at almost every stimulation (average decrease of 3.8% per stimulation) and in the 1-min series, a significant decrease was also observed at almost every stimulation (average decrease of 5.9% per stimulation). The results of repeated bladder neurostimulation demonstrate that the maximum intravesical pressure is dependent on the pause length between two consecutive stimulations. The detrusor muscle showed reversible and short-lived signs of fatigue. This implies the importance of a minimum 5-min interval between two subsequent stimulations. A pause length <5 min leads to a falsification of the results and thus to lower validity of the investigation.

  10. Study on the homocysteine metabolism of patients with unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the metabolism abnormality of homocysteine(Hcy) in unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion(URSA).Methods:The level of Hcy in sera was measured with hyperpressure liquid chromatography(HPLC);Folic acid and vitamin B12 were detected by radioimmune assay;anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) was detected by ELISA.Results:(1)The level of serum Hcy in URSA group was significantly higher than that in control group,showing a statistical significant difference(P<0.01).The level of Hcy was correlated with ages,but not correlated with areas,numbers of miscarriage,gestation age,primary or secondary abortions.(2)The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in URSA group were significantly lower than those in control group.The levels of serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were not correlated with age,area,numbers of miscarriage and abortion periods.(3)ACA positive rate in URSA was significantly higher than that in control group.The level of Hcy in ACA(+) group was significantly higher than that in ACA(-) group among URSA patients.Conclusions:Hyperhomocysteinemia,low folic acid state,and ACA were all the independent risk factors for URSA.Lacking of folic acid and vitamin B12 is one of the important causes of hyperhomocysteinemia.ACA and hyperhomocysteinemia may have synergistic action in the occurrence of URSA.

  11. NIST mixed stain study 3: signal intensity balance in commercial short tandem repeat multiplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duewer, David L; Kline, Margaret C; Redman, Janette W; Butler, John M

    2004-12-01

    Short-tandem repeat (STR) allelic intensities were collected from more than 60 forensic laboratories for a suite of seven samples as part of the National Institute of Standards and Technology-coordinated 2001 Mixed Stain Study 3 (MSS3). These interlaboratory challenge data illuminate the relative importance of intrinsic and user-determined factors affecting the locus-to-locus balance of signal intensities for currently used STR multiplexes. To varying degrees, seven of the eight commercially produced multiplexes used by MSS3 participants displayed very similar patterns of intensity differences among the different loci probed by the multiplexes for all samples, in the hands of multiple analysts, with a variety of supplies and instruments. These systematic differences reflect intrinsic properties of the individual multiplexes, not user-controllable measurement practices. To the extent that quality systems specify minimum and maximum absolute intensities for data acceptability and data interpretation schema require among-locus balance, these intrinsic intensity differences may decrease the utility of multiplex results and surely increase the cost of analysis.

  12. A study on the evaluation of dynamic stress intensity factor in repeated impact bending test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jae Ki; Cho, Gyu Jae; Han, Gill Young

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to establish the evaluation of the dynamic stress intensity factor in repeated impact three point bending test. Contact force between the impact bar and the cracked beam (simple supported beam) was analyzed by the using Hertz's contact law. In order to clarify the validity of theoretical analysis, experiments of dynamic stress intensity factir k I (t) are made on the cracked beam. The results obtained from this study are as follow: 1. In case of impact force analysis the theoretical result was obtained by the use of the Hertz's contact law. It's result was agreemant with the experimental result. Particularly, it was good agreement in the low impact velocity range. 2. The time variation of the dynamic stress intensity was determined by using the simple formula developed in this pqper. And the validity of it's result can be confirmed by experiment. Particlarly, this theoretical analysis was a good agreement to actual phenomena on from 0.3 msec to 0.65 msec. (Author)

  13. Psychosocial outcomes of Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with acute coronary syndromes: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dominic S K; Chau, Janita P C; Chang, Anne M

    2007-08-01

    Western studies have suggested that emotional stress and distress impacted on the morbidity and mortality in people following acute coronary events. Symptoms of anxiety and depression have been associated with re-infarction and death, prolonged recovery and disability and depression may precipitate the client's low self-esteem. This study examined perceived anxiety, depression and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese clients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) over a 6-month period following hospital admission. To examine: A prospective, repeated measures design with measures taken on two occasions over a 6-month period; (1) within the 1st week of hospital admission following the onset of ACS and (2) at 6 months follow up. Convenient sample of 182 voluntary consented clients admitted with ACS to a major public hospital in Hong Kong who could communicate in Chinese, complete questionnaires, cognitive intact, and were haemodynamically stable and free from acute chest pain at the time of interview. Baseline data were obtained within 1 week after hospital admission. The follow-up data was collected 6 months after hospital discharge. The Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State Self-esteem Scale (SSES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess anxiety and depression, state self-esteem, and trait self-esteem, respectively. Findings suggested gender differences in clients' perception in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Improvements in clients' perception of these variables were evident over the 6-month period following their acute coronary events. The study confirmed the western notion that psychosocial problems are common among coronary clients and this also applies to Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with ACS. Further studies to explore effective interventions to address these psychosocial issues are recommended.

  14. The Association Between Oxidative Stress and Depressive Symptom Scores in Elderly Population: A Repeated Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwoo Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Previous epidemiological studies about oxidative stress and depression are limited by hospital-based case-control design, single-time measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers, and the small number of study participants. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the association between biomarker of oxidative stress and depressive symptom scores using repeatedly measured panel data from a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods From 2008 to 2010, a total of 478 elderly participants residing in Seoul, Korea, were evaluated three times. Participants underwent the Korean version of the Short Form Generic Depression Scale (SGDS-K test for screening depression, and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured as an oxidative stress biomarker. We used a generalized estimating equation with a compound symmetry covariance structure to estimate the effects of oxidative stress on depressive symptom scores. Results A two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with a 33.88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.59% to 47.42% increase in total SGDS-K scores. In subgroup analyses by gender, a two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with increased SGDS-K scores in both men and women (men: 30.88%; 95% CI, 10.24% to 55.37%; women: 34.77%; 95% CI, 20.09% to 51.25%. In bivariate analysis after an SGDS-K score ≥8 was defined as depression, the third and the fourth urinary MDA quartiles showed a significantly increased odds ratio(OR of depression compared to the lowest urinary MDA quartile (third quartile OR, 6.51; 95% CI, 1.77 to 24.00; fourth quartile OR, 7.11; 95% CI, 1.99 to 25.42. Conclusions Our study suggests a significant association between oxidative stress and depressive symptoms in the elderly population.

  15. Visual assessment of the cervical vertebral maturation stages: A study of diagnostic accuracy and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Caprioglio, Alberto; Contardo, Luca

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and repeatability of the visual assessment of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. Ten operators underwent training sessions in visual assessment of CVM staging. Subsequently, they were asked to stage 72 cases equally divided into the six stages. Such assessment was repeated twice in two sessions (T1 and T2) 4 weeks apart. A reference standard for each case was created according to a cephalometric analysis of both the concavities and shapes of the cervical vertebrae. The overall agreement with the reference standard was about 68% for both sessions and 76.9% for intrarater repeatability. The overall kappa coefficients with the reference standard were up to 0.86 for both sessions, and 0.88 for intrarater repeatability. Overall, disagreements one stage and twp stage apart were 23.5% (T1) and 5.1% (T2), respectively. Sensitivity ranged from 53.3% for CS5 (T1) to 99.9% for CS1 (T2), positive predictive values ranged from 52.4% for CS5 (T2) to 94.3% for CS6 (T1), and accuracy ranged from 83.6% for CS4 (T2) to 94.9% for CS1 (T1). Visual assessment of the CVM stages is accurate and repeatable to a satisfactory level. About one in three cases remain misclassified; disagreement is generally limited to one stage and is mostly seen in stages 4 and 5.

  16. Does repeat Hb measurement within 2 hours after a normal initial Hb in stable trauma patients add value to trauma evaluation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierink, Joanne C.; Joosse, Pieter; de Castro, Steve M. M.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2014-01-01

    In our level I trauma center, it is considered common practice to repeat blood haemoglobin measurements in patients within 2 h after admission. However, the rationale behind this procedure is elusive and can be considered labour-intensive, especially in patients in whom haemorrhaging is not to be

  17. Measurements of Repeated Tightening and Loosening Torque of Seven Different Implant/Abutment Connection Designs and Their Modifications: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevica, Alena; Nathanson, Dan; Pober, Richard; Strating, Herman

    2018-02-01

    Repeated tightening and loosening of the abutment screw may alter its mechanical and physical properties affecting the optimal torque and ultimate reliability of an implant/abutment connection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated tightening and loosening of implant/abutment screws on the loosening torque of implant/abutment connections of commercially available implant systems. Seven different implant/abutment connections and their modifications were tested. The screws of each system were tightened according to the manufacturer's specifications. After 20 minutes the screws were loosened. This procedure was repeated ten times, and the differences between the 1st and 10th cycle were expressed as a percentage change RTq(%) and correlated with initial torque, the number of threads, the length of shank, and thread surface area employing Spearman's analysis. All systems showed significant differences in residual torque (RTq) value (p 0.05). All connections but group 3 (p = 1.000) showed a significant change from the initial torque (ITq) to the RTq values. The first successive RTq values increased in two connection groups 1 and 2. The remaining connections showed reduced RTq values ranging from -1.2 % (group 5) to -23.5% (group 6). The RTq values declined gradually with every repeated tightening in groups 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12. In group 2, after the tenth tightening the RTq was still above the ITq value. Only length of shank demonstrated a correlation with the RTq(%) change over the successive tightening loosening cycles (p abutment screws caused varying torque level changes among the different systems. These observations can probably be attributed to connection design. Limiting the number of tightening/loosening cycles in clinical and laboratory procedures is advisable for most of the implant systems tested. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. The Outcome of Repeated Mid Urethral Sling in SUI Treatment after Vaginal Excisions of Primary Failed Sling: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kociszewski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid urethral sling is the standard in SUI treatment. Nevertheless, the risk of reoperation reaches 9%. There is no consensus as to the best treatment option for complications. A question is raised: what is the optimal way to achieve the best result in patients after primary failure? The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of repeat MUS surgery in patients after excision of the sling with recurrent SUI. We compared its effectiveness with uncomplicated cases treated with TVT. 27 patients who underwent the repeated MUS and 50 consecutive patients after primary TVT were enrolled in the study. After 6 months, we have found that 24 (88.46% patients from repeat sling group and 48 (96% patients after primary sling were dry (1-hour pad test, 2 g or less. The difference between groups was not significant. We showed statistically significant improvement of quality of life in both groups. In conclusion, we showed that repeated sling after MUS excision is almost as effective as primary MUS. We postulate that sling excision and repeated MUS may be the best option for persistent SUI and/or complications after MUS procedures. Further multicenter observations are ongoing as to provide results on bigger group of cases.

  19. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  20. Effect of hip braces on brake response time: Repeated measures designed study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Huber, Dennis G; Krismer, Martin; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The question whether or not a patient with a hip brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because the advice given to patients to resume driving is often anecdotal as few scientific data are available on this specific subject. To assess driving ability (brake response time) with commonly used hip braces. Repeated measures design. Brake response time was assessed under six conditions: (1) without a brace (control), (2) with a typical postoperative hip brace with adjustable range of motion and the settings: unrestricted, (3) flexion limited to 70°, (4) extension blocked at 20° hip flexion, (5) both flexion and extension limited (20°/70°) and (6) an elastic hip bandage. Brake response time was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator as used in previous studies. The participants were a convenience sample of able-bodied participants. A total of 70 participants (35 women and 35 men) participated in our study. Mean age was 31.1 (standard deviation: 10.6; range: 21.7-66.4) years. A significant within-subject effect for brake response time was found ( p = 0.009), but subsequent post hoc analyses revealed no significant differences between control and the other settings. Based on our findings, it does not seem mandatory to recommend driving abstinence for patients wearing a hip orthosis. We suggest that our results be interpreted with caution, because (1) an underlying pathological hip condition needs to be considered, (2) the ability to drive a car safely is multifactorial and brake response time is only one component thereof and (3) brake response time measurements were performed only with healthy participants. Clinical relevance Hip braces are used in the context of joint-preserving and prosthetic surgery of the hip. Therefore, clinicians are confronted with the question whether to allow driving a car with the respective hip brace or not. Our data suggest that hip braces do not impair brake response time.

  1. A 28-Day Repeated Dose Toxicological Study of an Aqueous Extract of Morus Alba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Tennille K; Glávits, Róbert; Endres, John R; Palmer, Philip A; Clewell, Amy E; Murbach, Timothy S; Hirka, Gábor; Pasics, Ilona

    2016-11-01

    Morus alba L. (white mulberry) leaves are one of the oldest recognized traditional Chinese medicines. More recently, M alba leaves and their constituents, particularly iminosugars (or azasugars), have garnered attention for their ability to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations, an effect identified in both animal studies and human clinical trials. Reducose (Phynova Group Limited) is a commercial water-soluble extract of M alba leaves standardized to 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an iminosugar with α-glucosidase inhibition properties. Although there is an extensive history of consumption of M alba leaves by humans and animals worldwide, suggesting that the leaves and their extracts have a relatively good safety profile, we are unaware of safety assessments on an extract containing a higher amount of DNJ than that occurs naturally. The current 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity study in rats, conducted according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines, was carried out to assess the safety of Reducose. Male and female Hsd.Han Wistar rats (4 groups of 10 animals/sex) were administered Reducose via gavage at doses of 0, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d. No treatment-related mortality or adverse effects (per clinical observations, body weight/weight gain, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, or histopathology) were observed, and no target organs were identified. The no observed adverse effect level was determined to be 4,000 mg/kg bw/d for both male and female rats, the highest dose tested. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Hearing loss associated with repeated MRI acquisition procedure-related acoustic noise exposure: an occupational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Suzan; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of repeated exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise during image acquisition procedures (scans) on hearing. METHODS: A retrospective occupational cohort study was performed among workers of an MRI manufacturing facility (n=474). Longitudinal audiometry data from the

  3. Population genetic study of 10 short tandem repeat loci from 600 domestic dogs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seo Hyun; Jang, Yoon-Jeong; Han, Myun Soo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-30

    Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved. However, the probability of random DNA profile matches cannot be analyzed because of a lack of canine STR data. Therefore, in this study, 10 STR loci were analyzed in 600 dogs in Korea (344 dogs belonging to 30 different purebreds and 256 crossbred dogs) to estimate canine forensic genetic parameters. Among purebred dogs, a separate statistical analysis was conducted for five major subgroups, 97 Maltese, 47 Poodles, 31 Shih Tzus, 32 Yorkshire Terriers, and 25 Pomeranians. Allele frequencies, expected (Hexp) and observed heterozygosity (Hobs), fixation index (F), probability of identity (P(ID)), probability of sibling identity (P(ID)sib) and probability of exclusion (PE) were then calculated. The Hexp values ranged from 0.901 (PEZ12) to 0.634 (FHC2079), while the P(ID)sib values were between 0.481 (FHC2079) and 0.304 (PEZ12) and the P(ID)sib was about 3.35 × 10(-)⁵ for the combination of all 10 loci. The results presented herein will strengthen the value of canine DNA to solving dog-related crimes.

  4. Repeated CT studies of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis during his entire clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Masahiro; Fukui, Keiji; Takeda, Sadanori; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hideki; Sakaki, Saburo.

    1985-01-01

    We encountered a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis whose cerebral lesions were studied by repeated CT scannings during his entire clinical course. The purpose of this paper is to report the earliest lesions of the brain as revealed by CT scans. A 63-year-old man was admitted to our clinic complaining of headache, nausea, fever, and disorientation. On admission, a physical examination showed a high fever, while a neurological examination revealed a stiff neck, a positive Kernig's sign, and disorientation. Laboratory examinations revealed a pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid. Electroencephalograms showed the so-called ''periodic sharp-and-slow-waves complex''. The complement fixation titer for herpes simplex virus was x32 in the serum and x128 in the cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. We treated him with adenine arabinoside and gamma-globulin, but the patient did not recover; rather, he died of pneumonia and gastrointestinal bleeding three months later. Plain CT scans taken on the 12th day after the onset revealed a low-density area with signs of a slight mass in the region from the right island of Reil to the right uncus. Contrast-enhanced CT scans revealed an irregular enhancement in the low-density area. CT scans taken on the 19th day after the onset showed an extensive low-density area with a streak-like enhancement in the right temporal lobe, which is in aggreement with the findings reported by others as characteristic CT findings for herpes simplex encephalitis. In order to make an early diagnosis of a patient, we should pay attention to a low-density area with an irregular contrast enhancement in the region from the island of Reil to the uncus on a CT scan. (author)

  5. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aten, J.J.; Oudega, M.L.; van Exel, E.; Stek, M.L.; van Waarde, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment

  6. Parsimonious Structural Equation Models for Repeated Measures Data, with Application to the Study of Consumer Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Terry; Haubl, Gerald; Tipps, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reflects a growing awareness of the value of using structural equation models to analyze repeated measures data. However, such data, particularly in the presence of covariates, often lead to models that either fit the data poorly, are exceedingly general and hard to interpret, or are specified in a manner that is highly data…

  7. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohotoa Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289 and control group (n=244 were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs, intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048. Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09 and at six weeks (mean=1.09 were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11 and at six weeks (mean =1.07 with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their

  8. Context matters! sources of variability in weekend physical activity among families: a repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Noonan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family involvement is an essential component of effective physical activity (PA interventions in children. However, little is known about the PA levels and characteristics of PA among families. This study used a repeated measures design and multiple data sources to explore the variability and characteristics of weekend PA among families. Methods Families (including a ‘target’ child aged 9–11 years, their primary caregiver(s and siblings aged 6–8 years were recruited through primary schools in Liverpool, UK. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 16 weekend days. ActiGraph.csv files were analysed using the R-package GGIR version 1.1–4. Mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA for each weekend of measurement were calculated using linear mixed models, and variance components were estimated for participant (inter-individual, weekend of measurement, and residual error (intra-individual. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were calculated from the proportion of total variance accounted for by inter-individual sources, and used as a measure of reliability. Diary responses were summed to produce frequency counts. To offer contextual insight into weekend PA among family units, demographic, accelerometer, and diary data were combined to form two case studies representative of low and high active families. Results Twenty-five participants from 7 families participated, including 7 ‘target’ children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 4 boys, 6 siblings (mean age 7.2 ± 0.7 years; 4 boys and 12 adults (7 mothers and 5 fathers. There was a high degree of variability in target children’s (ICC = 0.55, siblings (ICC = 0.38, and mothers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.58, but not in fathers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.83. Children’s weekend PA was mostly unstructured in nature and undertaken with friends, whereas a greater proportion of parents’ weekend

  9. Reduction and technical simplification of testing protocol for walking based on repeatability analyses: An Interreg IVa pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the most appropriate gait measurement protocols to be used in our future studies in the Mobility in Ageing project. A group of young healthy volunteers took part in the study. Each subject carried out a 10-metre walking test at five different speeds (preferred, very slow, very fast, slow, and fast. Each walking speed was repeated three times, making a total of 15 trials which were carried out in a random order. Each trial was simultaneously analysed by three observers using three different technical approaches: a stop watch, photo cells and electronic kinematic dress. In analysing the repeatability of the trials, the results showed that of the five self-selected walking speeds, three of them (preferred, very fast, and very slow had a significantly higher repeatability of the average walking velocity, step length and cadence than the other two speeds. Additionally, the data showed that one of the three technical methods for gait assessment has better metric characteristics than the other two. In conclusion, based on repeatability, technical and organizational simplification, this study helped us to successfully define a simple and reliable walking test to be used in the main study of the project.

  10. Repeating Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christian; Monticelli, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development...... and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show...... that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today....

  11. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005 [8] used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip

  12. Effect of routine repeat transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer: a long-term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Steinhoff, Christine; Simon, Xenia; Spiegelhalder, Philipp; Ackermann, Rolf; Vogeli, Thomas Alexander

    2003-08-01

    We determined the long-term outcome in patients with superficial bladder cancer (Ta and T1) undergoing routine second transurethral bladder tumor resection (ReTURB) in regard to recurrence and progression. We performed an inception cohort study of 124 consecutive patients with superficial bladder cancer undergoing transurethral resection and routine ReTURB (83) between November 1993 and October 1995 at a German university hospital. Immediately after transurethral resection all lesions were documented on a designed bladder map. ReTURB of the scar from initial resection and other suspicious lesions was performed at a mean of 7 weeks. Patients were followed until recurrence or death, or a minimum of 5 years. Residual tumor was found in 33% of all ReTURB cases, including 27% of Ta and 53% of T1 disease, and in 81% at the initial resection site. Five of the 83 patients underwent radical cystectomy due to ReTURB findings. The estimated risk of recurrence after years 1 to 3 was 18%, 29% and 32%, respectively. After 5 years 63% of the patients undergoing ReTURB were still disease-free (mean recurrence-free survival 62 months, median 87). Progression to muscle invasive disease was observed in only 2 patients (3%) after a mean observation of 61 months. These data suggest a favorable outcome regarding recurrence and progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer who undergo ReTURB. ReTURB is suggested at least in those at high risk when bladder preservation is intended.

  13. Prospective study on determinants of repeat attendance and attendance patterns in breast cancer screening using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Boer, Hendrik; Seydel, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a theoretical framework, was carried out to identify the determinants of repeat attendance and attendance patterns in organised breast screening. A group of 2657 women filled out a baseline questionnaire, approximately 8 weeks

  14. Assessing the repeatability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring gully topography: A case study from Aratula, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0

  15. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  16. Experimental study on acquisition of knowledge through repeated education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Seiichi; Kitamura, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    Considering the educational methodology to bring up nuclear power plant operators, the experiments are conducted to discuss the relation between the educational backgrounds of subjects and the knowledge acquired through education and training and also to discuss the effects of repeated training on knowledge acquisition. The results show that the knowledge the subjects obtained through the training depends on their educational backgrounds. The subjects with the higher educational backgrounds seem to properly reorganize the knowledge for the operations with using their deep and meta knowledge. Therefore they can create anticipative responses and easily identify causes of events. The results also show that the repeated education and training given to the subjects with weaker backgrounds makes their knowledge reorganized and their ability becomes closer to the subjects' one with higher educational backgrounds. These results indicate that the knowledge acquired in the earlier stage of the education and training depends on the subjects' educational backgrounds. However, the repeated education and training compensates for the difference. It is also suggested that it will be possible to bring up operators more effectively and properly if the existence of people with different educational backgrounds is recognized and the education/training depending on the educational backgrounds are realized. (author)

  17. Study of the repeatability of histone genes in the ploidy series of wheat and Aegilops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhitov, V.A.; Kulikov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The hDNA content and number of histone genes in the genomes of different wheat and Aegilops species have been determined by molecular hybridization of DNA with 125 I-histone DNA of Drosophila (L-repeat) on nitrocellulose filters. It has been demonstrated that the proportion of hDNA in the total DNA of diploid and polyploid wheat species is (1.3-7.7) x 10 -3 % (57-850 genes), and in the ploidy series of Aegilops species (2.0-8.0) x 10 -3 % (89-780 genes). The repeatability of the histone genes generally increases at each ploidy level in the species with higher DNA content. At the same time, it has been demonstrated that the DNA content is not the only factor determining repeatability of the histone genes, as some diploid and allopolyploid species have similar number of these genes. It has been concluded that genetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of the number of histone genes

  18. Study on the fatigue crack initiation life under spherical contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Wan [Busan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mun Ju [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    In case of contact fatigue, the accurate calculation of surface tractions and subsurface stress is essential to the prediction of crack initiation life. Surface tractions influencing shear stress amplitude have been obtained by contact analysis based on influence function. Subsurface stress has been obtained by using rectangular patch solutions. In this study, to simulate asperity contact under sliding condition, the tip of asperity was simulated by sphere and to calculate crack initiation life in the substrate, dislocation pileup theory was used.

  19. Study on the fatigue crack initiation life under spherical contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Mun Ju

    2001-01-01

    In case of contact fatigue, the accurate calculation of surface tractions and subsurface stress is essential to the prediction of crack initiation life. Surface tractions influencing shear stress amplitude have been obtained by contact analysis based on influence function. Subsurface stress has been obtained by using rectangular patch solutions. In this study, to simulate asperity contact under sliding condition, the tip of asperity was simulated by sphere and to calculate crack initiation life in the substrate, dislocation pileup theory was used

  20. Hanford tank initiative test facility site selection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehr, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) project is developing equipment for the removal of hard heel waste from the Hanford Site underground single-shell waste storage tanks. The HTI equipment will initially be installed in the 241-C-106 tank where its operation will be demonstrated. This study evaluates existing Hanford Site facilities and other sites for functional testing of the HTI equipment before it is installed into the 241-C-106 tank

  1. Metamemory judgments and the benefits of repeated study: improving recall predictions through the activation of appropriate knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Heather L; Leboe, Jason P

    2009-05-01

    Correspondence between judgments of learning (JOLs) and actual recall tends to be poor when the same items are studied and recalled multiple times (e.g., A. Koriat, L. Sheffer, & H. Ma'ayan, 2002). The authors investigated whether making relevant metamemory knowledge more salient would improve the association between actual and predicted recall as a function of repeated exposure to the same study list. In 2 experiments, participants completed 4 study-recall phases involving the same list of items. In addition to having participants make item-by-item JOLs during each study phase, after the 1st study-recall phase participants also generated change-in-recall estimates as to how many more or fewer words they would recall given another exposure to the same study list. This estimation procedure was designed to highlight repeated study as a factor that can contribute to recall performance. Activating metamemory knowledge about the benefits of repeated study for recall in this way allowed participants to accurately express this knowledge in a free-recall context (Experiment 2), but less so when the memory test was cued recall (Experiment 1). Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Repeated sub-chronic oral toxicity study of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonglin; Wang, Yunzhi; Li, Yanshen; Han, Rui; Li, Chunmei; Xiao, Lin; Cho, Susan; Ma, Yukui; Fang, Chao; Lee, Albert W

    2017-06-01

    In this study, Beagle dogs were administered xylooligosaccharide (XOS, CAS # 87099-0) at doses of 0, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery period was added to observe delayed or reversible toxicity. Measurements included body weight, food consumption, clinical observations, temperature, electrocardiogram (ECG), urinalysis, blood chemistry, hematology, organ weight, gross necropsy, and histopathological examination. Except for transient diarrhea or vomiting, no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. In the mid-dose groups, transitional diarrhea was observed in the initial 1-2 weeks. In the high-dose groups, diarrhea and/or vomiting were observed episodically over the duration of treatment. However, they disappeared after XOS was withdrawn in the recovery period. Although there was a tendency toward less weight gain in the high-dose group animal group, this is typical in animals and humans fed non-digestible carbohydrates. This chronic toxicity study demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of XOS is 2500 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day. Based on body surface area (conversion factor of 0.54 for dogs to human), this corresponds to daily doses of 1350 mg/kg BW or 81-108 g XOS in human adults weighing 60-80 kg. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. CAG repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor and breast cancer risk in women: a meta-analysis of 17 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Q

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Qixing Mao,1–3,* Mantang Qiu,1–3,* Gaochao Dong,3 Wenjie Xia,1–3 Shuai Zhang,1,3 Youtao Xu,1,3 Jie Wang,3 Yin Rong,1,3 Lin Xu,1,3 Feng Jiang1,3 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Institute of Jiangsu Province, 2Fourth Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, 3Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Translational Cancer Research, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The association between polymorphic CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene in women and breast cancer susceptibility has been studied extensively. However, the conclusions regarding this relationship remain conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify whether androgen receptor CAG repeat lengths were related to breast cancer susceptibility. The MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases were searched through to December 2014 to identify eligible studies. Data and study quality were rigorously assessed by two investigators according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The publication bias was assessed by the Begg’s test. Seventeen eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall analysis suggested no association between CAG polymorphisms and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.031, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.855–1.245. However, in the subgroup analysis, we observed that long CAG repeats significantly increased the risk of breast cancer in the Caucasian population (OR 1.447, 95% CI 1.089–1.992. Additionally, the risk was significantly increased in Caucasian women carrying two alleles with CAG repeats ≥22 units compared with those with two shorter alleles (OR 1.315, 95% CI 1.014–1.707. These findings suggest that long CAG repeats increase the risk of breast cancer in Caucasian women. However, larger scale case-control studies are needed to validate our results. Keywords: androgen, CAG repeat polymorphism, women

  4. Repeatability of an automated Landolt C test, compared with the early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) chart testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruamviboonsuk, Paisan; Tiensuwan, Montip; Kunawut, Catleya; Masayaanon, Patcharapim

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of visual acuity scores from the automated test and compare them with the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Instrument validation study based on a model of repeatability study in two observations. SMETHODS: a prospective, clinic-based, comparative study. A total of 206 participants without ocular diseases and refractive errors in their right eyes were randomly enrolled in the automated group in which 107 participants performed the automated test and the ETDRS group in which 99 participants read the ETDRS chart. All participants were tested with only their right eyes without corrections at 4 meters and came back to have the same tests 1 week later. The automated test used the Landolt rings as optotypes and was conducted by a low-ended personal computer with a 15-inch monitor and a wireless keyboard. The "letter" score calculated by counting every correct response to optotypes, and the "threshold curve" score interpreted from the optotype size at the midpoint of a visual acuity threshold curve. The 95% confidence interval of test-retest of visual acuity scores from the automated test are comparable to the ETDRS chart (.143 compared with.125 for letter scores,.145 compared with.122 for threshold curve scores). The score repeatabilities, calculated from the standard deviations of test-retest, from the automated test are also comparable to the ETDRS chart (.201 compared with.177 for letter scores,.206 compared with.172 for threshold curve scores). All comparisons demonstrated no statistical difference (P >.05). The automated testing system in this study enables practical measuring visual acuity by the Landolt rings. The system's repeatability, which is comparable to the ETDRS chart, supports its role as an alternative tool for measuring outcome in new clinical research. Its ability to practically generate visual acuity threshold curves may also be useful in future clinical research studies.

  5. The initial growth of complex oxides : study and manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the initial growth stage, i.e., nucleation and growth of the first few unit cell layers, of complex oxides was studied in real time during pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These studies were performed at their optimal epitaxial growth conditions, i.e., high temperature and high oxygen

  6. The value of repeating studies and multiple controls: replicated 28-day growth studies of rainbow trout exposed to clofibric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Stewart F; Huggett, Duane B; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Hetheridge, Malcolm J; McCormack, Paul; Kinter, Lewis B; Ericson, Jon F; Constantine, Lisa A; Sumpter, John P

    2010-12-01

    Two studies to examine the effect of waterborne clofibric acid (CA) on growth-rate and condition of rainbow trout were conducted using accepted regulatory tests (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] 215). The first study (in 2005) showed significant reductions after 21 d of exposure (21-d growth lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC] = 0.1 µg/L, 21-d condition LOEC = 0.1 µg/L) that continued to 28 d. Growth rate was reduced by approximately 50% (from 5.27 to 2.67% per day), while the condition of the fish reduced in a concentration-dependant manner. Additionally, in a concentration-dependent manner, significant changes in relative liver size were observed, such that increasing concentrations of CA resulted in smaller livers after 28-d exposure. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was not achieved in the 2005 study. An expanded second study (in 2006) that included a robust bridge to the 2005 study, with four replicate tanks of eight individual fish per concentration, did not repeat the 2005 findings. In the 2006 study, no significant effect on growth rate, condition, or liver biometry was observed after 21 or 28 d (28-d growth NOEC = 10 µg/L, 28-d condition NOEC = 10 µg/L), contrary to the 2005 findings. We do not dismiss either of these findings and suggest both are relevant and stand for comparison. However, the larger 2006 study carries more statistical power and multiple-tank replication, so probably produced the more robust findings. Despite sufficient statistical power in each study, interpretation of these and similar studies should be conducted with caution, because much significance is placed on the role of limited numbers of individual and tank replicates and the influence of control animals. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  7. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  8. Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: assessing the effects using the best level of evidence - study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis is to assess whether the effects of repeat prenatal corticosteroid treatment given to women at risk of preterm birth to benefit their babies are modified in a clinically meaningful way by factors related to the women or the trial protocol. Methods/Design The Prenatal Repeat Corticosteroid International IPD Study Group: assessing the effects using the best level of Evidence (PRECISE Group will conduct an IPD meta-analysis. The PRECISE International Collaborative Group was formed in 2010 and data collection commenced in 2011. Eleven trials with up to 5,000 women and 6,000 infants are eligible for the PRECISE IPD meta-analysis. The primary study outcomes for the infants will be serious neonatal outcome (defined by the PRECISE International IPD Study Group as one of death (foetal, neonatal or infant; severe respiratory disease; severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grade 3 and 4; chronic lung disease; necrotising enterocolitis; serious retinopathy of prematurity; and cystic periventricular leukomalacia; use of respiratory support (defined as mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airways pressure or other respiratory support; and birth weight (Z-scores. For the children, the primary study outcomes will be death or any neurological disability (however defined by trialists at childhood follow up and may include developmental delay or intellectual impairment (developmental quotient or intelligence quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean, cerebral palsy (abnormality of tone with motor dysfunction, blindness (for example, corrected visual acuity worse than 6/60 in the better eye or deafness (for example, hearing loss requiring amplification or worse. For the women, the primary outcome will be maternal sepsis (defined as chorioamnionitis; pyrexia after trial entry requiring the use of antibiotics; puerperal sepsis; intrapartum fever requiring the use

  9. Utilization of a cloned alphoid repeating sequence of human DNA in the study of polymorphism of chromosomal heterochromatin regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruminya, A.R.; Kroshkina, V.G.; Yurov, Yu.B.; Aleksandrov, I.A.; Mitkevich, S.P.; Gindilis, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of the cloned PHS05 fragment of human alphoid DNA was studied by in situ hybridization in 38 individuals. It was shown that this DNA fraction is primarily localized in the pericentric regions of practically all chromosomes of the set. Significant interchromosomal differences and a weakly expressed interindividual polymorphism were discovered in the copying ability of this class of repeating DNA sequences; associations were not found between the results of hybridization and the pattern of Q-polymorphism

  10. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  11. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jia; Ryu, Su-Jung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Min; Chung, Hee-Chul; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-01-20

    Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia-Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted 5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  12. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium elegans extract (GEE is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  13. Comparison of initial and tertiary centre second opinion reads of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate prior to repeat biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Nienke L. [University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Koo, Brendan C.; Gallagher, Ferdia A. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warren, Anne Y. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Doble, Andrew; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Bratt, Ola; Kastner, Christof [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Barrett, Tristan [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, CamPARI Clinic, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Box 218, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the value of second-opinion evaluation of multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by subspecialised uroradiologists at a tertiary centre for the detection of significant cancer in transperineal fusion prostate biopsy. Evaluation of prospectively acquired initial and second-opinion radiology reports of 158 patients who underwent MRI at regional hospitals prior to transperineal MR/untrasound fusion biopsy at a tertiary referral centre over a 3-year period. Gleason score (GS) 7-10 cancer, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive value (±95 % confidence intervals) were calculated and compared by Fisher's exact test. Disagreement between initial and tertiary centre second-opinion reports was observed in 54 % of cases (86/158). MRIs had a higher NPV for GS 7-10 in tertiary centre reads compared to initial reports (0.89 ± 0.08 vs 0.72 ± 0.16; p = 0.04), and a higher PPV in the target area for all cancer (0.61 ± 0.12 vs 0.28 ± 0.10; p = 0.01) and GS 7-10 cancer (0.43 ± 0.12 vs 0.2 3 ± 0.09; p = 0.02). For equivocal suspicion, the PPV for GS 7-10 was 0.12 ± 0.11 for tertiary centre and 0.11 ± 0.09 for initial reads; p = 1.00. Second readings of prostate MRI by subspecialised uroradiologists at a tertiary centre significantly improved both NPV and PPV. Reporter experience may help to reduce overcalling and avoid overtargeting of lesions. (orig.)

  14. Reasons for and functional results of repeated hip arthroscopy: A continuous prospective study of 17 revisions out of 295 primary hip arthroscopies at mean 28months' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, C; Merlini, L; Mercier, M; Bonin, N

    2017-09-01

    The rate of iterative arthroscopy has been increasing over the last decade as the technique has grown. The results of and reasons for these revision procedures, however, are not exactly known. We therefore conducted a prospective study to shed light on: 1) functional results and patient satisfaction following repeated arthroscopy, and 2) the relevant indications. Functional scores and patient satisfaction increase following repeated arthroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A single-center continuous prospective study without control group included patients undergoing repeated hip arthroscopy between September 2010 and September 2014, with a mean 28months' follow-up (median, 23.3months; range, 12-62months). Preoperative and follow-up functional assessment used the modified Harris hip, WOMAC and Christensen (NHAS) questionnaires, and a satisfaction scale. On etiological analysis, repeated arthroscopy was indicated if a cause of recurrent or persistent pain accessible to arthroscopic treatment was identified. Seventeen patients were included out of 295 primary arthroscopies (5.7%): 9 male, 8 female; median age, 29.6years (range, 16-48years). Indications for primary arthroscopy comprised 13 cases of femoroacetabular impingement, 3 labrum lesions with instability, 1 chondromatosis and 1 case of osteoarthritis. Eleven of the 17 primary lesions showed persistence, including 9 of the 13 cases of femoroacetabular impingement. There were 3 failures in 17 repeated arthroscopies. All functional scores improved, with a gain of 7 points (P<0.06) on modified Harris hip score, 25 points (P<0.0006) on WOMAC score, and 27 points (P<0.001) on NHAS score. Ten of the 17 patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the repeated arthroscopy (59%). Although less good than on primary arthroscopy, functional results on repeated hip arthroscopy were satisfactory in the short term. The main reason for repeated arthroscopy was persistence of initial abnormality due to insufficient treatment

  15. Use of short tandem repeat sequences to study Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients in Malawi and India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K Young

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate understanding of the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae makes it difficult to predict the impact of leprosy control interventions. Genotypic tests that allow tracking of individual bacterial strains would strengthen epidemiological studies and contribute to our understanding of the disease.Genotyping assays based on variation in the copy number of short tandem repeat sequences were applied to biopsies collected in population-based epidemiological studies of leprosy in northern Malawi, and from members of multi-case households in Hyderabad, India. In the Malawi series, considerable genotypic variability was observed between patients, and also within patients, when isolates were collected at different times or from different tissues. Less within-patient variability was observed when isolates were collected from similar tissues at the same time. Less genotypic variability was noted amongst the closely related Indian patients than in the Malawi series.Lineages of M. leprae undergo changes in their pattern of short tandem repeat sequences over time. Genetic divergence is particularly likely between bacilli inhabiting different (e.g., skin and nerve tissues. Such variability makes short tandem repeat sequences unsuitable as a general tool for population-based strain typing of M. leprae, or for distinguishing relapse from reinfection. Careful use of these markers may provide insights into the development of disease within individuals and for tracking of short transmission chains.

  16. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  17. Studies on the disbonding initiation of interfacial cracks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, Brian J. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA); Pearson, Raymond A. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA)

    2005-08-01

    With the continuing trend of decreasing feature sizes in flip-chip assemblies, the reliability tolerance to interfacial flaws is also decreasing. Small-scale disbonds will become more of a concern, pointing to the need for a better understanding of the initiation stage of interfacial delamination. With most accepted adhesion metric methodologies tailored to predict failure under the prior existence of a disbond, the study of the initiation phenomenon is open to development and standardization of new testing procedures. Traditional fracture mechanics approaches are not suitable, as the mathematics assume failure to originate at a disbond or crack tip. Disbond initiation is believed to first occur at free edges and corners, which act as high stress concentration sites and exhibit singular stresses similar to a crack tip, though less severe in intensity. As such, a 'fracture mechanics-like' approach may be employed which defines a material parameter--a critical stress intensity factor (K{sub c})--that can be used to predict when initiation of a disbond at an interface will occur. The factors affecting the adhesion of underfill/polyimide interfaces relevant to flip-chip assemblies were investigated in this study. The study consisted of two distinct parts: a comparison of the initiation and propagation phenomena and a comparison of the relationship between sub-critical and critical initiation of interfacial failure. The initiation of underfill interfacial failure was studied by characterizing failure at a free-edge with a critical stress intensity factor. In comparison with the interfacial fracture toughness testing, it was shown that a good correlation exists between the initiation and propagation of interfacial failures. Such a correlation justifies the continuing use of fracture mechanics to predict the reliability of flip-chip packages. The second aspect of the research involved fatigue testing of tensile butt joint specimens to determine lifetimes at sub

  18. Genetic diversity studies in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, P; Basal, N; Singh, A K; Rai, V P; Srivastava, C P; Singh, P K

    2013-03-13

    The genetic diversity among 28 pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes was analyzed using 32 simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 44 polymorphic bands, with an average of 2.1 bands per primer, were obtained. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.657 to 0.309 with an average of 0.493. The variation in genetic diversity among these cultivars ranged from 0.11 to 0.73. Cluster analysis based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) revealed 2 distinct clusters, I and II, comprising 6 and 22 genotypes, respectively. Cluster II was further differentiated into 2 subclusters, IIA and IIB, with 12 and 10 genotypes, respectively. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed results similar to those of UPGMA. The first, second, and third PCs contributed 21.6, 16.1, and 14.0% of the variation, respectively; cumulative variation of the first 3 PCs was 51.7%.

  19. Acute toxicity and the 28-day repeated dose study of a Siddha medicine Nuna Kadugu in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Ramaswamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuna Kadugu (NK, a Siddha medicine prepared from leaves and fruits of Morinda Pubescens, used for the treatment of various skin diseases. Though NK has been widely used for several decades, no scientific report was available on its safety. Present study was undertaken to demonstrate the oral toxicity of NK in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity studies were performed following OECD test guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with minor modifications. In acute oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 2000mg/kg b.wt., p.o and animals were observed for toxic signs at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 24 h and for next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. In repeated dose, the 28- day oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg b.wt./p.o/day. Two satellite groups (control and high dose were also maintained to determine the delayed onset toxicity of NK. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Haematology, clinical biochemistry, electrolytes, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results In acute toxicity study, no treatment related death or toxic signs were observed with NK administration. In the repeated dose study, no significant differences in body weight changes, food / water intake, haematology, clinical biochemistry and electrolytes content were observed between control and NK groups. No gross pathological findings and difference in relative organ weights were observed between control and NK treated rats. Histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities with NK treatment. Conclusion Acute study reveals that the LD50 of NK is greater than 2000mg/kg, b.wt. in fasted female rats and can be classified as Category 5. 28-day repeated oral toxicity demonstrates that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of NK is greater than 900 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o in rats

  20. Does assessing suicidality frequently and repeatedly cause harm? A randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Furr, R Michael; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Mneimne, Malek; Jaquett, Caroline; Fleeson, William

    2015-12-01

    Assessing suicidality is common in mental health practice and is fundamental to suicide research. Although necessary, there is significant concern that such assessments have unintended harmful consequences. Using a longitudinal randomized control design, the authors evaluated whether repeated and frequent assessments of suicide-related thoughts and behaviors negatively affected individuals, including those at-risk for suicide-related outcomes. Adults (N = 282), including many diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), were recruited through psychiatric outpatient clinics and from the community at large, and were randomly assigned to assessment groups. A control assessment group responded to questions regarding negative psychological experiences several times each day during a 2-week main observation phase. During the same observation period, an intensive suicide assessment group responded to the same questions, along with questions regarding suicidal behavior and ideation. Negative psychological outcomes were measured during the main observation phase (for BPD symptoms unrelated to suicide and for BPD-relevant emotions) and/or at the end of each week during the main observation phase and monthly for 6 months thereafter (for all outcomes, including suicidal ideation and behavior). Results revealed little evidence that intensive suicide assessment triggered negative outcomes, including suicidal ideation or behavior, even among people with BPD. A handful of effects did reach or approach significance, though these were temporary and nonrobust. However, given the seriousness of some outcomes, the authors recommend that researchers or clinicians who implement experience sampling methods including suicide-related items carefully consider the benefits of asking about suicide and to inform participants about possible risks. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  2. Initial trade and design studies for the fusion engineering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    The Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. The Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), initiated a program of trade and design studies in October 1980 to support the selection of the FED concept. This document presents the results of these initial trade and design studies. Based on these results, a baseline configuration has been identified and the Design Center effort for the remainder of the fiscal year will be devoted to the development of a self-consistent FED design description

  3. Numerical study of the initial dynamics in tormac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.

    1979-01-01

    Using a single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code, we study the initial plasma dynamics in Tormac, an experimental device which attempts to confine plasma in a toroidal, two-pole cusp field. The code is in two dimensions and includes classical electrical conductivity and a constant heat conductivity. The full set of nonlinear MHD equations for the mass density, fluid velocity, temperature, the poloidal flux function, and the poloidal current function are solved using a predictor-corrector method

  4. Repeated causal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A flow-cytometric NK-cytotoxicity assay adapted for use in rat repeated dose toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcusson-Staahl, Maritha; Cederbrant, Karin

    2003-01-01

    A recent regulatory document for immunotoxicity testing of new pharmaceutical drugs includes cytotoxic natural killer (NK)-cell function as a required parameter in repeated dose toxicity studies. The classical 51 Cr-release assay is the conventional test for cytotoxicity testing but several drawbacks with this assay has increased the demand for new reliable test systems. Here, we describe the optimisation of a flow-cytometric cytotoxicity assay especially adapted for regulatory rat studies in drug development. The test principle is based on target cell labelling with 5-(6)-carboxy-fluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and subsequent DNA-labelling with propidium iodide (PI) for identification of target cells with compromised cell membranes. The results are expressed as percentage of dead targets on a cell-to-cell basis. The final format of the assay includes 0.5 ml peripheral blood, 1.25x10 5 effector cells per sample, and collection of 500 target events by flow-cytometry. When NKR-P1+ cells were removed from the effector cell population by magnetic depletion the relative proportion decreased from 6 to 0.08%. The corresponding cytotoxic activity decreased from 68 to 8%. Also, the cytotoxic activity showed a significant and positive correlation with the proportion of NK-cells present in the effector cell suspension. Thus, the cytotoxicity measured is almost exclusively exerted by NK-cells. The current flow-cytometric test benefits from using peripheral blood as a source for effector cells since it will not conflict with the use of spleen for histopathological investigations in repeated dose toxicity studies. Additionally, since only a minimal number of effector cells are required per sample repeated testing of the same animal is enabled

  6. 'Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Will; Small, Will; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; McNeil, Ryan

    2017-03-01

    Patient attrition is common among people enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programs and most pronounced during the first year of treatment. However, the experiences of patients initiating MMT have been overlooked in the literature. This study explores experiences of MMT initiation among MMT patients, focusing on contextual influences on MMT initiation and perceptions of MMT and their subsequent influence on treatment retention. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 MMT patients in Vancouver, Canada. Individuals reporting enrolment in MMT were recruited from within two ongoing cohort studies comprised of people who use drugs. Interview transcripts were analysed using an inductive and iterative approach. Two groups of MMT initiators were identified: (i) 'crisis initiators' prescribed methadone following critical transition events, such as incarceration or pregnancy; and (ii) 'everyday initiators' enrolled in MMT as part of routine healthcare utilisation. While most 'crisis initiators' and some 'everyday initiators' described experiencing coercion during MMT initiation, 'crisis initiators' were further subjected to the coercive leveraging of their vulnerability to motivate 'consent' for MMT. 'Crisis initiators' developed negative views towards MMT and were more likely to discontinue treatment. Long-standing patient-provider relationships and open dialogue were associated with more positive views regarding MMT, regardless of the circumstances of initiation. Findings underscore the need for clear and effective communication regarding treatment regimens and expectations during MMT initiation. Furthermore, training in trauma-informed care may help reduce perceptions of coercion and rates of early treatment termination. [Damon W, Small W, Anderson S, Maher L, Wood E, Kerr T, McNeil R. Crisis' and 'everyday' initiators: A qualitative study of coercion and agency in the context of methadone maintenance treatment initiation. Drug

  7. MNS16A tandem repeat minisatellite of human telomerase gene: functional studies in colorectal, lung and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Philipp; Zöchmeister, Cornelia; Behm, Christian; Brezina, Stefanie; Baierl, Andreas; Doriguzzi, Angelina; Vanas, Vanita; Holzmann, Klaus; Sutterlüty-Fall, Hedwig; Gsur, Andrea

    2017-04-25

    MNS16A, a functional polymorphic tandem repeat minisatellite, is located in the promoter region of an antisense transcript of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. MNS16A promoter activity depends on the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) presenting varying numbers of transcription factor binding sites for GATA binding protein 1. Although MNS16A has been investigated in multiple cancer epidemiology studies with incongruent findings, functional data of only two VNTRs (VNTR-243 and VNTR-302) were available thus far, linking the shorter VNTR to higher promoter activity.For the first time, we investigated promoter activity of all six VNTRs of MNS16A in cell lines of colorectal, lung and prostate cancer using Luciferase reporter assay. In all investigated cell lines shorter VNTRs showed higher promoter activity. While this anticipated indirect linear relationship was affirmed for colorectal cancer SW480 (P = 0.006), a piecewise linear regression model provided significantly better model fit in lung cancer A-427 (P = 6.9 × 10-9) and prostate cancer LNCaP (P = 0.039). In silico search for transcription factor binding sites in MNS16A core repeat element suggested a higher degree of complexity involving X-box binding protein 1, general transcription factor II-I, and glucocorticoid receptor alpha in addition to GATA binding protein 1.Further functional studies in additional cancers are requested to extend our knowledge of MNS16A functionality uncovering potential cancer type-specific differences. Risk alleles may vary in different malignancies and their determination in vitro could be relevant for interpretation of genotype data.

  8. Report to DOE on the evaluation of initial trapping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breun, R.A.; Kesner, J.; Nonn, P.; Pian, T.; Post, R.S.; Scharer, J.; Smatlak, D.; Smith, D.; Yugo, J.; Yujiri, L.

    1978-12-01

    This report summarizes work up to Dec. 1, 1978 on the single mirror plug of Phaedrus. The design, construction and initial experiments proceeded without major problems. The results on RF trapping and heating steadily improved during the months of October and November with our best results being obtained during the last two weeks of November. These positive results are encouraging for RF heating in mirrors. The experiments to date have concentrated on heating stream gun plasmas. This plasma source has been well suited for our initial studies as it produces a hot, dense plasma over a long duration (approx. 1 msec). This has made diagnostics particularly straight forward. Because of the time scale we have carried out most of our work with the 200 kW source which is capable of running for long pulses

  9. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav [Department of Materials Engineering, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, tr. 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava - Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  10. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  11. Numerical study of multiscale compaction-initiated detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, J. R.; Schwendeman, D. W.; Kapila, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    A multiscale model of heterogeneous condensed-phase explosives is examined computationally to determine the course of transient events following the application of a piston-driven stimulus. The model is a modified version of that introduced by Gonthier (Combust Sci Technol 175(9):1679-1709, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1080/00102200302373) in which the explosive is treated as a porous, compacting medium at the macro-scale and a collection of closely packed spherical grains capable of undergoing reaction and diffusive heat transfer at the meso-scale. A separate continuum description is ascribed to each scale, and the two scales are coupled together in an energetically consistent manner. Following piston-induced compaction, localized energy deposition at the sites of intergranular contact creates hot spots where reaction begins preferentially. Reaction progress at the macro-scale is determined by the spatial average of that at the grain scale. A parametric study shows that combustion at the macro-scale produces an unsteady detonation with a cyclical character, in which the lead shock loses strength and is overtaken by a stronger secondary shock generated in the partially reacted material behind it. The secondary shock in turn becomes the new lead shock and the process repeats itself.

  12. Single and 2-week repeated intravenous dose toxicity studies of disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Fumio; Yabuuchi, Kazuya; Ohno, Kouji; Muraoka, Yoshihiro [Shionogi and Co. Ltd., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan). Developmental Research Lab.; Ikeuchi, Isao

    1998-10-01

    Disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is a boron compound used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for malignant brain tumors. Intravenous single and 2-week repeated dose toxicity studies of BSH were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the single-dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 100, 300 or 600 mg/kg. Death occurred within 10 min (acute type) or from 5 hr to 2 days (delayed type) after dosing in the 600 mg/kg group. No differences in mortality by sex and dosing speed were observed. Major causes of death were considered to be circulatory disorder in acute death and renal injury in delayed death. The renal injury was observed in the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups. In the 2-week repeated dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Body weight gain was suppressed in the 100 and 300 mg/kg groups. One male in the 300 mg/kg group died due to renal and pulmonary lesions at day 8. Slight anemia was observed in the 300 mg/kg group. Pathologically, the kidney showed tubular regeneration with increase of weight in the 300 mg/kg. From these results, the NOAEL of BSH is 30 mg/kg/day. (author)

  13. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Paulus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings.

  14. Understanding initial undergraduate expectations and identity in computing studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Päivi; Butler, Matthew; Morgan, Michael; Nylen, Aletta; Peters, Anne-Kathrin; Sinclair, Jane; Kalvala, Sara; Pesonen, Erkki

    2018-03-01

    There is growing appreciation of the importance of understanding the student perspective in Higher Education (HE) at both institutional and international levels. This is particularly important in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics subjects such as Computer Science (CS) and Engineering in which industry needs are high but so are student dropout rates. An important factor to consider is the management of students' initial expectations of university study and career. This paper reports on a study of CS first-year students' expectations across three European countries using qualitative data from student surveys and essays. Expectation is examined from both short-term (topics to be studied) and long-term (career goals) perspectives. Tackling these issues will help paint a picture of computing education through students' eyes and explore their vision of its and their role in society. It will also help educators prepare students more effectively for university study and to improve the student experience.

  15. Beacon communities' public health initiatives: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach

  16. Beacon Communities’ Public Health Initiatives: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Marcial, Laura H.; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. Background: The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Methods: Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Findings: Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7–14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4–6). Discussion: Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. Conclusions: A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for

  17. Repeated exposure to the thin ideal and implications for the self : Two weight loss program studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klesse, A.K.; Goukens, C.; Geyskens, K.; de Ruyter, K.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to thin models results in self-esteem shifts that influence people's motivation to diet. This research study applies a goal perspective to explain the effect of exposure to thin models on dieters' motivation to lose weight. Two (one-week) weight loss program studies that included treatment

  18. Bridging Technometric Method and Innovation Process: An Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumanti, A. A.; Reynaldo, R.; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Dwita, A. C.

    2018-03-01

    The process of innovation is one of ways utilized to increase the capability of a technology component that reflects the need of SME. Technometric method can be used to identify to what extent the level of technology advancement in a SME is, and also which technology component that needs to be maximized in order to significantly deliver an innovation. This paper serves as an early study, which lays out a conceptual framework that identifies and elaborates the principles of innovation process from a well-established innovation model by Martin with the technometric method, based on the initial background research conducted at SME Ira Silver in Jogjakarta, Indonesia.

  19. Broad and narrow personality traits as markers of one-time and repeated suicide attempts: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaro Frank

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying personality traits with the potential to differentiate between individuals engaging in suicide attempts of different degrees of severity could help us to understand the processes underlying the link of personality and nonfatal suicidal behaviours and to identify at-risk groups. One approach may be to examine whether narrow, i.e., lower-order personality traits may be more useful than their underlying, broad personality trait dimensions. Methods We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in broad and narrow personality traits between one-time and repeated suicide attempters in a longitudinal, population-based sample of young French Canadian adults using two multivariate regression models. Results One broad (Compulsivity: OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.5 and one narrow personality trait (anxiousness: OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.01–1.1 differentiated between individuals with histories of repeated and one-time suicide attempts. Affective instability [(OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.1] and anxiousness [(OR = .92; 95% CI .88–.95], on the other hand, differentiated between nonattempters and one-time suicide attempters. Conclusion Emotional and cognitive dysregulation and associated behavioural manifestations may be associated with suicide attempts of different severity. While findings associated with narrow traits may be easier to interpret and link to existing sociobiological theories, larger effect sizes associated with broad traits such as Compulsivity may be better suited to objectives with a more clinical focus.

  20. URINARY CREATINE AT REST AND AFTER REPEATED SPRINTS IN ATHLETES: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Bezrati-Benayed, I.; Nasrallah, F.; Feki, M.; Chamari, K.; Omar, S.; Alouane-Trabelsi, L.; Ben Mansour, A.; Kaabachi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatog...

  1. PARAMETER REPEATABILITY FOR ECONOMY. A CASE STUDY OF A SIMPLE LINEAR ELECTRICAL DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Drapella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first installment of a projected three-part study devoted to both input and output parameter randomness that electrical circuit designers deal with in their work. Parts of the study will differ in the complexity of schemes considered. This paper aims at presenting the methodology while leaving aside the analysis of complex circuits. Therefore, only voltage dividers have been taken into consideration. Four probability distributions of resistor values have been tried: uniform, Gaussian, Laplace and triangular.

  2. Who repeats? A follow-up study of state hospital patients' firesetting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, J L; Fisher, W H; Bertsch, G

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on a population of psychiatric patients who were studied over a 6.75 year period to determine the occurrences of firesetting behavior noted in their psychiatric inpatient records. Two groups of 50 patients each were drawn from an earlier study and were matched by sex, age, and diagnoses. One group of patients had prior firesetting behavior; the other did not. Firesetting behavior was found not only in patients originally identified as having previously engaged in this behavior, but also in those with no documented history of this act prior to the period of the study. Patients having firesetting behavior in their past psychiatric record set more actual fires. Total number of episodes of firesetting behavior, however, was not significantly different between the two groups. Results are discussed in terms of the communicative function of firesetting and the dilemma of clinical prediction.

  3. Content-Related Interactions in Self-initiated Study Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Karen; Talanquer, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    The central goal of the present exploratory study was to investigate the nature of the content-related interactions in study groups independently organized by college organic chemistry students. We were particularly interested in the identification of the different factors that affected the emergence of opportunities for students to co-construct understanding and engage in higher levels of cognitive processing. Our results are based on the analysis of in situ observations of 34 self-initiated study sessions involving over a 100 students in three academic semesters. The investigation revealed three major types of social regulation processes, teaching, tutoring, and co-construction in the observed study sessions. However, the extent to which students engaged in each of them varied widely from one session to another. This variability was mostly determined by the specific composition of the study groups and the nature of the study tasks in which they were engaged. Decisions about how to organize the study session, the relative content knowledge and conceptual understanding expressed by the participants, as well as the cognitive level of the problems that guided group work had a strong impact on the nature of student interactions. Nevertheless, group talk in the observed study groups was mostly focused on low-level cognitive processes. The results of our work provide insights on how to better support students' productive engagement in study groups.

  4. Hearing loss associated with repeated MRI acquisition procedure-related acoustic noise exposure: an occupational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Suzan; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-11-01

    To study the effects of repeated exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise during image acquisition procedures (scans) on hearing. A retrospective occupational cohort study was performed among workers of an MRI manufacturing facility (n=474). Longitudinal audiometry data from the facility's medical surveillance scheme collected from 1973 to 2010 were analysed by studying the association of cumulative exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise from voluntary (multiple) MRI scans and the hearing threshold of the volunteer. Repeated acoustic noise exposure during volunteer MRI scans was found to be associated with a small exposure-dependent increased rate change of hearing threshold level (dB/year), but the association was only found related to the number of voluntary MRI scans and not to modelled cumulative noise exposure (dB*hour) based on MRI-system type. The increased rate change of hearing threshold level was found to be statistically significant for the frequencies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in the right ear. From our longitudinal cohort study, it appeared that exposure to noise from voluntarily MRI scans may have resulted in a slight amount of hearing loss. Mandatory use of hearing protection might have prevented more severe hearing loss. Lack of consistency in findings between the left and right ears and between the two exposure measures prohibits definitive conclusions. Further research that addresses the study's methodological limitations is warranted to corroborate our findings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  6. Study of four weeks repeated-dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in rats Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Hae-Yon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four weeks repeated -dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV-pure melittin, the major component of honey bee venom in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLPat Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female rats of 5 weeks old were chosen for the pilot study of four weeks repeated-dose toxicity and was injected at the level of 0.56 mg/kg body weight (eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14 mg/kg as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of normal saline was injected as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and side effects such as hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of injection in all experiment groups, and the higher dosage in treatment, the higher occurrence in side effects. 3. Concerning weight measurement, neither male nor female groups showed significant changes compared to the control group. 4. Concerning to the CBC and biochemistry, all experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 5. Concerning weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, those such as cerebellum, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney,and spinal cords were removed and we conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining.Concerning the histologocal observation of liver tissues, some fatty changes were observed around portal vein in 0.56 mg/kg experiment group. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7. The proper high dosage of SBV for the thirteen weeks repeated test in rats may be 0.28 mg

  7. Statistical methods for conducting agreement (comparison of clinical tests) and precision (repeatability or reproducibility) studies in optometry and ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Colm; Khadka, Jyoti; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2011-07-01

    The ever-expanding choice of ocular metrology and imaging equipment has driven research into the validity of their measurements. Consequently, studies of the agreement between two instruments or clinical tests have proliferated in the ophthalmic literature. It is important that researchers apply the appropriate statistical tests in agreement studies. Correlation coefficients are hazardous and should be avoided. The 'limits of agreement' method originally proposed by Altman and Bland in 1983 is the statistical procedure of choice. Its step-by-step use and practical considerations in relation to optometry and ophthalmology are detailed in addition to sample size considerations and statistical approaches to precision (repeatability or reproducibility) estimates. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  8. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  9. Study of incidence and causes of repeated mass miniature radiography of chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandan, S; Bhargava, S K; Sharma, H M; Ved, P K; Singh, Dhan [T.B. Demonstration and Training Centre, Agra (India)

    1976-01-01

    A study has been conducted to find out the retake rate of mass miniature radiography of chest and causes of retake. The rate has been found to be 1.96% and common causes of retake are too light or dark film and movement (motion) other than respiratory. Precautionary measures against these causes should prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation and also ensure economy.

  10. URINARY CREATINE AT REST AND AFTER REPEATED SPRINTS IN ATHLETES: A PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, F.; Feki, M.; Chamari, K.; Omar, S.; Alouane-Trabelsi, L.; Ben Mansour, A.; Kaabachi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Basal urinary creatine (UC) was significantly lower in sprinters than controls (34±30 vs. 74±3 µmol/mmol creatinine, p creatine significantly decreased in both athletes and controls. UC is low in sprinters at rest and further decreases after exercise, most likely due to a high uptake and use of creatine by muscles, as muscle mass and physical activity are supposed to be greater in athletes than untrained subjects. Further studies are needed to test the value of urinary creatine as a non-invasive marker of physical condition and as a parameter for managing Cr supplementation in athletes. PMID:24917689

  11. URINARY CREATINE AT REST AND AFTER REPEATED SPRINTS IN ATHLETES: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bezrati-Benayed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Basal urinary creatine (UC was significantly lower in sprinters than controls (34±30 vs. 74±3 μmol/mmol creatinine, p<0.05. UC was inversely correlated with body mass (r=-0.34, p<0.01 and lean mass (r=- 0.30, p<0.05, and positively correlated with fat mass (r=0.32, p<0.05. After acute exercise, urinary creatine significantly decreased in both athletes and controls. UC is low in sprinters at rest and further decreases after exercise, most likely due to a high uptake and use of creatine by muscles, as muscle mass and physical activity are supposed to be greater in athletes than untrained subjects. Further studies are needed to test the value of urinary creatine as a non-invasive marker of physical condition and as a parameter for managing Cr supplementation in athletes.

  12. Initial Development and Pilot Study Design of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations for ASTRO 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; French, D. A; Gutierrez, Joseph V; Sanchez, Richard L; Slater, Timothy F.; Tatge, Coty

    2014-06-01

    Interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs) have repeatedly shown to be effective tools for improving student achievement in the context of learning physics. As a first step toward systematic development of interactive lecture demonstrations in ASTRO 101, the introductory astronomy survey course, a systematic review of education research, describing educational computer simulations (ECSs) reveals that initial development requires a targeted study of how ASTRO 101 students respond to ECSs in the non-science majoring undergraduate lecture setting. In this project we have adopted the process by which ILDs were designed, pilot-tested, and successfully implemented in the context of physics teaching (Sokoloff & Thornton, 1997; Sokoloff & Thornton, 2004). We have designed the initial pilot-test set of ASTRO 101 ILD instructional materials relying heavily on ECSs. Both an instructor’s manual and a preliminary classroom-ready student workbook have been developed, and we are implementing a pilot study to explore their effectiveness in communicating scientific content, and the extent to which they might enhance students’ knowledge of and perception about astronomy and science in general. The study design uses a pre-/post-test quasi-experimental study design measuring students’ normalized gain scores, calculated as per Hake (1998) and Prather (2009), using a slightly modified version of S. Slater’s (2011) Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST combined with other instruments. The results of this initial study will guide the iterative development of ASTRO 101 ILDs that are intended to both be effective at enhancing student achievement and easy for instructors to successfully implement.

  13. Fast-mixed spectrum reactor interim report initial feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.J.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The report summarizes the results of an initial four-month feasibility study of the Fast-Mixed Spectrum Reactor (FMSR). Reactor physics, fuel cycle, and thermal-hydraulic analyses were performed on a reference design. These results when coupled to a fuel and materials evaluation performed in cooperation with the Argonne National Laboratory indicate that the FMSR is feasible provided the fuels, cladding, and subassembly ducts can survive a peak fuel burnup of 15 to 20 atom percent heavy metal and peak fluences of 8 x 10 23 (nvt > 0.1 MeV). The results of this short study have also provided a basis for exploring alternative designs requiring significantly lower peak burnup and fluences for their operation

  14. 4-Repeat Tauopathy Neuroimaging Initiative - Cycle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD); Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS); Cortical-basal Ganglionic Degeneration (CBGD); Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP); Nonfluent Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia (nfvPPA); Oligosymptomatic/Variant Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (o/vPSP)

  15. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eNoone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every six months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardised fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Patients with Insomnia: A Repeated Measurement Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Spiegelhalder

    Full Text Available Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system disorders. It is characterized by increased arousal levels, however, the neurobiological causes and correlates of hyperarousal in insomnia remain to be further determined. In the current study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used in the morning and evening in a well-characterized sample of 20 primary insomnia patients (12 females; 8 males; 42.7 ± 13.4 years and 20 healthy good sleepers (12 females; 8 males; 44.1 ± 10.6 years. The most important inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and glutamate/glutamine (Glx, were assessed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. The primary hypothesis, a diurnal effect on GABA levels in patients with insomnia, could not be confirmed. Moreover, the current results did not support previous findings of altered GABA levels in individuals with insomnia. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that GABA levels in the ACC may be positively associated with habitual sleep duration, and, thus, reduced GABA levels may be a trait marker of objective sleep disturbances. Moreover, there was a significant GROUP x MEASUREMENT TIME interaction effect on Glx in the DLPFC with increasing Glx levels across the day in the patients but not in the control group. Therefore, Glx levels may reflect hyperarousal at bedtime in those with insomnia. Future confirmatory studies should include larger sample sizes to investigate brain metabolites in different subgroups of insomnia.

  17. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Martha; Semkovska, Maria; Carton, Mary; Dunne, Ross; Horgan, John-Paul; O'Kane, Breige; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2014-01-01

    Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ) for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability, and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every 6 months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardized fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  18. The effect of image quality, repeated study, and assessment method on anatomy learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Barbara; Mackinnon, Chelsea; Cheng, Lucia; Kim, Joseph A; Wainman, Bruce C

    2017-06-01

    The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality images of the human hand and human eye. On day 0, participants learned about each anatomical specimen from paper booklets using either low-quality or high-quality images, and then completed a comprehension test using either 2D images or three-dimensional (3D) cadaveric specimens. On day 1, participants relearned each booklet, and on day 2 participants completed a final comprehension test using either 2D images or 3D cadaveric specimens. The effect of image quality on learning varied according to anatomical content, with high-quality images having a greater effect on improving learning of hand anatomy than eye anatomy (high-quality vs. low-quality for hand anatomy P = 0.018; high-quality vs. low-quality for eye anatomy P = 0.247). Also, the benefit of high-quality images on hand anatomy learning was restricted to performance on short-answer (SA) questions immediately after learning (high-quality vs. low-quality on SA questions P = 0.018), but did not apply to performance on multiple-choice (MC) questions (high-quality vs. low-quality on MC questions P = 0.109) or after participants had an additional learning opportunity (24 hours later) with anatomy content (high vs. low on SA questions P = 0.643). This study underscores the limited impact of image quality on anatomy learning, and questions whether investment in enhancing image quality of learning aids significantly promotes knowledge development. Anat Sci Educ 10: 249-261. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu HJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hwa Jung Ryu,1,* Mu Yeb Seo,2,* Sung Kyu Jung,1 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Seung-Young Lee,2 Dong-Hyouk Jang,2 Taek-Jin Lee,2 Ki-Yeon Jo,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Kyu-Bong Cho,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Beom Jun Lee,5 Sang Wook Son1 1Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gyunggido, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinheung College, Uijeongbu, 5College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work and both should be considered first authors Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there

  20. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. V. Beetsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS are often preceded by 'premonitory urges': annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2X2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs, and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs+ blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs, these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response.

  1. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  2. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    behaviours over and above the effects of the behaviour-specific thinking and ii the relationship between adherence to exercise and to medical treatment is stronger among those with more favourable views about the goal. Results from this study should identify the key contributing factors to inform subsequent adherence research and afford a more streamlined assessment matrix. The project also aims to inform patient care practices. UK Clinical Research Network registration number UKCRN 7842.

  3. Initial Studies of Core and Edge Transport of NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bush, C.E.; Bourdelle, C.; Darrow, D.; Dorland, W.; Ejiri, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peebles, W.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rapidly developing diagnostic, operational, and analysis capability is enabling the first detailed local physics studies to begin in high-beta plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These studies are motivated in part by energy confinement times in neutral-beam-heated discharges that are favorable with respect to predictions from the ITER-89P scaling expression. Analysis of heat fluxes based on profile measurements with neutral-beam injection (NBI) suggest that the ion thermal transport may be exceptionally low, and that electron thermal transport is the dominant loss channel. This analysis motivates studies of possible sources of ion heating not presently accounted for by classical collisional processes. Gyrokinetic microstability studies indicate that long wavelength turbulence with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 0.1-1 may be suppressed in these plasmas, while modes with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 50 may be robust. High-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating efficiently heats electrons on NSTX, and studies have begun using it to assess transport in the electron channel. Regarding edge transport, H-mode [high-confinement mode] transitions occur with either NBI or HHFW heating. The power required for low-confinement mode (L-mode) to H-mode transitions far exceeds that expected from empirical edge-localized-mode-free H-mode scaling laws derived from moderate aspect ratio devices. Finally, initial fluctuation measurements made with two techniques are permitting the first characterizations of edge turbulence

  4. An ERP study on initial second language vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Yen Na; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the very initial phases of orthographic and semantic acquisition in monolingual native English speakers learning Chinese words under controlled laboratory conditions. Participants engaged in 10 sessions of vocabulary learning, four of which were used to obtain ERPs. Performance in behavioral tests improved over sessions, and these data were used to define fast and slow learners. Most important is that ERPs in the two groups of learners revealed qualitatively distinct learning patterns. Only fast learners showed a left-lateralized increase in N170 amplitude with training. Furthermore, only fast learners showed an increased N400 amplitude with training, with a distinct anterior distribution. Slow learners, on the other hand, showed a posterior positive effect, with increasingly positive-going waveforms in occipital sites as training progressed. Possible mechanisms underlying these qualitative differences are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtrop Jodi S

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative study in July 2002 was a landmark event in biomedical science related to postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of new hormone therapy recommendations on patients' attitudes and decision-making in a primary care practice. Methods A questionnaire including structured and open-ended questions was administered in a family practice office waiting room from August through October 2003. Rationale for taking or not taking hormone therapy was specifically sought. Women 50–70 years old attending for office visits were invited to participate. Data were analyzed qualitatively and with descriptive statistics. Chart review provided medication use rates for the entire practice cohort of which the sample was a subset. Results Respondents (n = 127 were predominantly white and well educated, and were taking hormone therapy at a higher rate (38% than the overall rate (26% for women of the same age range in this practice. Belief patterns about hormone therapy were, in order of frequency, 'use is risky', 'vindication or prior beliefs', 'benefit to me outweighs risk', and 'unaware of new recommendations'. Twenty-eight out of 78 women continued hormones use after July 2002. Of 50 women who initially stopped hormone therapy after July 2002, 12 resumed use. Women who had stopped hormone therapy were a highly symptomatic group. Responses with emotional overtones such as worry, confusion, anger, and grief were common. Conclusion Strategies for decision support about hormone therapy should explicitly take into account women's preferences about symptom relief and the trade-offs among relevant risks. Some women may need emotional support during transitions in hormone therapy use.

  6. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  7. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan; Manolescu, Ioana; Afanasiev, Loredana; Feng, Jieling; Gou, G.; Hadjieleftheriou, Marios; Harizopoulos, Stavros; Kalnis, Panos; Karanasos, Konstantinos; Laurent, Dominique; Lupu, M.; Onose, N.; Ré , C.; Sans, Virginie; Senellart, Pierre; Wu, T.; Shasha, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  8. Repeated-dose toxicological studies of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. gray and identification of the toxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Flávia Donaire; Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

    2013-05-20

    Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray has been commonly used in folk medicine to treat abscesses, microbiological infections, snake bites, malaria and diabetes. Both anti-inflammatory and anti-malarial properties have been identified using appropriate assays, but the effective doses have demonstrated toxic effects for the experimental animals. Most of the pharmacological activities have been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and some chlorogenic acid derivatives (CAs) in the leaves of this species. This work aimed to evaluate the repeated-dose toxicity of an aqueous extract (AE) from Tithonia diversifolia leaves and to compare the results with an extract rich in STLs (LRE) and a polar extract (PE) without STLs but rich in CAs. The purpose of this work was to provide insights into the identity of the compounds responsible for the toxic effects of Tithonia diversifolia. The major classes of compounds were confirmed in each extract by IR spectra and HPLC-UV-DAD profiling using previously isolated or standard compounds. The toxicity of each extract was evaluated in a repeated-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. The AE is composed of both STLs and CAs, the LRE is rich in STLs, and the PE is rich in CAs. The AE caused alterations in haematological parameters but few alterations in biochemical parameters and was relatively safe at doses lower than 100mg/kg. However, the PE and LRE demonstrated several adverse effects by damaging the liver and kidneys, respectively. STLs and CAs can be toxic in prolonged use at higher doses in extracts prepared from Tithonia diversifolia by affecting the kidneys and liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Small and medium power reactors: project initiation study, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    In conformity with the Agency's promotional role in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, IAEA has provided, over the past 20 years, assistance to Member States, particularly developing countries, in planning for the introduction of nuclear power plants in the Small and Medium range (SMPR). However these efforts did not produce any significant results in the market introduction of these reactors, due to various factors. In 1983 the Agency launched a new SMPR Project Initiation Study with the objective of surveying the available designs, examining the major factors influencing the decision-making processes in Developing Countries and thereby arriving at an estimate of the potential market. Two questionnaires were used to obtain information from possible suppliers and prospective buyers. The Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD assisted in making a study of the potential market in industrialized countries. The information gained during the study and discussed during a Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, along with the contribution by OECD-NEA is embodied in the present report

  10. A comparative study on pathological features of transgenic rat lines expressing either three or four repeat misfolded tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachova, Bernadeta; Brezovakova, Veronika; Bugos, Ondrej; Jadhav, Santosh; Smolek, Tomas; Novak, Petr; Zilka, Norbert

    2018-08-01

    Human tauopathies represent a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by distinct clinical features, typical histopathological structures, and defined ratio(s) of three-repeat and four-repeat tau isoforms within pathological aggregates. How the optional microtubule-binding repeat of tau influences this differentiation of pathologies is understudied. We have previously generated and characterized transgenic rodent models expressing human truncated tau aa151-391 with either three (SHR24) or four microtubule-binding repeats (SHR72). Here, we compare the behavioral and neuropathological hallmarks of these two transgenic lines using a battery of tests for sensorimotor, cognitive, and neurological functions over the age range of 3.5-15 months. Progression of sensorimotor and neurological deficits was similar in both transgenic lines; however, the lifespan of transgenic line SHR72 expressing truncated four-repeat tau was markedly shorter than SHR24. Moreover, the expression of three or four-repeat tau induced distinct neurofibrillary pathology in these lines. Transgenic lines displayed different distribution of tau pathology and different type of neurofibrillary tangles. Our results suggest that three- and four-repeat isoforms of tau may display different modes of action in the diseased brain. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Big Earth Data Initiative: Metadata Improvement: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozimor, John; Habermann, Ted; Farley, John

    2016-01-01

    Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) The Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) invests in standardizing and optimizing the collection, management and delivery of U.S. Government's civil Earth observation data to improve discovery, access use, and understanding of Earth observations by the broader user community. Complete and consistent standard metadata helps address all three goals.

  12. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  13. Study of the initiation of subcooled boiling during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanVleet, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of boiling initiation during power transients has been conducted for horizontal-cylinder heating elements in degassed distilled water. Platinum elements, 0.127 and 0.250 mm in diameter, were internally heated electrically at a controlled superficial heat flux (power applied divided by surface area) increasing linearly with time at rates of 0.035 and 0.35 MW/m 2 s and corresponding test durations of 20 and 2 seconds. Tests were carried out at saturation temperatures from 100 to 195 0 C with bulk fluid subcooling from 0 to 30 K. During the course of a power transient, element temperature and superficial heat flux were measured electrically and the boiling initiation time was determined optically. It was found that the conditions for boiling initiation depended strongly on the pressure-temperature history of the heating element and surround fluid prior to the transient. Boiling initiation times were found to agree qualitatively with predictions of a model based on the contact-angle hysteresis concept. Brief prepressurization prior to a transient was found to increase dramatically the temperature and heat flux required for boiling initiation because of deactivation of boiling initiation sites. However, sites were re-activated during the transient and, in subsequent tests without prepressurization, no elevation in boiling initiation conditions was observed and results were in quantitative agreement with predictions of the model

  14. Brachial artery responses to ambient pollution, temperature, and humidity in people with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Horton, Edward S; Cohen, Allison; Coull, Brent A; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schwartz, Joel D; Mittleman, Murray A; Li, Yongsheng; Stone, Peter H; de Souza, Celine; Lamparello, Brooke; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R

    2014-03-01

    Extreme weather and air pollution are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. In a population with diabetes, we conducted a novel assessment of vascular brachial artery responses both to ambient pollution and to weather (temperature and water vapor pressure, a measure of humidity). Sixty-four 49- to 85-year-old Boston residents with type 2 diabetes completed up to five study visits (279 repeated measures). Brachial artery diameter (BAD) was measured by ultrasound before and after brachial artery occlusion [i.e., flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] and before and after nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD). Ambient concentrations of fine particulate mass (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, particle number, and sulfate were measured at our monitoring site; ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were obtained from state monitors. Particle exposure in the home and during each trip to the clinic (home/trip exposure) was measured continuously and as a 5-day integrated sample. We used linear models with fixed effects for participants, adjusting for date, season, temperature, and water vapor pressure on the day of each visit, to estimate associations between our outcomes and interquartile range increases in exposure. Baseline BAD was negatively associated with particle pollution, including home/trip-integrated BC (-0.02 mm; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.003, for a 0.28 μg/m3 increase in BC), OC (-0.08 mm; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.03, for a 1.61 μg/m3 increase) as well as PM2.5, 5-day average ambient PM2.5, and BC. BAD was positively associated with ambient temperature and water vapor pressure. However, exposures were not consistently associated with FMD or NMD. Brachial artery diameter, a predictor of cardiovascular risk, decreased in association with particle pollution and increased in association with ambient temperature in our study population of adults with type 2 diabetes. Zanobetti A, Luttmann

  15. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  16. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.

  17. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  18. The percentage of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA and the Prostate Health Index improve the diagnostic accuracy for clinically relevant prostate cancer at initial and repeat biopsy compared with total PSA and percentage free PSA in men aged ≤65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegemann, Martin; Stephan, Carsten; Cammann, Henning; Vincendeau, Sébastien; Houlgatte, Alain; Jung, Klaus; Blanchet, Jean-Sebastien; Semjonow, Axel

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively test the diagnostic accuracy of the percentage of prostate specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA (%p2PSA) and the Prostate Health Index (PHI), and to determine their role for discrimination between significant and insignificant prostate cancer at initial and repeat prostate biopsy in men aged ≤65 years. The diagnostic performance of %p2PSA and PHI were evaluated in a multicentre study. In all, 769 men aged ≤65 years scheduled for initial or repeat prostate biopsy were recruited in four sites based on a total PSA (t-PSA) level of 1.6-8.0 ng/mL World Health Organization (WHO) calibrated (2-10 ng/mL Hybritech-calibrated). Serum samples were measured for the concentration of t-PSA, free PSA (f-PSA) and p2PSA with Beckman Coulter immunoassays on Access-2 or DxI800 instruments. PHI was calculated as (p2PSA/f-PSA × √t-PSA). Uni- and multivariable logistic regression models and an artificial neural network (ANN) were complemented by decision curve analysis (DCA). In univariate analysis %p2PSA and PHI were the best predictors of prostate cancer detection in all patients (area under the curve [AUC] 0.72 and 0.73, respectively), at initial (AUC 0.67 and 0.69) and repeat biopsy (AUC 0.74 and 0.74). t-PSA and %f-PSA performed less accurately for all patients (AUC 0.54 and 0.62). For detection of significant prostate cancer (based on Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance [PRIAS] criteria) the %p2PSA and PHI equally demonstrated best performance (AUC 0.70 and 0.73) compared with t-PSA and %f-PSA (AUC 0.54 and 0.59). In multivariate analysis PHI we added to a base model of age, prostate volume, digital rectal examination, t-PSA and %f-PSA. PHI was strongest in predicting prostate cancer in all patients, at initial and repeat biopsy and for significant prostate cancer (AUC 0.73, 0.68, 0.78 and 0.72, respectively). In DCA for all patients the ANN showed the broadest threshold probability and best net benefit. PHI as single parameter

  19. First Worldwide Proficiency Study on Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; Kremer, Kristin; Ködmön, Csaba; Supply, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency study on 24-locus VNTR typing. Sets of 30 DNAs of MTBC strains, including 10 duplicate DNA samples, were distributed among 37 participating laboratories in 30 different countries worldwide. Twenty-four laboratories used an in-house-adapted method with fragment sizing by gel electrophoresis or an automated DNA analyzer, nine laboratories used a commercially available kit, and four laboratories used other methods. The intra- and interlaboratory reproducibilities of VNTR typing varied from 0% to 100%, with averages of 72% and 60%, respectively. Twenty of the 37 laboratories failed to amplify particular VNTR loci; if these missing results were ignored, the number of laboratories with 100% interlaboratory reproducibility increased from 1 to 5. The average interlaboratory reproducibility of VNTR typing using a commercial kit was better (88%) than that of in-house-adapted methods using a DNA analyzer (70%) or gel electrophoresis (50%). Eleven laboratories using in-house-adapted manual typing or automated typing scored inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities of 80% or higher, which suggests that these approaches can be used in a reliable way. In conclusion, this first multicenter study has documented the worldwide quality of VNTR typing of MTBC strains and highlights the importance of international quality control to improve genotyping in the future. PMID:22170917

  20. A 4-Week Repeated-Dose Oral Toxicity Study of Bojungikgi-Tang in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Rom Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicines have been used for centuries in Asian countries. However, recent studies have led to increasing concerns about the safety and toxicity of herbal prescriptions. Bojungikgi-tang (BJIGT, a herbal decoction, has been used in Korea to improve physical strength. To establish the safety information, BJIGT water extract was evaluated in a 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity test in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. BJIGT was orally administered in daily doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks via oral gavage in male and female rats. We examined the mortality, clinical signs, body weight change, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. No significant changes were observed in mortality, clinical sings, body weight, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters between the control group and the BJIGT-treated groups in the rats of both sexes. The results indicate that BJIGT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 2000 mg/kg in rats. Thus, this concentration is considered the nonobservable effect dose in rats and is appropriate for a 13-week subchronic toxicity study.

  1. Study of Updating Initiating Event Frequency using Prognostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeonmin; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Park, Jun-seok; Kim, Hyungdae; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model enables to find the relative priority of accident scenarios, weak points in achieving accident prevention or mitigation, and insights to improve those vulnerabilities. Thus, PSA consider realistic calculation for precise and confidence results. However, PSA model still 'conservative' aspects in the procedures of developing a PSA model. One of the sources for the conservatism is caused by the assumption of safety analysis and the estimation of failure frequency. Recently, Surveillance, Diagnosis, and Prognosis (SDP) is a growing trend in applying space and aviation systems in particular. Furthermore, a study dealing with the applicable areas and state-of-the-art status of the SDP in nuclear industry was published. SDP utilizing massive database and information technology among such enabling techniques is worthwhile to be highlighted in terms of the capability of alleviating the conservatism in the conventional PSA. This paper review the concept of integrating PSA and SDP and suggest the updated methodology of Initiating Event (IE) using prognostics. For more detailed, we focus on IE of the Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) considering tube degradation. This paper is additional research of previous our suggested the research. In this paper, the concept of integrating PSA and SDP are suggested. Prognostics algorithms in SDP are applied at IE, Bes in the Level 1 PSA. As an example, updating SGTR IE and its ageing were considered. Tube ageing were analyzed by using PASTA and Monte Carlo method. After analyzing the tube ageing, conventional SGTR IE were updated by using Bayesian approach. The studied method can help to cover the static and conservatism in PSA

  2. Study of Updating Initiating Event Frequency using Prognostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeonmin; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Park, Jun-seok; Kim, Hyungdae; Chang, Yoon-Suk; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model enables to find the relative priority of accident scenarios, weak points in achieving accident prevention or mitigation, and insights to improve those vulnerabilities. Thus, PSA consider realistic calculation for precise and confidence results. However, PSA model still 'conservative' aspects in the procedures of developing a PSA model. One of the sources for the conservatism is caused by the assumption of safety analysis and the estimation of failure frequency. Recently, Surveillance, Diagnosis, and Prognosis (SDP) is a growing trend in applying space and aviation systems in particular. Furthermore, a study dealing with the applicable areas and state-of-the-art status of the SDP in nuclear industry was published. SDP utilizing massive database and information technology among such enabling techniques is worthwhile to be highlighted in terms of the capability of alleviating the conservatism in the conventional PSA. This paper review the concept of integrating PSA and SDP and suggest the updated methodology of Initiating Event (IE) using prognostics. For more detailed, we focus on IE of the Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) considering tube degradation. This paper is additional research of previous our suggested the research. In this paper, the concept of integrating PSA and SDP are suggested. Prognostics algorithms in SDP are applied at IE, Bes in the Level 1 PSA. As an example, updating SGTR IE and its ageing were considered. Tube ageing were analyzed by using PASTA and Monte Carlo method. After analyzing the tube ageing, conventional SGTR IE were updated by using Bayesian approach. The studied method can help to cover the static and conservatism in PSA.

  3. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  4. (InConsistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Froio de Araujo Dias

    Full Text Available Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB.15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110% following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials or placebo (PL, 2 trials. Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD was recorded as the exercise outcome.SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001; absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05. Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001, and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05, although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none.The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  5. Reduction in gesture during the production of repeated references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoetjes, M.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Krahmer, E.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    In dialogue, repeated references contain fewer words (which are also acoustically reduced) and fewer gestures than initial ones. In this paper, we describe three experiments studying to what extent gesture reduction is comparable to other forms of linguistic reduction. Since previous studies showed

  6. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR Markers to Study Genetic Diversity Among Cotton Cultivars in Associated with Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar ABDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing salt-tolerant crops is very important as a significant proportion of cultivated land is salt-affected. Screening and selection of salt tolerant genotypes of cotton using DNA molecular markers not only introduce tolerant cultivars useful for hybridization and breeding programs but also detect DNA regions involved in mechanism of salinity tolerance. To study this, 28 cotton cultivars, including 8 Iranian cotton varieties were grown in pots under greenhouse condition and three salt treatments were imposed with salt solutions (0, 70 and 140 mM NaCl. Eight agronomic traits including root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, chlorophyll and fluorescence index, K+ and Na+ contents in shoot (above ground biomass, and K+/Na+ ratio were measured. Cluster analysis of cultivars based on measured agronomic traits, showed �Cindose� and �Ciacra� as the most tolerant cultivars, and �B-557� and �43347� as the most sensitive cultivars of salt damage. A total of 65 polymorphic DNA fragments were generated at 14 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR loci. Plants of 28 cultivars of cotton grouped into three clusters based on ISSR markers. Regression analysis of markers in relation with traits data showed that 23, 33 and 30 markers associated with the measured traits in three salt treatments respectively. These markers might help breeders in any marker assisted selection program in order to improving cotton cultivars against salt stress.

  7. Analytical studies on the impact of using repeated-rib roughness in LMR [Liquid Metal Reactor] decay heat removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obot, N.T.; Tessier, J.H.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical study was carried out to determine the effects of roughness on the thermal performance of Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) decay heat removal systems for a range of possible design configurations and operating conditions. The ranges covered for relative rib height (e/D/sub h/), relative pitch (p/e) and flow attack angle were 0.026--0.103, 5--20 and 0--90 degrees, successively. The heat flux was varied between 1.1 and 21.5 kW/m 2 (0.1 and 2.0 kW/ft 2 ). Calculations were made for three cases: smooth duct with no ribs, ribs on both the guard vessel and collector wall, and ribs on the collector wall only. The results indicate that significant benefits, amounting to nearly two-fold reductions in guard vessel and collector wall temperatures, can be realized by placing repeated ribs on both the guard vessel and the collector wall. The magnitudes of the reduction in the reactor vessel temperature are considerably smaller. In general, the level of improvement, be it with respect to temperature or heat flux, is only mildly affected by changes in rib height or pitch but exhibits greater sensitivity to the assumed value for the system form loss. When the ribs are placed only on the collector wall, the heat removal capability is substantially reduced

  8. Film repeats in radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwan, A. Z.; Al-Shakharah, A. I

    1997-01-01

    During a one year period, 4910 radiographs of 55780 films were repeated. The objective of our study was to analyse and to classify the causes in order to minimize the repeats, cut the expenses and to provide optimal radiographs for accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the different factors revealed that, 43.6% of film repeats in our service were due to faults in exposure factors, centering comprises 15.9% of the repeats, while too much collimation was responsible for 7.6% of these repeats. All of which can be decreased by awareness and programmed training of technicians. Film blurring caused by patient motion was also responsible for 4.9% for radiographs reexamination, which can be minimized by detailed explanation to the patient and providing the necessary privacy. Fogging of X-Ray films by improper storage or inadequate handling or processing faults were responsible for 14.5% in repeats in our study. Methods and criteria for proper storage and handling of films were discussed. Recommendation for using modern day-light and laser processor has been high lighted. Artefacts are noticeably high in our cases, due to spinal dresses and frequent usage of precious metals for c osmotic purposes in this part of the world. The repeated films comprise 8.8% of all films We conclude that, the main factor responsible for repeats of up to 81.6% of cases was the technologists, thus emphasizing the importance of adequate training of the technologists. (authors). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 table

  9. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period. PMID:22834485

  10. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002-2009: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Rivett, Ulrike; Gundry, Stephen W

    2012-07-27

    In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002-2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002-2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000-02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

  11. "Focused introspection" during naturally increased diuresis: description and repeatability of a method to study bladder sensation non-invasively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wachter, Stefan G G; Heeringa, Rhea; Van Koeveringe, Gommert A; Winkens, Bjorn; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip E V; Gillespie, James I

    2014-06-01

    To present and describe a non-invasive method to study the origin and development of bladder filling sensation and to evaluate the repeatability of the method. Eighteen volunteers participated in the study and were given a water loading protocol consisting of 1,000 ml water intake 1 hr before the session and 200 ml every 10 min during the session. Protocol 1: To evaluate diuresis rate, seven participants were asked to void every 15 min and the voided volume was measured. Protocol 2: Eleven volunteers graded bladder sensation on regular time points, on an empty graph with time on the X-axis and intensity of sensation on the Y-axis. The protocol ended at absolute need to void (maximal intensity) and voided volumes were measured. This protocol was conducted three times with a 10 days interval. Protocol 1: The diuresis rate was not different during the sessions and showed no variation over the studied time period (P = 0.2). Protocol 2: For an individual, the diuresis rate was not different between the sessions. The curves in all patients showed a continuously increasing bladder intensity. In seven participants the curve was convex, in the other four, the curve was sigmoidal. For each individual the pattern was constant during the three sessions. A strict water loading protocol induces a constant diuresis. This allows individuals to draw an introspection bladder sensation curve with a specific shape, which can be used as a method to study the development of bladder sensation non-invasively. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Jim A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

  13. Combined Study of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Transport and Toxicity on Microbial Nitrifying Communities under Single and Repeated Exposures in Soil Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Marie; Martins, Jean M F; Uzu, Gaëlle; Vince, Erwann; Richaume, Agnès

    2016-10-04

    Soils are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of their increasing use in many commercial products. Adverse effects of NPs on soil microorganisms have been reported in several ecotoxicological studies using microcosms. Although repeated exposures are more likely to occur in soils, most of these previous studies were performed as a single exposure to NPs. Contrary to single contamination, the study of multiple NP contaminations in soils requires the use of specialized setups. Using a soil column experiment, we compared the influence of single and repeated exposures (one, two, or three exposures that resulted in the same final concentration applied) on the transport of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) NPs through soil and the effect of these different exposure scenarios on the abundance and activity of soil nitrifying microbial communities after a 2 month incubation. The transport of TiO 2 NPs was very limited under both single and repeated exposures and was highest for the lowest concentration injected during the first application. Significant decreases in nitrification activity and ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria populations were observed only for the repeated exposure scenario (three TiO 2 NP contaminations). These results suggest that, under repeated exposures, the transport of TiO 2 NPs to deep soil layers and groundwater is limited and that a chronic contamination is more harmful for the soil microbiological functioning than a single exposure.

  14. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993–2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. METHODS: In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. RESULTS: We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06–3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. INTERPRETATION: Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. PMID:28923795

  15. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993-2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A

    2017-09-18

    We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06-3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  16. Strengthening leadership as a catalyst for enhanced patient safety culture: a repeated cross-sectional experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Christensen, Karl Bang; Jaquet, Annette; Møller Beck, Carsten; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul; Mainz, Jan

    2016-05-13

    Current literature emphasises that clinical leaders are in a position to enable a culture of safety, and that the safety culture is a performance mediator with the potential to influence patient outcomes. This paper aims to investigate staff's perceptions of patient safety culture in a Danish psychiatric department before and after a leadership intervention. A repeated cross-sectional experimental study by design was applied. In 2 surveys, healthcare staff were asked about their perceptions of the patient safety culture using the 7 patient safety culture dimensions in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. To broaden knowledge and strengthen leadership skills, a multicomponent programme consisting of academic input, exercises, reflections and discussions, networking, and action learning was implemented among the clinical area level leaders. In total, 358 and 325 staff members participated before and after the intervention, respectively. 19 of the staff members were clinical area level leaders. In both surveys, the response rate was >75%. The proportion of frontline staff with positive attitudes improved by ≥5% for 5 of the 7 patient safety culture dimensions over time. 6 patient safety culture dimensions became more positive (increase in mean) (pculture are remarkable, and imply that strengthening the leadership can act as a significant catalyst for patient safety culture improvement. Further studies using a longitudinal study design are recommended to investigate the mechanism behind leadership's influence on patient safety culture, sustainability of improvements over time, and the association of change in the patient safety culture measures with change in psychiatric patient safety outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The Florida State Initial Teacher Certification Test: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of the art certification examination which was designed for the Florida State Initial Teacher Certification Test. Discusses problems of subjectivity, content, and question format. Suggests criteria which can guide the development of viable college art education programs that can adequately prepare teachers in the areas of…

  18. A Delphi Study and Initial Validation of Counselor Supervision Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Grothaus, Tim; Hays, Danica G.; Milliken, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    The authors addressed the lack of supervision training standards for doctoral counseling graduates by developing and validating an initial list of supervision competencies. They used content analysis, Delphi polling, and content validity methods to generate a list, vetted by 2 different panels of supervision experts, of 33 competencies grouped…

  19. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  20. Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using 2,4-dinitrotoluene: a report of a collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akihisa; Tsuchiyama, Hiromi; Asaoka, Yoshiji; Hirakata, Mikito; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Oshida, Keiyu; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2015-03-01

    The liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect liver carcinogens by repeated dosing, and could be expected to be integrated into repeated-dose toxicity studies using a hepatocyte isolation method without the traditional in situ collagenase perfusion. In this study, to assess the performance of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), which is a rodent liver carcinogen, was administered orally to male rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day once daily for 14 or 28 consecutive days, and the frequencies of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) and micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) were examined. Significant increases in the MNHEPs were observed at 50 mg/kg/day or more in the 14-day treatment, and 50 and 100 mg/kg/day in the 28-day treatment. These increases were dependent on both the dose and the number of administrations, which indicates the possibility that the MNHEPs accumulate as a result of repeated dosing. In contrast, no increase in the MNIMEs was observed. In conclusion, the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats is sufficiently sensitive to detect the genotoxicity of 2,4-DNT at a low dose.

  1. Repeat polymorphisms in ESR2 and AR and colorectal cancer risk and prognosis: results from a German population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anja; Shi, Hong; Försti, Asta; Hoffmeister, Michael; Sainz, Juan; Jansen, Lina; Hemminki, Kari; Brenner, Hermann; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-11-07

    Evidence has accumulated which suggests that sex steroids influence colorectal cancer development and progression. We therefore assessed the association of repeat polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor β gene (ESR2) and the androgen receptor gene (AR) with colorectal cancer risk and prognosis. The ESR2 CA and AR CAG repeat polymorphisms were genotyped in 1798 cases (746 female, 1052 male) and 1810 controls (732 female, 1078 male), matched for sex, age and county of residence. Colorectal cancer risk associations overall and specific for gender were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex, county of residence and age. Associations with overall and disease-specific survival were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for established prognostic factors (diagnosis of other cancer after colorectal cancer diagnosis, detection by screening, treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy, tumour extent, nodal status, distant metastasis, body mass index, age at diagnosis and year of diagnosis) and stratified for grade of differentiation. Heterogeneity in gender specific associations was assessed by comparing models with and without a multiplicative interaction term by means of a likelihood ratio test. The average number of ESR2 CA repeats was associated with a small 5% increase in colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) without significant heterogeneity according to gender or tumoural ESR2 expression. We found no indication for an association between the AR CAG repeat polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer. The ESR2 CA and AR CAG repeat polymorphisms were not associated with overall survival or disease specific survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Higher numbers of ESR2 CA repeats are potentially associated with a small increase in colorectal cancer risk. Our study does not support an association between colorectal cancer prognosis and the investigated repeat polymorphisms.

  2. Validation and Reliability of a Smartphone Application for the International Prostate Symptom Score Questionnaire: A Randomized Repeated Measures Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Ko, Young Myoung; Chun, Dong-Il; Yang, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone-based assessment may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool for patients. There have been many attempts to create a smartphone diagnostic tool for clinical use in various medical fields but few have demonstrated scientific validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a smartphone application of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and to demonstrate its validity and reliability. Methods From June 2012 to May 2013, a total of 1581 male participants (≥40 years old), with or without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), visited our urology clinic via the health improvement center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Republic of Korea) and were enrolled in this study. A randomized repeated measures crossover design was employed using a smartphone application of the IPSS and the conventional paper form of the IPSS. Paired t test under a hypothesis of non-inferior trial was conducted. For the reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured. Results The total score of the IPSS (P=.289) and each item of the IPSS (P=.157-1.000) showed no differences between the paper version and the smartphone version of the IPSS. The mild, moderate, and severe LUTS groups showed no differences between the two versions of the IPSS. A significant correlation was noted in the total group (ICC=.935, Psmartphones could participate. Conclusions The validity and reliability of the smartphone application version were comparable to the conventional paper version of the IPSS. The smartphone application of the IPSS could be an effective method for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24513507

  3. Improvement in Trainees' Attitude and Resuscitation Quality With Repeated Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training: Cross-Sectional Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hun; Lee, Kyeong Ryong; Hong, Dae Young; Baek, Kwang Je; Park, Sang O

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of increasing numbers of training sessions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for hospital employees was held every year from 2006 to 2010. Participants were recruited among the trainees in 2010. The trainees' attitudes toward CPR were surveyed by questionnaire, and the quality of their CPR was measured using 5-cycle 30:2 CPR on a manikin. Participants were categorized according to the number of consecutive CPR training sessions as T1 (only 2010), T2 (2009 and 2010), T3 (from 2008 to 2010) and T4-5 (from 2006 or 2007 to 2010). The trainee attitude and CPR quality were compared among the 4 groups. Of 923 CPR trainees, 267 were enrolled in the study. There was significant increase in willingness to start CPR and confidence in chest compression and mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MTMV) with increasing number of CPR training sessions attended (especially for ≥ 3 sessions). There was a significant increase in mean compression depth and decrease in percentage of chest compressions with depth of less than 38 mm in the T3 and T4-5 compared with the T1 and T2. No-flow time decreased significantly, and the percentage of MTMV with visible chest rise increased, as the number of training sessions increased. Repeated CPR training improved trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Because the number of training sessions increased (≥3), the willingness to start CPR and the confidence in skills increased significantly, and chest compression depth, no-flow time, and MTMV improved.

  4. Study on penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiangxin; Xu, Heyang

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment penetrating target, PTFE/Al (mass ratio 73.5/26.5) pressed and sintered into a Ф8mm × 8mm cylinder. To form energetic fragment, the cylinder was put into a closed container made by 35CrMnSiA. The container is 12mm long, 2mm thick. Energetic fragments were launched by a 14.5mm ballistic gun with a series of velocities and the penetrate process was simulated by AUTODYN-3D. The results show that the stress peak of energetic material exceed the initiation threshold, and energetic material will deflagrate, when energetic fragments impact velocity more than 800 m/s. The research results can provide reference for designs of energetic warhead.

  5. Case Study of Crack Initiation from Bi-material Notches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusák, Jan; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 452-453, - (2011), s. 449-452 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fracture and Damage Mechanics /9./. Nagasaki, 20.09.2010-22.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2049; GA ČR GA101/08/0994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Crack initiation * bi-material notch * fracture mechanics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  6. Appliance Call Center: A Successful Mixed-Initiative Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, William E.; Goebel, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Customer service is defined as the ability of a company to afford the service requestor with the expressed need. Due to the increasing importance of service offerings as a revenue source and increasing competition among service providers, it is important for companies to optimize both the customer experience as well as the associated cost of providing the service. For more complex interactions with higher value, mixed-initiative systems provide an avenue that gives a good balance between the ...

  7. Institutional initiatives in professional scientific ethics: three case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund; Bilham, Nic

    2015-04-01

    Learned and professional scientific bodies can play a vital role in promoting ethical behaviours, giving practical substance to theoretical consideration of geoethical principles and complementing the efforts of individual scientists and practitioners to behave in a professional and ethical manner. Institutions may do this through mandatory professional codes of conduct, by developing guidelines and initiatives to codify and stimulate the uptake of best practice, and through wider initiatives to engender a culture conducive to such behaviours. This presentation will outline three current institutional initiatives which directly or indirectly address scientific ethics: i. The UK Science Council's Declaration on Diversity, Equality and Inclusion. ii. Development and promulgation of the American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct. iii. The American Geophysical Union's (AGU) Scientific Code of Conduct and Professional Ethics. The focus of the Science Council and its member bodies (including the Geological Society of London) on diversity is of central importance when considering ethical behaviours in science. First, improving equality and diversity in the science workforce is at the heart of ethical practice, as well as being essential to meeting current and future skills needs. Second, in addition to demographic diversity (whether in terms of gender, race, economic status, sexuality or gender identity, etc), an important dimension of diversity in science is to allow space for a plurality of scientific views, and to nurture dissenting voices - essential both to the development of scientific knowledge and to its effective communication to non-technical audiences.

  8. Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Peristera, Paraskevi; Eib, Constanze; Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2017-12-08

    Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity. Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account. We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity. Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  9. First worldwide proficiency study on variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Kremer, K.; Kodmon, C.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2012-01-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency

  10. Fever as an initial manifestation of spondyloarthritis: A retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Jin Byun

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate a wide spectrum of clinical features of adult patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA whose initial manifestation was fever, using the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS classification criteria.We retrospectively collected the electronic medical records of hospitalized SpA patients who initially presented to the Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea with fever from January 2010 to May 2016. As a control group, we also recruited one-hundred consecutive patients who were diagnosed with SpA in our outpatient clinic. Clinical features and laboratory findings were compared in two patient groups.There were 26 patients who had fever as initial presentation of SpA (reactive arthritis 50%, undifferentiated SpA 26.9%, ankylosing spondylitis 15.4%, enteropathic arthritis 3.8%, psoriatic arthritis 3.8%. Peripheral SpA was more common in febrile SpA patients than in control SpA patients (65.4% vs 24.0%, p<0.001. Febrile SpA patients were less frequently HLA-B27 positive than control SpA patients (52.2% vs 77.0%, p<0.05. At baseline, systemic inflammatory markers were significantly higher in the febrile SpA patients (white blood cell count, 11.57 vs 7.81 cells/μL, p<0.001; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 69.2 vs 41.0 mm/h, p<0.001; C-reactive protein, 109.6 vs 15.3 mg/L, p<0.001. The proportion of patients treated with systemic steroids was significantly higher in febrile SpA patients (57.7% vs. 11.0%, p<0.001. The proportion of patients who visited rheumatology specialty was significantly lower in febrile SpA patients than in control SpA patients (7.7% vs 59.0%, p<0.001.Various subgroups of SpA can be presented with fever as an initial manifestation. Febrile SpA patients demonstrated higher systemic inflammation and a lower chance to visit rheumatology in early stage. When evaluating febrile patients with any clinical features of SpA, clinicians are advised to consider performing SpA-focused evaluation including HLA-B27

  11. Smoking behavior and motivation to quit among chronic pain patients initiating multidisciplinary pain treatment: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrod, Marina; Gironda, Ronald J; Clark, Michael E; White, Kristi E; Simmons, Vani N; Sutton, Steven K; Brandon, Thomas H

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess smoking characteristics and cessation motivation prior to and after initiation of multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment. A secondary aim was to identify predictors of cessation motivation among smokers initiating treatment for chronic pain. We used a prospective, nonrandomized, repeated measures design. The study was conducted in a multidisciplinary specialty pain treatment program at a veterans hospital. Smokers (N = 90) referred to a multidisciplinary pain program for the treatment of chronic pain. Patients completed questionnaires assessing pain-related and smoking-related factors prior to (baseline) and 8 weeks post (follow-up) specialty pain treatment initiation. Primary outcome measures were the Contemplation Ladder and the Stages of Change (SOC) algorithm. At baseline, patients reported moderate levels of cessation motivation, and 69% were in the contemplation stage or higher on the SOC. Motivation to quit smoking was higher at follow-up compared with baseline on both continuous, t(89) = 2.11, P motivation (e.g., pain intensity) were subsumed by more general predictors (e.g., nicotine dependence). Patients in this sample were more motivated to quit smoking a few weeks after, as compared with before initiating specialty pain treatment. Future research into pain-specific predictors of cessation motivation is warranted to inform the development of interventions that address pain patients' unique needs. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A four-kallikrein panel for the prediction of repeat prostate biopsy: data from the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer screening in Rotterdam, Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Roobol, M J; Savage, C J; Peltola, M; Pettersson, K; Scardino, P T; Vickers, A J; Schröder, F H; Lilja, H

    2010-08-24

    Most men with elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) do not have prostate cancer, leading to a large number of unnecessary biopsies. A statistical model based on a panel of four kallikreins has been shown to predict the outcome of a first prostate biopsy. In this study, we apply the model to an independent data set of men with previous negative biopsy but persistently elevated PSA. The study cohort consisted of 925 men with a previous negative prostate biopsy and elevated PSA (>or=3 ng ml(-1)), with 110 prostate cancers detected (12%). A previously published statistical model was applied, with recalibration to reflect the lower positive biopsy rates on rebiopsy. The full-kallikrein panel had higher discriminative accuracy than PSA and DRE alone, with area under the curve (AUC) improving from 0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.64) to 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.74), Por=7) at biopsy with AUC improving from 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.89) to 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.94), P=0.003). Application of the panel to 1000 men with persistently elevated PSA after initial negative biopsy, at a 15% risk threshold would reduce the number of biopsies by 712; would miss (or delay) the diagnosis of 53 cancers, of which only 3 would be Gleason 7 and the rest Gleason 6 or less. Our data constitute an external validation of a previously published model. The four-kallikrein panel predicts the result of repeat prostate biopsy in men with elevated PSA while dramatically decreasing unnecessary biopsies.

  13. Chlamydia screening is not cost-effective at low participation rates: evidence from a repeated register-based implementation study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, G. Ardine; Over, Eelco A. B.; Schmid, Boris V.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Welte, Robert; Op de Coul, Eline L. M.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.

    2015-01-01

    In three pilot regions of The Netherlands, all 16-29 year olds were invited to participate in three annual rounds of Chlamydia screening. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of repeated Chlamydia screening, based on empirical data. A mathematical model was employed to

  14. The impact of repeat-testing of common chemistry analytes at critical concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyenekwu, Chinelo P; Hudson, Careen L; Zemlin, Annalise E; Erasmus, Rajiv T

    2014-12-01

    Early notification of critical values by the clinical laboratory to the treating physician is a requirement for accreditation and is essential for effective patient management. Many laboratories automatically repeat a critical value before reporting it to prevent possible misdiagnosis. Given today's advanced instrumentation and quality assurance practices, we questioned the validity of this approach. We performed an audit of repeat-testing in our laboratory to assess for significant differences between initial and repeated test results, estimate the delay caused by repeat-testing and to quantify the cost of repeating these assays. A retrospective audit of repeat-tests for sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the first quarter of 2013 at Tygerberg Academic Laboratory was conducted. Data on the initial and repeat-test values and the time that they were performed was extracted from our laboratory information system. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment criteria for allowable error were employed to assess for significant difference between results. A total of 2308 repeated tests were studied. There was no significant difference in 2291 (99.3%) of the samples. The average delay ranged from 35 min for magnesium to 42 min for sodium and calcium. At least 2.9% of laboratory running costs for the analytes was spent on repeating them. The practice of repeating a critical test result appears unnecessary as it yields similar results, delays notification to the treating clinician and increases laboratory running costs.

  15. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and heart rate variability and inflammation among non-smoking construction workers: a repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2013-10-02

    Although it has been well recognized that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with cardiovascular mortality, the mechanisms and time course by which SHS exposure may lead to cardiovascular effects are still being explored. Non-smoking workers were recruited from a local union and monitored inside a union hall while exposed to SHS over approximately 6 hours. Participants were fitted with a continuous electrocardiographic monitor upon enrollment which was removed at the end of a 24-hr monitoring period. A repeated measures study design was used where resting ECGs and blood samples were taken from individuals before SHS exposure (baseline), immediately following SHS exposure (post) and the morning following SHS exposure (next-morning).Inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were analyzed. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed from the ECG recordings in time (SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency (LF, HF) domain parameters over 5-minute periods. SHS exposure was quantified using a personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor.Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine within-person changes in inflammatory and HRV parameters across the 3 time periods. Exposure-response relationships with PM2.5 were examined using mixed effects models. All models were adjusted for age, BMI and circadian variation. A total of 32 male non-smokers were monitored between June 2010 and June 2012. The mean PM2.5 from SHS exposure was 132 μg/m3. Immediately following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with declines in HRV (7.8% [standard error (SE) =3%] SDNN, 8.0% (SE = 3.9%) rMSSD, 17.2% (SE = 6.3%) LF, 29.0% (SE = 10.1%) HF) and increases in WBC count 0.42 (SE = 0.14) k/μl. Eighteen hours following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 24.2% higher CRP levels. Our study suggest that short-term SHS exposure is associated

  16. Study of a 13-weeks, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose, Toxicity Test of Sweet Bee Venom in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunmin Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyze a 13-week repeated dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV extracted from bee venom and administered in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Male and female 5-week-old SD rats were treated once daily with SBV (high-dosage group: 0.28 mg/kg; medium-dosage group: 0.14 mg/kg; or low-dosage group: 0.07 mg/kg for 13 weeks. Normal saline was administered to the control group in a similar manner (0.2 mL/kg. We conducted clinical observations, body weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses, hematology and biochemistry tests, and histological observations using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining to identify any abnormalities caused by the SBV treatment. Results:During this study, no mortality was observed in any of the experimental groups. Hyperemia and a movement disorder were observed around the area of in all groups that received SBV treatment, with a higher occurrence in rats treated with a higher dosage. Male rats receiving in the high-dosage group showed a significant decrease in weight during the treatment period. Compared to the control group, no significant changes in the ophthalmic parameters, the urine analyses, the complete blood cell count (CBC, and the biochemistry in the groups treated with SBV. Compared to the control group, some changes in organ weights were observed in the medium-and the high-dosage groups, but the low-dosage group showed no significant changes. Histological examination of thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fiber, as well as fibrosis, in both the medium- and the high-dosage groups. Fatty liver change was observed in the periportal area of rats receiving medium and high dosages of SBV. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:Our findings suggest that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL of SBV is approximately 0.07 mg/kg in male and female SD rats.

  17. Ambient temperature and cardiovascular biomarkers in a repeated-measure study in healthy adults: A novel biomarker index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Pan, Lu; Shan, Jiao; Li, Hongyu; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2017-07-01

    Associations of ambient temperature with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been well documented in numerous epidemiological studies, but the underlying pathways remain unclear. We investigated whether systemic inflammation, coagulation, systemic oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and endothelial function may be the mechanistic pathways associated with ambient temperature. Forty study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. Ambient temperature and air pollution data were measured in central monitors close to student residences. We created five indices as the sum of weighted biomarker percentiles to represent the overall levels of 15 cardiovascular biomarkers in five pathways (systemic inflammation: hs-CRP, TNF-α and fibrinogen; coagulation: fibrinogen, PAI-1, tPA, vWF and sP-selectin; systemic oxidative stress: Ox-LDL and sCD36: antioxidant activity: EC-SOD and GPX1; and endothelial function: ET-1, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). We used generalized mixed-effects models to estimate temperature effects controlling for air pollution and other covariates. There were significant decreasing trends in the adjusted means of biomarker indices over the lowest to the highest quartiles of daily temperatures before blood collection. A 10°C decrease at 2-d average daily temperature were associated with increases of 2.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 4.2], 1.6% (95% CI: 0.1, 3.1), 2.7% (95% CI: 0.5, 4.8), 5.5% (95% CI: 3.8, 7.3) and 2.0% (95% CI: 0.3, 3.8) in the indices for systemic inflammation, coagulation, systemic oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and endothelial function, respectively. In contrast, the associations between ambient temperature and individual biomarkers had substantial variation in magnitude and strength. The altered cardiovascular biomarker profiles in healthy adults associated with ambient temperature changes may help explain the temperature-related cardiovascular morbidity

  18. Reported frequency of physical activity in a large epidemiological study: relationship to specific activities and repeatability over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Gillian K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How overall physical activity relates to specific activities and how reported activity changes over time may influence interpretation of observed associations between physical activity and health. We examine the relationships between various physical activities self-reported at different times in a large cohort study of middle-aged UK women. Methods At recruitment, Million Women Study participants completed a baseline questionnaire including questions on frequency of strenuous and of any physical activity. About 3 years later 589,896 women also completed a follow-up questionnaire reporting the hours they spent on a range of specific activities. Time spent on each activity was used to estimate the associated excess metabolic equivalent hours (MET-hours and this value was compared across categories of physical activity reported at recruitment. Additionally, 18,655 women completed the baseline questionnaire twice, at intervals of up to 4 years; repeatability over time was assessed using the weighted kappa coefficient (κweighted and absolute percentage agreement. Results The average number of hours per week women reported doing specific activities was 14.0 for housework, 4.5 for walking, 3.0 for gardening, 0.2 for cycling, and 1.4 for all strenuous activity. Time spent and the estimated excess MET-hours associated with each activity increased with increasing frequency of any or strenuous physical activity reported at baseline (tests for trend, P weighted = 0.71 for questionnaires administered less than 6 months apart, and 52% (κweighted = 0.51 for questionnaires more than 2 years apart. Corresponding values for any physical activity were 57% (κweighted = 0.67 and 47% (κweighted = 0.58. Conclusions In this cohort, responses to simple questions on the frequency of any physical activity and of strenuous activity asked at baseline were associated with hours spent on specific activities and the associated estimated excess MET

  19. Initial Ferritic Wall Mode studies on HBT-EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul; Bialek, J.; Boozer, A.; Mauel, M. E.; Levesque, J. P.; Navratil, G. A.

    2013-10-01

    Low-activation ferritic steels are leading material candidates for use in next-generation fusion development experiments such as a prospective US component test facility and DEMO. Understanding the interaction of plasmas with a ferromagnetic wall will provide crucial physics for these experiments. Although the ferritic wall mode (FWM) was seen in a linear machine, the FWM was not observed in JFT-2M, probably due to eddy current stabilization. Using its high-resolution magnetic diagnostics and positionable walls, HBT-EP has begun exploring the dynamics and stability of plasma interacting with high-permeability ferritic materials tiled to reduce eddy currents. We summarize a simple model for plasma-wall interaction in the presence of ferromagnetic material, describe the design of a recently-installed set of ferritic shell segments, and report initial results. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  20. Study the Stability of SSR Repeats of pEA29 Plasmid of the Casual Agent of Fire Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baghaee Ravari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fire blight disease causes by Erwinia amylovora infects a wide variety of rosaceous plants. It was first recorded from pear trees in Karaj in year 1990. After that it was observed in many pear and apple orchards of the country. E. amylovora isolates differed slightly in virulence, symptoms and host range which ca be related to different plasmid content. The presence of an universal plasmid, pEA29, has been observed in majority of E. amylovora strains. Short-sequence DNA repeat with eight nt were repeated 3 to 15 times in the PstI fragment of the pEA29 plasmid. Here, the stability of SSR units and efficiency of this method to categorize strains was checked. For this reseaon two methods including amplification and cloning of whole and part of PstI fragment was done and the sequences were compared to eachother. In addition stability was evaluated based on three treatments including long time propagation, keeping strains in cold situation and re-isolation of infected tissues. Materials and Methods In this study 20 strains were purchased from the Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute. Their typical phenotypic tests were examined for all strains. All of then were checked with lateral flow immune chromatography in different serial dilutions. The pathogenicity were aassayed using complete fruit. Direct PCR with A/B primers and nested PCR with AJ75/AJ76 were applied for studied strains. Ten representative strains were selected snf part of PstI fragment amplified using RS1/RS2 primers. The PCR products were purified by QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen, USA, cloned in pGEM-T and were sequenced (Macrogen Inc., Korea. Five of 10 were chosen for stability tests including long time propagation and sub culturing each two week for three months, keeping strains in refrigerator for three months and re-isolation of infected tissues. Results and Discussion In phenotypic tests all studies strains were facultative anaerobic growth, oxidase

  1. Knowledge and Skill Retention of In-Service versus Preservice Nursing Professionals following an Informal Training Program in Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Repeated-Measures Quasiexperimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuma Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants—28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals—were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P=0.08 while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P<0.001. Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups—in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P=0.01 and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P<0.001. Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills.

  2. Early life factors initiate a 'vicious circle' of affective and gastrointestinal symptoms: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael P; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Koloski, Natasha; Tack, Jan; Talley, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) have been shown to be associated with both comorbid mood disorders and traumatic events such as abuse earlier in life. In a longitudinal study, we tested a model that hypothesized: (i) childhood abuse was associated with subsequent mood disorder and pain or interference in life by bowel symptoms both directly and indirectly via neurotic personality; and (ii) an ongoing cycle of mood disorder impacts on bowel symptoms. Subjects from the general population classified as irritable bowel syndrome and/or functional dyspepsia (IBS/FD, n = 207) or free of FGID (n = 100) were prospectively studied every 6 months over 18 months. In addition to bowel symptom interference and abdominal pain, measures of personality (neuroticism), childhood abuse history, depression, and anxiety were obtained. The hypothesized model was tested via Path Modelling. Childhood abuse was found to be directly associated with neuroticism but only indirectly associated with baseline interference and mood disorders (via neuroticism). The data further supported an ongoing cycle of elevations in mood disorders and pain/interference by bowel symptoms. The data supported direct effects of interference at one time point on interference at the subsequent time point in addition to indirect effects of prior anxiety and depression. Repeating the model with pain frequency as the outcome yielded almost identical findings which suggests the findings are generalized across domains of symptoms and quality-of-life. Our data provide support for a model characterized by a 'vicious circle' between mood disorders and FGID symptoms in adulthood, with initial input from early life factors.

  3. Effect of ozone to remineralize initial enamel caries: in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, S R; Dorai, S; Khatri, S G; Patil, S T

    2016-06-01

    Effect of ozonated water in remineralizing artificially created initial enamel caries was investigated using laser fluorescence and polarized light microscopy in an in situ study. Teeth specimens (buccal sections) were immersed in 5-ml solution of 2 mM CaCl2, 2 mM NaH2P04, and 50 mM CH3COOH at pH of 4.55 for 5 h in an incubator at 37° to create subsurface demineralization. After which, they were randomly allocated into one of the following remineralization regimens: ozone (ozonated water 0.1 mg/l and 10 % nano-hydroxyapatite paste, Aclaim(TM)), without ozone (only 10 % nano-hydroxyapatite paste, Aclaim(TM)), and control (subjects' saliva alone). Specimens were embedded in acrylic retainers worn by orthodontic patients throughout the 21-day study duration and constantly exposed to their saliva. Laser fluorescence was recorded for all the specimens at baseline, after demineralization, and remineralization using DIAGNOdent, and the results were validated using polarized microscopic examination. The results were analyzed using repeated measures, one-way ANOVA with post hoc multiple comparisons. Reduced DIAGNOdent scores and greater depth of remineralization following application of ozonated water and nano-hydroxyapatite were found compared to those of the without ozone and control groups (P nano-hydroxyapatite compared to nano-hydroxyapatite alone and saliva. Ozone water can be used to remineralize incipient carious lesions, and it enhances the remineralizing potential of nano-hydroxyapatite thereby preventing the tooth from entering into the repetitive restorative cycle.

  4. Foresight studies and reform initiatives in construction: Lessons for developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses construction foresight studies and construction reform initiatives with a view to identifying lessons for developing countries. It notes the number of construction reform initiatives over the last 60 years, mostly...

  5. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  6. Quality improvement initiatives in a case management service: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the importance of quality practices in underpinning the person-centred approach at a Community Options Program (COP) case management service in northern NSW. The NSW community care sector does not have a statutory excellence body to identify, promote and support improved practices and quality and safety across community services, and therefore the COP provider decided to establish a dedicated role to focus on the quality improvement of its service. The subsequent quality improvement initiatives have included mapping the clients' journey through the service, identifying areas to standardise practice, and creating service pathways. The clients' journey was used as the framework to identify where standardised practice was required, and a robust process was implemented to develop over 25 good practice guidelines and tools that addressed the variations in practice and enabled the service pathways to be developed. Prior to trialling the guidelines and tools, staff received education sessions on the anticipated changes to practice, and the practicality and applicability of the guidelines were evaluated at the end of the trials. This information was reviewed and the guidelines were amended accordingly before being rolled out. The guidelines have been in use for over 12 months and have provided the benchmark against which to audit practice, and have resulted in key performance improvements such as an increase in client review rates and a rise in the feedback response rate from clients, with a noticeable shift in the comments about the brokered support worker to acknowledging the role of their case manager. Formalising informal supports for those clients that lived alone also increased, which means these people are less reliant on services and there is a reduced risk of social isolation.

  7. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  8. TU-AB-BRA-05: Repeatability of [F-18]-NaF PET Imaging Biomarkers for Bone Lesions: A Multicenter Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C; Bradshaw, T; Perk, T; Harmon, S; Jeraj, R; Liu, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantifying the repeatability of imaging biomarkers is critical for assessing therapeutic response. While therapeutic efficacy has been traditionally quantified by SUV metrics, imaging texture features have shown potential for use as quantitative biomarkers. In this study we evaluated the repeatability of quantitative "1"8F-NaF PET-derived SUV metrics and texture features in bone lesions from patients in a multicenter study. Methods: Twenty-nine metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients received whole-body test-retest NaF PET/CT scans from one of three harmonized imaging centers. Bone lesions of volume greater than 1.5 cm"3 were identified and automatically segmented using a SUV>15 threshold. From each lesion, 55 NaF PET-derived texture features (including first-order, co-occurrence, grey-level run-length, neighbor gray-level, and neighbor gray-tone difference matrix) were extracted. The test-retest repeatability of each SUV metric and texture feature was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis. Results: A total of 315 bone lesions were evaluated. Of the traditional SUV metrics, the repeatability coefficient (RC) was 12.6 SUV for SUVmax, 2.5 SUV for SUVmean, and 4.3 cm"3 for volume. Their respective intralesion coefficients of variation (COVs) were 12%, 17%, and 6%. Of the texture features, COV was lowest for entropy (0.03%) and highest for kurtosis (105%). Lesion intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was lowest for maximum correlation coefficient (ICC=0.848), and highest for entropy (ICC=0.985). Across imaging centers, repeatability of texture features and SUV varied. For example, across imaging centers, COV for SUVmax ranged between 11–23%. Conclusion: Many NaF PET-derived SUV metrics and texture features for bone lesions demonstrated high repeatability, such as SUVmax, entropy, and volume. Several imaging texture features demonstrated poor repeatability, such as SUVtotal and SUVstd. These results can be used to establish response criteria

  9. Initial study on burnable poisons in the Dragon HTR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U; Pedersen, J

    1971-06-15

    A first study on the effects of burnable poisons in a High Temperature Reactor is given in this paper, and some of the problems concerning the layout and distribution of burnable poison sticks in the core are explained. Time has not allowed us to obtain satisfactory solutions to these problems, but we hope, that this study could form the basis of valuable discussions on ways and means to overcome the difficulties of burnable poison management in HTRs.

  10. NMR-Based Metabolomic Study on Isatis tinctoria: Comparison of Different Accessions, Harvesting Dates, and the Effect of Repeated Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; Kostidis, Sarantos; Schäfer, Hartmut; De Mieri, Maria; Spraul, Manfred; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-05-22

    Isatis tinctoria is an ancient dye and medicinal plant with potent anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties. Metabolic differences were investigated by NMR spectroscopy of accessions from different origins that were grown under identical conditions on experimental plots. For these accessions, metabolite profiles at different harvesting dates were analyzed, and single and repeatedly harvested plants were compared. Leaf samples were shock-frozen in liquid N2 immediately after being harvested, freeze-dried, and cryomilled prior to extraction. Extracts were prepared by pressurized liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and 70% aqueous methanol. NMR spectra were analyzed using a combination of different methods of multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA), canonical analysis (CA), and k-nearest neighbor concept (k-NN). Accessions and harvesting dates were well separated in the PCA/CA/k-NN analysis in both extracts. Pairwise statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) revealed unsaturated fatty acids, porphyrins, carbohydrates, indole derivatives, isoprenoids, phenylpropanoids, and minor aromatic compounds as the cause of these differences. In addition, the metabolite profile was affected by the repeated harvest regime, causing a decrease of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, sucrose, unsaturated fatty acids, porphyrins, isoprenoids, and a flavonoid.

  11. Aphasia and Topic Initiation in Conversation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Scott E.; Candlin, Christopher N.; Ferguson, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aphasiologists often research, assess and treat linguistic impairment and its consequences for daily life separately. Studies that link the language used by people with aphasia to routine communicative activities may expand the linguistic forms treated as relevant for successful communication by people with aphasia. Previous research…

  12. Complex decision-making: initial results of an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief survey of key literature on emotions and decision-making introduces an empirical study of a group of university students exploring the effects of decision-making complexity on error risk. The results clearly show that decision-making under stress in the experimental group produces significantly more errors than in the stress-free control group.

  13. Complex decision-making: initial results of an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Luigi Baldi

    2011-01-01

    A brief survey of key literature on emotions and decision-making introduces an empirical study of a group of university students exploring the effects of decision-making complexity on error risk. The results clearly show that decision-making under stress in the experimental group produces significantly more errors than in the stress-free control group.

  14. Small modular biopower initiative Phase 1 feasibility studies executive summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R.

    2000-03-06

    The Phase 1 objective is a feasibility study that includes a market assessment, resource assessment, preliminary system design, and assessment of relevant environmental and safety considerations, and evaluation of financial and cost issues, and a preliminary business plan and commercialization strategy. Each participating company will share at least 20% of the cost of the first phase.

  15. Evaluating a Tacit Knowledge Sharing Initiative: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Claire; Corrigan, Siobhan; Garavan, Thomas N.; O'Connor, Christy; Leahy, Damien; Long, David; Murphy, Eamonn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a case study illustrating the issues involved in the tacit knowledge conversion process and to determine whether such conversion delivers value to the organisation in terms of business value and return on investment (ROI). Design/methodology/approach: A single-case multiple baseline participants experimental…

  16. New initiative in studies of Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Thorne

    A multidisciplinary U.S. research community is undertaking a new coordinated effort to study the state and dynamics of the Earth's deep mantle and core. At an open meeting held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, from September 11 to 12, 1992, over 120 Earth scientists gathered to discuss this new program, which is an outgrowth of activity during the previous year by an ad hoc steering committee. The research program will be coordinated by a community-based scientific organization and supported through competitive research proposals submitted to the National Science Foundation with the aim of facilitating cooperative research projects cutting across traditional disciplinary and institutional boundaries.The new organization is the U.S. Studies of the Earth's Deep Interior (SEDI) Coordinating Committee. This committee will facilitate communication among the U.S. SEDI research community, federal funding agencies, the AGU Committee for Studies of the Earth's Interior (SEI), the Union SEDI Committee of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, and the general public (Figure 1).

  17. Quantification and Assessment of the Chemical Form of Residual Gadolinium in the Brain After Repeated Administration of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents: Comparative Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Thomas; Apte, Chirag; Jost, Gregor; Schöckel, Laura; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-07-01

    Multiple clinical and preclinical studies have reported a signal intensity increase and the presence of gadolinium (Gd) in the brain after repeated administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). This bioanalytical study in rat brain tissue was initiated to investigate whether the residual Gd is present as intact GBCA or in other chemical forms by using tissue fractionation and chromatography. Rats were divided randomly in 6 groups of 10 animals each. They received 10 daily injections of 2.5 mmol/kg bodyweight of 1 of 5 different GBCAs: linear GBCAs such as gadodiamide (Omniscan; GE Healthcare), gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA, Magnevist; Bayer), or gadobenate dimeglumine (Multihance; Bracco) and macrocyclic GBCAs such as gadobutrol (Gadovist; Bayer) and gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA, Dotarem; Guerbet) or saline. On days 3 and 24 after the last injection (p.i.), 5 randomly chosen animals of each group were killed by exsanguination, and their brains were excised and divided into cerebrum, pons, and cerebellum. The brain sections were homogenized by sonication in ice-cold buffer at pH 7.4. Soluble and insoluble fractions were separated by centrifugation, and the soluble fractions were further separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The Gd concentration in all tissue fractions and in the GPC eluate was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In a recovery control experiment, all GBCAs were spiked to blank brain tissue and more than 94% recovery of Gd in the tissue fractions was demonstrated. Only traces of the administered Gd were found in the rat brain tissue on day 3 and day 24 p.i. In the animals treated with macrocyclic GBCAs, Gd was found only in the soluble brain fraction and was present solely as low molecular weight molecules, most likely the intact GBCA. In the animals treated with linear GBCAs Gd was found to a large extent in the insoluble tissue fraction. The Gd concentration in the soluble fraction was comparable to the

  18. Initial studies on temperature impact of humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashalidis, I.; Colocassidou, C.; Costa, C.N.; Efstathiou, A.M.; Buckau, G.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of temperature on the stability of the humic acid Gohy-573(HA) is studied. The studies are made both in order to add general knowledge about humic acid but also in order to provide the basis for experimental setup of studies, and judgment of published data, on the metal ion humate complexation as a function of temperature. Methods applied are mass spectroscopy as a function of temperature elevation up to 240 C, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Mass spectroscopy is conducted under inertgas atmosphere in order to avoid burning with air oxygen. UV/Vis spectra are measured after storage of humic acid solution (pH=6.0, I=0.1 M NaClO 4 ) at temperatures up to 95 C. The reversibility of changes is also studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy after subsequent storage at room temperature. Already at 50 C release of water is observed from dried humic acid with a peak around 60 C. A second large water release is found with the maximum around 100 C. Above 100 C also carbon dioxide is released, followed by release of carbon monoxide above 130 C. The carbon monoxide and dioxide releases show two distinct maxima at around 180 and 210 C. The UV/Vis spectra show an increase in the absorption towards short wavelengths with increasing temperature and storage time. Already at 60 C, considerable changes occur after storage for one week. At 95 C the change in the spectral feature after 24 h is in the order of that found for 1 week storage at 80 C. After storage at elevated temperatures, the changes in the spectra remain even after 1 week of storage at room temperature. Release of water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at high temperature is certainly related to oxidation with the high oxygen inventory in humic acid. The nature of the water release and changes in the UV/Vis spectra at lower temperature is not fully clear. Further experiments, including complexation properties, fluorescence spectroscopy and IR-reflection spectroscopy at elevated temperature are under consideration. (orig.)

  19. Initial studies of submarine groundwater discharge in Mississippi coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, A. M.; Moore, W. S.; Joung, D. J.; Box, H.; Ho, P.; Whitmore, L. M.; Gilbert, M.; Anderson, H.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a critical component of coastal ecosystems, affecting biogeochemistry and productivity. The SGD flux and effect on the ecosystem of the Mississippi (MS) Bight has not previously been studied. We have determined Ba, δ18O of water, and Ra-isotopes, together with nutrients, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen (DO) during multiple cruises from fall 2015 to summer 2016. Water isotope distributions (δ18O) show that, although the MS River Delta bounds the western side of the Bight, nonetheless, Mobile Bay and other local rivers are the Bight's dominant freshwater sources. But elevated dissolved Ba and Ra isotopes cannot be explained by river input. Spatially, SGD in the MS Bight occurs over a wide area, with hot spots near the barrier islands (e.g., Chandeleurs, Horn and Dauphin Islands) and the mouth of Mobile Bay, probably in association with old buried river channels, or dredged ship channels. Based on their high concentrations in saline groundwaters sampled on the barrier islands, the elevated Ba and Ra in MS Bight water are likely due to SGD. In subsurface waters, long-lived Ra isotopes were negatively correlated with DO during spring and summer 2016, suggesting direct discharge of DO-depleted groundwater and/or accumulation of SGD-derived Ra and microbial DO consumption under strongly stratified conditions. Our ongoing study suggests that seasonal variability in flushing, water stratification, and SGD input play important roles in biological production and bottom water hypoxia in the MS Bight.

  20. Nuclear astrophysics at ISAC with DRAGON: Initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, Art; Bishop, Shawn; D'Auria, John M.; Lamey, Michael; Liu, Wenjie; Wrede, Chris; Buchmann, Lothar; Chen, Alan; Hunter, Don; Laird, Alison M.; Ottewell, Dave; Rogers, Joel; Chatterjee, Mohan L.; Engel, Sabine; Strieder, Frank; Gigliotti, Dario; Hussein, Ahmed; Greife, Uwe; Jewett, Cybele; Hutcheon, Dave

    2002-01-01

    The new DRAGON recoil separator facility, designed and built to measure directly the rates of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions important for nuclear astrophysics, is now in operation at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive beams facility in Vancouver, Canada. Experiments have been conducted for the first time on the 21Na(p,γ)22Mg reaction. The evolution of nova explosions, and particularly their 22Na abundance, depends sensitively on this reaction rate. The radioactive 21Na beam with an intensity of up to 5 x 108 /s was directed onto a windowless hydrogen gas target (3.8 x 1018 H atoms/cm2). Prompt reaction gamma rays were detected using a BGO array and separated reaction products detected using a silicon strip detector at the end of the 20.8 m recoil mass separator. Yield measurements recording simultaneously singles and coincident signals were performed by scanning in energy over the known resonance reported previously in 22Mg at Ecm = 212 keV, and in addition, over a strong resonance observed at Ecm ≅822 keV. Known resonances in the 21Ne(p,γ)22Na, 20Ne(p,γ)21Na, and 24Mg(p,γ)25Al reactions have been used to calibrate the DRAGON. Studies are in progress to further define the performance of the DRAGON facility. Status of the data analysis and results from system performance studies will be presented along with a brief description of the new ISAC and DRAGON facilities

  1. Electromyographic analysis of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, M P; Connolly, D A; Eston, R G; Gartman, E J; Gleim, G W

    2001-03-01

    The repeated bout effect refers to the protective effect provided by a single bout of eccentric exercise against muscle damage from a similar subsequent bout. The aim of this study was to determine if the repeated bout was associated with an increase in motor unit activation relative to force production, an increased recruitment of slow-twitch motor units or increased motor unit synchronization. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the hamstring muscles during two bouts of submaximal isokinetic (2.6 rad x s(-1)) eccentric (11 men, 9 women) or concentric (6 men, 4 women) contractions separated by 2 weeks. The EMG per unit torque and median frequency were analysed. The initial bout of eccentric exercise resulted in strength loss, pain and muscle tenderness, while the repeated eccentric bout resulted in a slight increase in strength, no pain and no muscle tenderness (bout x time effects, P exercise. The EMG per unit torque and median frequency were not different between the initial and repeated bouts of eccentric exercise. The EMG per unit torque and median frequency increased during both bouts of eccentric exercise (P < 0.01) but did not change during either concentric bout. In conclusion, there was no evidence that the repeated bout effect was due to a neural adaptation.

  2. The Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations (Q-MEGA). Study design, baseline characteristics, and repeatability of phenotype and sun exposure measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Hughes, Maria Celia; Kvaskoff, Marina; Siskind, Victor; Shekar, Sri; Aitken, Joanne F.; Green, Adele C.; Duffy, David L.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whiteman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a major health issue in Queensland, Australia which has the world’s highest incidence. Recent molecular and epidemiologic studies suggest that CMM arises through multiple etiological pathways involving gene-environment interactions. Understanding the potential mechanisms leading to CMM requires larger studies than those previously conducted. This article describes the design and baseline characteristics of Q-MEGA, the Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations, which followed-up four population-based samples of CMM patients in Queensland, including children, adolescents, men aged over 50, and a large sample of adult cases and their families, including twins. Q-MEGA aims to investigate the roles of genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction, in the etiology of melanoma. 3,471 participants took part in the follow-up study and were administered a computer-assisted telephone interview in 2002–2005. Updated data on environmental and phenotypic risk factors, and 2,777 blood samples were collected from interviewed participants as well as a subset of relatives. This study provides a large and well-described population-based sample of CMM cases with follow-up data. Characteristics of the cases and repeatability of sun exposure and phenotype measures between the baseline and the follow-up surveys, from six to 17 years later, are also described. PMID:18361720

  3. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of pamidronate after oral administration: a study on dose proportionality, absolute bioavailability, and effect of repeated administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Flesch, G; Hauffe, S A

    1993-01-01

    30 minutes at constant infusion rate. Repeated peroral doses (75 and 150 mg) were administered to 12 females (aged 51-70 years) for 10 consecutive days. Urinary excretion of pamidronate after peroral and i.v. administration was used for estimation of pamidronate absorption. Renal excretion...... of pamidronate ranged from 0.01% to 0.35% of dose, with mean values of 0.11, 0.16, and 0.18% for 75, 150, and 300 mg, respectively. After i.v. infusion, the renal excretion of pamidronate was 26-53% of the dose, lower than for other bisphosphonates. The absolute bioavailability was 0.31% (range 0.08-0.7%) after...

  4. Associations Between Negative and Positive Life Events and the Course of Depression: A Detailed Repeated-Assessments Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Simon C; Conradi, Henk Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertina J; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette; de Jonge, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Although the effects of life events on the onset of depression are well documented, little is known regarding their effects on the course of symptoms in depressed persons. We prospectively examined the associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depressive symptomatology in depressed primary care patients. A total of 267 depressed patients were followed for 3 years using a repeated-assessments design consisting of 36 monthly assessments of the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders depression symptoms and positive and negative life events. We examined whether the severity of depressive symptomatology changed directly after the occurrence of a life event. Negative events were not associated with short-term changes in depressive symptomatology. In contrast, positive events were followed by a significant decrease in depressive symptoms one and two months after their occurrence. These findings may translate into emphasis during treatment on engagement in activities that may increase the chance of positive life experiences.

  5. An observational study of the initial management of hypothyroidism in France: the ORCHIDÉE study

    OpenAIRE

    Delemer, Brigitte; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Nys, Pierre; Landron, Frédéric; Bouée, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the initial management of hypothyroidism in France with respect to diagnostic setting, investigations, and therapeutic approach. Design Observational study of the management by primary care practitioners (PCPs) and endocrinologists of patients diagnosed with, and treated for, hypothyroidism during the enrollment period or the previous 6 months. Methods A representative sample of PCPs and endocrinologists enrolled up to five consecutive patients and reported sociodemograp...

  6. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frederic; Birer, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm -2 . By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled

  7. MILLISECOND PULSAR SCINTILLATION STUDIES WITH LOFAR: INITIAL RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, Anne M.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stinebring, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    High-precision timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) over years to decades is a promising technique for direct detection of gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies. Time-variable, multi-path scattering in the interstellar medium is a significant source of noise for this detector, particularly as timing precision approaches 10 ns or better for MSPs in the pulsar timing array. For many MSPs, the scattering delay above 1 GHz is at the limit of detectability; therefore, we study it at lower frequencies. Using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope, we have analyzed short (5-20 minutes) observations of 3 MSPs in order to estimate the scattering delay at 110-190 MHz, where the number of scintles is large and, hence, the statistical uncertainty in the scattering delay is small. We used cyclic spectroscopy, still relatively novel in radio astronomy, on baseband-sampled data to achieve unprecedented frequency resolution while retaining adequate pulse-phase resolution. We detected scintillation structure in the spectra of the MSPs PSR B1257+12, PSR J1810+1744, and PSR J2317+1439 with diffractive bandwidths of 6 ± 3, 2.0 ± 0.3, and ∼7 kHz, respectively, where the estimate for PSR J2317+1439 is reliable to about a factor of two. For the brightest of the three pulsars, PSR J1810+1744, we found that the diffractive bandwidth has a power-law behavior Δν d ∝ν α , where ν is the observing frequency and α = 4.5 ± 0.5, consistent with a Kolmogorov inhomogeneity spectrum. We conclude that this technique holds promise for monitoring the scattering delay of MSPs with LOFAR and other high-sensitivity, low-frequency arrays like the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array

  8. MILLISECOND PULSAR SCINTILLATION STUDIES WITH LOFAR: INITIAL RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, Anne M.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stinebring, Daniel R., E-mail: archibald@astron.nl, E-mail: kondratiev@astron.nl, E-mail: hessels@astron.nl, E-mail: dan.stinebring@oberlin.edu [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2014-08-01

    High-precision timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) over years to decades is a promising technique for direct detection of gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies. Time-variable, multi-path scattering in the interstellar medium is a significant source of noise for this detector, particularly as timing precision approaches 10 ns or better for MSPs in the pulsar timing array. For many MSPs, the scattering delay above 1 GHz is at the limit of detectability; therefore, we study it at lower frequencies. Using the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope, we have analyzed short (5-20 minutes) observations of 3 MSPs in order to estimate the scattering delay at 110-190 MHz, where the number of scintles is large and, hence, the statistical uncertainty in the scattering delay is small. We used cyclic spectroscopy, still relatively novel in radio astronomy, on baseband-sampled data to achieve unprecedented frequency resolution while retaining adequate pulse-phase resolution. We detected scintillation structure in the spectra of the MSPs PSR B1257+12, PSR J1810+1744, and PSR J2317+1439 with diffractive bandwidths of 6 ± 3, 2.0 ± 0.3, and ∼7 kHz, respectively, where the estimate for PSR J2317+1439 is reliable to about a factor of two. For the brightest of the three pulsars, PSR J1810+1744, we found that the diffractive bandwidth has a power-law behavior Δν{sub d}∝ν{sup α}, where ν is the observing frequency and α = 4.5 ± 0.5, consistent with a Kolmogorov inhomogeneity spectrum. We conclude that this technique holds promise for monitoring the scattering delay of MSPs with LOFAR and other high-sensitivity, low-frequency arrays like the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array.

  9. Aging, recall and recognition: a study on the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth S; Landau, Susan M; Whipple, Stephen C; Schwartz, Barbara L

    2004-05-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT) to the effects of aging in a sample of 112 men and women from 18 to 93 years old. Two new recognition measures, yes-no and forced-choice, were developed to supplement the original USC-REMT which measured only free-recall. Free-recall, yes-no recognition and forced-choice recognition were sensitive to age effects, with free-recall being the most sensitive. The seven recall and recognition lists can be used interchangeably. The data indicate that the USC-REMT is worthy of consideration when there is a need for a brief, screening tool of various memory functions, particularly when there is interest in memory changes over time and repeated assessments.

  10. Diabetic Foot Prevention: Repeatability of the Loran Platform Plantar Pressure and Load Distribution Measurements in Nondiabetic Subjects during Bipedal Standing—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Zequera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the repeatability of the Loran Platform and evaluate the variability of plantar pressure and postural balance, during barefoot standing in nondiabetic subjects, for future diabetic foot clinical evaluation. Measurements were taken for eight nondiabetic subjects (4 females, 4 males, aged 47±7.2 years who had no musculoskeletal symptoms. Five variables were measured with the platform in the barefoot standing position. Ten measurements were taken using two different techniques for feet and posture positioning, during three sessions, once a week. For most measurements, no significant effect over time was found with Student's t-test (P<.000125. The ANOVA test of statistical significance confirmed that measurement differences between subjects showed higher variations than measurements taken from the same subject (P<.001. The measurements taken by the Loran Platform system were found to be repeatable.

  11. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes. A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child's distress and cooperative behavior. Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction. Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures.

  12. Tolerability of the Oscar 2 ambulatory blood pressure monitor among research participants: a cross-sectional repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinderliter Alan L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is increasingly used to measure blood pressure (BP in research studies. We examined ease of use, comfort, degree of disturbance, reported adverse effects, factors associated with poor tolerability, and association of poor tolerability with data acquisition of 24-hour ABPM using the Oscar 2 monitor in the research setting. Methods Sixty adults participating in a research study of people with a history of borderline clinic BP reported on their experience with ABPM on two occasions one week apart. Poor tolerability was operationalized as an overall score at or above the 75th percentile using responses to questions adapted from a previously developed questionnaire. In addition to descriptive statistics (means for responses to Likert-scaled "0 to 10" questions and proportions for Yes/No questions, we examined reproducibility of poor tolerability as well as associations with poor tolerability and whether poor tolerability was associated with removal of the monitor or inadequate number of BP measurements. Results The mean ambulatory BP of participants by an initial ABPM session was 148/87 mm Hg. After wearing the monitor the first time, the degree to which the monitor was felt to be cumbersome ranged from a mean of 3.0 to 3.8, depending on whether at work, home, driving, or other times. The most bother was interference with normal sleeping pattern (mean 4.2. Wearers found the monitor straightforward to use (mean 7.5. Nearly 67% reported that the monitor woke them after falling asleep, and 8.6% removed it at some point during the night. Reported adverse effects included pain (32%, skin irritation (37%, and bruising (7%. Those categorized as having poor tolerability (kappa = 0.5 between sessions, p = 0.0003 were more likely to report being in fair/poor health (75% vs 22%, p = 0.01 and have elevated 24-hour BP average (systolic: 28% vs 17%, p = 0.56; diastolic: 30% vs 17%, p = 0.37. They were

  13. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (2). 4-week repeated dose intravenous toxicity study in rats with 4-week recovery test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Yanagi, H; Shimizu, K; Sakai, M; Nishibata, K; Oida, H; Shinomiya, K; Suzuki, Y; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    4-week repeated dose toxicity study with 4-week recovery test of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, was conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously to rats of both sexes at a dose level of 0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. In the 100 mg/kg/day group, bradypnea or dyspnea was seen in all animals, pale in ear, eye and foot, tremor, reddish lacrimation and loss of righting reflex were also observed in some animals right after administration, and then those signs disappeared within 1 min after administration. During the treatment period, 3/20 animals of each sex in the 100 mg/kg/day showed clonic convulsion and died within 2 min after administration. No clinical changes were seen in the 50 mg/kg/day group or lower. Histopathological findings showed atrophy of the submaxillary gland in females and vessel-wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis of the injection site (tail) in both sexes at 100 mg/kg/day, however those changes were reversible. ONO-1101 did not effect on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights or necropsy at any doses. These results indicate that the no-adverse-effect level of ONO-1101 in rats is 50 mg/kg/day for both sexes in this study.

  14. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2016-03-01

    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  15. Repeat workers' compensation claims: risk factors, costs and work disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of our study was to describe factors associated with repeat workers' compensation claims and to compare the work disability arising in workers with single and multiple compensation claims. Methods All initial injury claims lodged by persons of working age during a five year period (1996 to 2000) and any repeat claims were extracted from workers' compensation administrative data in the state of Victoria, Australia. Groups of workers with single and multiple claims were identified. Descriptive analysis of claims by affliction, bodily location, industry segment, occupation, employer and workplace was undertaken. Survival analysis determined the impact of these variables on the time between the claims. The economic impact and duration of work incapacity associated with initial and repeat claims was compared between groups. Results 37% of persons with an initial claim lodged a second claim. This group contained a significantly greater proportion of males, were younger and more likely to be employed in manual occupations and high-risk industries than those with single claims. 78% of repeat claims were for a second injury. Duration between the claims was shortest when the working conditions had not changed. The initial claims of repeat claimants resulted in significantly (p claims. Conclusions A substantial proportion of injured workers experience a second occupational injury or disease. These workers pose a greater economic burden than those with single claims, and also experience a substantially greater cumulative period of work disability. There is potential to reduce the social, health and economic burden of workplace injury by enacting prevention programs targeted at these workers. PMID:21696637

  16. A 12-month randomized crossover study on the effects of Lanreotide Autogel and Octreotide long-acting repeatable on GH and IGF-l in patients with acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Kvistborg, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Background Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully for the treatment of acromegaly but no randomized studies have compared the effects of lanreotide Autogel (LAN) and octreotide acetate long-acting repeatable (OCT). Objective To compare the effect of LAN and OCT for the treatment...... of acromegaly in a randomized study design. Material and methods Twelve acromegalic patients were included and 10 patients completed treatment with LAN or OCT for 6 months and were then switched to the opposite treatment modality for 6 months without a washout period in a randomized crossover design. GH and IGF...

  17. A review of repeat prostate biopsies and the influence of technique on cancer detection: our experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, M R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Follow-up of patients with an initial negative prostate biopsy, but surrounding whom a suspicion of prostate cancer persists, is difficult. In addition, debate exists as to the optimal technique for repeat prostate biopsy. AIMS: To assess the cancer detection rate on repeat prostate biopsy. METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent prostate biopsy in our department in 2005 who had >or=1 previous biopsy within the preceding 5 years. Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy and the influence of the number of biopsy cores were recorded. RESULTS: Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy was 15.4%, with approximately 60% detected on the first repeat biopsy, but approximately 10% not confirmed until the fourth repeat biopsy. Gleason score was similar regardless of the time of diagnosis (6.1-6.5). Mean interval between first biopsy and cancer diagnosis (range 18-55 months) depended on the number of repeat procedures. There was an association between the number of biopsy cores and cancer detection. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the practice of increasing the number of cores taken on initial and first repeat biopsy to maximise prostate cancer detection and reduce the overall number of biopsies needed.

  18. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  19. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  20. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  1. Evaluation of repeated dose micronucleus assays of the liver and gastrointestinal tract using potassium bromate: a report of the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Emiko; Fujiishi, Yohei; Narumi, Kazunori; Kado, Shoichi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Ohyama, Wakako

    2015-03-01

    The food additive potassium bromate (KBrO3) is known as a renal carcinogen and causes chromosomal aberrations in vitro without metabolic activation and in vivo in hematopoietic and renal cells. As a part of a collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study group, which is a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, we administered KBrO3 to rats orally for 4, 14, and 28 days and examined the micronucleated (MNed) cell frequency in the liver, glandular stomach, colon, and bone marrow to confirm whether the genotoxic carcinogen targeting other than liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract was detected by the repeated dose liver and GI tract micronucleus (MN) assays. In our study, animals treated with KBrO3 showed some signs of toxicity in the kidney and/or stomach. KBrO3 did not increase the frequency of MNed cells in the liver and colon in any of the repeated dose studies. However, KBrO3 increased the frequency of MNed cells in the glandular stomach and bone marrow. Additionally, the MNed cell frequency in the glandular stomach was not significantly affected by the difference in the length of the administration period. These results suggest that performing the MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first tissue to contact agents after oral ingestion, is useful for evaluating the genotoxic potential of chemicals and that the glandular stomach MN assay could be integrated into general toxicity studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of repeated testing vs repeated practice on skills learning in undergraduate dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn-Kirchner, S; Goerlich, Y; Kirchner, B; Notbohm, M; Schiekirka, S; Simmenroth, A; Raupach, T

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies in undergraduate medical education have demonstrated the advantage of repeated testing over repeated practice with regard to knowledge and skills retention. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this "testing effect" also applies to skills retention in undergraduate dental education. In this prospective, randomised controlled trial, fourth-year dental students at Göttingen University Medical Centre participated in a training session on surgical suturing in winter term 2014/2015. Following this, they were either assigned to two sessions of additional skills training (group A) or two sessions of skills assessment with feedback (group B). These sessions were spaced over a period of 4 weeks. Skills retention was assessed in a summative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the end of term, that is 6 months after the initial teaching session. A total of 32 students completed the study. With regard to suturing, OSCE performance was significantly better in group B than group A (81.9±13.1% vs 63.0±15.4%; P=0.001; Cohen's d=1.33). There was no significant OSCE performance difference in the two groups with regard to other learning objectives that were addressed in the end-of-term examination. Thus, the group difference was specific to suturing skills. This is the first study to demonstrate that in dental education, repeated testing produces more favourable skills retention than repeated practice. Test-enhanced learning might be a viable concept for skills retention in undergraduate dentistry education. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Tablet Technology in Teacher Preparation: A Case Study--The Nook Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hope; Hunter, Elizabeth; Douglas, Maegan; Wighting, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Regent University's Special Education and Reading Specialist Programs introduced the Nook Initiative fall 2013. This paper discusses the implementation, the need for integrated tablet technology in teacher preparation, initial outcomes of the study, and offers suggestions for practice. A second tablet pilot program introducing the iPad mini in the…

  4. Exploring Career Agency during Self-Initiated Repatriation: A Study of Chinese Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun; Porschitz, Emily T.; Alves, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on career and self-initiated expatriation/repatriation literatures, this paper aims to examine the career experiences of Chinese self-initiated repatriates after their return to China. Design/methodology/approach: The authors conducted an exploratory, qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 20 Chinese individuals who…

  5. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK). A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34-0.61; %CV=4.48%-9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85)-0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Weiss Telles

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK. Material and methods: A test–retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW measured at three different locations. Results: Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1 mm ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5 mm and ≤1.7 mm, respectively. Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference = 1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV = 54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (95%CI = 0.59 (0.34–0.77]; JSW [SD of mean difference = 0.34–0.61; %CV = 4.48%–9.80%; ICC (95%CI = 0.74 (0.55–0.85–0.94 (0.87–0.97]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Conclusions: Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10 mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK.

  7. Study of n-Butyl Acrylate Self-Initiation Reaction Experimentally and via Macroscopic Mechanistic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the self-initiation reaction of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA in free-radical polymerization. For the first time, the frequency factor and activation energy of the monomer self-initiation reaction are estimated from measurements of n-BA conversion in free-radical homo-polymerization initiated only by the monomer. The estimation was carried out using a macroscopic mechanistic mathematical model of the reactor. In addition to already-known reactions that contribute to the polymerization, the model considers a n-BA self-initiation reaction mechanism that is based on our previous electronic-level first-principles theoretical study of the self-initiation reaction. Reaction rate equations are derived using the method of moments. The reaction-rate parameter estimates obtained from conversion measurements agree well with estimates obtained via our purely-theoretical quantum chemical calculations.

  8. Evaluation of the repeated dose liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats with cyclophosphamide monohydrate: a report of a collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazumi; Zaizen, Kazuyo; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Ishida, Hisao

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect liver carcinogens, and this assay could be integrated into general toxicological studies. In this study, in order to assess the performance of the assay, cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CP) was tested in a 14-day RDLMN assay. Based on the results of the 4-day repeated dose-finding study, 10 mg/kg/day of CP was selected as the highest dose and the lower doses were set at 5, 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 mg/kg/day for the 14-day RDLMN assay. On the day after the completion of the dosing period, specimens of hepatocytes and bone marrow cells were prepared and the induction of micronuclei was assessed. No changes were observed in the incidences of micronucleated hepatocytes. Nevertheless, the incidences of micronucleated immature erythrocytes in the bone marrow were increased significantly at CP doses of 1.25 mg/kg/day or more. These findings are consistent with reports that CP induces tumors in various tissues but it does not induce liver tumors.

  9. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  10. Study on a 4-Week Recovery Test of Sweet Bee Venom after a 13-Week, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose Toxicity Test in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungsan Lim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results:(1 Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2 The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3 No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs, and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4 No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5 Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.

  11. Thickness of the Macula, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell Layer in the Epiretinal Membrane: The Repeatability Study of Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Jin; Kim, Min-Su; Jo, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeul

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the repeatability of measurements of the thicknesses of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the epiretinal membrane (ERM). The prospective study analyzed patients who visited our retinal clinic from June 2013 to January 2014. An experienced examiner measured the thicknesses twice using macular cube 512 × 128 and optic disc cube 200 × 200 scans. The repeatability of the thicknesses of the macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of two groups based on the central macular thickness (group A, ≤ 450 μm; group B, > 450 μm). A total of 88 patients were analyzed. The average thicknesses of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were 256.5, 96.6, and 84.4 μm, respectively, in the normal fellow eye and 412.3, 94.6, and 56.7 μm in the affected eye. The ICCs of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were 0.995, 0.994, and 0.996, respectively, for the normal fellow eye and 0.991, 0.973, and 0.881 for the affected eye. The average thicknesses of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL in group A were 360.9, 93.5, and 63.4 μm, respectively, and the ICCs were 0.997, 0.987, and 0.995. The thicknesses in group B were 489.5, 96.2, and 46.6 μm, respectively, and the ICCs were 0.910, 0.942, and 0.603, significantly lower repeatability compared with group A (P macula.

  12. Success factors for strategic change initiatives: a qualitative study of healthcare administrators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita Arbab; Spaulding, Aaron; Johnson, Christopher E; Gamm, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Success factors related to the implementation of change initiatives are well documented and discussed in the management literature, but they are seldom studied in healthcare organizations engaged in multiple strategic change initiatives. The purpose of this study was to identify key success factors related to implementation of change initiatives based on rich qualitative data gathered from health leader interviews at two large health systems implementing multiple change initiatives. In-depth personal interviews with 61 healthcare leaders in the two large systems were conducted and inductive qualitative analysis was employed to identify success factors associated with 13 change initiatives. Results from this analysis were compared to success factors identified in the literature, and generalizations were drawn that add significantly to the management literature, especially to that in the healthcare sector. Ten specific success factors were identified for the implementation of change initiatives. The top three success factors were (1) culture and values, (2) business processes, and (3) people and engagement. Two of the identified success factors are unique to the healthcare sector and not found in the literature on change models: service quality and client satisfaction (ranked fourth of 10) and access to information (ranked ninth). Results demonstrate the importance of human resource functions, alignment of culture and values with change, and business processes that facilitate effective communication and access to information to achieve many change initiatives. The responses also suggest opportunities for leaders of healthcare organizations to more formally recognize the degree to which various change initiatives are dependent on one another.

  13. Replication Validity of Initial Association Studies: A Comparison between Psychiatry, Neurology and Four Somatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine; Boraud, Thomas; Munafo, Marcus; Gonon, François

    2016-01-01

    Context There are growing concerns about effect size inflation and replication validity of association studies, but few observational investigations have explored the extent of these problems. Objective Using meta-analyses to measure the reliability of initial studies and explore whether this varies across biomedical domains and study types (cognitive/behavioral, brain imaging, genetic and “others”). Methods We analyzed 663 meta-analyses describing associations between markers or risk factors and 12 pathologies within three biomedical domains (psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases). We collected the effect size, sample size, publication year and Impact Factor of initial studies, largest studies (i.e., with the largest sample size) and the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial studies were considered as replicated if they were in nominal agreement with meta-analyses and if their effect size inflation was below 100%. Results Nominal agreement between initial studies and meta-analyses regarding the presence of a significant effect was not better than chance in psychiatry, whereas it was somewhat better in neurology and somatic diseases. Whereas effect sizes reported by largest studies and meta-analyses were similar, most of those reported by initial studies were inflated. Among the 256 initial studies reporting a significant effect (p<0.05) and paired with significant meta-analyses, 97 effect sizes were inflated by more than 100%. Nominal agreement and effect size inflation varied with the biomedical domain and study type. Indeed, the replication rate of initial studies reporting a significant effect ranged from 6.3% for genetic studies in psychiatry to 86.4% for cognitive/behavioral studies. Comparison between eight subgroups shows that replication rate decreases with sample size and “true” effect size. We observed no evidence of association between replication rate and publication year or Impact Factor. Conclusion The differences in reliability

  14. Is Forced Swimming Immobility a Good Endpoint for Modeling Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia? - Study of Sub-Anesthetic Ketamine Repeated Administration Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILDA NEVES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Immobility time in the forced swimming has been described as analogous to emotional blunting or apathy and has been used for characterizing schizophrenia animal models. Several clinical studies support the use of NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia in rodents. Some works describe the effects of ketamine on immobility behavior but there is variability in the experimental design used leading to controversial results. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated administration of ketamine sub-anesthetic doses in forced swimming, locomotion in response to novelty and novel object recognition, aiming a broader evaluation of the usefulness of this experimental approach for modeling schizophrenia in mice. Ketamine (30 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days induced a not persistent decrease in immobility time, detected 24h but not 72h after treatment. This same administration protocol induced a deficit in novel object recognition. No change was observed in mice locomotion. Our results confirm that repeated administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine is useful in modeling schizophrenia-related behavioral changes in mice. However, the immobility time during forced swimming does not seem to be a good endpoint to evaluate the modeling of negative symptoms in NMDAR antagonist animal models of schizophrenia.

  15. Is Forced Swimming Immobility a Good Endpoint for Modeling Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia? - Study of Sub-Anesthetic Ketamine Repeated Administration Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Gilda; Borsoi, Milene; Antonio, Camila B; Pranke, Mariana A; Betti, Andresa H; Rates, Stela M K

    2017-01-01

    Immobility time in the forced swimming has been described as analogous to emotional blunting or apathy and has been used for characterizing schizophrenia animal models. Several clinical studies support the use of NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia in rodents. Some works describe the effects of ketamine on immobility behavior but there is variability in the experimental design used leading to controversial results. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated administration of ketamine sub-anesthetic doses in forced swimming, locomotion in response to novelty and novel object recognition, aiming a broader evaluation of the usefulness of this experimental approach for modeling schizophrenia in mice. Ketamine (30 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days) induced a not persistent decrease in immobility time, detected 24h but not 72h after treatment. This same administration protocol induced a deficit in novel object recognition. No change was observed in mice locomotion. Our results confirm that repeated administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine is useful in modeling schizophrenia-related behavioral changes in mice. However, the immobility time during forced swimming does not seem to be a good endpoint to evaluate the modeling of negative symptoms in NMDAR antagonist animal models of schizophrenia.

  16. Effects of repeated vibratory stimulation of wrist and elbow flexors on hand dexterity, strength, and sensory function in patients with chronic stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Ho

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated vibratory stimulation to muscles related to hand functions on dexterity, strength, and sensory function in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 10 stroke patients with hemiplegia participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: a) Experimental and b) Control, with five randomly selected subjects for each group. The experimental group received vibratory stimulation, while the control group received the traditional physical therapy. Both interventions were performed for 30 minutes each session, three times a week for four weeks. [Results] There was a significant within-group improvement in the box and block test results in both groups for dexterity. Grip strength improved in both groups but the improvement was not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The vibratory stimulation activated the biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis, which increased dexterity to grasp and lift the box and block from the surface. Therefore, repeated vibratory stimulation to muscles related to hand functions improved hand dexterity equality to the traditional physical therapy in patients with chronic stroke.

  17. A numerical study of crack initiation in a bcc iron system based on dynamic bifurcation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiantao

    2014-01-01

    Crack initiation under dynamic loading conditions is studied under the framework of dynamic bifurcation theory. An atomistic model for BCC iron is considered to explicitly take into account the detailed molecular interactions. To understand the strain-rate dependence of the crack initiation process, we first obtain the bifurcation diagram from a computational procedure using continuation methods. The stability transition associated with a crack initiation, as well as the connection to the bifurcation diagram, is studied by comparing direct numerical results to the dynamic bifurcation theory [R. Haberman, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 37, 69–106 (1979)].

  18. A study on the fatigue behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete structures with initial cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Dong-Il; Chai, Won-Kyu; Son, Young-Hyun; Park, Cheol-Woo

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue tests are performed in order to investigate the fatigue behavior of SFRC (Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete) structures. Thirty SFRC beams are used in this test. The relationships between repeated loading cycle and mid-span deflection of the beams are observed under the three-point loading system. From the test results, the effects of the fiber content and the fiber aspect ratio on the concrete fatigue behavior were studied. According to the regression technique, some empirical formulae for predicting the fatigue strength of SFRC beams are also suggested. (author)

  19. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  20. Studies on the tumor initiation/promotion potential of six middle distillates (MDs) in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungen, H; Mellert, W; Wenzel-Hartung, R

    1995-08-01

    Six middle distillates (MDs) were tested for tumor initiating/promoting activity after application to the skin of 30 male CD-1 (ICR) BR mice per group. As the control, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene (DMBA) was used for initiation followed by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for promotion. For assessing the tumor-initiating activity, 50 microliters of neat MDs was administered for 5 days with subsequent TPA promotion. In the promotion bioassay, after DMBA initiation 50 microliters of the neat MDs was administered twice weekly until Week 28. For the examination of complete carcinogenic activity, one MD was given without DMBA initiation. Hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, and dermal inflammation, occurring during the initiation with the MDs, were completely reversible during the 2-week treatment-free period after initiation. Similar skin findings were observed during promotion with the MDs. Regarding the number of affected animals and the severity of the response, TPA was more irritating than the MDs. The initiation study revealed skin tumors for the DMBA/TPA control (30/30), MD 57,389 (14/30), MD 57,396 (5/30), MD 57,383 (4/30) and MD 57,324 (2/30). The promotion study revealed tumor induction by MDs 57,389 (9/30), 57,324 (1/30), 57,393 (1/30), and 57,396 (1/30). Two of 30 animals treated with MD 57,389 developed tumors without DMBA initiation thus indicating that it also is a complete carcinogen. MD 57,399 caused neither initiating nor promoting effects. The tumors observed were diagnosed histopathologically predominantly as squamous cell papillomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Generation of political priority for global health initiatives: a framework and case study of maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Smith, Stephanie

    2007-10-13

    Why do some global health initiatives receive priority from international and national political leaders whereas others receive little attention? To analyse this question we propose a framework consisting of four categories: the strength of the actors involved in the initiative, the power of the ideas they use to portray the issue, the nature of the political contexts in which they operate, and characteristics of the issue itself. We apply this framework to the case of a global initiative to reduce maternal mortality, which was launched in 1987. We undertook archival research and interviewed people connected with the initiative, using a process-tracing method that is commonly employed in qualitative research. We report that despite two decades of effort the initiative remains in an early phase of development, hampered by difficulties in all these categories. However, the initiative's 20th year, 2007, presents opportunities to build political momentum. To generate political priority, advocates will need to address several challenges, including the creation of effective institutions to guide the initiative and the development of a public positioning of the issue to convince political leaders to act. We use the framework and case study to suggest areas for future research on the determinants of political priority for global health initiatives, which is a subject that has attracted much speculation but little scholarship.

  2. Green initiative impact on stock prices: A quantitative study of the clean energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisich, John M.

    The purpose of this quantitative ex post facto research study was to explore the relationship between green initiative expense disclosures and stock prices of 46 NASDAQ listed Clean Edge Green Energy global companies from 2007 to 2010. The independent variables were sales and marketing, environmental, customer and supplier, community, and corporate governance practices that were correlated with the dependent variable in the study of stock prices. Expense disclosures were examined in an effort to measure the impact of green initiative programs and to expose the interrelationships between green initiative expense disclosures and fluctuations of stock prices. The data for the research was secondary data from existing annual reports. A statistically significant relationship was revealed between environmental practices and changes in stock prices. The study results also provided substantial evidence for leadership and managerial decision making to reduce or increase green initiative practices to maximize shareholder wealth of their respective organizations.

  3. Study on Molasses Concentration from Sugarcanne Bagasse for Biohydrogen Production using Enriched Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Immobilised Cells by Repeated Batch Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Norfatiha; Aminah Lutpi, Nabilah; Ruhaizul Che Ridzuan, Che Mohd; Shian, Wong Yee; Nuraiti Tengku Izhar, Tengku

    2018-03-01

    Repeated batch cultivation is known as most attractive method in improving hydrogen productivity, due to the facts that this approach could minimize the reuse of the cell and the inoculum preparation. In addition, with the combination of attach growth system during the fermentation processes to produce biohydrogen, the density of cells will be increased and the cell washout could be avoided. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effectiveness of repeated batch cultivation for enrichment of anaerobic mixed culture onto granular activated carbon (GAC) and investigate the effect of molasses concentration during immobilization of mixed culture onto the GAC. The molasses concentration using 50 %, 40 %, 30 %, 20 % and 10 % of diluted molasses were used as feedstock in the fermentation process. The maximum hydrogen production of 60 ml was obtained at 30 % of molasses concentration with 831 ppm of hydrogen concentration. Thus, the kinetic parameter obtained from the batch profiling based on modified Gompertz equation are, Hm= 58 ml for the maximum hydrogen production and Rm= 2.02 ml/h representing the hydrogen production rate.

  4. Evaluation of repeated dose micronucleus assays of the liver using N-nitrosopyrrolidine: a report of the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Izumi; Hagioa, Soichiro; Furukawa, Satoshi; Abe, Masayoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Hayashi, Seigo; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay has the potential to detect liver carcinogens, and can be integrated into a general toxicological study. To assess the performance of the assay, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was tested in 14- or 28-day RDLMN assays. NPYR was orally administered to rats at a daily dose of 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg. One day after the last administration, a portion of the liver was removed and hepatocyte micronucleus (MN) specimens were prepared by the new method recently established by Narumi et al. In addition, a bone marrow MN assay and a histopathological examination of the liver were conducted. The detection of Phospho-Histone H3 was performed by immunohistochemistry to evaluate the proliferation rate of hepatocytes. The results showed significant increase in the number of micronucleated hepatocytes and Phospho-Histone H3-positive cells from the lowest dose in both 14- and 28-day RDLMN assays. On the other hand, the bone marrow MN assay yielded a negative result, which was in accordance with the existing report of the bone marrow MN assay using mice. Upon histopathological examination, inflammatory lesions and hypertrophy were noted, which may explain the increase in the hepatocyte proliferation and the enhancement of MN induction by NPYR. Our findings indicate that the RDLMN assay could be a useful tool for comprehensive risk assessment of carcinogenicity by providing information on both genotoxicity and histopathology when integrated into a general repeat dosing toxicity assay.

  5. Predicting in vivo effect levels for repeat-dose systemic toxicity using chemical, biological, kinetic and study covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Lisa; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Pham, LyLy; Clouzeau, Jacques; Loisel-Joubert, Sophie; Blanchet, Delphine; Noçairi, Hicham; Setzer, Woodrow; Judson, Richard; Grulke, Chris; Mansouri, Kamel; Martin, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    In an effort to address a major challenge in chemical safety assessment, alternative approaches for characterizing systemic effect levels, a predictive model was developed. Systemic effect levels were curated from ToxRefDB, HESS-DB and COSMOS-DB from numerous study types totaling 4379 in vivo studies for 1247 chemicals. Observed systemic effects in mammalian models are a complex function of chemical dynamics, kinetics, and inter- and intra-individual variability. To address this complex problem, systemic effect levels were modeled at the study-level by leveraging study covariates (e.g., study type, strain, administration route) in addition to multiple descriptor sets, including chemical (ToxPrint, PaDEL, and Physchem), biological (ToxCast), and kinetic descriptors. Using random forest modeling with cross-validation and external validation procedures, study-level covariates alone accounted for approximately 15% of the variance reducing the root mean squared error (RMSE) from 0.96 log 10 to 0.85 log 10  mg/kg/day, providing a baseline performance metric (lower expectation of model performance). A consensus model developed using a combination of study-level covariates, chemical, biological, and kinetic descriptors explained a total of 43% of the variance with an RMSE of 0.69 log 10  mg/kg/day. A benchmark model (upper expectation of model performance) was also developed with an RMSE of 0.5 log 10  mg/kg/day by incorporating study-level covariates and the mean effect level per chemical. To achieve a representative chemical-level prediction, the minimum study-level predicted and observed effect level per chemical were compared reducing the RMSE from 1.0 to 0.73 log 10  mg/kg/day, equivalent to 87% of predictions falling within an order-of-magnitude of the observed value. Although biological descriptors did not improve model performance, the final model was enriched for biological descriptors that indicated xenobiotic metabolism gene expression, oxidative stress, and

  6. Using the Hand Laterality Judgement Task to assess motor imagery : a study of practice effects in repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control

  7. Using the Hand Laterality Judgement Task to Assess Motor Imagery: A Study of Practice Effects in Repeated Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control tasks twice at a 3-week interval. Differences in the…

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Fiona E.; Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Nierkens, Vera; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) increased levels of financial strain, especially in those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Financial strain can affect smoking behaviour. This study examines socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation in The Netherlands before and during

  9. Second time around: Corticospinal responses following repeated sports-related concussions within the same season. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: This multiple-case study has demonstrated that concussion result in increased intracortical inhibition and reduction in cognitive and motor performance. Further, TMS, in conjunction with tests of cognitive and motor performance, can be useful as a prognostic technique in assessing recovery from acute concussion injury.

  10. Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Christrup, Lona Louring

    III-60 Rasmus Juul Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study RV Juul(1), KV Pedersen(2, 4), LL Christrup(1), AE Olesen(1, 3), AM Drewes(3), PJS Osther(4), TM Lund(1) 1) Department of Drug Design...... a relationship with pain intensity has not yet been established. The aim of this pilot study was to discuss how best to investigate the relationship between RTTE hazard of analgesic events and pain intensity in postoperative pain. Methods: Data was available from 44 patients undergoing kidney stone surgery......). Gompertz and exponential distribution models were evaluated. Post-hoc linear mixed effect modelling was performed between estimated RTTE hazard and observed NRS using the lme4 package in R (3). Results: A Gompertz distribution model adequately described data, with a baseline event rate of 0.64h-1 (RSE 25...

  11. Reduction of smoking in Dutch adolescents over the past decade and its health gains: a repeated cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gielkens-Sijstermans, Cindy M.; Mommers, Monique A.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; de Vreede, Jacqueline; Bovens, Fons M.; van Schayck, Onno C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the main preventable lifestyle-related risk factor threatening human health. In this study, time trends in smoking behaviour between 1996 and 2005 among adolescents enrolled in secondary school were assessed. Methods: In 1996, 2001 and 2005, a survey was conducted in the south-eastern region of the Netherlands. All students in second and fourth year of secondary education (1996: n = 20 000; 2001: n = 27 500; 2005: n = 24 000) were asked to complete a questionnaire about...

  12. The necessity of repeated assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records in medico-legal opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two case reports of living victims, in which imaging studies of the chest conducted at a medical facility were an essential part of the medico-legal opinion. The first case was that of a young male hospitalized due to CT evidence of bilateral rib fractions, who claimed to have been assaulted by police officers. The other case was that of a six week old baby hospitalized due to chest X-ray evidence of right hand side rib fractions. The chest X-ray was performed due to one bruise found on the baby’s forehead and two small bruises on the back, which gave rise to suspicions of child abuse. In both cases, expert witnesses in radiology definitively excluded the presence of any fractures. These cases indicate that a new assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records is needed. Expert opinions based solely on the description of imaging studies may result in grave consequences.

  13. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  14. A study to evaluate safety and tolerability of repeated doses of tirasemtiv in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefner, Jeremy M; Watson, Mary Lou; Meng, Lisa; Wolff, Andrew A

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Tirasemtiv is a fast skeletal muscle activator that increases the sensitivity of the sarcomere to calcium, increasing the efficiency of muscle contraction when the muscle is stimulated at submaximal contraction frequencies. A previous study showed single doses of tirasemtiv to be well tolerated and associated with potentially important improvements in a variety of functional outcomes. This study determined safety of tirasemtiv when given at doses up to 500 mg daily for three weeks. Tirasemtiv was given as a single daily dose up to 375 mg for two weeks, with and without concomitant riluzole. In a separate cohort, an ascending dose protocol evaluated a total dose of 500 mg daily given in two divided doses. Safety and tolerability were assessed, as well as measures of function, muscle strength and endurance. Results showed that tirasemtiv was well tolerated, with dizziness the most common adverse event. Tirasemtiv approximately doubled the serum concentration of riluzole. Trends were noted for improvement in ALSFRS-R, Maximum Minute Ventilation, and Nasal Inspiratory Pressure. In conclusion, tirasemtiv is well tolerated and can be given safely with a reduced dose of riluzole. Positive trends in multiple exploratory outcome measures support the further study of this agent in ALS.

  15. Application of a repeat-measure biomarker measurement error model to 2 validation studies: examination of the effect of within-person variation in biomarker measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Sarah Rosner; Spiegelman, Donna; Zhao, Barbara Bojuan; Moshfegh, Alanna; Baer, David J; Willett, Walter C

    2011-03-15

    Repeat-biomarker measurement error models accounting for systematic correlated within-person error can be used to estimate the correlation coefficient (ρ) and deattenuation factor (λ), used in measurement error correction. These models account for correlated errors in the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour diet recall and random within-person variation in the biomarkers. Failure to account for within-person variation in biomarkers can exaggerate correlated errors between FFQs and 24-hour diet recalls. For 2 validation studies, ρ and λ were calculated for total energy and protein density. In the Automated Multiple-Pass Method Validation Study (n=471), doubly labeled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) were measured twice in 52 adults approximately 16 months apart (2002-2003), yielding intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.43 for energy (DLW) and 0.54 for protein density (UN/DLW). The deattenuated correlation coefficient for protein density was 0.51 for correlation between the FFQ and the 24-hour diet recall and 0.49 for correlation between the FFQ and the biomarker. Use of repeat-biomarker measurement error models resulted in a ρ of 0.42. These models were similarly applied to the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (1999-2000). In conclusion, within-person variation in biomarkers can be substantial, and to adequately assess the impact of correlated subject-specific error, this variation should be assessed in validation studies of FFQs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on synthesis, application and mechanism of benzophenone/amine initiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Wei; Liu Jinshui; Wen Yinjun; Wan Qizhong; Zhou Xianyan; Xiao Hanling; Yang Jianwen

    1999-01-01

    Through Michael addition reaction of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) with diethylamine (DEA), a new kind of tertiary amine derivative was synthesized and its structure was identified by 'H-NMR. When used in combination with benzophenone, this amine presented excellent curing speed and could be a substitute for initiator Darocur R 1173, which is effective but expensive. If so, the cost of UV-curable coatings can descend apparently. The functioning mechanism of benzophenone/amine bimolecular initiator was studied

  17. An observational study of the initial management of hypothyroidism in France: the ORCHIDÉE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemer, Brigitte; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Nys, Pierre; Landron, Frédéric; Bouée, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the initial management of hypothyroidism in France with respect to diagnostic setting, investigations, and therapeutic approach. Design Observational study of the management by primary care practitioners (PCPs) and endocrinologists of patients diagnosed with, and treated for, hypothyroidism during the enrollment period or the previous 6 months. Methods A representative sample of PCPs and endocrinologists enrolled up to five consecutive patients and reported sociodemographic, clinical, therapeutic, and laboratory data. Data were submitted at baseline and at the first measurement of TSH after starting the treatment. Results The analysis population comprised 1255 patients (mean (s.d.) age 52.8 (16.3) years; 84% female). Hypothyroidism was suspected on clinical grounds in 77% of patients, with goiter in 16%. Autoimmune thyroiditis, supported by positive anti-thyroid antibodies, was the most frequent diagnosis (59%), followed by iatrogenic causes (28%), of which thyroidectomy was the most common. The median baseline TSH was 8.6 mIU/l, suggesting a high incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism. Imaging studies were requested in over 75% of patients, with ultrasound performed in 98% and scintigraphy performed in 19% of these patients. Both groups of physicians treated their patients almost exclusively with levothyroxine. Endocrinologists were more likely than PCPs to provide counseling on how to take medication correctly. Conclusions This observational study of a large cohort of patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism in France illustrates current practice and indicates some areas where physician education may be required to optimize adherence to guidelines and cost-effectiveness. PMID:23034782

  18. A 90-day repeated-dose toxicity study of dietary alpha linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushita, Hiroto; Ito, Yuichi; Saito, Tetsuji; Nukada, Yuko; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nakagiri, Hideaki; Saito, Kazutoshi; Morita, Osamu

    2018-05-31

    Diets supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil-which mainly consists of oleic and linolenic, linoleic acids-have potential health benefits in terms of preventing or managing obesity. Although safety of DAG oil has been extensively investigated, toxicity of ALA-DAG oil has not been well understood. Hence, the present study was conducted to clarify the potential adverse effects, if any, of ALA-DAG oil in rats (10/sex/group) fed diets containing 1.375%, 2.75%, or 5.5% ALA-DAG oil for 90 days. Compared to control rats fed rapeseed oil or ALA-triacylglycerol oil (flaxseed oil), rats receiving ALA-DAG oil did not reveal any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes as evaluated by clinical signs, functional observational battery, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, necropsy and histopathology. The no observed adverse effect levels for dietary exposure to ALA-DAG oil for male and female rats were 2916 and 3326 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, the highest dose tested. The findings from this study suggest that consumption of ALA-DAG oil is unlikely to cause adverse effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. School nurses' attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme - A repeated cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja; Stenhammar, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate school nurses' attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736) from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015). More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56%) strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (pHPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56%) reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90%) had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils.

  20. School nurses' attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme - A repeated cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate school nurses' attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV, and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736 from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015. More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56% strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (p<0.001. There were no differences in school nurses' perceived knowledge about HPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56% reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90% had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils.

  1. Study on critical heat flux in narrow rectangular channel with repeated-rib roughness. 1. Experimental facility and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-10-01

    In the design of a spallation target system, the water cooling system, for example a proton beam window and a safety hull, is used with narrow channels, in order to remove high heat flux and prevent lowering of system performance by absorption of neutron. And in narrow channel, heat transfer enhancement using 2-D rib is considered for reduction the cost of cooling component and decrease inventory of water in the cooling system, that is, decrease of the amount of irradiated water. But few studies on CHF with rib have been carried out. Experimental and analytical studies with rib-roughened test section, in 10:1 ratio of pitch to height, are being carried out in order to clarify the CHF in rib-roughened channel. This paper presents the review of previous researches on heat transfer in channel with rib roughness, overview of the test facility and the preliminary experimental and analytical results. As a result, wall friction factors were about 3 times as large as that of smooth channel, and heat transfer coefficients are about 2 times as large as that of smooth channel. The obtained CHF was as same as previous mechanistic model by Sudo. (author)

  2. Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Balaji; Jayavelu, Subramani; Murhekar, Kanchan; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2016-01-01

    EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate) is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract) and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal)] and limited [p.o (oral)] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment.

  3. Influence of different initial distributions on robust cooperation in scale-free networks: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaojie; Fu Feng; Wang Long

    2008-01-01

    We study the evolutionary Prisoner's dilemma game on scale-free networks, focusing on the influence of different initial distributions for cooperators and defectors on the evolution of cooperation. To address this issue, we consider three types of initial distributions for defectors: uniform distribution at random, occupying the most connected nodes, and occupying the lowest-degree nodes, respectively. It is shown that initial configurations for defectors can crucially influence the cooperation level and the evolution speed of cooperation. Interestingly, the situation where defectors initially occupy the lowest-degree vertices can exhibit the most robust cooperation, compared with two other distributions. That is, the cooperation level is least affected by the initial percentage of defectors. Moreover, in this situation, the whole system evolves fastest to the prevalent cooperation. Besides, we obtain the critical values of initial frequency of defectors above which the extinction of cooperators occurs for the respective initial distributions. Our results might be helpful in explaining the maintenance of high cooperation in scale-free networks

  4. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form) for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support) model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors. PMID:22551645

  5. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnavita Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors.

  6. Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Ramachandran

    Full Text Available EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal] and limited [p.o (oral] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment. Keywords: EGCG, Green tea, Serum lipids, Dose dependant toxicity, Route dependant toxicity, Liver toxicity, Dyslipidemia

  7. Dynamic Pain Phenotypes are Associated with Spinal Cord Stimulation-Induced Reduction in Pain: A Repeated Measures Observational Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Buenaver, Luis F; Raja, Srinivasa N; Kiley, Kasey B; Swedberg, Lauren J; Wacnik, Paul W; Cohen, Steven P; Erdek, Michael A; Williams, Kayode A; Christo, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a widely used treatment option for a variety of pain conditions. Substantial variability exists in the degree of benefit obtained from SCS and patient selection is a topic of expanding interest and importance. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of dynamic quantitative sensory testing (QST) to develop objective measures of SCS outcomes or as a predictive tool to help patient selection. Psychological characteristics have been shown to play an important role in shaping individual differences in the pain experience and may aid in predicting responses to SCS. Static laboratory pain-induction measures have also been examined in their capacity for predicting SCS outcomes. The current study evaluated clinical, psychological and laboratory pain measures at baseline, during trial SCS lead placement, as well as 1 month and 3 months following permanent SCS implantation in chronic pain patients who received SCS treatment. Several QST measures were conducted, with specific focus on examination of dynamic models (central sensitization and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) and their association with pain outcomes 3 months post SCS implantation. Results suggest few changes in QST over time. However, central sensitization and CPM at baseline were significantly associated with clinical pain at 3 months following SCS implantation, controlling for psycho/behavioral factors and pain at baseline. Specifically, enhanced central sensitization and reduced CPM were associated with less self-reported pain 3 months following SCS implantation. These findings suggest a potentially important role for dynamic pain assessment in individuals undergoing SCS, and hint at potential mechanisms through which SCS may impart its benefit. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Safety of sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana L. in a 28-day repeated-dose study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Yanet C; Caro, Daneiva C; Rivera, David E; Franco, Luis A

    2017-06-01

    Although extracts and consumed foods from Physalis species contain sucrose esters from their glandular trichomes, there is no experimental data available on their toxicological effects. As peruvioses A and B isolated from Physalis peruviana L. calyces have proved to be effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds, this work aimed to investigate their sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity. For this, CD-1(ICR) mice were treated intraperitoneally with peruvioses at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days, to simulate therapeutic and over-therapeutic dosage levels. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and their organs weighted, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Toxicological endpoints included clinical signs; food consumption; body and organ weights; hematological and biochemical parameters; as well as macroscopic and microscopic examination of tissues. The results showed no significant differences between treated animals and control group at macroscopic, histological, molecular, and biochemical levels. In addition, a combination of mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test, comet assay in peripheral blood cells, and Ames test, did not reveal genotoxic effects induced by peruvioses. Taken together, our data suggests that peruvioses A and B can be safely employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay M.Ch.; Flannery, Thomas J.; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for acoustic neuromas, we assessed tumor control, clinical outcomes, and the risk of adverse radiation effects in patients whose tumors progressed after initial management. Methods and Materials: During a 21-year experience at our center, 1,352 patients underwent SRS as management for their acoustic neuromas. We retrospectively identified 6 patients who underwent SRS twice for the same tumor. The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-71 years). All patients had imaging evidence of tumor progression despite initial SRS. One patient also had incomplete surgical resection after initial SRS. All patients were deaf at the time of the second SRS. The median radiosurgery target volume at the time of the initial SRS was 0.5 cc and was 2.1 cc at the time of the second SRS. The median margin dose at the time of the initial SRS was 13 Gy and was 11 Gy at the time of the second SRS. The median interval between initial SRS and repeat SRS was 63 months (range, 25-169 months). Results: At a median follow-up of 29 months after the second SRS (range, 13-71 months), tumor control or regression was achieved in all 6 patients. No patient developed symptomatic adverse radiation effects or new neurological symptoms after the second SRS. Conclusions: With this limited experience, we found that repeat SRS for a persistently enlarging acoustic neuroma can be performed safely and effectively.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Fiona E; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Nierkens, Vera; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-05-06

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) increased levels of financial strain, especially in those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Financial strain can affect smoking behaviour. This study examines socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). Participants were 66,960 Dutch adults (≥ 18 years) who took part in the annual national Health Survey (2004-2011). Period was dichotomised: 'pre-' and 'during-GFC'. SES measures used were income, education and neighbourhood deprivation. Outcomes were current smoking rates (smokers/total population) and smoking cessation ratios (former smokers/ever smokers). Multilevel logistic regression models controlled for individual characteristics and tested for interaction between period and SES. In both periods, high SES respondents (in all indicators) had lower current smoking levels and higher cessation ratios than those of middle or low SES. Inequalities in current smoking increased significantly in poorly educated adults of 45-64 years of age (Odds Ratio (OR) low educational level compared with high: 2.00[1.79-2.23] compared to pre-GFC 1.67[1.50-1.86], p for interaction = 0.02). Smoking cessation inequalities by income in 18-30 year olds increased with borderline significance during the GFC (OR low income compared to high income: 0.73[0.58-0.91]) compared to pre-GFC (OR: 0.98[0.80-1.20]), p for interaction = 0.051). Overall, socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation were unchanged during the GFC. However, current smoking inequalities by education, and smoking cessation inequalities by income, increased in specific age groups. Increased financial strain caused by the crisis may disproportionately affect smoking behaviour in some disadvantaged groups.

  11. Motor Cortex Reorganization in Patients with Glioma Assessed by Repeated Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Anne; Noack, Anika; Baumgarten, Peter; Seifert, Volker; Forster, Marie-Therese

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for cerebral reorganization after resection of low-grade glioma has mainly been obtained by serial intraoperative cerebral mapping. Noninvasively collected data on cortical plasticity in tumor patients over a surgery-free period are still scarce. The present study therefore aimed at evaluating motor cortex reorganization by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) in patients after perirolandic glioma surgery. nTMS was performed preoperatively and postoperatively in 20 patients, separated by 26.1 ± 24.8 months. Further nTMS mapping was conducted in 14 patients, resulting in a total follow-up period of 46.3 ± 25.4 months. Centers of gravity (CoGs) were calculated for every muscle representation area, and Euclidian distances between CoGs over time were defined. Results were compared with data from 12 healthy individuals, who underwent motor cortex mapping by nTMS in 2 sessions. Preoperatively and postoperatively pooled CoGs from the area of the dominant abductor pollicis brevis muscle and of the nondominant leg area differed significantly compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Most remarkably, during the ensuing follow-up period, a reorganization of all representation areas was observed in 3 patients, and a significant shift of hand representation areas was identified in further 3 patients. Complete functional recovery of postoperative motor deficits was exclusively associated with cortical reorganization. Despite the low potential of remodeling within the somatosensory region, long-term reorganization of cortical motor function can be observed. nTMS is best suited for a noninvasive evaluation of this reorganization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiologic effect of repeated adrenaline (epinephrine) doses during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the cath lab setting: A randomised porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardig, Bjarne Madsen; Götberg, Michael; Rundgren, Malin; Götberg, Matthias; Zughaft, David; Kopotic, Robert; Wagner, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    This porcine study was designed to explore the effects of repetitive intravenous adrenaline doses on physiologic parameters during CPR. Thirty-six adult pigs were randomised to four injections of: adrenaline 0.02 mg(kgdose)(-1), adrenaline 0.03 mg(kgdose)(-1) or saline control. The effect on systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CePP), end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry (SpO2), cerebral tissue oximetry (SctO2), were analysed immediately prior to each injection and at peak arterial systolic pressure and arterial blood gases were analysed at baseline and after 15 min. In the group given 0.02 mg(kgdose)(-1), there were increases in all arterial blood pressures at all 4 pressure peaks but CePP only increased significantly after peak 1. A decrease in ETCO2 following peak 1 and 2 was observed. SctO2 and SpO2 were lowered following injection 2 and beyond. In the group given a 0.03 mg(kgdose)(-1), all ABP's increased at the first 4 pressure peaks but CePP only following 3 pressure peaks. Lower ETCO2, SctO2 and SpO2 were seen at peak 1 and beyond. In the two adrenaline groups, pH and Base Excess were lower and lactate levels higher compared to baseline as well as compared to the control. Repetitive intravenous adrenaline doses increased ABP's and to some extent also CePP, but significantly decreased organ and brain perfusion. The institutional protocol number: Malmö/Lund Committee for Animal Experiment Ethics, approval reference number: M 192-10. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radical Initiated Hydrosilylation on Silicon Nanocrystal Surfaces: An Evaluation of Functional Group Tolerance and Mechanistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Gonzalez, Christina M; Purkait, Tapas K; Iqbal, Muhammad; Meldrum, Al; Veinot, Jonathan G C

    2015-09-29

    Hydrosilylation is among the most common methods used for modifying silicon surface chemistry. It provides a wide range of surface functionalities and effective passivation of surface sites. Herein, we report a systematic study of radical initiated hydrosilylation of silicon nanocrystal (SiNC) surfaces using two common radical initiators (i.e., 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) and benzoyl peroxide). Compared to other widely applied hydrosilylation methods (e.g., thermal, photochemical, and catalytic), the radical initiator based approach is particle size independent, requires comparatively low reaction temperatures, and yields monolayer surface passivation after short reaction times. The effects of differing functional groups (i.e., alkene, alkyne, carboxylic acid, and ester) on the radical initiated hydrosilylation are also explored. The results indicate functionalization occurs and results in the formation of monolayer passivated surfaces.

  14. Vulnerability to Peer Influence: A Moderated Mediation Study of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is a correlate of adolescent alcohol use; however, the mechanism accounting for this association remains unclear, particularly with respect to initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence. This prospective study examines perceived peer attitudes and use as a mediator between peer delinquency and initiation of alcohol use, and how parenting may moderate vulnerability to this risk pathway. Participants included 371 11–13 year-old adolescents (55.5% female, 83.0% Caucasian). Results suggested that high levels of peer delinquency prospectively predicted perceived peer approval and use of alcohol and that peer approval and use of alcohol prospectively predicted initiation of alcohol use. Thus, reinforcement and modeling alcohol use appear to be important mechanisms by which delinquent peers influence the initiation of drinking. There was no support for parental warmth or control as moderators of peer influence. PMID:21420241

  15. Use of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms 62 (CCAPS-62) as a Repeated Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arpita; Rieder Bennett, Sara; Martin, Juanita K.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this initial, exploratory study was to examine the utility of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) as a repeated measure tool at one university counseling center. This study investigated whether clients engaged in individual counseling changed in symptomology while in treatment and when (e.g.,…

  16. Initiating and maintaining recreational walking: a longitudinal study on the influence of neighborhood green space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Giles-Corti, Billie; Summers, Jacqui; du Toit, Lorinne; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville

    2013-09-01

    This study examined prospective relationships of green space attributes with adults initiating or maintaining recreational walking. Postal surveys were completed by 1036 adults living in Adelaide, Australia, at baseline (two time points in 2003-04) and follow-up (2007-08). Initiating or maintaining recreational walking was determined using self-reported walking frequency. Green space attributes examined were perceived presence, quality, proximity, and the objectively measured area (total and largest) and number of green spaces within a 1.6 km buffer drawn from the center of each study neighborhood. Multilevel regression analyses examined the odds of initiating or maintaining walking separately for each green space attribute. At baseline, participants were categorized into non-regular (n = 395), regular (n = 286), and irregular walkers (n = 313). Among non-regular walkers, 30% had initiated walking, while 70% of regular walkers had maintained walking at follow-up. No green space attributes were associated with initiating walking. However, positive perceptions of the presence of and proximity to green spaces and the total and largest areas of green space were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of walking maintenance over four years. Neighborhood green spaces may not assist adults to initiate walking, but their presence and proximity may facilitate them to maintain recreational walking over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact on smoking of England's 2012 partial tobacco point of sale display ban: a repeated cross-sectional national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E; McNeill, Ann; West, Robert

    2017-03-01

    A partial tobacco point of sale (PoS) display ban was introduced in large shops (>280 m 2 floor area) in England on 6 April 2012. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term effects of the partial tobacco PoS display ban on smoking in England. Data were used from 129 957 respondents participating in monthly, cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of the English adult population aged 18+ years from January 2009 to February 2015. Interrupted-time series regression models assessed step changes in the level of current smoking and cigarette consumption in smokers and changes in the trends postban compared with preban. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables and e-cigarette use, seasonality and autocorrelation. Potential confounding by cigarette price was accounted for by time, as price was almost perfectly correlated with time. Following the display ban, there was no immediate step level change in smoking (-3.69% change, 95% CI -7.94 to 0.75, p=0.102) or in cigarette consumption (β -0.183, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.236). There was a significantly steeper decline in smoking post display ban (-0.46% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001). This effect was demonstrated by respondents in manual occupations (-0.62% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001), but not for those in non-manual occupations (-0.42, 95% CI -0.90 to 0.06, p=0.084). Cigarette consumption declined preban period (β -0.486, 95% CI -0.633 to -0.339, p<0.001), but no significant change in cigarette consumption trend was observed (β 0.019, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.042, p=0.131). The partial tobacco PoS display ban introduced in England in April 2012 did not lead to an immediate decline in smoking, but was followed by a decline in the trend of smoking prevalence that could not be accounted for by seasonal factors, e-cigarette use or price changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Characterization of regional left ventricular function in nonhuman primates using magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers: a test-retest repeatability and inter-subject variability study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sampath

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF. Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs, that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain

  19. Facilitating the Development and Evaluation of a Citizen Science Web Site: A Case Study of Repeat Photography and Climate Change in Southwest Alaska's National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Karina C.; Newman, Gregory; Thompson, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    Interviews with national park visitors across the country revealed that climate change education through place-based, hands-on learning using repeat photographs and technology is appealing to park visitors. This manuscript provides a summary of the development of a repeat photography citizen science Web site for national parks in Southwest Alaska.…

  20. Burden of hospital admission and repeat angiography in angina pectoris patients with and without coronary artery disease: a registry-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Lasse; Abildstrom, Steen Z; Hvelplund, Anders; Madsen, Jan K; Galatius, Soren; Pedersen, Frants; Hojberg, Soren; Prescott, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate risk of hospitalization due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and repeat coronary angiography (CAG) in stable angina pectoris (SAP) with no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) versus obstructive CAD, and asymptomatic reference individuals. We followed 11,223 patients with no prior CVD having a first-time CAG in 1998-2009 due to SAP symptoms and 5,695 asymptomatic reference individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study through registry linkage for 7.8 years (median). In recurrent event survival analysis, patients with SAP had 3-4-fold higher risk of hospitalization for CVD irrespective of CAG findings and cardiovascular comorbidity. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios(95%CI) for patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries was 3.0(2.5-3.5), for angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD 3.9(3.3-4.6) and for 1-3-vessel disease 3.6-4.1(range)(all P<0.001). Mean accumulated hospitalization time was 3.5(3.0-4.0)(days/10 years follow-up) in reference individuals and 4.5(3.8-5.2)/7.0(5.4-8.6)/6.7(5.2-8.1)/6.1(5.2-7.4)/8.6(6.6-10.7) in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries/angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD/1-, 2-, and 3-vessel disease, respectively (all P<0.05, age-adjusted). SAP symptoms predicted repeat CAG with multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries being 2.3(1.9-2.9), for angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD 5.5(4.4-6.8) and for obstructive CAD 6.6-9.4(range)(all P<0.001). Patients with SAP symptoms and angiographically normal coronary arteries or angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD suffer from considerably greater CVD burdens in terms of hospitalization for CVD and repeat CAG compared with asymptomatic reference individuals even after adjustment for cardiac risk factors and exclusion of cardiovascular comorbidity as cause. Contrary to common perception, excluding obstructive CAD by CAG in such patients does not ensure a benign

  1. Software Development Initiatives to Identify and Mitigate Security Threats - Two Systematic Mapping Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Software Security and development experts have addressed the problem of building secure software systems. There are several processes and initiatives to achieve secure software systems. However, most of these lack empirical evidence of its application and impact in building secure software systems. Two systematic mapping studies (SM have been conducted to cover the existent initiatives for identification and mitigation of security threats. The SMs created were executed in two steps, first in 2015 July, and complemented through a backward snowballing in 2016 July. Integrated results of these two SM studies show a total of 30 relevant sources were identified; 17 different initiatives covering threats identification and 14 covering the mitigation of threats were found. All the initiatives were associated to at least one activity of the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC; while 6 showed signs of being applied in industrial settings, only 3 initiatives presented experimental evidence of its results through controlled experiments, some of the other selected studies presented case studies or proposals.

  2. 78 FR 8152 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Type of Information Collection Request: Revision OMB 0925... causes of frailty, disability and death for postmenopausal women, namely, coronary heart disease, breast... providers. Type of Respondents: Study participants, next-of-kin, and physician's office staff. The annual...

  3. Dietary patterns are associated with disease risk among participants in the women's health initiative observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in women. A nested case-control study tested whether dietary patterns predicted CHD events among 1224 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study (WHI-OS) with centrally confirmed CHD, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infar...

  4. Here Today Gone Tomorrow: Conceptualizing Instructional Leadership through Case Studies of Unsustained Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Vivian; Sullivan, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines two case studies of failed leadership in school-based professional development. We describe the two initiatives and look to current leadership theories to help account for the events that occurred. The sociologist Bourdieu's concept of "habitus" offers an approach to understanding the relationship between individual…

  5. Effect of study design and setting on tuberculosis clustering estimates using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Jessica; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Cohen, Theodore; McHugh, Timothy D; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2015-01-21

    To systematically review the evidence for the impact of study design and setting on the interpretation of tuberculosis (TB) transmission using clustering derived from Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) strain typing. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for articles published before 21st October 2014. Studies in humans that reported the proportion of clustering of TB isolates by MIRU-VNTR were included in the analysis. Univariable meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of study design and setting on the proportion of clustering. The search identified 27 eligible articles reporting clustering between 0% and 63%. The number of MIRU-VNTR loci typed, requiring consent to type patient isolates (as a proxy for sampling fraction), the TB incidence and the maximum cluster size explained 14%, 14%, 27% and 48% of between-study variation, respectively, and had a significant association with the proportion of clustering. Although MIRU-VNTR typing is being adopted worldwide there is a paucity of data on how study design and setting may influence estimates of clustering. We have highlighted study design variables for consideration in the design and interpretation of future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. New Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA) Scheme for Fine-Scale Monitoring and Microevolution-Related Study of Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Phylotype I Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinard, Jérémy; Latreille, Anne; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial wilt caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) is considered one of the most harmful plant diseases in the world. Special attention should be paid to R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I due to its large host range, its worldwide distribution, and its high evolutionary potential. So far, the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of this bacterium are poorly understood. Until now, the genetic structure of the RSSC has been analyzed on the worldwide and regional scales. Emerging questions regarding evolutionary forces in RSSC adaptation to hosts now require genetic markers that are able to monitor RSSC field populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) approach for its ability to discriminate genetically close phylotype I strains and for population genetics studies. We developed a new MLVA scheme (MLVA-7) allowing us to genotype 580 R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I strains extracted from susceptible and resistant hosts and from different habitats (stem, soil, and rhizosphere). Based on specificity, polymorphism, and the amplification success rate, we selected seven fast-evolving variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) markers. The newly developed MLVA-7 scheme showed higher discriminatory power than the previously published MLVA-13 scheme when applied to collections sampled from the same location on different dates and to collections from different locations on very small scales. Our study provides a valuable tool for fine-scale monitoring and microevolution-related study of R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I populations. IMPORTANCE Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation of plant pathogens to new hosts or ecological niches has become a key point for the development of innovative disease management strategies, including durable resistance. Whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence or pathogenicity changes have been studied thoroughly, the

  7. Dietary Components Affect the Plasma and Tissue Levels of Lutein in Aged Rats with Lutein Deficiency--A Repeated Gavage and Dietary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Bhatiwada, Nidhi; Talahalli, Ramprasad Ravichandra; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the influence of selected dietary components on plasma and tissue response of repeated micellar and dietary lutein in aged rats with lutein deficiency. In repeated (16 d) gavage study, micellar lutein was co-ingested with either phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), β-carotene, dietary fiber or vegetable fat (3% soybean oil). In dietary study, rats were fed (4 wk) semi-synthetic diet either with lutein + PC, lutein + dietary fiber or B. alba (lutein source) + PC. The post-prandial plasma and tissue response of lutein was measured by HPLC. Results showed that micellar fat, PC and lysoPC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the lutein levels in plasma (31.1%, 26.8%, and 34.9%), liver (27.4%, 29.5%, and 8.6%), and eyes (63.5%, 90.2%, and 86%) compared to the control group (group gavaged micelles with no dietary components studied). Similarly, dietary study showed an enhanced plasma, liver, and eye lutein levels by 44.8%, 24.1%, and 42.0% (lutein + PC group) and 51.7%, 39.8%, and 31.7% (B.alba + PC group), respectively compared to control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver of both the studies were also affected compared to control. Result reveals, that PC enhance the intestinal absorption of both micellar and dietary lutein which is either in free or bound form with food matrices in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Hence, PC at a concentration used in this study can be considered to improve the lutein bioavailability in lutein deficiency. Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments acquired mostly from greens, that play an significant role in protecting vision from Age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their biological availability is poor and affected by dietary components. This study demonstrates the positive influence of dietary PC and lyso PC in improving intestinal uptake of lutein. Our previous and present finding shows there is a possibility of developing functional

  8. The Role of Family on Hookah Smoking Initiation in Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Shirin; Ebadi, Abbas; Kelishadi, Roya; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2015-02-24

    Hookah smoking has recently emerged as a popular alternative to cigarette smoking particularly among young adults and women. This study focused on the role of family members' smoking behaviours as a possible risk factor for initiation of hookah smoking in women. 36 in-depth interviews were conducted with Iranian women of diverse ages for understanding the factors contributing to the initiation of hookah smoking. Four main themes were identified from the data. This study focused on the role of family as a facilitator for hookah smoking initiation. The results of this study indicate that the entry of hookah into homes can be effective in the spread of hookah smoking among adult and young women, in three ways: Girls' participation in the preparation of hookah and the frequent observation of people who smoke hookah at home can be effective in hookah smoking initiation among young girls; the husband of a young woman has an important role in the initiation of smoking hookah; when parents invite children to smoke hookah at home, in order to protect them against public censure, the mother (a middle aged woman) may intend to start smoking hookah. Therefore, tobacco use prevention interventions should be focused on targeting the family as well.

  9. Gender and Women Development Initiatives in Bangladesh: A Study of Rural Mother Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Lindberg, Lene; Wamala, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Women-focused development initiatives have become a controversial issue connected with women's health and welfare. Previous studies indicated that development initiatives might increase women's workload, family conflict, and marital violence. This study explored the gendered characteristics of a development initiative Rural Mother Center in Bangladesh. Data incorporated policy document and interviews of social workers working with the mother centers in two northwest subdistricts. The qualitative content analysis of data emerged a general theme of expanding women's responsibility while maintaining male privilege explaining gendered design and practice of the development initiative. The theme was supported by two gendered categories related to the design: (a) essentializing women's participation; (b) maintaining traditional gender, and four categories related to the practice; (c) inadequate gender knowledge and skills; (d) reinforcing traditional gender; (e) using women for improving office performance; and (f) upholding male privilege. The study suggests that though women-focused development initiatives need to be embraced with gender-redistributive policies, the social workers should be trained for attaining gender-transformative motivation and competencies.

  10. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of neuro-Behcet's disease: initial and follow-up studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Suk Hee; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kim, Heung Joong; Chang, Nam Gyu; Shin, Sang Soo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Jeong Gwang Woo; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2005-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the initial and follow-up studies of patients with neuro-Behcet's disease. Six patients diagnosed with neuro-Behcet's disease were the subjects of this study. Initial and follow-up MR imaging were obtained in all six patients. Initial and follow-up DWI were also obtained is four of the six patients, with only an initial DWI in the other two. The DWI were obtained using multi-shot echo planar imaging, on a 1.5T MR unit, with two gradient steps (b values of 0, 1000 sec/mm 2 ). The ADC value and ADC maps were obtained using commercial software. The locations and signal intensities of the lesions were analyzed on conventional MRI and DWI, respectively. The ADC values of the lesions were calculated on the initial and follow-up DWI, and compared those of lesions in the normal contralateral regions. The initial DWI showed iso-signal intensities in four of the six patients, with high signal intensities in the other two. In five of the six patients, including three of the four that showed isosignal intensities and the two that showed high signal intensities on the initial DWI, the ADC values of the involved lesions were higher than those of the normal contralateral regions. In three of four that showed isosignal intensities, the ADC values of the lesions were decreased and normalized on the follow-up DWI. Obtaining DWI and ADC values in patients with neuro-Behcet's disease may be helpful in the understanding of pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of this disease

  11. Rapid detonation initiation by sparks in a short duct: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z. M.; Dou, H. S.; Khoo, B. C.

    2010-06-01

    Rapid onset of detonation can efficiently increase the working frequency of a pulse detonation engine (PDE). In the present study, computations of detonation initiation in a duct are conducted to investigate the mechanisms of detonation initiation. The governing equations are the Euler equations and the chemical kinetic model consists of 19 elementary reactions and nine species. Different techniques of initiation have been studied for the purpose of accelerating detonation onset with a relatively weak ignition energy. It is found that detonation ignition induced by means of multiple sparks is applicable to auto-ignition for a PDE. The interaction among shock waves, flame fronts and the strip of pre-compressed fresh (unburned) mixture plays an important role in rapid onset of detonation.

  12. Predictors of antiviral treatment initiation in hepatitis C virus-infected patients: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Obel, N; Christensen, P B

    2009-01-01

    Predictive factors for initiation of antiviral therapy in chronically infected hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine predictive factors for initiation of treatment with standard or pegylated interferon either alone or combined...... with ribavirin. A Danish cohort of individuals chronically infected with HCV was used and observation time was calculated from the date of inclusion in the cohort to date of death, last clinical observation, 1 January 2007, or start of HCV antiviral treatment in treatment-naïve patients. Kaplan-Meier survival...... analysis was used to construct time to event curves. Cox regression was used to determine the incidence rate ratios as estimates of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 1780 patients were enrolled in the study. The cumulative chance of treatment initiation over 5 years was 33...

  13. Drug Use and Sex Work Among At-risk Women: A Qualitative Study of Initial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanfekr, Payam; Noori, Roya; Dejman, Masoumeh; Fathi Geshnigani, Zahra; Rafiey, Hassan

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in performing research on drug use and sex work among at-risk women. Although there is a well-documented literature of the initial reasons associated with drug use and sex work among women, there is, however, a paucity of information in this area in Iran. This study aimed to explore the initial reasons associated with drug use and sex work in a group of female treatment seekers, who presented health-related risk behaviors, in Tehran, Iran. This qualitative study enrolled a total of 65 at-risk women, from five women-specific drug clinics, who participated in the study in 2011. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted. Focus group interviews were conducted with 10 key informants. All interviews were audio-taped and thematically written. The recorded data were analyzed using ATLASti qualitative research software version 10. The median age of the sample was 34 years. In addition, 44.6% of subjects were opiate users, and 55.4% were users of opiates and methamphetamine. Sex work was the main source of income for almost half of the sample. The most frequently reported reasons, associated with initial drug use, were extrinsic motivations, including the drug-using family, friends or social networks. Intrinsic motivations, including curiosity and individual willingness to use drugs, were other initial reasons. The most frequently reported reasons, associated with initial sex work, included the need to purchase drugs and financial problems. The study findings demonstrated a number of reasons associated with initial drug use and sex work. The role of sex work in providing drugs necessitates education and prevention. Special treatment programs should be implemented to prevent sex work among at-risk women in Iran.

  14. Insulin initiation status of primary care physicians in Turkey, barriers to insulin initiation and knowledge levels about insulin therapy: A multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Elif; Set, Turan; Saglam, Zuhal; Tekin, Nil; Karatas Eray, Irep; Yavuz, Erdinc; Sahin, Mustafa Kursat; Selcuk, Engin Burak; Cadirci, Dursun; Cubukcu, Mahcube

    2017-10-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the insulin initiation status, barriers to insulin initiation and knowledge levels about treatment administered by primary care physicians (PCP). We conducted our study in accordance with a multicenter, cross-sectional design in Turkey, between July 2015 and July 2016. A questionnaire inquiring demographic features, status of insulin initiation, obstacles to insulin initiation and knowledge about therapy of the PCPs was administered during face-to-face interviews. 84 PCPs (19%) (n=446, mean age=41.5±8.4years, 62.9% male and 90.0% ministry certified family physicians) initiated insulin therapy in the past. Most of the stated primary barriers (51.9%, n=230) were due to the physicians. The most relevant barrier was "lack of clinical experience" with a rate of 19% (n=84 of the total). The average total knowledge score was 5.7±2.0 for the family medicine specialist, and 3.8±2.1 for the ministry certified family physicians (p=0.000, maximum knowledge score could be 10). The status of insulin initiation in Turkey by the primary care physicians is inadequate. Medical education programs and health care systems may require restructuring to facilitate insulin initiation in primary care. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How much will afforestation of former cropland influence soil C stocks? A synthesis of paired sampling, chronosequence sampling and repeated sampling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, K.; Stupak, I.; Don, Axel; Poeplau, C.; Leifeld, Jens; van Wesemael, Bas

    2010-05-01

    The need for documentation of land-use change effects on soil C is high on the agenda in most signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Large land areas in Europe have experienced land-use change from cropland to forest since 1990 by direct afforestation as well as abandonment and regrowth of marginally productive cropland. Soil C dynamics following land-use change remain highly uncertain due to a limited number of available studies and due to influence of interacting factors such as land use history, soil type, and climate. Common approaches for estimation of potential soil C changes following land-use change are i) paired sampling of plots with a long legacy of different land uses, ii) chronosequence studies of land-use change, and lastly iii) repeated sampling of plots subject to changed land use. This paper will synthesize the quantitative effects of cropland afforestation on soil C sequestration based on all three approaches and will report on related work within Cost 639. Paired plots of forest and cropland were used to study the general differences between soil C stocks in the two land uses. At 27 sites in Denmark distributed among different regions and soil types forest floor and mineral soil were sampled in and around soil pits. Soil C stocks were higher in forest than cropland (mean difference 22 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth). This difference was caused solely by the presence of a forest floor in forests; mineral soil C stocks were similar (108 vs. 109 Mg C ha-1) in the two land uses regardless of soil type and the soil layers considered. The chronosequence approach was employed in the AFFOREST project for evaluation of C sequestration in biomass and soils following afforestation of cropland. Two oak (Quercus robur) and four Norway spruce (Picea abies) afforestation chronosequences (age range 1 to 90 years) were studied in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. Forest floor and mineral soil (0-25 cm) C contents were as a minimum unchanged and in most cases there

  16. Study of initiation and growth of stress corrosion cracks. Quantitative characterization and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrat, Christine

    1997-01-01

    A phenomenological study of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) cracks initiation and growth was carried out on a Z 2 CN 18.10 stainless steel in a boiling aqueous magnesium chloride solution at 153 deg. C. The characterization method exploits the morphological information (cracks shape and size distribution) available on a specimen after SCC test. This method, independent of any mechanistic hypothesis, led to the analytical representation of the growth rate of a given crack as a function of its depth and of the density of deeper cracks. The presence of this last parameter could be the expression of a 'shielding effect' of mechanical origin, exerted by the cracks of large size. A 'true initiation' rate was calculated by an extrapolation based on the analytical expression of the growth rate. This analytical representation of cracks initiation and growth accounts for the saturation observed in the experimental determination of the 'apparent initiation'. As time goes, the number of cracks deeper than a given threshold depth tends towards a limit which depends very strongly on the chosen threshold. This saturation effect can be interpreted as exclusively due to the way the small cracks propagate, as the 'true initiation' rate can be expressed versus time by a simple power law. In the case of slow strain rate tests, it is shown that the kinetic parameters characteristic of initiation and growth depend on the applied elongation rate. In particular, the initial crack growth rate increases with elongation rate. The validity domains of the proposed expressions have been specified by means of SCC tests carried out under different types of mechanical loading. (author) [fr

  17. Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 13) Two- or four-week repeated dose studies and fertility study of PPAR alpha/gamma dual agonist in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Norihiro; Uchida, Keisuke; Nakajima, Mikio; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kohira, Terutomo

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to determine the optimal dosing period in a repeated dose toxicity study based on toxic effects as assessed by ovarian morphological changes. To assess morphological and functional changes induced in the ovary by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha/gamma dual agonist, the compound was administered to female rats at dose levels of 0, 4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day in a repeated dose toxicity study for 2 or 4 weeks, and from 2 weeks prior to mating to Day 7 of pregnancy in a female fertility study. In the repeated dose toxicity study, an increase in atresia of large follicles, a decrease in corpora lutea, and an increase in stromal cells were observed in the treated groups. In addition, the granulosa cell exfoliations into antrum of large follicles and corpora lutea with retained oocyte are morphological characteristics induced by this compound, and they might be related with abnormal condition of ovulation. In the female fertility study, the pregnancy rate tended to decrease in the 100 mg/kg/day group. At necropsy, decreases in the number of corpora lutea, implantations and live embryos were noted in the 20 and 100 mg/kg/day group. No changes were observed in animals given 4 mg/kg/day. These findings indicated that histopathological changes in the ovary are important endpoints for evaluation of drugs inducing ovarian damage. In conclusion, a 2-week administration period is sufficient to detect ovarian toxicity of this test compound in the repeated dose toxicity study.

  18. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. Second Year Report. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Montgomery, Margrethe; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  19. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. Third Year Report. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Montgomery, Margrethe; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  20. Overview of results and perspectives from the Shoreham major common-cause initiating events study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Orvis, D.D.; Paccione, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study represents the continuation of a large effort by LILCO to fully understand the potential hazards posed by future operation of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Stations (SNPS). The Shoreham Probabilistic Risk Assessment, a level 3 PRA without external events, provided a characterization of the accident sequences that could leave the core in a condition in which it would be vulnerable to severe damage if further mitigating actions were not taken. It estimated the frequency and magnitude of the potential radioactivity releases associated with such sequences. The study was limited to accident sequences initiated by so called internal events to the plant including a loss of offsite power. It also characterized the public risk associated with those accident sequences. The ''Major Common-Cause Initiating Events Study'' (MCCI) for the Shoreham plant was performed to obtain insights into the plant's susceptibility to, and inherent defenses against, certain MCCIs. Major common-cause initiating events are occurrences which have the potential to initiate a plant transient or LOCA and, also, damage one or more plant systems needed to mitigate the effects of a transient or LOCA. The scope of the MCCI study included detailed analyses of seismic events and fires through the severe core damage and bounding analyses of aircraft crashes, windstorms, turbine missiles and release of hazardous materials near the plant

  1. 75 FR 17411 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Type of Information Collection Request: REVISION: OMB No... additional information on the common causes of frailty, disability and death for postmenopausal women, namely...: Individuals and physicians. Type of Respondents: Women, next-of-kin, and physician's office staff. The annual...

  2. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  3. Ultraviolet-resonance femtosecond stimulated Raman study of the initial events in photoreceptor chromophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahara T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Newly-developed ultraviolet-resonance femtosecond stimulated-Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study the initial structural evolution of photoactive yellow protein chromophore in solution. The obtained spectra changed drastically within 1 ps, demonstrating rapid in-plane deformations of the chromophore.

  4. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence : The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested

  5. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence: The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…

  6. Married Thai Working Mothers: Coping with Initial Part-Time Doctoral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnam, Thanit

    2011-01-01

    Advanced educational attainment can "grow" a career. But acquiring a doctoral qualification adds study to existing work and family responsibilities, especially for women. This phenomenological research explores the experiences of eight Thai working mothers enrolled in the initial stage of part-time doctoral programs in Thailand. A…

  7. Early childhood predictors of age of initiation to use of cannabis: a birth prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; Najman, Jake M

    2013-05-01

    Early age of cannabis use predicts subsequent illicit drug abuse and other psychosocial problems. Identification of factors associated with early cannabis use may contribute to the development of preventive interventions. This study aimed to examine the early life predictors of age of initiation to cannabis. Data were from Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population-based prospective birth cohort study. Participants were a cohort of 3488 young adults who self-reported frequency and age of onset of cannabis use at the 21 year follow up. Of 3488 young adults, 48.9% (51.8% men and 46.4% women) reported having ever used cannabis. For those who had ever used cannabis, age of onset had mean and median of 15.8 and 16.0 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis child's gender, change in maternal marital status, quality of marital relationship, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and maternal depression when the child was 5 years statistically significantly predicted age of initiation to cannabis use. The present study explores the impact of early childhood factors associated with age of onset of cannabis use. It is suggested that the family environment within which children are reared, including factors such as parents' marital circumstances, has a major influence on initiation to cannabis use in adolescence. Research is needed to disentangle the pathways of association between these early life factors and early initiation to use of cannabis. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Bone metastasis pattern in initial metastatic breast cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Z

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhenchong Xiong,1–3,* Guangzheng Deng,1–3,* Xinjian Huang,1–3,* Xing Li,1–3 Xinhua Xie,1–3 Jin Wang,1–3 Zeyu Shuang,1–3 Xi Wang1–3 1Department of Breast Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, China; 3Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Bone is one of the most common sites of breast cancer metastasis, and population-based studies of patients with bone metastasis in initial metastatic breast cancer (MBC are lacking. Materials and methods: From 2010 to 2013, 245,707 breast cancer patients and 8901 patients diagnosed with initial bone metastasis were identified by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the National Cancer Institute. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression were used to identify predictive factors for the presence of bone metastasis and prognosis factors. Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. Results: Eight thousand nine hundred one patients with initial MBC had bone involvement, accounting for 3.6% of the entire cohort and 62.5% of the patients with initial MBC. Also, 70.5% of patients with bone metastasis were hormone receptor (HR positive (HR+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]−: 57.6%; HR+/HER2+: 12.9%. Patients with initial bone metastasis had a better 5-year survival rate compared to those with initial brain, liver, or lung metastasis. HR+/HER2− and HR+/HER2+ breast cancer had a propensity of bone metastasis in the entire cohort and were correlated with better prognosis in patients with initial bone metastasis. Local surgery had significantly improved overall survival in initial MBC patients with bone metastasis. Conclusion: Our study has provided population-based estimates of epidemiologic characteristics and prognosis in patients with bone metastasis at the time of

  9. Radiation or chemoradiation: initial utility study of selected therapy for local advanced stadium cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitasari, D. A.; Gondhowiardjo, S.; Nuranna, L.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to compare radiation only or chemo radiation treatment of local advanced cervical cancers by examining the initial response of tumors and acute side effects. An initial assessment employed value based medicine (VBM) by obtaining utility values for both types of therapy. The incidences of acute lower gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematology side effects in patients undergoing chemoradiation did not differ significantly from those undergoing radiation alone. Utility values for patients who underwent radiation alone were higher compared to those who underwent chemoradiation. It was concluded that the complete response of patients who underwent chemoradiation did not differ significantly from those who underwent radiation alone.

  10. The study of residential life support environment system to initiate policy on sustainable simple housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, N. M.; Harahap, A. S.; Nababan, E.; Siahaan, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to initiate sustainable simple housing system based on low CO2 emissions at Griya Martubung I Housing Medan, Indonesia. Since it was built in 1995, between 2007 until 2016 approximately 89 percent of houses have been doing various home renewal such as restoration, renovation, or reconstruction. Qualitative research conducted in order to obtain insights into the behavior of complex relationship between various components of residential life support environment that relates to CO2 emissions. Each component is studied by conducting in-depth interviews, observation of the 128 residents. The study used Likert Scale to measure residents’ perception about components. The study concludes with a synthesis describing principles for a sustainable simple housing standard that recognizes the whole characteristics of components. This study offers a means for initiating the practice of sustainable simple housing developments and efforts to manage growth and preserve the environment without violating social, economics, and ecology.

  11. Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.booij@amc.uva.nl; Bruin, Kora de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gunning, W. Boudewijn [Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, 5590 AB Heeze (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    In recent years, several PET and SPECT studies have shown loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in amphetamine (AMPH) users. However, the use of DAT SPECT tracers to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding has not been validated. We therefore examined if repeated administration of D-AMPH or methamphetamine (METH) may induce loss of binding to striatal DATs in rats by using an experimental biodistribution study design and a SPECT tracer for the DAT ([{sup 123}I]FP-CIT). Methods: Groups of male rats (n=10 per group) were treated with D-AMPH (10 mg/kg body weight), METH (10 mg/kg body weight), or saline, twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Five days later, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT was injected intravenously, and 2 h later, the rats were sacrificed and radioactivity was assayed. Results: In D-AMPH but not METH-treated rats, striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower (approximately 17%) than in the control group. Conclusion: These data show that [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT can be used to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding and may validate the use of DAT radiotracers to study AMPH-induced changes in striatal DAT binding in vivo.

  12. Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, several PET and SPECT studies have shown loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in amphetamine (AMPH) users. However, the use of DAT SPECT tracers to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding has not been validated. We therefore examined if repeated administration of D-AMPH or methamphetamine (METH) may induce loss of binding to striatal DATs in rats by using an experimental biodistribution study design and a SPECT tracer for the DAT ([ 123 I]FP-CIT). Methods: Groups of male rats (n=10 per group) were treated with D-AMPH (10 mg/kg body weight), METH (10 mg/kg body weight), or saline, twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Five days later, [ 123 I]FP-CIT was injected intravenously, and 2 h later, the rats were sacrificed and radioactivity was assayed. Results: In D-AMPH but not METH-treated rats, striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower (approximately 17%) than in the control group. Conclusion: These data show that [ 123 I]FP-CIT can be used to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding and may validate the use of DAT radiotracers to study AMPH-induced changes in striatal DAT binding in vivo

  13. Baseline repeated measures from controlled human exposure studies: associations between ambient air pollution exposure and the systemic inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M S; Zanobetti, Antonella; Silverman, Frances; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Brook, Jeffrey R; Manno, Michael; Gold, Diane R

    2010-01-01

    Systemic inflammation may be one of the mechanisms mediating the association between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen are biomarkers of systemic inflammation that are independent risk factors for cardio-vascular disease. We investigated the association between ambient air pollution and systemic inflammation using baseline measurements of IL-6 and fibrinogen from controlled human exposure studies. In this retrospective analysis we used repeated-measures data in 45 nonsmoking subjects. Hourly and daily moving averages were calculated for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter pollutants on systemic IL-6 and fibrinogen. Effect modification by season was considered. We observed a positive association between IL-6 and O3 [0.31 SD per O3 interquartile range (IQR); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.080.54] and between IL-6 and SO2 (0.25 SD per SO2 IQR; 95% CI, 0.060.43). We observed the strongest effects using 4-day moving averages. Responses to pollutants varied by season and tended to be higher in the summer, particularly for O3 and PM2.5. Fibrinogen was not associated with pollution. This study demonstrates a significant association between ambient pollutant levels and baseline levels of systemic IL-6. These findings have potential implications for controlled human exposure studies. Future research should consider whether ambient pollution exposure before chamber exposure modifies IL-6 response.

  14. Couples’ Emotional Interactions and its Role in Emotional Divorce and Initiating for Divorce: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علی محمد رضایی

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many factors, such as economic, cultural, social and family factors, are effective in divorce and initiating for divorce. The present study addresses the emotional interactions of couples and its role in emotional divorce and initiating for divorce. 30 married women who referred to one of the counseling centers of Tehran and who were at least in the second year of their marriage were selected through purposeful sampling. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and coded and analyzed by content analysis method. The results included seven groups of problems, including the changing of the unconditional acceptance to conditional acceptance, obligatory marriage without love and interest, lack of initial engagement, lack of sufficient time to express interest and affection for family, poor social interactions, sluggishness, and unsolved emotional problems that were effecting the couples' emotional divorce and initiating for divorce. Negative emotional interaction of couples plays a key role in the creation and expansion of emotional divorce and initiating for divorce, and before marriage it is necessary to provide couples sufficient knowledge about such interactions and their role in harming marital life.

  15. A qualitative study of determinants of PTSD treatment initiation in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Nina A; Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Spoont, Michele; Murdoch, Maureen; Parker, Louise E; Chiros, Christine; Rosenheck, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Although there are effective treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), many PTSD sufferers wait years to decades before seeking professional help, if they seek it at all. An understanding of factors affecting treatment initiation for PTSD can inform strategies to promote help-seeking. We conducted a qualitative study to identify determinants of PTSD treatment initiation among 44 U.S. military veterans from the Vietnam and Afghanistan/Iraq wars; half were and half were not receiving treatment. Participants described barriers to and facilitators of treatment initiation within themselves, the post-trauma socio-cultural environment, the health care and disability systems, and their social networks. Lack of knowledge about PTSD was a barrier that occurred at both the societal and individual levels. Another important barrier theme was the enduring effect of experiencing an invalidating socio-cultural environment following trauma exposure. In some cases, system and social network facilitation led to treatment initiation despite individual-level barriers, such as beliefs and values that conflicted with help-seeking. Our findings expand the dominant model of service utilization by explicit incorporation of factors outside the individual into a conceptual framework of PTSD treatment initiation. Finally, we offer suggestions regarding the direction of future research and the development of interventions to promote timely help-seeking for PTSD.

  16. Selection of a preferred initial access for the exploratory studies facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Cikanek, E.M.; Elkins, N.Z.

    1995-06-01

    An issue of interest to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) has been selection of the preferred location for initial access to the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) in the event that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) elected to proceed with a phased approach to facility development. A task force to conduct an assessment and prepare a recommendation of the preferred initial location (north or south) for starting underground in situ tests at Yucca Mountain was initiated by YMPO to address this issue. The task force addressed geotechnical issues associated with the presence of disqualifying conditions at the site, the inability of the site to meet qualifying conditions, and the potential for unexpected geologic conditions at the site. The task force compared the north and south ramp accesses of the ESF to determine whether either access would be more likely to provide relevant information about potential site unsuitability. The task force did not address issues such as design time or construction costs. Within the aforementioned context, a balanced evaluation of currently available geotechnical information and issues failed to provide a clear mandate for either ramp as the preferred initial ESF access. Neither access was clearly superior in providing geotechnical information to resolve site suitability issues. The task force therefore recommended that other appropriate programmatic factors, such as schedule, be used as a basis in determining the choice of a preferred, initial ESF access in the event of phased construction

  17. Simulation study of effects of initial particle size distribution on dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Xu, D.S.; Ma, N.; Zhou, N.; Payton, E.J.; Yang, R.; Mills, M.J.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolution kinetics of γ' particles in binary Ni-Al alloys with different initial particle size distributions (PSD) is studied using a three-dimensional (3D) quantitative phase field model. By linking model inputs directly to thermodynamic and atomic mobility databases, microstructural evolution during dissolution is simulated in real time and length scales. The model is first validated against analytical solution for dissolution of a single γ' particle in 1D and numerical solution in 3D before it is applied to investigate the effects of initial PSD on dissolution kinetics. Four different types of PSD, uniform, normal, log-normal and bimodal, are considered. The simulation results show that the volume fraction of γ' particles decreases exponentially with time, while the temporal evolution of average particle size depends strongly on the initial PSD

  18. The Dark Side of Testing Memory: Repeated Retrieval Can Enhance Eyewitness Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information--a finding termed…

  19. Evidence of cormorant-induced mortality, disparate migration strategies and repeatable circadian rhythm in the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus ): A telemetry study mapping the postspawning migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Fast; Rognon, Paul; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-01-01

    constrained navigation through the lakes. The migration into the Wadden Sea correlated with temperature perhaps indicating osmoregulatory constraints of sea entry. Unlike most salmonid species, migration occurred both day and night. Moreover, fish exhibited repeatable individual differences in diel activity...

  20. Repeat Syphilis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in California, 2002–2006: Implications for Syphilis Elimination Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew Ng, Rilene A.; Katz, Kenneth A.; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Samuel, Michael C.; Kerndt, Peter R.; Bolan, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined rates of and risk factors for repeat syphilis infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in California. Methods. We analyzed 2002 to 2006 California syphilis surveillance system data. Results. During the study period, a mean of 5.9% (range: 4.9%–7.1% per year) of MSM had a repeat primary or secondary (PS) syphilis infection within 2 years of an initial infection. There was no significant increase in the annual proportion of MSM with a repeat syphilis infection (P = .42). In a multivariable model, factors associated with repeat syphilis infection were HIV infection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14, 2.37), Black race (OR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.04), and 10 or more recent sex partners (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.50). Conclusions. Approximately 6% of MSM in California have a repeat PS syphilis infection within 2 years of an initial infection. HIV infection, Black race, and having multiple sex partners are associated with increased odds of repeat infection. Syphilis elimination efforts should include messages about the risk for repeat infection and the importance of follow-up testing. Public health attention to individuals repeatedly infected with syphilis may help reduce local disease burdens. PMID:22095364

  1. The study of nursing students’ learning initiative in the course reform of aged caring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analyzing the influence of nursing students’ learning initiative in the course reform of aged caring. Discuss the way of the aged care reform. Method: To reform the course of aged care in our school level 2013 88 nursing undergraduate. The specific content: learning aged care theory, learning Japanese care technology basic knowledge, adding Japanese and Taiwan’s nursing concepts to the traditional aged care teaching, performing sitcoms about old people’s disease and nursing way , reporting the plan of aged care by PowerPoint, organizing student volunteers to visit the nursing home and so on. The specific content lasted four months. Adopting the learning initiative (ALS scale developed by Zang Yuli and others after course reform. Measure the students’ learning initiative before and after the teaching. Result: Nursing student’s self-study ability was in the middle and lower level before the course reform(59.26±7.38; After the course reform, nursing student gain higher score than before learning on the three aspects contain “Learning motivation”,“Learning goals” and “Solid study”. The difference has statistically significant.(P<0.05.Conclusion: Through the aged care course reform, nursing students strengthen the study enthusiasm and initiative; enhance nursing student’s self-study ability. It is conducive to improve the learning interest of aged care course for nursing students.

  2. STUDY CONCERNING THE ELABORATION OF CERTAIN ORIENTATION MODELS AND THE INITIAL SELECTION FOR SPEED SKATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Marius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In realizing this study I started from the premise that, by elaborating certain orientation models and initial selection for the speed skating and their application will appear superior results, necessary results, taking into account the actual evolution of the high performance sport in general and of the speed skating, in special.The target of this study has been the identification of an orientation model and a complete initial selection that should be based on the favorable aptitudes of the speed skating. On the basis of the made researched orientation models and initial selection has been made, things that have been demonstrated experimental that are not viable, the study starting from the data of the 120 copies, the complete experiment being made by 32 subjects separated in two groups, one using the proposed model and the other formed fromsubjects randomly selected.These models can serve as common working instruments both for the orientation process and for the initial selection one, being able to integrate in the proper practical activity, these being used easily both by coaches that are in charge with the proper selection of the athletes but also by the physical education teachers orschool teachers that are in contact with children of an early age.

  3. A qualitative study of methamphetamine initiation in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobkirk, Andréa L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Myers, Bronwyn; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a significant rise in methamphetamine use in low- and middle-income countries, there has been little empirical examination of the factors that contribute to individuals’ initiation of methamphetamine use in these settings. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in South Africa. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (13 women and 17 men) in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviews included narrative descriptions of the circumstances surrounding methamphetamine initiation. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated. Transcripts were analyzed with document memos, data display matrices, and a constant comparison technique to identify themes. Results On average, participants began regularly using methamphetamine around age 21 and had used for seven years. Four major themes emerged related to the initiation of methamphetamine use. The prevalence of methamphetamine users and distributors made the drug convenient and highly accessible to first time users. Methamphetamine has increased in popularity and is considered “trendy”, which contributes to social pressure from friends, and less often, family members to initiate use. Initiation is further fueled by a lack of opportunities for recreation and employment, which leads to boredom and curiosity about the rumored positive effects of the drug. Young people also turn to methamphetamine use and distribution through gang membership as an attempt to generate income in impoverished communities with limited economic opportunities. Finally, participants described initiating methamphetamine as a means of coping with the cumulative stress and psychological burden provoked by the high rates of violence and crime in areas of Cape Town. Conclusion The findings highlight the complex nature of methamphetamine initiation in low- and middle-income countries like South Africa. There is a need for

  4. A qualitative study of methamphetamine initiation in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Myers, Bronwyn; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2016-04-01

    Despite a significant rise in methamphetamine use in low- and middle-income countries, there has been little empirical examination of the factors that contribute to individuals' initiation of methamphetamine use in these settings. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (13 women and 17 men) in Cape Town, South Africa. Interviews included narrative descriptions of the circumstances surrounding methamphetamine initiation. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and translated. Transcripts were analyzed with document memos, data display matrices, and a constant comparison technique to identify themes. On average, participants began regularly using methamphetamine around age 21 and had used for seven years. Four major themes emerged related to the initiation of methamphetamine use. The prevalence of methamphetamine users and distributors made the drug convenient and highly accessible to first time users. Methamphetamine has increased in popularity and is considered "trendy", which contributes to social pressure from friends, and less often, family members to initiate use. Initiation is further fueled by a lack of opportunities for recreation and employment, which leads to boredom and curiosity about the rumored positive effects of the drug. Young people also turn to methamphetamine use and distribution through gang membership as an attempt to generate income in impoverished communities with limited economic opportunities. Finally, participants described initiating methamphetamine as a means of coping with the cumulative stress and psychological burden provoked by the high rates of violence and crime in areas of Cape Town. The findings highlight the complex nature of methamphetamine initiation in low- and middle-income countries like South Africa. There is a need for community-level interventions to address the

  5. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  6. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... coordinators estimate the effect on coordination fees? Does the supposed benefit that mobile repeater stations... allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and other mobile repeaters by public... email: [email protected] or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed instructions for...

  7. Social influences upon injection initiation among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Evan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Street-involved youth are a population at risk of adopting injection as a route of administration, and preventing the transition to injection drug use among street youth represents a public health priority. In order to inform epidemiological research and prevention efforts, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate the initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Qualitative interviews with street youth who inject drugs elicited descriptions of the adoption of injection as a route of administration. Interviewees were recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results 26 youth aged 16 to 26 participated in this study, including 12 females. Among study participants the first injection episode frequently featured another drug user who facilitated the initiation of injecting. Youth narratives indicate that the transition into injecting is influenced by social interactions with drug using peers and evolving perceptions of injecting, and rejecting identification as an injector was important among youth who did not continue to inject. It appears that social conventions discouraging initiating young drug users into injection exist among established injectors, although this ethic is often ignored. Conclusion The importance of social relationships with other drug users within the adoption of injection drug use highlights the potential of social interventions to prevent injection initiation. Additionally, developing strategies to engage current injectors who are likely to initiate youth into injection could also benefit prevention efforts.

  8. Determinants of breastfeeding initiation and cessation among employed mothers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Schold, Jesse D; Randall, Xian J

    2016-07-29

    The U.S. continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the industrialized world. Studies have shown that full-time employment and early return to work decreased breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the relationship between leave policies and breastfeeding initiation and cessation. This study aimed to identify workplace-related barriers and facilitators associated with breastfeeding initiation and cessation in the first 6 months postpartum. A prospective cohort study design was utilized to recruit 817 Minnesota women aged 18 and older while hospitalized for childbirth. Selection criteria included English-speaking, employed mothers with a healthy, singleton birth. These women were followed up using telephone interviews at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after childbirth. The main study outcomes were breastfeeding initiation, measured during hospital enrollment, and breastfeeding cessation by 6 months postpartum. Women were 30 years old; 86 % were White, and 73 % were married. Breastfeeding rates were 81 % at childbirth, 67 % at 6 weeks, 49 % at 12 weeks, and 33 % at 6 months postpartum. Logistic regression revealed the odds of breastfeeding initiation were higher for women who: held professional jobs, were primiparae, had graduate degree, did not smoke prenatally, had no breastfeeding problems, and had family or friends who breastfeed. Survival analyses showed the hazard for breastfeeding cessation by 6 months was: higher for women who returned to work at any time during the 6 months postpartum versus those who did not return, lower for professional workers, higher among single than married women, higher for every educational category compared to graduate school, and higher for those with no family or friends who breastfeed. While employer paid leave policy did not affect breastfeeding initiation or cessation, women who took shorter leaves were more likely to stop breastfeeding in the first 6 months postpartum. Future research should examine

  9. Are Changes in Neighbourhood Perceptions Associated with Changes in Self-Rated Mental Health in Adults? A 13-Year Repeat Cross-Sectional Study, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Olsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine changes in neighbourhood perceptions on self-rated mental health problems over time, and to explore demographic, geographic and socio-economic factors as determinants of increased or decreased anxiety and depression symptoms. We conducted a repeat cross-sectional study of individuals (N: 4480 living in the same areas of west central Scotland in 1997 and 2010. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire at both time-points, containing 14 questions relating to neighbourhood perceptions and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A three-level linear regression model was fitted to HADS scores and changes in neighbourhood perceptions over time; controlling for a number of individual and area-level variables. Overall, area-level mean HADS scores decreased from 1997 to 2010. When adjusted for individual and area-level variables, this decrease did not remain for HADS anxiety. Applying an overall 14-scale neighbourhood perception measure, worsening neighbourhood perceptions were associated with small increases in depression (0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.01 to 0.07 and anxiety (0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.08 scores over time. This highlights a need for local and national policy to target areas where neighbourhood characteristics are substantially deteriorating in order to ensure the mental health of individuals does not worsen.

  10. Combination of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated 9 technique with the piggybac transposon system for mouse in utero electroporation to study cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Man; Jin, Xubin; Mu, Lili; Wang, Fangyu; Li, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoling; Liu, Xuan; Shen, Wenchen; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In utero electroporation (IUE) is commonly used to study cortical development of cerebrum by downregulating or overexpressing genes of interest in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of small mammals. However, exogenous plasmids are lost or diluted over time. Furthermore, gene knockdown based on short-hairpin RNAs may exert nonspecific effects that lead to aberrant neuronal migration. Genomic engineering by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system has great research and therapeutic potentials. Here we integrate the CRISPR/Cas9 components into the piggyBac (PB) transposon system (the CRISPR/Cas9-PB toolkit) for cortical IUEs. The mouse Sry-related HMG box-2 (Sox2) gene was selected as the target for its application. Most transduced cortical NPCs were depleted of SOX2 protein as early as 3 days post-IUE, whereas expressions of SOX1 and PAX6 remained intact. Furthermore, both the WT Cas9 and the D10A nickase mutant Cas9n showed comparable knockout efficiency. Transduced cortical cells were purified with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and effective gene editing at the Sox2 loci was confirmed. Thus, application of the CRISPR/Cas9-PB toolkit in IUE is a promising strategy to study gene functions in cortical NPCs and their progeny. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Food acceptability in field studies with US army men and women: relationship with food intake and food choice after repeated exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kramer, F Matthew; Meiselman, Herbert L; Lesher, Larry L; Baker-Fulco, Carol; Hirsch, Edward S; Warber, John

    2005-02-01

    Laboratory data with single exposures showed that palatability has a positive relationship with food intake. The question addressed in this study is whether this relationship also holds over repeated exposures in non-laboratory contexts in more natural environments. The data were collected in four field studies, lasting 4-11 days with 307 US Army men and 119 Army women, and comprised 5791 main meals and 8831 snacks in total. Acceptability was rated on the nine point hedonic scale, and intake was registered in units of 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, or 1 or more times of the provided portion size. Correlation coefficients between individual acceptability ratings and intakes varied from 0.22 to 0.62 for the main meals (n=193-2267), and between 0.13 and 0.56 for the snacks (n=304-2967). The likelihood of choosing a meal for the second time was positively related to the acceptability rating of the meal when it was consumed for the first time. The results reinforce the importance of liking in food choice and food intake/choice behavior. However, the magnitude of the correlation coefficients between acceptability ratings and food intake suggest that environmental factors also have an important role in determining intake and choice.

  12. Comparison of diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire with measures from repeated 24-hour dietary recalls. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Andersen, Lene Frost; Lund, Eiliv

    2007-10-01

    To compare diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs). The participants answered an FFQ after completing four, repeated 24HDRs during a year. Norway, nationwide. Of 500 women randomly selected from The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (the Norwegian arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), 286 agreed to participate and 238 completed the study. On the group level, the FFQ overestimated absolute intake in seven and underestimated intake in six of 21 food groups. Intakes of energy, fat, added sugar and alcohol were lower in the FFQ than in the 24HDRs, whereas intake of fibre was higher. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ranged from 0.13 (desserts) to 0.82 (coffee) for foods, and from 0.25 (beta-carotene) to 0.67 (alcohol) for nutrients. Three per cent of the observations on nutrient intake fell in the opposite quintile when classified according to the FFQ as compared with the 24HDR. The median calibration coefficient, calculated by regression of the 24HDR data on the FFQ data, was 0.57 for foods and 0.38 for nutrients. The FFQ's ability to rank subjects was good for foods eaten frequently and fairly good for macronutrients in terms of energy percentages. Weaker ranking abilities were seen for foods eaten infrequently and for some micronutrients. The results underline the necessity of performing measurement error corrections.

  13. Repeated 28-day oral toxicity study of vinclozolin in rats based on the draft protocol for the "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline No. 407" to detect endocrine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Moon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Ki, Ho Yeon; Choi, Kwang Sik; Han, Soon Young

    2006-09-01

    We performed a 28-day repeated-dose toxicity study of vinclozolin, a widely used fungicide, based on the draft protocol of the "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407" (Enhanced TG407) to investigate whether vinclozolin has endocrine-mediated properties according to this assay. Seven-week-old SD rats were administered with vinclozolin daily by oral gavage at dose rates of 0, 3.125, 12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg/day for at least 28 days. The vinclozolin-treated male rats showed a reduction of epididymis and accessory sex organ weights and an alteration of hormonal patterns. A slight prolongation of the estrous cycle and changes in the estrogen/testosterone ratio and luteinizing hormone level were observed in vinclozolin-treated female rats. Thyroxin concentrations were decreased and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were increased in both sexes; however, there were no compound-related microscopic lesions in the thyroid gland or changes in the thyroid weight. The endocrine-related effects of vinclozolin could be detected by the parameters examined in the present study based on the OECD protocol, suggesting the Enhanced TG407 protocol should be a suitable screening test for the detection of endocrine-mediated effects of chemicals.

  14. [Repeated cross-sectional studies on urinary iodine and iodine content of salt among school-aged children from 2012 to 2014 in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meifang; Wang, Congyun; Li, Songtao; Ying, Xuhua; Zhao, Qi; Fu, Chaowei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the iodine status and its change among school-aged children in their morning urine and eating salt from 2012 to 2014 in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province, China. Three repeated cross-sectional studies were carried out at a same primary school in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. Three classes were randomly selected from each of 3 to 5 grade by the cluster-stratified sampling every year. Totally, 1343 out of 1350 eligible children aged 8 to 10 years old were involved into this study. Their morning urine and salt eating at home were collected and tested. The overall median of urine iodine was 116.0 μg/L, and no significant change was found over year. The overall proportions of subjects with urine iodine iodine from 1343 salt samples was 0.0 mg/kg and no year difference was statistically observed. The proportions of subjects consumed iodized salt significantly decreased from 25.1% in 2012 to 21.8% in 2013 and to 14.2% in 2014. There was a significant difference in urine iodine between subjects taken iodized salt or not and also a weak positive correlation between salt iodine and urine iodine. The nutritional status of iodine is overall stable, proper and safety in recent 3 years among school children in Yuhuan County. The coverage rate of iodized salt is very low.

  15. Patterns of Homework Initiation for Web-based Activities in Economics: A Study of Academic Procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Richard C. Schiming

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the impact that certain demographic and academic characteristics have on the degree of academic procrastination by college students in a Principles of Macroeconomics course. The study employs an objective measure of academic procrastination (homework initiation) rather than the self-reported measures typically employed in the literature. The empirical results indicate that students who procrastinate less are academically stronger, non-traditionally aged, or had a previ...

  16. Are we all prepared for inclusion? (A study of initial teacher education in further education)

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, G

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the issues raised through an eight year research study undertaken for a PhD. Data was collected from 102 further education colleges and 9 universities. Student teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion of students with learning difficulties and/or disabilities were investigated and compared with the content and delivery of their initial teacher education programmes. The issue of disability equality and inclusion was a central theme throughout the study.

  17. Depersonalisation and schizophrenia: Comparative study of initial and multiple episodes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Luque, Rogelio; Chauca-Chauca, Geli Marie; Alonso-Lobato, Pablo; Jaen-Moreno, M Jose

    2016-01-01

    The phenomena of depersonalisation/derealisation have classically been associated with the initial phases of psychosis, and it is assumed that they would precede (even by years) the onset of clinical psychosis, being much more common in the prodromal and acute phases of the illness. The aims of the present study are to analyse the differences in depersonalisation/derealisation between patients with initial and multiple episodes and the factors that could influence this. A descriptive, controlled and cross-sectional study of 48 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (20 with an initial episode and 28 with multiple episodes). These patients were assessed using scales such as the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Participants with initial episodes score higher on both the Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale, and the subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that evaluates such experiences. There were no associations between these types of experience and the positive symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Depersonalisation/derealisation experiences appear with greater frequency, duration and intensity in patients in the early stages of the illnesses, gradually decreasing as they become chronic. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Who initiates and organises situations for work-related alcohol use? The WIRUS culture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordaune, Kristin; Skarpaas, Lisebet S; Sagvaag, Hildegunn; Haveraaen, Lise; Rimstad, Silje; Kinn, Liv G; Aas, Randi W

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol is one of the leading causes of ill health and premature death in the world. Several studies indicate that working life might influence employees' alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. The aim of this study was to explore work-related drinking situations, with a special focus on answering who initiates and organises these situations. Data were collected through semi-structured group interviews in six Norwegian companies from the private ( n=4) and public sectors ( n=2), employing a total of 3850 employees. The informants ( n=43) were representatives from management and local unions, safety officers, advisers from the social insurance office and human-resource personnel, health, safety and environment personnel, and members from the occupational environment committee. Both qualitative and quantitative content analyses were applied in the analyses of the material. Three different initiators and organisers were discovered: the employer, employees and external organisers. External organisers included customers, suppliers, collaborators, sponsors, subcontractors, different unions and employers' organisations. The employer organised more than half of the situations; external organisers were responsible for more than a quarter. The differences between companies were mostly due to the extent of external organisers. The employer initiates and organises most situations for work-related alcohol use. However, exposure to such situations seems to depend on how many external relations the company has. These aspects should be taken into account when workplace health-promotion initiatives are planned.

  19. On the study of the magnetic domain pattern via the initial magnetization curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.

    1997-01-01

    This study inquires into the relationships between the initial magnetization curve and the magnetic domain pattern in the demagnetized states for amorphous TbFeCo as well as multilayered Co/Pd thin film samples. This was done specifically through an investigation of different demagnetized states of samples demagnetized by a variety of methods. The magnetic domain pattern for the sample demagnetized by an in-plane magnetic field and for the sample demagnetized by a perpendicular magnetic field was found to be quite different even though both states have zero magnetization. The former state has denser and finer domains than the latter. In addition, both states were studied in light of the initial magnetization curves obtained by measurements of the magneto-optic Kerr effect and the extraordinary Hall effect. Moreover, the initial magnetization for the fine domains increases with an increase in magnetic field, while for the coarse domains, the initial magnetization remains at zero for magnetic field below coercivity H c , then rises sharply to saturated magnetization when magnetic field is nearly equal to H c . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. The absolute number of repeat operations for complex intra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal sepsis, questions about futility of treatment frequently arise. This study focuses specifically on patients who required two or more repeat laparotomies and describes the spectrum of disease necessitating multiple repeat laparotomies ...

  1. KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE – AN INITIAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Alsultan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al. implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  2. Improving early detection initiatives: a qualitative study exploring perspectives of older people and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Manon; Stoop, Annerieke; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Buist, Yvette; Baan, Caroline A; de Bruin, Simone R

    2017-06-23

    A wide range of initiatives on early detection and intervention have been developed to proactively identify problems related to health and wellbeing in (frail) older people, with the aim of supporting them to live independently for as long as possible. Nevertheless, it remains unclear what the best way is to design such initiatives and how older people's needs and preferences can be best addressed. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring: 1) older people's perspectives on health and living environment in relation to living independently at home; 2) older people's needs and preferences in relation to initiating and receiving care and support; and 3) professionals' views on what would be necessary to enable the alignment of early detection initiatives with older people's own needs and preferences. In this qualitative study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 older people and 19 professionals in proactive elderly care. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method. From the interviews with older people important themes in relation to health and living environment emerged, such as maintaining independence, appropriate housing, social relationships, a supporting network and a sense of purpose and autonomy. Older people preferred to remain self-sufficient, and they would rather not ask for help for psychological or social problems. However, the interviews also highlighted that they were not always able or willing to anticipate future needs, which can hinder early detection or early intervention. At the same time, professionals indicated that older people tend to over-estimate their self-reliance and therefore advocated for early detection and intervention, including social and psychological issues. Older people have a broad range of needs in different domains of life. Discrepancies exist between older people and professionals with regard to their views on timing and scope of early detection initiatives. This study aimed

  3. The effect of technical replicate (repeats) on Nix Pro Color Sensor™ measurement precision for meat: A case-study on aged beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Kilgannon, Ashleigh K; Hopkins, David L

    2018-01-01

    The Nix Pro Colour Sensor™ (NIX) can be potentially used to measure meat colour, but procedural guidelines that assure measurement reproducibility and repeatability (precision) must first be established. Technical replicate number (r) will minimise response variation, measureable as standard error of predicted mean (SEM), and contribute to improved precision. Consequently, we aimed to explore the effects of r on NIX precision when measuring aged beef colour (colorimetrics; L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma values). Each colorimetric SEM declined with increasing r to indicate improved precision and followed a diminishing rate of improvement that allowed us to recommend r=7 for meat colour studies using the NIX. This definition was based on practical limitations and a* variability, as additional r would be required if other colorimetrics or advanced levels of precision are necessary. Beef ageing and display period, holding temperature, loin and sampled portion were also found to contribute to colorimetric variation, but were incorporated within our definition of r. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The development of a virtual reality training programme for ophthalmology: repeatability and reproducibility (part of the International Forum for Ophthalmic Simulation Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, G M; Theodoraki, K; Gillan, S; Sullivan, P; O'Sullivan, F; Hussain, B; Bunce, C; Athanasiadis, I

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the variability of performance among novice ophthalmic trainees in a range of repeated tasks using the Eyesi virtual reality (VR) simulator. Eighteen subjects undertook three attempts of five cataract specific and generic three-dimensional tasks: continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, cracking and chopping, cataract navigation, bimanual cataract training, anti-tremor. Scores for each attempt were out of a maximum of 100 points. A non-parametric test was used to analyse the data, where a P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Highly significant differences were found between the scores achieved in the first attempt and that during the second (P<0.0001) and third (P<0.0001) but not between the second and third attempt (P=0.65). There was no significant variability in the overall score between the users (P=0.1104) or in the difference between their highest and lowest score (P=0.3878). Highly significant differences between tasks were shown both in the overall score (P=0.0001) and in the difference between highest and lowest score (P=0.003). This study, which is the first to quantify reproducibility of performance in entry level trainees using a VR tool, demonstrated significant intra-novice variability. The cohort of subjects performed equally overall in the range of tasks (no inter-novice variability) but each showed that performance varies significantly with the complexity of the task when using this high-fidelity instrument.

  5. Municipal investment in off-road trails and changes in bicycle commuting in Minneapolis, Minnesota over 10 years: a longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Meyer, Katie A; Peterson, Marc; Zhang, Le; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-02-13

    We studied the effect of key development and expansion of an off-road multipurpose trail system in Minneapolis, Minnesota between 2000 and 2007 to understand whether infrastructure investments are associated with increases in commuting by bicycle. We used repeated measures regression on tract-level (N = 116 tracts) data to examine changes in bicycle commuting between 2000 and 2008-2012. We investigated: 1) trail proximity measured as distance from the trail system and 2) trail potential use measured as the proportion of commuting trips to destinations that might traverse the trail system. All analyses (performed 2015-2016) adjusted for tract-level sociodemographic covariates and contemporaneous cycling infrastructure changes (e.g., bicycle lanes). Tracts that were both closer to the new trail system and had a higher proportion of trips to destinations across the trail system experienced greater 10-year increases in commuting by bicycle. Proximity to off-road infrastructure and travel patterns are relevant to increased bicycle commuting, an important contributor to overall physical activity. Municipal investment in bicycle facilities, especially off-road trails that connect a city's population and its employment centers, is likely to lead to increases in commuting by bicycle.

  6. Parametric Study on an Initial Cooling Performance in the KALIMER-600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji-Woong; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Seong-O

    2009-01-01

    Decay heat removal is very important in a nuclear power plant. The KALIMER-600, Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor, employs the PDRC(Passive Decay heat Removal Circuit) to remove the decay heat. DHX(Decay Heat eXchanger) in the PDRC of KALIMER-600 is disposed in the DHX support barrel located in the hot pool region. Each DHX support barrel has the lower end communicating with the cold pool such that the sodium free surface inside the barrel is maintained with the same level of the cold pool using the pumping head of the PHTS(Primary Heat Transport System) pumps. Consequently, DHX is not in direct contact with the cold pool sodium during a normal plant operation. Under transient conditions such as the loss of a normal heat sink accident, free surface outside the barrel rises up due to the expansion of the sodium induced by the core decay heat during the initial stage cooling. When it overflows into the cold pool through the DHX support barrel the heat removal via DHX is initiated and the second stage cooling begins. In order to secure the safety of a reactor until the activation of a second stage cooling by PDRC, it is very important to suppress the core temperature rising by an enhancement of the initial cooling performance. In this study the parametric investigations have been applied to reveal the effect of various design parameters on the initial cooling performance. The various design parameters such as coastdown flow, IHX(Intermediate Heat eXchanger) elevation, heat transfer via CCS (Cavity Cooling System) were considered. The numerical approaches based on a multidimensional analysis can be utilized as a useful tool to investigate overall transient behaviors within a pool. In this research the COMMIX-1AR/P code is utilized as a transient analysis tool in KALIMER-600 after a shut down. This study will provide the basic design information to improve the initial cooling performance in the KALIMER-600

  7. First study of the interference between initial and final state radiation at the Z resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barate, R; Barbi, M S; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Rybin, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1996-01-01

    The interference between initial and final state radiation in the process \\eemm\\ at $\\sqs \\approx \\MZ$ has been studied by measuring the forward-backward asymmetry as a function of the acoplanarity angle between the final state muons. The interference is expected to be sensitive to the space-time separation of the initial and final state radiation. The measured asymmetry distribution has been compared to theoretical predictions using the \\KORALZ\\ generator, with and without ørdalph\\ interference. The magnitude of the interference between initial and $ \\pm 0.06 $ (syst.) \\GeV} . \\end{center} has been extracted. The interpretation of this result is discussed. There is an additional uncertainty in the estimate of \\GZ\\ from as yet uncalculated higher order interference terms. By assuming a value of \\GZ\\ consistent with the world average, the data were used to estimate the size of these uncalculated corrections. The interference between initial and final state radiation in the process \\eemm\\ at \\sqs \\approx \\MZ h...

  8. Publication bias in studies of an applied behavior-analytic intervention: an initial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs(SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an initial test of bias by comparing effect sizes, measured by percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND), in published SSED studies (n=21) and unpublished dissertations (n=10) on 1 well-established intervention for children with autism, pivotal response treatment (PRT). Although published and unpublished studies had similar methodologies, the mean PND in published studies was 22% higher than in unpublished studies, 95% confidence interval (4%, 38%). Even when unpublished studies are included, PRT appeared to be effective (PNDM=62%). Nevertheless, the disparity between published and unpublished studies suggests a need for further assessment of publication bias in the ABA literature.

  9. Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Siersma, Volkert

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between social-cognitive factors, school factors, and smoking initiation among adolescents who had never smoked. METHODS: The study was based on longitudinal data on Danish adolescents attending randomly selected public schools....... Adolescents enrolled in grade 7 (mean age, 13 years) who had never smoked (n = 912) were followed up for 6 months after baseline. Those who had still never smoked were followed up again 18 months after baseline, in grade 8 (n = 442). Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self......-efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group...

  10. Initiation of a comparative metagenomic study of the Red Sea and Pacific Ocean marine microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-03-26

    The marine microbiome is a fundamental component of the biosphere. Its bacteria are abundant and play critical roles within the ocean environment. The majority of this important group of bacteria are genetically uncharacterized. Relatively few species have been studied in the laboratory. However, by applying metagenomic analyses to marine microbial populations, genomic ‘snapshots’ may be taken and from appropriate time series experiments their dynamics established. As a key component of the CBRC Centre Research Program (2014-2020), we are initiating a comparative study of the Red Sea and North Eastern Japanese coast and bay complexes. These environments differ in physical characteristics significantly. The Red Sea exhibits consistently high salinity, temperature and insolation characteristics, whereas the Japanese waters are less saline, cooler and receive lower insolation. Here, we present initial data and analytical pipelines for Phase 1 of our collaborative research program.

  11. Initiation of a comparative metagenomic study of the Red Sea and Pacific Ocean marine microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Gojobori, Takashi; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Alam, Intikhab; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Watabe, Shugo; Ikeo, Kazuho; Mori, Takahisa; Archer, John A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The marine microbiome is a fundamental component of the biosphere. Its bacteria are abundant and play critical roles within the ocean environment. The majority of this important group of bacteria are genetically uncharacterized. Relatively few species have been studied in the laboratory. However, by applying metagenomic analyses to marine microbial populations, genomic ‘snapshots’ may be taken and from appropriate time series experiments their dynamics established. As a key component of the CBRC Centre Research Program (2014-2020), we are initiating a comparative study of the Red Sea and North Eastern Japanese coast and bay complexes. These environments differ in physical characteristics significantly. The Red Sea exhibits consistently high salinity, temperature and insolation characteristics, whereas the Japanese waters are less saline, cooler and receive lower insolation. Here, we present initial data and analytical pipelines for Phase 1 of our collaborative research program.

  12. Thermal, cardiac and adrenergic responses to repeated local cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janský, L; Matousková, E; Vávra, V; Vybíral, S; Janský, P; Jandová, D; Knízková, I; Kunc, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether repeated local cooling induces the same or different adaptational responses as repeated whole body cooling. Repeated cooling of the legs (immersion into 12 degrees C water up to the knees for 30 min, 20 times during 4 weeks = local cold adaptation - LCA) attenuated the initial increase in heart rate and blood pressure currently observed in control subjects immersed in cold water up to the knees. After LCA the initial skin temperature decrease tended to be lower, indicating reduced vasoconstriction. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure appeared to be generally lower during rest and during the time course of cooling in LCA humans, when compared to controls. All these changes seem to indicate attenuation of the sympathetic tone. In contrast, the sustained skin temperature in different areas of the body (finger, palm, forearm, thigh, chest) appeared to be generally lower in LCA subjects than in controls (except for temperatures on the forehead). Plasma levels of catecholamines (measured 20 and 40 min after the onset of cooling) were also not influenced by local cold adaptation. Locally cold adapted subjects, when exposed to whole body cold water immersion test, showed no change in the threshold temperature for induction of cold thermogenesis. This indicates that the hypothermic type of cold adaptation, typically occurring after systemic cold adaptation, does not appear after local cold adaptation of the intensity used. It is concluded that in humans the cold adaptation due to repeated local cooling of legs induces different physiological changes than systemic cold adaptation.

  13. Developer Initiation and Social Interactions in OSS: A Case Study of the Apache Software Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    pp. 201–215, 2003. 2. K. Crowston, K. Wei, J. Howison, and A. Wiggins, “Free/ libre open-source software devel- opment: What we know and what we do not...Understanding the process of participating in open source communities,” in International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Free/ Libre /Open Source Software ...Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Developer Initiation and Social Interactions in OSS: A Case Study of the Apache Software

  14. Conclusions and Recommendations Regarding the Deep Sea Hybrid Power Systems Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    proton-exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFC ) powered with hydrogen and oxygen, similar to that used on proven subsurface vessels; (2) fuel-cells...AND STORAGE OPTIONS CONSIDERED FOR INITIAL STUDY NO. NOMENCLATURE DESCRIPTION 1 PWR Nuclear Reactor + Battery 2 FC1 PEMFC + Line for surface O2...Wellhead Gas + Reformer + Battery 3 FC2 PEMFC + Stored O2 + Wellhead Gas + Reformer + Battery 4 SV1 PEMFC + Submersible Vehicle for O2 Transport

  15. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, K S; Rowe, K J

    1994-11-01

    To establish whether there is an association between the ingestion of synthetic food colorings and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of "hyperactivity." From approximately 800 children referred to the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) for assessment of suspected hyperactivity, 200 were included in a 6-week open trial of a diet free of synthetic food coloring. The parents of 150 children reported behavioral improvement with the diet, and deterioration on the introduction of foods noted to contain synthetic coloring. A 30-item behavioral rating inventory was devised from an examination of the clinical histories of 50 suspected reactors. Thirty-four other children (23 suspected reactors, 11 uncertain reactors) and 20 control subjects, aged 2 to 14 years, were studied. A 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study used each child as his or her own control. Placebo, or one of six dose levels of tartrazine (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg), was administered randomly each morning, and behavioral ratings were recorded by parents at the end of each 24 hours. The study identified 24 children as clear reactors (19 of 23 "suspected reactors," 3 of 11 "uncertain reactors," and 2 of 20 "control subjects"). They were irritable and restless and had sleep disturbance. Significant reactions were observed at all six dose levels. A dose response effect was obtained. With a dose increase greater than 10 mg, the duration of effect was prolonged. Behavioral changes in irritability, restlessness, and sleep disturbance are associated with the ingestion of tartrazine in some children. A dose response effect was observed.

  16. Associations of repeated high alcohol use with unsafe driving behaviors, traffic offenses, and traffic crashes among young drivers: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy; Brookland, Rebecca; Connor, Jennie

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to describe self-reported high alcohol use at each of the 3 licensing stages of graduated driver licensing and its relationship to drink-driving behaviors, intentional risky driving, aggressive driving, alcohol traffic offenses, non-alcohol traffic offenses, and traffic crashes. The New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) is a multistage, prospective cohort study of newly licensed drivers interviewed at all 3 stages of the graduated driver licensing system: learner (baseline), restricted (intermediate), and full license. At each stage, alcohol use was self-reported using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), with high alcohol use defined as a score of ≥4 for males and ≥3 for females. Sociodemographic and personality data were obtained at the baseline interview. Alcohol-related, intentional risky, and aggressive driving behaviors were self-reported following each license stage. Traffic crashes and offenses were identified from police records. Crashes were also self-reported. Twenty-six percent (n = 397) reported no high alcohol use, 22% at one license stage, 30% at 2 stages, and 22% at 3 stages. Poisson regression results (unadjusted and adjusted) showed that the number of stages where high alcohol use was reported was significantly associated with each of the outcomes. For most outcomes, and especially the alcohol-involved outcomes, the relative risk increased with the number of stages of high alcohol use. We found that high alcohol use was common among young newly licensed drivers and those who repeatedly reported high alcohol use were at a significantly higher risk of unsafe driving behaviors. Recently introduced zero blood alcohol concentration (BAC) should help to address this problem, but other strategies are required to target persistent offenders.

  17. Study on light water reactor fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident condition in TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Ishijima, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Masaaki; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Uemura, Mutsumi

    1981-05-01

    This report reviews the results of the fuel failure experiments performed in TREAT in the U.S.A. simulating Reactivity Initiated Accidents. One of the main purposes of the TREAT experiments is the study of the fuel failure behavior, and the other is the study of the molten fuel-water coolant interaction and the consequent hydrogen behavior. This report mainly shows the results of the TREAT experiments studying the fuel failure behavior in Light Water Reactor, and then it describes the fuel failure threshold and the fuel failure mechanism, considering the results of the photographic experiments of the fuel failure behavior with transparent capsules. (author)

  18. Evaluating methamphetamine use and risks of injection initiation among street youth: the ARYS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaner Julio SG

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many Canadian cities are experiencing ongoing infectious disease and overdose epidemics among injection drug users (IDU. These health concerns have recently been exacerbated by the increasing availability and use of methamphetamine. The challenges of reducing health-related harms among IDU have led to an increased recognition that strategies to prevent initiation into injection drug use must receive renewed focus. In an effort to better explore the factors that may protect against or facilitate entry into injection drug use, the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS has recently been initiated in Vancouver, Canada. The local setting is unique due to the significant infrastructure that has been put in place to reduce HIV transmission among active IDU. The ARYS study will seek to examine the impact of these programs, if any, on non-injection drug users. In addition, Vancouver has been the site of widespread use of methamphetamine in general and has seen a substantial increase in the use of crystal methamphetamine among street youth. Hence, the ARYS cohort is well positioned to examine the harms associated with methamphetamine use, including its potential role in facilitating initiation into injection drug use. This paper provides some background on the epidemiology of illicit drug use among street youth in North America and outlines the methodology of ARYS, a prospective cohort study of street youth in Vancouver, Canada.

  19. Cognitive training of self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies in schizophrenia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Available cognitive remediation interventions have a significant but relatively small to moderate impact on episodic memory in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a brief novel episodic memory training targeting the self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies. To select patients with such deficits, 28 participants with schizophrenia performed our Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) that provides a measure of self-initiated semantic encoding strategies. This task identified a deficit in 13 participants who were then offered two 60-minute training sessions one week apart. After the training, patients performed an alternate version of the SEMT. The CVLT-II (a standardised measure of semantic encoding strategies) and the BVMT-R (a control spatial memory task) were used to quantify memory pre- and post-training. After the training, participants were significantly better at self-initiating semantic encoding strategies in the SEMT (p = .004) and in the CVLT-II (p = .002). No significant differences were found in the BVMT-R. The current study demonstrates that a brief and specific training in memory strategies can help patients to improve a deficient memory process in schizophrenia. Future studies will need to test this intervention further using a randomised controlled trial, and to explore its functional impact.

  20. Experimental Study of Bilinear Initiating System Based on Hard Rock Pile Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusong Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to use industrial explosives to excavate hard rock and achieve suitable blasting effect due to the low energy utilization rate resulting in large rocks and short blasting footage. Thus, improving the utilization ratio of the explosive energy is important. In this study, a novel bilinear initiation system based on hard rock blasting was proposed to improve the blasting effects. Furthermore, on the basis of the detonation wave collision theory, frontal collision, oblique reflection, and Mach reflection during detonation wave propagation were studied. The results show that the maximum detonation pressure at the Mach reflection point where the incident angle is 46.9° is three times larger than the value of the explosive complete detonation. Then, in order to analyze the crack propagation in different initiation forms, a rock fracture test slot was designed, and the results show that bilinear initiating system can change the energy distribution of explosives. Finally, field experiment was implemented at the hard rock pile blasting engineering, and experimental results show that the present system possesses high explosive energy utilization ratio and low rock fragments size. The results of this study can be used to improve the efficiency in hard rock blasting.

  1. X-ray diffraction study of microstructural changes during fatigue damage initiation in steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, B., E-mail: bianca@lts.coppe.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Lesage, J. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Pasqualino, I. [Subsea Technology Laboratory (LTS), Ocean Engineering Department, COPPE/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, PO Box 68508, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro/RJ (Brazil); Benseddiq, N. [Laboratory of Mechanics of Lille (LML), UMR CNRS 8107, University of Lille 1, Boulevard Paul Langevin, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Bemporad, E. [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy (LIME), University of Rome TRE, Via Della Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work we study the fatigue damage evolution in an API 5L X60 steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural changes and residual stresses are evaluated during fatigue tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microdeformations and macro residual stresses are estimated by X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results are discussed in view of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This indicator could allow the prediction of residual life before macrocracking. - Abstract: Steel pipes used in the oil and gas industry undergo the action of cyclic loads that can cause their failure by fatigue. A consistent evaluation of the fatigue damage during the initiation phase should fundamentally be based on a nanoscale approach, i.e., at the scale of the dislocation network, in order to take into account the micromechanisms of fatigue damage that precede macrocrack initiation and propagation until the final fracture. In this work, microstructural changes related to fatigue damage initiation are investigated in the API 5L X60 grade steel, used in pipe manufacturing. Microdeformations and macro residual stress are evaluated using X-ray diffraction in real time during alternating bending fatigue tests performed on samples cut off from an X60 steel pipe. The aim of this ongoing work is to provide ground for further development of an indicator of fatigue damage initiation in X60 steel. This damage indicator could allow a good residual life prediction of steel pipes previously submitted to fatigue loading, before macroscopic cracking, and help to increase the reliability of these structures.

  2. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: A scoping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. Methods This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O’Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Results Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. Conclusion This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain e

  3. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Lucas, Henry; Khan, Azfar Sadun; Islam, Rubana; Bhuiya, Abbas; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2014-06-16

    The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O'Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth and mHealth initiatives successfully

  4. Short bowel mucosal morphology, proliferation and inflammation at first and repeat STEP procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Annika; Barrett, Meredith; Feng, Yongjia; Lohi, Jouko; Rabah, Raja; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2018-04-17

    Although serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) improves function of dilated short bowel, a significant proportion of patients require repeat surgery. To address underlying reasons for unsuccessful STEP, we compared small intestinal mucosal characteristics between initial and repeat STEP procedures in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). Fifteen SBS children, who underwent 13 first and 7 repeat STEP procedures with full thickness small bowel samples at median age 1.5 years (IQR 0.7-3.7) were included. The specimens were analyzed histologically for mucosal morphology, inflammation and muscular thickness. Mucosal proliferation and apoptosis was analyzed with MIB1 and Tunel immunohistochemistry. Median small bowel length increased 42% by initial STEP and 13% by repeat STEP (p=0.05), while enteral caloric intake increased from 6% to 36% (p=0.07) during 14 (12-42) months between the procedures. Abnormal mucosal inflammation was frequently observed both at initial (69%) and additional STEP (86%, p=0.52) surgery. Villus height, crypt depth, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis as well as muscular thickness were comparable at first and repeat STEP (p>0.05 for all). Patients, who required repeat STEP tended to be younger (p=0.057) with less apoptotic crypt cells (p=0.031) at first STEP. Absence of ileocecal valve associated with increased intraepithelial leukocyte count and reduced crypt cell proliferation index (pSTEP. Persistent inflammation and lacking mucosal growth may contribute to continuing bowel dysfunction in SBS children, who require repeat STEP procedure, especially after removal of the ileocecal valve. Level IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-scale studies of the HphI insulin gene variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism in relation to Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S K; Gjesing, A P; Rasmussen, S K

    2004-01-01

    The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose-induced ins......The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose...

  6. Changes over time in population level transport satisfaction and mode of travel: A 13 year repeat cross-sectional study, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine changes over time in satisfaction with usual transport mode, explore individual and area level characteristics as mediators in the likelihood of transport satisfaction, and whether any changes in transport satisfaction varied by these factors over time. Adults from West Central Scotland, United Kingdom, who participated at both waves of the repeat cross-sectional 'Transport, Health and Well-being Study' conducted in 1997 (n=2735) and 2010 (n=2024) were assessed. Individuals completed a detailed postal questionnaire at both time points including self-rated satisfaction with usual transport mode (using a seven point scale subsequently dichotomised to a binary outcome of satisfied (1-2) and other (3-7)). Participants reported usual transport mode for travel to various destinations. A multilevel logistic regression model was used and individuals were nested within areas (c. 4000 population). At the 2010 sweep, two thirds (n=1345) of individuals were satisfied with their transport choice. Those with fair/poor health were less satisfied with their usual transport compared to those in better health (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.49, ptravelled by public transport (OR 2.39, p=0.005) and using multiple modes (OR 2.19, ptravelled by car. The proportion of those who travelled using public transport, active modes or by multiple mode increased journey satisfaction over time at a greater rate than those who travelled by car, highlighting that continued efforts should be made to promote these more active transport modes which have potential to impact on health.

  7. Trends in non-help-seeking for mental disorders in Germany between 1997-1999 and 2009-2012: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Dodoo-Schittko, Frank; Speerforck, Sven; Apfelbacher, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert; Schomerus, Georg; Baumeister, Sebastian E

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to examine trends in non-help-seeking for mental disorders among persons with a prevalent mental disorder (12-month prevalence) in Germany between 1997-1999 and 2009-2012. We examined data from 1909 persons aged 18-65 years who participated in two independent, repeated cross-sectional surveys (German National Interview and Examination Study 1997-1999, German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2009-2012) conducted 12 years apart. Prevalent mental disorders (12-month prevalence) were determined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which included information on lifetime help-seeking for mental health problems. Correlates of self-reported help-seeking were analyzed according to Andersen's Behavioral Model. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to assess time trends in the directly standardized and model-adjusted prevalence of non-help-seeking across strata of socio-economic and clinical variables. The proportion of people with a prevalent mental disorder who have never sought help in their lifetime decreased significantly from 62% (95% CI 58.7-64.7) to 57% (95% CI 52.2-60.9) between 1997-1999 and 2009-2012 in adults aged 18-65 years in Germany. Downward trends in non-help-seeking occurred in all investigated strata and reached statistical significance in women, in people who were living alone, people with medium educational level, people living in middle-sized communities, people with non-statutory health insurance, smokers, and people with co-existing somatic conditions. Despite a downward trend over the course of 12 years, a large proportion of people suffering from mental disorders are still not seeking treatment in Germany. Further efforts to increase uptake of help-seeking for mental disorders in hard-to-reach groups are warranted to continue this trend.

  8. Mouse-specific antibody responses to a monoclonal antibody during repeated immunoscintigraphy investigations: Comparison of antibody titres and imaging studies in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, M.V.; Gribben, S.J.; Markham, A.J.; Perkins, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    As a model for human mouse-specific antibody responses in patients undergoing immunoscintigraphy, we have investigated in rats the production of mouse-specific antibodies (MA) to the mouse monoclonal antibody 791T/36. At intervals of between 5 and 16 weeks the rats were given repeated cycles of intravenous (IV) injections of antibody with or without a simultaneous intradermal (ID) injection. The IV dose was 60 μg/kg, a dose similar to that used in many clinical immunoscintigraphy studies. The ID injection was 2 μg, which mimicks the skin test dose often given in clinical imaging protocols. The study was carried out with both 131 I-labelled antibody and with antibody labelled with 111 In by DTPA chelation. MA was measured with a passive haemagglutination assay using sheep red blood cells coated with the monoclonal antibody. Of rats given ID injections of unlabelled antibody at the same time as the IV imaging doses, 9/20 produced MA during 4 cycles of injections. In contrast, only 2/16 rats given only the IV dose produced MA. Both 131 I- and 111 In-labelled antibody appeared equally immunogenic with 5/18 and 6/18 overall responders, respectively. The production of MA was associated with a significant perturbation in the biodistribution of the IV dose of labelled antibody as seen by gamma-camera imaging of the rats given 111 In-labelled antibody. There was clearance of immune complexes to the liver, this organ accumulating up to 90% of the whole body count rate of radiolabel. MA titres of between 1/100 and 1/78000 caused equal perturbation of biodistribution, although below 1/100 the effect was more variable. (orig.)

  9. Effectiveness of assertive case management on repeat self-harm in patients admitted for suicide attempt: Findings from ACTION-J study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Taku; Nakagawa, Makiko; Hino, Kosuke; Yamada, Tomoki; Kawashima, Yoshitaka; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Shirakawa, Osamu; Ishizuka, Naoki; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2018-01-01

    Self-harm is an important risk factor for subsequent suicide and repetition of self-harm, and a common cause of emergency department presentations. However, there still remains limited evidence on intervention in emergency department settings for individuals who self-harm. This multicentre, randomised controlled trial was conducted at 17 general hospitals in Japan. In total, 914 adult patients admitted to emergency departments for a suicide attempt and had a DSM-IV-TR axis I disorder were randomly assigned to two groups, to receive either assertive case management (intervention) or enhanced usual care (control). Assertive case management was introduced by the case manager during emergency department admissions for suicide attempts, and continued after discharge. Interventions were provided until the end of the study period (for at least 18 months and up to 5 years). The number of overall self-harm episodes per person-year was significantly lower in the intervention group (adjusted incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.88, 95%CI 0.80-0.96, p=0.0031). Subgroup analysis showed a greater reduction of overall self-harm episodes among patients with no previous suicide attempt at baseline (adjusted IRR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.98, p=0.037). Patients younger than 20 years and patients who self-harmed but were not admitted to an emergency department were excluded. The present study showed that assertive case management following emergency admission for a suicide attempt reduced the incident rate of repeat overall self-harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Argemone oil, an edible oil adulterant, induces systemic immunosuppression in Balb/c mice in an oral 28 days repeated dose toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Payal; Tewari, Prachi; Kumar, Sachin; Yadav, Sarika; Ayanur, Anjaneya; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2018-05-01

    Consumption of edible oils contaminated with Argemone oil (AO) leads to a clinical condition called "Epidemic dropsy". Earlier studies have reported that metabolism and oxidative stress primarily contributes to AO toxicity, however, the involvement of immune system has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to systematically assess the effect of AO exposure on the function of immune system in Balb/c mice. The repeated exposure of AO for 28 days caused prominent regression of spleen and thymus; severe inflammatory changes in spleen depicted by the loss of distinct follicles, increased megakaryocyte infiltration, and enhanced expression levels of inflammatory markers (iNOS & COX-2). At the functional level, AO exposure significantly abrogated the mixed lymphocyte reaction and mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative activity of T and B cells, which is reflective of profound lymphocyte dysfunction upon antigen exposure. In concordance with the loss in functional activity of lymphocytes in AO exposed animals, it was found the AO altered the relative percentage of CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD28  +  T cells. Further, there was a marked decrease in the relative distribution of cells with prominent MHC I and CD1d expression in AO exposed splenocytes. Moreover, reduced levels of immune stimulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6), and increased levels of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 were detected in the serum of AO treated mice. Along with T and B cells, AO exposure also affected the phenotype and activation status of macrophages suggesting the inclination towards "alternative activation of macrophages". Altogether, these functional changes in the immune cells are contributing factors in AO induced immunosuppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The incidence of smoking and risk factors for smoking initiation in medical faculty students: cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkay Mehtap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education requires detailed investigation because it is a period during which the attitudes and behaviors of physicians develop. The purpose of this study was to calculate the yearly smoking prevalence and incidence rates of medical faculty students and to identify the risk factors for adopting smoking behaviour. Methods This is a cohort study in which every student was asked about their smoking habits at the time of first registration to the medical faculty, and was monitored every year. Smoking prevalence, yearly incidence of initiation of smoking and average years of smoking were calculated in analysis. Results At the time of registration, 21.8% of the students smoked. At the end of six years, males had smoked for an average of 2.6 ± 3.0 years and females for 1.0 ± 1.8 years (p Conclusion The first 3 years of medical education are the most risky period for initiation of smoking. We found that factors such as being male, having a smoking friend in the same environment and having a high trait anxiety score were related to the initiation of smoking. Targeted smoking training should be mandatory for students in the Medical Faculty.

  12. Sensitivity studies on the approaches for addressing multiple initiating events in fire events PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A single fire event within a fire compartment or a fire scenario can cause multiple initiating events (IEs). As an example, a fire in a turbine building fire area can cause a loss of the main feed-water (LOMF) and loss of off-site power (LOOP) IEs. Previous domestic fire events PSA had considered only the most severe initiating event among multiple initiating events. NUREG/CR-6850 and ANS/ASME PRA Standard require that multiple IEs are to be addressed in fire events PSA. In this paper, sensitivity studies on the approaches for addressing multiple IEs in fire events PSA for Hanul Unit 3 were performed and their results were presented. In this paper, sensitivity studies on the approaches for addressing multiple IEs in fire events PSA are performed and their results were presented. From the sensitivity analysis results, we can find that the incorporations of multiple IEs into fire events PSA model result in the core damage frequency (CDF) increase and may lead to the generation of the duplicate cutsets. Multiple IEs also can occur at internal flooding event or other external events such as seismic event. They should be considered in the constructions of PSA models in order to realistically estimate risk due to flooding or seismic events.

  13. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  14. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  15. Studying the initial stages of film electrodeposition of magnetic cobalt-tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachinskas, V.S.; Orlovskaya, L.V.; Parfenov, V.A.; Yasulajtene, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Initial stages of magnetic film electrodeposition by recording potentiodynamic polarization and j c ,t-curves, determination of surface structure of electrolytically deposited films by the method of XPS and study of thin coating properties have been considered. It is shown that at initial stage of electrodeposition of magnetic Co-W-films a sharp decrease in cathode process rate and formation of Co(OH) 2 , WO 3 and/or WO 4 2- occur on Cu-cathode surface. Electrodeposition of metallic magnetic Co-W-alloy, consisting of Co, W and containing basic compounds of co-deposited metals, takes place after a certain time period depending on deposition E c . 6 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Initial sintering stage kinetics of CeO2 studied by stepwise isothermal dilatometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sayed Ali, M.; Toft Soerensen, O.

    1985-02-01

    The kinetics of the initial sintering stage of CeO 2 is studied by a new dilatometric technique in which the heating of the sample is controlled by its shrinkage rate. By this technique the shrinkage characteristically takes place in 'isothermal steps' which allows both the mechanism and its activation energy to be determined in a single experiment. The basic equations necessary to evaluate the shrinkage data are described, and using these equations on the curves recorded for CeO 2 it it shown that the controlling mechanism for the initial sintering stage for this oxides is grain-boundary diffusion of Ce 4+ -ions with an activation energy of 119.4 kcal/mole (5.2 eV). The corresponding diffusion coefficient is estimated to vary between 8.5 x 10 -17 - 3.1 x 10 -15 cm 2 /sec (1005 - 1099sup(o)C). (author)

  17. STUDIES ON RADICAL POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE INITIATED WITH ORGANIC PEROXIDE-AMINE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Kunyuan; SHUI Li; FENG Xinde

    1984-01-01

    Radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) initiated with various diacyl peroxideamine systems was studied. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and lauroyl peroxide (LPO) were used as diacyl peroxide component, N,N-dimethyl aniline (DMA) and its para substituted derivatives, i.e., N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT), p-hydroxymethyl-N,N-dimethyl aniline (HDMA), p-nitro-N,N-dimethyl aniline (NDMA) and p-dimethylamino benzaldehyde (DMAB) were used as amine components. It was found that the peroxide-DMT systems give higher rates of bulk polymerization Rp of MMA than the organic hydroperoxide-DMT systems with the following descending order BPO-DMT>LPO-DMT>CHP (cumene hydroperoxide)-DMT>TBH (tert-butyl hydroperoxide)-DMT.The aromatic tertiary amines possess obvious structural effect on the Rp values in the diacyl peroxideamine system. The overall activation energy of MMA polymerization was determined and the kinetics of polymerization of MMA initiated with BPO-DMT system was investigated.

  18. The Dynamics of Initiative in Communication Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available Human social interaction is often intermittent. Two acquainted persons can have extended periods without social interaction punctuated by periods of repeated interaction. In this case, the repeated interaction can be characterized by a seed initiative by either of the persons and a number of follow-up interactions. The tendency to initiate social interaction plays an important role in the formation of social networks and is in general not symmetric between persons. In this paper, we study the dynamics of initiative by analysing and modeling a detailed call and text message network sampled from a group of 700 individuals. We show that in an average relationship between two individuals, one part is almost twice as likely to initiate communication compared to the other part. The asymmetry has social consequences and ultimately might lead to the discontinuation of a relationship. We explain the observed asymmetry by a positive feedback mechanism where individuals already taking initiative are more likely to take initiative in the future. In general, people with many initiatives receive attention from a broader spectrum of friends than people with few initiatives. Lastly, we compare the likelihood of taking initiative with the basic personality traits of the five factor model.

  19. The pediatric studies initiative: after 15 years have we reached the limits of the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christopher-Paul; Davis, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable disincentives for conducting drug studies in children, 15 years ago the Food and Drug Administration, pediatric health advocates and congressional sponsors created a carrot-and-stick policy approach of voluntary and mandatory programs to encourage the pharmaceutical industry to include children in the drug development process. After several rounds of reauthorization of the laws on a temporary basis, the enabling statutes have been made permanent. The purpose of this analysis is to review the advances that resulted from the law and the areas where further progress is needed. A brief review of the history and results of the pediatric studies initiative was conducted by the authors and a determination made about the accomplishments of the law and remaining challenges. Indicators of the changes that resulted from this pediatric studies initiative are both indirect, such as the increase in the number of indication supplements for new populations, and direct, such as the decrease in the percentage of medicines used off-label in children. Although the pediatric studies initiative has significantly improved therapeutic options for children, concern still exists that drug companies are reluctant to include children in drug development unless continuously incentivized, whether positively or negatively. Two challenges are particularly problematic: neonatal studies and child-friendly formulations. Although the latest round of legislation should provide opportunities to address these problems, significantly more effort will be needed to achieve real culture change. Ultimately, the solution will require full program implementation by the Food and Drug Administration and close collaboration by many key stakeholders to ensure that pediatric studies become a routine part of the drug development process. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of crack initiation in low-cycle fatigue of an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, P.

    2011-03-01

    The material studied is an austenitic stainless steel, that is widely used in nuclear equipment for its very high corrosion resistance combined to good mechanical properties. Although crack initiation is proved to play an important role in fatigue, its mechanisms have not been fully understood. Some crack initiation criteria based on physical mechanisms of plastic deformation have been defined. However, these criteria are not easy to use and valid, as they need local variables at the grain scale. The present study aims at establishing a crack initiation criterion in low-cycle fatigue, which should be usable under variable amplitude loading conditions. Tension-compression fatigue tests were first carried out to characterize the mechanical behavior of the stainless steel AISI 316L. The mechanical behavior was simulated using a self-consistent model using a crystalline plastic law based on dislocation densities. The evolution of surface damage was observed during a fatigue test using an in situ optical microscopic device. Cracks were analyzed after 2000 cycles and their crystallographic characteristics calculated. As surface grains exhibit larger strain because they are less constraint by neighbor grains, a specific numerical frame is necessary to determine stress state in surface grains. A localization law specific to surface grains under cyclic loading was identified from finite element simulations. The proposed form needs an intergranular accommodation variable, on the pattern of the localization law of Cailletaud-Pilvin. Stress-strain state in surface grains was simulated. Potential indicators for crack initiation were then compared on a same experimental data base. Indicators based on the equivalent plastic strain were found to be suitable indicators of fatigue damage. (author)

  1. A probit- log- skew-normal mixture model for repeated measures data with excess zeros, with application to a cohort study of paediatric respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Neil W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A zero-inflated continuous outcome is characterized by occurrence of "excess" zeros that more than a single distribution can explain, with the positive observations forming a skewed distribution. Mixture models are employed for regression analysis of zero-inflated data. Moreover, for repeated measures zero-inflated data the clustering structure should also be modeled for an adequate analysis. Methods Diary of Asthma and Viral Infections Study (DAVIS was a one year (2004 cohort study conducted at McMaster University to monitor viral infection and respiratory symptoms in children aged 5-11 years with and without asthma. Respiratory symptoms were recorded daily using either an Internet or paper-based diary. Changes in symptoms were assessed by study staff and led to collection of nasal fluid specimens for virological testing. The study objectives included investigating the response of respiratory symptoms to respiratory viral infection in children with and without asthma over a one year period. Due to sparse data daily respiratory symptom scores were aggregated into weekly average scores. More than 70% of the weekly average scores were zero, with the positive scores forming a skewed distribution. We propose a random effects probit/log-skew-normal mixture model to analyze the DAVIS data. The model parameters were estimated using a maximum marginal likelihood approach. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed mixture model if the underlying distribution of the positive response is different from log-skew normal. Results Viral infection status was highly significant in both probit and log-skew normal model components respectively. The probability of being symptom free was much lower for the week a child was viral positive relative to the week she/he was viral negative. The severity of the symptoms was also greater for the week a child was viral positive. The probability of being symptom free was

  2. [Constraints and opportunities for inter-sector health promotion initiatives: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Rosana

    2015-07-01

    This article analyzes the implementation of inter-sector initiatives linked to the Family Grant, Family Health, and School Health Programs in the Manguinhos neighborhood in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study was conducted in 2010 and 2011 and included document review, local observation, and 25 interviews with program managers, professionals, and staff. This was an exploratory case study using a qualitative approach that identified constraints and opportunities for inter-sector health experiences, contributing to the debate on the effectiveness of health promotion and poverty relief programs.

  3. Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Neumann, R; Gobert, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated short tandem repeat arrays from the human genome, using a rapid method involving filter hybridization to enrich for tri- or tetranucleotide tandem repeats. About 30% of clones from the enriched library cross-hybridize with probes containing trimeric or tetrameric tandem arrays, facilitating the rapid isolation of large numbers of clones. In an initial analysis of 54 clones, 46 different tandem arrays were identified. Analysis of these tandem repeat loci by PCR showed that 24 were polymorphic in length; substantially higher levels of polymorphism were displayed by the tetrameric repeat loci isolated than by the trimeric repeats. Primary mapping of these loci by linkage analysis showed that they derive from 17 chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We anticipate the use of this strategy for the efficient isolation of tandem repeats from other sources of genomic DNA, including DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes, and from other species.

  4. Association between secondhand smoke exposure at home and cigarette gifting and sharing in Zhejiang, China: a repeat cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Xu, ShuiYang; Wu, QingQing; Guo, YuJie

    2016-03-03

    The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of household cigarette gifting and sharing, and to evaluate the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and cigarette gifting and sharing, in Zhejiang, China. A repeat cross-sectional design. 10 sites in 5 cities in Zhejiang, China. Two surveys were conducted with adults in Zhejiang, China, in 2010 (N=2112) and 2012 (N=2279), respectively. At both waves, the same questionnaire was used; respondents were asked questions on residence, number of family smokers, indoor smoking rules, household income and cigarette gifting and sharing. The findings revealed that more than half of respondents' families (54.50% in 2010, 52.79% in 2012) reported exposure to SHS. Many families (54.73% in 2010, 47.04% in 2012) shared cigarettes with others, and a minority (14.91% in 2010, 14.17% in 2012) reported their family giving cigarettes as a gift. There was a significant decrease in cigarette sharing from 2010 to 2012, irrespective of household with SHS exposure status; and the cigarette gifting was significantly decreased in household without SHS exposure. Compared to households without SHS exposure, the prevalence of cigarette gifting and sharing in households with SHS exposure was more obvious. Encouraging and promoting a smoke-free household environment is necessary to change public smoking customs in Zhejiang, China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Long-term Outcomes With Planned Multistage Reduced Dose Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Inoperable High-Grade Arteriovenous Malformations: An Observational Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciscano, Ariel E; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J; Hu, Chen; Khattab, Mohamed H; Aggarwal, Sameer; Lim, Michael; Redmond, Kristin J; Rigamonti, Daniele; Kleinberg, Lawrence R

    2017-07-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal management of inoperable high-grade arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This long-term study of 42 patients with high-grade AVMs reports obliteration and adverse event (AE) rates using planned multistage repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of multistage SRS with treatment of the entire AVM nidus at each treatment session to achieve complete obliteration of high-grade AVMs. Patients with high-grade Spetzler-Martin (S-M) III-V AVMs treated with at least 2 multistage SRS treatments from 1989 to 2013. Clinical outcomes of obliteration rate, minor/major AEs, and treatment characteristics were collected. Forty-two patients met inclusion criteria (n = 26, S-M III; n = 13, S-M IV; n = 3, S-M V) with a median follow-up was 9.5 yr after first SRS. Median number of SRS treatment stages was 2, and median interval between stages was 3.5 yr. Twenty-two patients underwent pre-SRS embolization. Complete AVM obliteration rate was 38%, and the median time to obliteration was 9.7 yr. On multivariate analysis, higher S-M grade was significantly associated ( P = .04) failure to achieve obliteration. Twenty-seven post-SRS AEs were observed, and the post-SRS intracranial hemorrhage rate was 0.027 events per patient year. Treatment of high-grade AVMs with multistage SRS achieves AVM obliteration in a meaningful proportion of patients with acceptable AE rates. Lower obliteration rates were associated with higher S-M grade and pre-SRS embolization. This approach should be considered with caution, as partial obliteration does not protect from hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  6. The Lusi seismic experiment: An initial study to understand the effect of seismic activity to Lusi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karyono, E-mail: karyonosu@gmail.com [Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta (Indonesia); OSLO University (Norway); Padjadjaran University (UNPAD), Bandung (Indonesia); Mazzini, Adriano; Sugiharto, Anton [OSLO University (Norway); Lupi, Matteo [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Syafri, Ildrem [Padjadjaran University (UNPAD), Bandung (Indonesia); Masturyono,; Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu; Muzli,; Widodo, Handi Sulistyo; Sudrajat, Ajat [Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The spectacular Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi) eruption started in northeast Java on the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island [1,2]. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system [3] and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. The Lusi seismic experiment is a project aims to begin a detailed study of seismicity around the Lusi area. In this initial phase we deploy 30 seismometers strategically distributed in the area around Lusi and along the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. The purpose of the initial monitoring is to conduct a preliminary seismic campaign aiming to identify the occurrence and the location of local seismic events in east Java particularly beneath Lusi.This network will locate small event that may not be captured by the existing BMKG network. It will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-AW region and spatial and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. The goal of this study is to understand how the seismicity occurring along the Sunda subduction zone affects to the behavior of the Lusi eruption. Our study will also provide a large dataset for a qualitative analysis of earthquake triggering studies, earthquake-volcano and earthquake-earthquake interactions. In this study, we will extract Green’s functions from ambient seismic noise data in order to image the shallow subsurface structure beneath LUSI area. The waveform cross-correlation technique will be apply to all of recordings of ambient seismic noise at 30 seismographic stations around the LUSI area. We use the dispersive behaviour of the retrieved Rayleigh waves to infer velocity structures in the shallow subsurface.

  7. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Yamaguchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h, hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days, there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin®, a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss.

  8. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taro; Yoneyama, Masanori; Onaka, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h), hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days), there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin ® , a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A joint model for repeated events of different types and multiple longitudinal outcomes with application to a follow-up study of patients after kidney transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musoro, Jammbe Z.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the joint modeling strategy for the case of multiple longitudinal outcomes and repeated infections of different types over time, motivated by postkidney transplantation data. Our model comprises two parts linked by shared latent terms. On the one hand is a

  10. Frequency of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Majounie (Elisa); A. Renton (Alan); K. Mok (Kin); E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); A. Waite (Adrian); S. Rollinson (Sara); A. Chiò (Adriano); G. Restagno (Gabriella); N. Nicolaou (Nayia); J. Simón-Sánchez (Javier); J.C. van Swieten (John); Y. Abramzon (Yevgeniya); J. Johnson (Janel); M. Sendtner (Michael); R. Pamphlett (Roger); R. Orrell (Richard); S. Mead (Simon); K.C. Sidle (Katie); H. Houlden (Henry); J.D. Rohrer (Jonathan Daniel); K.E. Morrison (Karen); H. Pall (Hardev); D. Talbot; O. Ansorge (Olaf); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Sabatelli (Mario); G. Mora (Gabriele); J.C. Corbo (Joseph); F. Giannini (Fabio); A. Calvo (Andrea); E. Englund (Elisabet); G. Borghero (Giuseppe); O.A.M. Floris; A. Remes (Anne); H. Laaksovirta (Hannu); L. McCluskey (Leo); J.Q. Trojanowski (John); V.M. Deerlin (Vivianna); G.D. Schellenberg (Gerard); M.A. Nalls (Michael); V.E. Drory (Vivian E); C.S. Lu (Chin-Song); T.-H. Yeh (Tu-Hsueh); H. Ishiura (Hiroyuki); Y. Takahashi (Yukari); S. Tsuji (Shoji); I. Le Ber (Isabelle); A. Brice; C. Drepper (Carsten); N. Williams (Nigel); J. Kirby (Janine); P.J. Shaw (Pamela); J. Hardy (John); P.J. Tienari (Pentti); P. Heutink (Peter); H. Morris (Huw); S. Pickering-Brown (Stuart); B.J. Traynor (Bryan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We aimed to accurately estimate the frequency of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 that has been associated with a large proportion of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: We screened 4448 patients diagnosed with

  11. Frequency of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majounie, E.; Renton, A.E.; Mok, K.; Dopper, E.G.P.; Waite, A.; Rollinson, S.; Chio, A.; Restagno, G.; Nicolaou, N.; Simon-Sanchez, J.; van Swieten, J.C.; Abramzon, Y.; Johnson, J.O.; Sendtner, M.; Pamphlett, R.; Orrell, R.W.; Mead, S.; Sidle, K.C.; Houlden, H.; Rohrer, J.D.; Morrison, K.E.; Pall, H.; Talbot, K.; Ansorge, O.; Hernandez, D.G.; Arepalli, S.; Sabatelli, M.; Mora, G.; Corbo, M.; Giannini, F.; Calvo, A.; Englund, E.; Borghero, G.; Foris, G.L.; Remes, A.M.; Laaksovirta, H.; McCluskey, L.; Trojanowski, J.Q.; Van Deerlin, V.M.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Nalls, M.A.; Drory, V.E.; Lu, C.S.; Yeh, T.H.; Ishiura, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Tsuji, S.; Le Ber, I.; Brice, A.; Drepper, C.; Williams, N.; Kirby, J.; Shaw, P.; Hardy, J.; Tienari, P.J.; Heutink, P.; Morris, H.R.; Pickering-Brown, S.; Traynor, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We aimed to accurately estimate the frequency of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 that has been associated with a large proportion of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: We screened 4448 patients diagnosed with ALS (El

  12. Cognitive and clinical characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis carrying a C9orf72 repeat expansion: a population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons, associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in about 14% of incident cases. We assessed the frequency of the recently identified C9orf72 repeat expansion in familial and apparently sporadic cases of ALS and characterised the cognitive and clinical phenotype of patients with this expansion.

  13. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubuchon, Adam C.; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Balamucki, Christopher J.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80–90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60–90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  14. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  15. Results of repeated transsphenoidal surgery in Cushing's disease. Long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrábano, Pablo; Aller, Javier; García-Valdecasas, Leopoldo; García-Uría, José; Martín, Laura; Palacios, Nuria; Estrada, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the treatment of choice for Cushing's disease (CD). However, the best treatment option when hypercortisolism persists or recurs remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the short and long-term outcome of repeat TSS in this situation and to search for response predictors. Data from 26 patients with persistent (n=11) or recurrent (n=15) hypercortisolism who underwent repeat surgery by a single neurosurgeon between 1982 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Remission was defined as normalization of urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels, and recurrence as presence of elevated UFC levels after having achieved remission. The following potential outcome predictors were analyzed: adrenal status (persistence or recurrence) after initial TSS, tumor identification in imaging tests, degree of hypercortisolism before repeat TSS, same/different surgeon in both TSS, and time to repeat surgery. Immediate postoperative remission was achieved in 12 patients (46.2%). Five of the 10 patients with available follow-up data relapsed after surgery (median time to recurrence, 13 months). New hormone deficiencies were seen in seven patients (37%), and two patients had cerebrospinal fluid leakage. No other major complications occurred. None of the preoperative factors analyzed was predictive of surgical outcome. When compared to initial surgery, repeat TSS for CD is associated to a lower remission rate and a higher risk of recurrence and complications. Further studies are needed to define outcome predictors. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. The need for repeat angiography in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L.; Zentner, J.

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the necessity for a second angiogram study in patients in whom initial angiography after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was negative. During a 12-year period, 122 of 694 patients (17.5 %) had negative initial angiograms. CT, available for 98 patients, showed a preponderance of subarachnoid blood in the perimesencephalic cisterns in 50 of 73 patients (68.5 %) in whom blood was visible on CT. Angiography, repeated in 67 patients, revealed an aneurysm in 4 (6 %): 2 had an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, 1 of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and 1 of the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. CT showed subarachnoid blood in the interpeduncular and ambient cisterns in this last case, and a preponderance of subarachnoid blood outside the perimesencephalic cisterns in the remaining 3 patients. (orig.)

  17. The need for repeat angiography in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H; Solymosi, L [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Zentner, J [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the necessity for a second angiogram study in patients in whom initial angiography after primary subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) was negative. During a 12-year period, 122 of 694 patients (17.5 %) had negative initial angiograms. CT, available for 98 patients, showed a preponderance of subarachnoid blood in the perimesencephalic cisterns in 50 of 73 patients (68.5 %) in whom blood was visible on CT. Angiography, repeated in 67 patients, revealed an aneurysm in 4 (6 %): 2 had an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, 1 of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and 1 of the P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery. CT showed subarachnoid blood in the interpeduncular and ambient cisterns in this last case, and a preponderance of subarachnoid blood outside the perimesencephalic cisterns in the remaining 3 patients. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs.

  18. Mechanistic and kinetic studies on the OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of fluoranthene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Juan; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu; Hu, Jingtian; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can generate toxic derivatives which contribute to the carcinogenic potential of particulate organic matter. In this work, the mechanism of the OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of fluoranthene (Flu) was investigated by using high-accuracy molecular orbital calculations. All of the possible oxidation pathways were discussed, and the theoretical results were compared with the available experimental observation. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory. The main oxidation products are a range of ring-retaining and ring-opening chemicals containing fluoranthols, fluoranthones, fluoranthenequinones, nitro-fluoranthenes, dialdehydes and epoxides. The overall rate constant of the OH addition reaction is 1.72 × 10 −11 cm 3 molecule −1 s −1 at 298 K and 1 atm. The atmospheric lifetime of Flu determined by OH radicals is about 0.69 days. This work provides a comprehensive investigation of the OH-initiated oxidation of Flu and should help to clarify its atmospheric conversion. - Highlights: • We studied a comprehensive mechanism of OH-initiated oxidation of fluoranthene. • We reported the formation pathways of fluoranthone, fluoranthenequinone and epoxide. • The rate constants of the crucial elementary steps were evaluated

  19. The lesser evil? Initiating a benzodiazepine prescription in general practice: a qualitative study on GPs' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthierens, Sibyl; Habraken, Hilde; Petrovic, Mirko; Christiaens, Thierry

    2007-12-01

    Chronic benzodiazepine (BZD) use is widespread and linked with adverse effects. There is consensus concerning the importance of initiating BZD as a crucial moment. Nevertheless specific research in this field is lacking. This paper addresses the views of GPs on why they start prescribing BZDs to first-time users. Qualitative study with five focus groups analysed using a systematic content analysis. Regions of Ghent and Brussels in Belgium. A total of 35 general practitioners. The GPs' perspective on their initiating of BZD prescribing. GPs reported that they are cautious in initiating BZD usage. At the same time, GPs feel overwhelmed by the psychosocial problems of their patients. They show empathy by prescribing. They feel in certain situations there are no other solutions and they experience BZDs as the lesser evil. They admit to resorting to BZDs because of time restraint and lack of alternatives. GPs do not perceive the addictive nature of BZD consumption as a problem with first-time users. GPs do not specifically mention patients' demand as an element for starting. The main concern of GPs is to help the patient. GPs should be aware of the addictive nature of BZD even in low doses and a non-pharmacological approach should be seen as the best first approach. If GPs decide to prescribe a BZD they should make plain to the patient that the medication is only a "temporary" solution with clear agreements with regard to medication withdrawal.

  20. Study on the Formation and Initial Transport for Non-Homogeneous Debris Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Ping Shu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-homogeneous debris flows generally occur during the rainy seasons in Southwest China, and have received considerable attention in the literature. Regarding the complexity in debris flow dynamics, experimental approaches have proven to be effective in revealing the formative mechanism for debris flow, and quantifying the relations between the various influencing factors with debris-flow formation and subsequent transport processes. Therefore, a flume-based and experimental study was performed at the Debris Flow Observation and Research Station of Jiangjia Gully in Yunnan Province, to theoretically analyze favorable conditions for debris-flow formation and initial transport by selecting the median particle size d50, flow rate Q, vertical grading coefficient ψ, slopes S, and the initial soil water contents W as the five variables for investigation. To achieve this, an optimal combination of these variables was made through an orthogonal experimental design to determine their relative importance upon the occurrence and initial mobilization behavior of a debris flow and to further enhance our insight into debris-flow triggering and transport mechanisms.

  1. Spectroscopic study of a DNA brush synthesized in situ by surface initiated enzymatic polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Nuruzzaman; Tjong, Vinalia; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Zharnikov, Michael

    2013-08-29

    We used a combination of synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and angle-resolved near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to study the chemical integrity, purity, and possible internal alignment of single-strand (ss) adenine deoxynucleotide (poly(A)) DNA brushes. The brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated enzymatic polymerization (SIEP) on a 25-mer of adenine self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold (A25-SH), wherein the terminal 3'-OH of the A25-SH serve as the initiation sites for SIEP of poly(A). XPS and NEXAFS spectra of poly(A) brushes were found to be almost identical to those of A25-SH initiator, with no unambiguous traces of contamination. Apart from the well-defined chemical integrity and contamination-free character, the brushes were found to have a high degree of orientational order, with an upright orientation of individual strands, despite their large thickness up to ~55 nm, that corresponds to a chain length of at least several hundred nucleotides for individual ssDNA molecules. The orientational order exhibited by these poly(A) DNA brushes, mediated presumably by base stacking, was found to be independent of the brush thickness as long as the packing density was high enough. The well-defined character and orientational ordering of the ssDNA brushes make them a potentially promising system for different applications.

  2. Mechanistic and kinetic studies on the OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of fluoranthene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Juan; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu, E-mail: zqz@sdu.edu.cn; Hu, Jingtian; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-08-15

    The atmospheric oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can generate toxic derivatives which contribute to the carcinogenic potential of particulate organic matter. In this work, the mechanism of the OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of fluoranthene (Flu) was investigated by using high-accuracy molecular orbital calculations. All of the possible oxidation pathways were discussed, and the theoretical results were compared with the available experimental observation. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory. The main oxidation products are a range of ring-retaining and ring-opening chemicals containing fluoranthols, fluoranthones, fluoranthenequinones, nitro-fluoranthenes, dialdehydes and epoxides. The overall rate constant of the OH addition reaction is 1.72 × 10{sup −11} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 298 K and 1 atm. The atmospheric lifetime of Flu determined by OH radicals is about 0.69 days. This work provides a comprehensive investigation of the OH-initiated oxidation of Flu and should help to clarify its atmospheric conversion. - Highlights: • We studied a comprehensive mechanism of OH-initiated oxidation of fluoranthene. • We reported the formation pathways of fluoranthone, fluoranthenequinone and epoxide. • The rate constants of the crucial elementary steps were evaluated.

  3. A study on the initiation of condensation-induced water hammer in a long horizontal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Wan

    1992-02-01

    Condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH) is the most severe and has the highest frequency among the water hammer events occurred in nuclear power plants. Among mechanisms associated with this type of water hammer, the steam and water countercurrent flow in a horizontal pipe is known as the dominant mechanism in Pressurized Water Reactors. The CIWH due to steam-water counter-flow in a long horizontal pipe has been analytically investigated with emphasis on the effect of pipe length, in order to identify the conditions necessary to initiate a water hammer and to provide stability maps describing the zone of water hammer to be avoided with the combination of filling water flowrate and pipe length. Analytical models which can be used to predict the limiting boundaries, upper and lower one, of CIWH initiation have been developed and the calculation results have been compared with the data of an actual incident occurred previously in a nuclear power plant. From the approach used in this study, boundary estimates including simple relationships between critical inlet water flowrates and pipe length-to-diameter on the CIWH initiation in a long horizontal pipe could be made, and several corrective actions to prevent water hammer recurrence could be taken. However, because of the limited understanding of the direct-contact condensation phenomena in the typical range of nuclear power plant operation, it is likely that the overall uncertainty of the analysis results will be high. Therefore, further research on this area including scaling analysis is required

  4. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  5. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Gale, Jennifer T; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W

    2011-12-09

    Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within thi