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Sample records for repeated episodic increases

  1. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

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    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  2. Pelvic inflammatory disease and salpingitis: incidence of primary and repeat episodes in England.

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    Price, M J; Ades, A E; Welton, N J; Simms, I; Horner, P J

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and more specifically salpingitis (visually confirmed inflammation) is the primary cause of tubal factor infertility and is an important risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. The risk of these outcomes increases following repeated episodes of PID. We developed a homogenous discrete-time Markov model for the distribution of PID history in the UK. We used a Bayesian framework to fully propagate parameter uncertainty into the model outputs. We estimated the model parameters from routine data, prospective studies, and other sources. We estimated that for women aged 35-44 years, 33·6% and 16·1% have experienced at least one episode of PID and salpingitis, respectively (diagnosed or not) and 10·7% have experienced one salpingitis and no further PID episodes, 3·7% one salpingitis and one further PID episode, and 1·7% one salpingitis and ⩾2 further PID episodes. Results are consistent with numerous external data sources, but not all. Studies of the proportion of PID that is diagnosed, and the proportion of PIDs that are salpingitis together with the severity distribution in different diagnostic settings and of overlap between routine data sources of PID would be valuable.

  3. Difficult peritonitis cases in children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis: relapsing, repeat, recurrent and zoonotic episodes.

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    Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Warady, Bradley A

    2015-09-01

    Despite technological improvements in dialysis connectology and dialysis technique, peritonitis remains the most common and most significant complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in children. Most children undergoing chronic PD experience none or only one peritonitis episode, while others have multiple episodes or episodes secondary to unusual organisms. Knowledge of potential risk factors and likely patient outcome is imperative if treatment is to be optimized. In this review we will, in turn, describe episodes of peritonitis that are characterized as either relapsing, recurrent, repeat or zoonosis-related to highlight the clinical issues that are commonly encountered by clinicians treating these infections.

  4. Capsule Switching and Antimicrobial Resistance Acquired during Repeated Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia Episodes.

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    Chang, Bin; Nariai, Akiyoshi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Akeda, Yukihiro; Kuroda, Makoto; Oishi, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharyngeal mucus in healthy people and causes otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. In this study, we analyzed an S. pneumoniae strain that caused 7 repeated pneumonia episodes in an 80-month-old patient with cerebral palsy during a period of 25 months. A total of 10 S. pneumoniae strains were obtained from sputum samples, and serotype 6B was isolated from samples from the first 5 episodes, whereas serotype 6A was isolated from samples from the last 2. Whole-genome sequencing showed clonality of the 10 isolates with 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomes. Among these SNPs, one single point mutation in the wciP gene was presumed to relate to the serotype switching from 6B to 6A, and the other mutations in parC and gyrA were related to fluoroquinolone resistance. These results suggested that an S. pneumoniae strain, which asymptomatically colonized the patient's nasopharynx or was horizontally transmitted from an asymptomatic carrier, caused the repeated pneumonia events. Phenotypic variations in the capsule type and antimicrobial susceptibility occurred during the carrier state. Hyporesponsiveness to serotypes 6B and 6A of S. pneumoniae was found even after vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. After an additional vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, opsonic activities for both serotypes 6A and 6B significantly increased and are expected to prevent relapse by the same strain.

  5. Repeated increases in blood flow, independent of exercise, enhance conduit artery vasodilator function in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naylor, L.H.; Carter, H.; Fitzsimons, M.G.; Cable, N.T.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the importance of repeated increases in blood flow to conduit artery adaptation, using an exercise-independent repeated episodic stimulus. Recent studies suggest that exercise training improves vasodilator function of conduit arteries via shear stress-mediated

  6. Hoarding without reward: rodent responses to repeated episodes of complete cache loss.

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    Luo, Yang; Yang, Zheng; Steele, Michael A; Zhang, Zhibin; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Hongmao

    2014-07-01

    For food-hoarding strategies to be maintained in a population, the benefits of hoarding must outweigh the costs. If rewards are too low to offset the costs of hoarding, hoarders might be expected to abandon hoarding and/or shift to an alternative storing strategy (e.g., increase food consumption). However the ability to adjust to such circumstances requires that animals anticipate long-term rewards and adjust storing strategies to modify future outcomes. To test this, we subjected three sympatric food-hoarding species (the Korean field mouse, Apodemus peninsulae, both a scatter and larder hoarder; the Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus, only a larder hoarder; and Père David's rock squirrel, Sciurotamias davidianus, predominantly a scatter hoarder) to repeated episodes of complete cache loss over nine sequential trials in semi-natural enclosures. Although these species increased harvest and consumption rates throughout the experiment, none of these three species ceased hoarding under these conditions. The variation in responses observed across species and gender suggest some degree of behavioural plasticity to compensate for such extreme losses, but a general inability to abandon hoarding or shift to an alternative strategy. Future studies should consider how such responses correspond to natural patterns of intensive pilferage in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rare presentation of intralobar pulmonary sequestration associated with repeated episodes of ventricular tachycardia.

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    Rao, D Sheshagiri; Barik, Ramachandra

    2016-07-26

    Arterial supply of an intralobar pulmonary sequestration (IPS) from the coronary circulation is extremely rare. A significant coronary steal does not occur because of dual or triple sources of blood supply to sequestrated lung tissue. We present a 60-year-old woman who presented to us with repeated episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) in last 3 mo. Radio frequency ablation was ineffective. On evaluation, she had right lower lobe IPS with dual arterial blood supply, i.e., right pulmonary artery and the systemic arterial supply from the right coronary artery (RCA). Stress myocardial perfusion scan revealed significant inducible ischemia in the RCA territory. Coronary angiogram revealed critical stenosis of proximal RCA just after the origin of the systemic artery supplying IPS. The critical stenosis in the RCA was stented. At 12 mo follow-up, she had no further episodes of VT or angina.

  8. Repeated episodes of focal cerebral ischemia in a patient with mitral valve prolapse and migraine headache

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    Raičević Ranko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is episodic, paroxysmal disorder where the headache represents the central symptom and is followed with different combinations of neurological gastrointestinal and vegetative changes. Not until the diagnostic procedures were developed, ischemic lesions were verified even in the patients with ordinary migraine. This is a report of a patient with migraine headache followed twice by verified episodes of temporary ischemic attacks and verified focal ischemic lesion of cerebral parenchyma. The mitral valve prolapse was also detected. This all imposed the administration of combined prophylactic antimigrainous and anticoagulant therapy as an imperative because of the risk of the development of repeated ischemia of cerebral tissue. This association also confirmed an opinion that migraine is a wider disorder with the dominant dysfunction of limbic system.

  9. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

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    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J

    2014-11-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol.

  10. Cardiovascular Responses and Differential Changes in Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Following Repeated Episodes of Binge Drinking

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    Gu, Lianzhi; Fink, Anne M.; Chowdhury, Shamim A.K.; Geenen, David L.; Piano, Mariann R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Excessive alcohol use in the form of binge drinking is associated with many adverse medical outcomes. Using an animal model, the primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of repeated episodes of binge drinking on myocardial structure, blood pressure (BP) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The effects of carvedilol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, were also examined in this animal model of binge drinking. Methods: Rats were randomized into three groups: control, binge and binge + carvedilol (20 mg/kg). Animals received intragastric administration of 5 g ethanol/kg in the morning × 4 days (Monday–Thursday) followed by no ethanol on Friday–Sunday. Animals were maintained on the protocol for 5 weeks. BP was measured using radiotelemetry methods. Animals underwent echocardiography at baseline, 2.5 and 5 weeks. Myocardial MAPKs were analyzed at 5 weeks using western blot techniques. Results: Over the course of 5 weeks, binge drinking was associated with significant transient increases in BP that were greater at 4 and 5 weeks compared with earlier time points. Carvedilol treatment significantly attenuated the binge-induced transient increases in BP at 4 and 5 weeks. No significant changes were found in echocardiographic parameters at any time period; however, binge drinking was associated with increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, which was blocked by carvedilol treatment. Conclusion: Repeated episodes of binge drinking result in progressive and transient increases in BP, no change in myocardial structure and differential regulation of MAPK activation. PMID:22878590

  11. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

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    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  12. Differential effects of acute and repeat dosing with the H3 antagonist GSK189254 on the sleep–wake cycle and narcoleptic episodes in Ox−/− mice

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    Guo, RX; Anaclet, C; Roberts, JC; Parmentier, R; Zhang, M; Guidon, G; Buda, C; Sastre, JP; Feng, JQ; Franco, P; Brown, SH; Upton, N; Medhurst, AD; Lin, JS

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Histamine H3 receptor antagonists are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for a number of central nervous system disorders including narcolepsy. These agents can increase wakefulness (W) in cats and rodents following acute administration, but their effects after repeat dosing have not been reported previously. Experimental approach: EEG and EMG recordings were used to investigate the effects of acute and repeat administration of the novel H3 antagonist GSK189254 on the sleep–wake cycle in wild-type (Ox+/+) and orexin knockout (Ox−/−) mice, the latter being genetically susceptible to narcoleptic episodes. In addition, we investigated H3 and H1 receptor expression in this model using radioligand binding and autoradiography. Key results: In Ox+/+ and Ox−/− mice, acute administration of GSK189254 (3 and 10 mg·kg−1 p.o.) increased W and decreased slow wave and paradoxical sleep to a similar degree to modafinil (64 mg·kg−1), while it reduced narcoleptic episodes in Ox−/− mice. After twice daily dosing for 8 days, the effect of GSK189254 (10 mg·kg−1) on W in both Ox+/+ and Ox−/− mice was significantly reduced, while the effect on narcoleptic episodes in Ox−/− mice was significantly increased. Binding studies revealed no significant differences in H3 or H1 receptor expression between Ox+/+ and Ox−/− mice. Conclusions and implications: These studies provide further evidence to support the potential use of H3 antagonists in the treatment of narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness. Moreover, the differential effects observed on W and narcoleptic episodes following repeat dosing could have important implications in clinical studies. PMID:19413575

  13. Repeated salivary daytime cortisol and onset of mood episodes in offspring of bipolar parents

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    Goodday, Sarah M.; Horrocks, Julie; Keown-Stoneman, Charles; Grof, Paul; Duffy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Differences in cortisol secretion may differentiate individuals at high compared to low genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) and predict the onset or recurrence of mood episodes. The objectives of this study were to determine if salivary cortisol measures are: (1) different in high-risk offspring of parents with BD (HR) compared to control offspring of unaffected parents (C), (2) stable over time, (3) associated with the development of mood episode onset/recurrence, and (4) influ...

  14. Repeated administration of adenosine increases its cardiovascular effects in rats.

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    Vidrio, H; García-Márquez, F; Magos, G A

    1987-01-20

    Hypotensive and negative chronotropic responses to adenosine in anesthetized rats increased after previous administration of the nucleoside. Bradycardia after adenosine in the isolated perfused rat heart was also potentiated after repeated administration at short intervals. This self-potentiation could be due to extracellular accumulation of adenosine and persistent stimulation of receptors caused by saturation or inhibition of cellular uptake of adenosine.

  15. Catatonia Secondary to Sudden Clozapine Withdrawal: A Case with Three Repeated Episodes and a Literature Review

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    John Bilbily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature search identified 9 previously published cases that were considered as possible cases of catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal. Two of these 9 cases did not provide enough information to make a diagnosis of catatonia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5. The Liverpool Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR Causality Scale was modified to assess ADRs secondary to drug withdrawal. From the 7 published cases which met DSM-5 catatonia criteria, using the modified scale, we established that 3 were definitive and 4 were probable cases of catatonia secondary to clozapine withdrawal. A new definitive case is described with three catatonic episodes which (1 occurred after sudden discontinuation of clozapine in the context of decades of follow-up, (2 had ≥3 of 12 DSM-5 catatonic symptoms and serum creatinine kinase elevation, and (3 required medical hospitalization and intravenous fluids. Clozapine may be a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor agonist; sudden clozapine withdrawal may explain a sudden decrease in GABA activity that may contribute to the development of catatonic symptoms in vulnerable patients. Based on the limited information from these cases, the pharmacological treatment for catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal can include benzodiazepines and/or restarting clozapine.

  16. Can nursing students' confidence levels increase with repeated simulation activities?

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    Cummings, Cynthia L; Connelly, Linda K

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, nursing faculty conducted a study with undergraduate nursing students on their satisfaction, confidence, and educational practice levels, as it related to simulation activities throughout the curriculum. The study was a voluntary survey conducted on junior and senior year nursing students. It consisted of 30 items based on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning and the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Jeffries, 2012). Mean averages were obtained for each of the 30 items from both groups and were compared using T scores for unpaired means. The results showed that 8 of the items had a 95% confidence level and when combined the items were significant for p confidence and active learning. Based on these findings, it can be assumed that repeated simulation experiences can lead to an increase in student confidence and active learning.

  17. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

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    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2016-03-01

    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory.

  18. Monitoring the progressive increase of the longest episode of spontaneous movements in Guinea pig fetus

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    Sekulić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the changes in the duration of spontaneous movements in the guinea pig fetus after the appearance of its first movements. Every day from the 25th to the 35th gestation day, one fetus from each of twenty pregnant animals was examined by ultrasound. Fetal movements were observed for 5 min. The episode with the longest period of movement was taken into consideration and was recorded as: 3 s. Days 25 and 26 were characterized by episodes lasting 3 s (χ2 = 140.51 p <0.05. Tracking the dynamics of progressive increases in the longest episode of spontaneous movement could be a useful factor in estimating the maturity and condition of a fetus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175006/2011

  19. Decreased extracellular adenosine levels lead to loss of hypoxia-induced neuroprotection after repeated episodes of exposure to hypoxia.

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    Mei Cui

    Full Text Available Achieving a prolonged neuroprotective state following transient ischemic attacks (TIAs is likely to effectively reduce the brain damage and neurological dysfunction associated with recurrent stroke. HPC is a phenomenon in which advanced exposure to mild hypoxia reduces the stroke volume produced by a subsequent TIA. However, this neuroprotection is not long-lasting, with the effects reaching a peak after 3 days. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the use of multiple episodes of hypoxic exposure at different time intervals to induce longer-term protection in a mouse stroke model. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to different hypoxic preconditioning protocols: a single episode of HPC or five identical episodes at intervals of 3 days (E3d HPC or 6 days (E6d HPC. Three days after the last hypoxic exposure, temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was induced. The effects of these HPC protocols on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF regulated gene mRNA expression were measured by quantitative PCR. Changes in extracellular adenosine concentrations, known to exert neuroprotective effects, were also measured using in vivo microdialysis and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Neuroprotection was provided by E6d HPC but not E3d HPC. HIF-regulated target gene expression increased significantly following all HPC protocols. However, E3d HPC significantly decreased extracellular adenosine and reduced cerebral blood flow in the ischemic region with upregulated expression of the adenosine transporter, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1. An ENT1 inhibitor, propentofylline increased the cerebral blood flow and re-established neuroprotection in E3d HPC. Adenosine receptor specific antagonists showed that adenosine mainly through A1 receptor mediates HPC induced neuroprotection. Our data indicate that cooperation of HIF-regulated genes and extracellular adenosine is necessary for HPC-induced neuroprotection.

  20. Modulatory influence of rarely repeated of immobilization episodes on the interleukin-1β-dependent reaction of blood leukocytes and hepatoprotective effect of restraint stress.

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    Tseilikman, O B; Tseilikman, V E; Linin, A V; Gubkin, D A; Rudina, E A; Trubetskoy, S A; Ivanov, P V; Pozdnyakov, E A

    2011-02-01

    Repeated episodes of 1-h restraint stress were accompanied by a decrease in the sensitivity of blood leukocytes and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases of the liver to recombinant IL-1β. These changes are associated with the anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective effect of chronic stress.

  1. Thyroid profiles in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone and episodes of thyrotoxicosis, including repeated painless thyroiditis.

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    Taniyama, Matsuo; Otsuka, Fumiko; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ban, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Thyrotoxic disease can be difficult to recognize in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) because the clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis cannot be observed, and thyrotropin (TSH) may not be suppressed because of hormone resistance. Painless thyroiditis is a relatively common cause of thyrotoxicosis, but its occurrence in RTH has not been reported. We assessed the thyroid profile in a patient with RTH and episodes of thyrotoxicosis who experienced repeated painless thyroiditis. A 44-year-old Japanese woman with RTH, which was confirmed by the presence of a P453A mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene, showed a slight elevation of the basal levels of thyroid hormones, which indicated that her pituitary RTH was mild. She experienced a slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia concomitant with TSH suppression. A diagnosis of painless thyroiditis was made because of the absence of TSH receptor antibodies, low Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland, and transient suppression followed by a slight elevation of TSH following the elevation of thyroid hormones. The patient's complaints of general malaise and occasional palpitations did not change throughout the course of painless thyroiditis. Three years later, painless thyroiditis occurred again without any deterioration of the clinical manifestations. Mild pituitary RTH can be overcome by slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia during mild thyrotoxicosis. When pituitary resistance is severe and TSH is not suppressed, thyrotoxicosis may be overlooked.

  2. Differential regulation of parvocellular neuronal activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following single vs. repeated episodes of water restriction-induced drinking.

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    Arnhold, Michelle M; Wotus, Cheryl; Engeland, William C

    2007-07-01

    Acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis releases glucocorticoids to maintain homeostasis, whereas prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids has deleterious effects. Due to the potential benefits of limiting stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion, the present study uses drinking in dehydrated rats as a model to delineate mechanisms mobilized to rapidly inhibit HPA activity during stress. Using Fos expression as an indicator of neuronal activation, the effect of a single or repeated episode of dehydration-induced drinking on the activity of magnocellular and parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus was examined. Adult male rats underwent a single episode or repeated (six) episodes of water restriction and were sacrificed before or after drinking water in the AM. Plasma osmolality, vasopressin (AVP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were elevated by water restriction and reduced after drinking in both models. Fos expression was elevated in AVP-positive magnocellular PVN neurons and AVP- and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-positive parvocellular PVN neurons after water restriction. Fos expression was reduced in magnocellular AVP neurons after both models of restriction-induced drinking. In contrast, Fos expression did not change in AVP and CRH parvocellular neurons after a single episode of restriction-induced drinking, but was reduced after repeated episodes of restriction-induced drinking. These data indicate that drinking-induced decreases in glucocorticoids in dehydrated rats involve multiple factors including reduction in magnocellular release of vasopressin and reduction in parvocellular neuronal activity. The differential inhibition of PVN parvocellular neurons after repeated rehydration may reflect a conditioned response to repeated stress reduction.

  3. Differential regulation of parvocellular neuronal activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following single versus repeated episodes of water restriction-induced drinking

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    Arnhold, Michelle M.; Wotus, Cheryl; Engeland, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis releases glucocorticoids to maintain homeostasis, whereas prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids has deleterious effects. Due to the potential benefits of limiting stress-induced glucocorticoid secretion, the present study uses drinking in dehydrated rats as a model to delineate mechanisms mobilized to rapidly inhibit HPA activity during stress. Using Fos expression as an indicator of neuronal activation, the effect of a single or repeated episode of dehydration-induced drinking on the activity of magnocellular and parvocellular neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus was examined. Adult male rats underwent a single episode or repeated (six) episodes of water restriction and were sacrificed before or after drinking water in the AM. Plasma osmolality, vasopressin (AVP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were elevated by water restriction and reduced after drinking in both models. Fos expression was elevated in AVP-positive magnocellular PVN neurons and AVP- and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-positive parvocellular PVN neurons after water restriction. Fos expression was reduced in magnocellular AVP neurons after both models of restriction-induced drinking. In contrast, Fos expression did not change in AVP and CRH parvocellular neurons after a single episode of restriction-induced drinking, but was reduced after repeated episodes of restriction-induced drinking. These data indicate that drinking-induced decreases in glucocorticoids in dehydrated rats involve multiple factors including reduction in magnocellular release of vasopressin and reduction in parvocellular neuronal activity. The differential inhibition of PVN parvocellular neurons after repeated rehydration may reflect a conditioned response to repeated stress reduction. PMID:17537436

  4. Disseminated rhinovirus C8 infection with infectious virus in blood and fatal outcome in a child with repeated episodes of bronchiolitis.

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    Lupo, Julien; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Morel-Baccard, Christine; Bardet, Julie; Payen, Valérie; Kaiser, Laurent; Constant, Samuel; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Lin-Marq, Nathalie; Lina, Bruno; Morand, Patrice; Tapparel, Caroline

    2015-05-01

    We report a fatal case of acute lower respiratory tract disease with human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) as the unique cause in a 19-month-old girl with a history of repeated episodes of bronchiolitis. HRV-C type 8 nucleic acids were observed in respiratory, stool, and cerebrospinal fluid samples, and infectious virions were isolated from patient serum after inoculation onto reconstituted airway epithelia.

  5. Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.

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    Cara E Stepp

    Full Text Available Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies.

  6. Lithium increases nitric oxide levels in subjects with bipolar disorder during depressive episodes.

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    de Sousa, Rafael T; Zanetti, Marcus V; Busatto, Geraldo F; Mouro, Margaret G; Zarate, Carlos A; Gattaz, Wagner F; Higa, Elisa M; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Altered nitric oxide (NO) signaling has been associated with the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder (BD), directly affecting neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity cascades. Lithium has shown to regulate NO levels in preclinical models. However, no study has addressed peripheral NO levels in unmedicated BD. Also, lithium's effects on NO levels have not been studied in humans. Plasma NO was evaluated in subjects with BD I and II during a depressive episode (n = 26). Subjects had a score of ≥18 in the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and were followed-up during a 6-week trial with lithium. Plasma NO levels were also compared to matched healthy controls (n = 28). NO was determined by chemiluminescence method. Lithium treatment significantly increased plasma NO levels after 6 weeks of treatment in comparison to baseline levels in bipolar depression (p = 0.016). Baseline NO levels during depressive episodes showed no difference when matching up to healthy controls (p = 0.66). The present findings suggest that lithium upregulates NO signaling in unmedicated BD with short illness duration. Further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm the effects of lithium on NO pathway and its association with synaptic plasticity and therapeutics of BD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Episodic air pollution is associated with increased DNA fragmentation in human sperm without other changes in semen quality

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    Rubes, J.; Selevan, S.G.; Evenson, D.P.; Zudova, D.; Vozdova, M.; Zudova, Z.; Robbins, W.A.; Perreault, S.D. [US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2005-10-01

    This study examined potential associations between exposure to episodes of air pollution and alterations in semen quality. The air pollution, resulting from combustion of coal for industry and home heating in the Teplice district of the Czech Republic, was much higher during the winter than at other times of year with peaks exceeding US air quality standards. Young men from Teplice were sampled up to seven times over 2 years allowing evaluation of semen quality after periods of exposure to both low and high air pollution. Routine semen analysis (sperm concentration, motility and morphology) and tests for sperm aneuploidy and chromatin integrity were performed, comparing measurements within each subject. Exposure was classified as high or low based on data from ambient air pollution monitoring. Using repeated measures analysis, a significant association was found between exposure to periods of high air pollution (at or above the upper limit of US air quality standards) and the percentage of sperm with DNA fragmentation according to sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Other semen measures were not associated with air pollution. It is concluded that exposure to intermittent air pollution may result in sperm DNA damage and thereby increase the rates of male-mediated infertility, miscarriage, and other adverse reproductive outcomes.

  8. Imported episodic rabies increases patient demand for and physician delivery of antirabies prophylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélie Lardon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Imported cases threaten rabies reemergence in rabies-free areas. During 2000-2005, five dog and one human rabies cases were imported into France, a rabies-free country since 2001. The Summer 2004 event led to unprecedented media warnings by the French Public Health Director. We investigated medical practice evolution following the official elimination of rabies in 2001; impact of subsequent episodic rabies importations and national newspaper coverage on demand for and delivery of antirabies prophylaxis; regular transmission of epidemiological developments within the French Antirabies Medical Center (ARMC network; and ARMC discussions on indications of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Annual data collected by the National Reference Center for Rabies NRCR (1989-2006 and the exhaustive database (2000-2005 of 56 ARMC were analyzed. Weekly numbers of patients consulting at ARMC and their RPEP- and antirabies-immunoglobulin (ARIG prescription rates were determined. Autoregressive integrated moving-average modeling and regression with autocorrelated errors were applied to examine how 2000-2005 episodic rabies events and their related national newspaper coverage affected demand for and delivery of RPEP. A slight, continuous decline of rabies-dedicated public health facility attendance was observed from 2000 to 2004. Then, during the Summer 2004 event, patient consultations and RPEP and ARIG prescriptions increased by 84%, 19.7% and 43.4%, respectively. Moreover, elevated medical resource use persisted in 2005, despite communication efforts, without any secondary human or animal case. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated appropriate responsiveness to reemerging rabies cases and effective newspaper reporting, as no secondary case occurred. However, the ensuing demand on medical resources had immediate and long-lasting effects on rabies-related public health resources and expenses. Henceforth, when

  9. Allopurinol Reduces Oxidative Stress in the Ovine Fetal Cardiovascular System After Repeated Episodes of Ischemia-Reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Jan B.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Torrance, Helen L.; Rademaker, Carin M. A.; Benders, Manon J.; Rosen, Karl G.; Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Thakor, Avnesh S.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Burton, Graham J.; van Bel, Frank; Giussani, Dino A.

    2010-01-01

    In complicated labor, neonatal outcome may depend not only on the extent of fetal asphyxia and acidosis but also on the effects on the fetal cardiovascular system of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) associated with repeated compressions of the umbilical c

  10. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  11. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  12. The Argentine Impact Record: Implications for Episodes of Increased Flux during the Last 10 Myr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. S.; Schultz, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    correlate with the impact record. We propose that occasional periods of unrest in the main belt lead to episodic increases in the terrestrial flux of large (>100 m) and small debris. Furthermore, the lunar cratering record reflects these episodes, or more precisely, the quiescent intervals between them. An important implication of our conclusion is that the increased impact frequency on Earth predicted by the correspondence of three independent datasets (3He, node convergence reconstructions, and the lunar cratering record) may explain the seemingly large number of impact events demonstrated to have occurred in the Pampas during the last ~10 Myr. [1] Schultz, P.H. et al. (1994) Geology, 22, 889-892; [2] (1998) Science, 282, 2061-2063; [3] (2004) EPSL, 219, 221-238; [4] (2006) MAPS, 41, 749-771; [5] Harris, R.S. et al. (2007) LPSC 38, 2243; [6] Harris, R.S. and Schultz, P.H. (2007) GSA Abstr. Program,39(6), 371; [7] (2009) LPSC 40, 2453; [8] Schultz, P.H. and Harris, R.S. (2006) LPSC 37, 2361; [9] Farley, K.A. et al. (2006) Nature, 439, 295-297; [10] (2009) GSA Special Paper 452, 27-35; [11] (1998) Science, 280, 1250-1253; [12] Tagle, R. and Claeys, P. (2004) Science, 305, 492; [13] Nesvorný, D. et al. (2003) Astrophys. J., 591, 486-497; [14] (2006) Science, 312, 1490.

  13. A point mutation associated with episodic ataxia 6 increases glutamate transporter anion currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Natalie; Kovermann, Peter; Fahlke, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    Episodic ataxia is a human genetic disease characterized by paroxysmal cerebellar incoordination. There are several genetically and clinically distinct forms of this disease, and one of them, episodic ataxia type 6, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding a glial glutamate transporter, the excitatory amino acid transporter-1. So far, reduced glutamate uptake by mutant excitatory amino acid transporter-1 has been thought to be the main pathophysiological process in episodic ataxia type 6. However, excitatory amino acid transporter-1 does not only mediate secondary-active glutamate transport, but also functions as an ion channel. Here, we examined the effects of a disease-associated point mutation, P290R, on glutamate transport, anion current as well as on the subcellular distribution of excitatory amino acid transporter-1 using heterologous expression in mammalian cells. P290R reduces the number of excitatory amino acid transporter-1 in the surface membrane and impairs excitatory amino acid transporter-1-mediated glutamate uptake. Cells expressing P290R excitatory amino acid transporter-1 exhibit larger anion currents than wild-type cells in the absence as well as in the presence of external l-glutamate, despite a lower number of mutant transporters in the surface membrane. Noise analysis revealed unaltered unitary current amplitudes, indicating that P290R modifies opening and closing, and not anion permeation through mutant excitatory amino acid transporter-1 anion channels. These findings identify gain-of-function of excitatory amino acid transporter anion conduction as a pathological process in episodic ataxia. Episodic ataxia type 6 represents the first human disease found to be associated with altered function of excitatory amino acid transporter anion channels and illustrates possible physiological and pathophysiological impacts of this functional mode of this class of glutamate transporters.

  14. ATXN2 CAG repeat expansions increase the risk for Chinese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolu; Lu, Ming; Tang, Lu; Zhang, Nan; Chui, Dehua; Fan, Dongsheng

    2013-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder with unclear etiology. Recently, intermediate CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2, the gene responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), have been identified as a possible genetic risk factor for ALS. In this study, we analyzed the ATXN2 CAG repeat length in Chinese patients with ALS to evaluate the relationship between the genotype and phenotype. We studied 1,067 patients with ALS and 506 controls from mainland China (excluding Tibet). We collected clinical data and analyzed fluorescent PCR products to assess ATXN2 CAG repeat length in all of the samples. We observed that intermediate CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 (CAG repeat length >30) were associated with ALS (p = 0.004). There was no significant difference in clinical characteristics between the groups with and without intermediate CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2. Our data indicate that, for ALS patients from mainland China, intermediate CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 increase the risk of ALS but have no effect on disease phenotype.

  15. Small platform sleep deprivation selectively increases the average duration of rapid eye movement sleep episodes during sleep rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitka, Tamas; Katai, Zita; Pap, Dorottya; Molnar, Eszter; Adori, Csaba; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2009-12-28

    The single platform-on-water (flower pot) method is extensively used for depriving rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Detailed comparison of sleep-wake architecture, recorded during the rebound period after spending three days on either a small or large platform, could separate the effects of REMS deficit from other stress factors caused by the procedure. A further aim of the study was to find the most characteristic REMS parameter of the rebound originating from REMS deficit. Rats were kept on a small or large platform for 72 h. Their fronto-parietal electroencephalogram, electromyogram and motility were recorded during the 24 h rebound at the beginning of the passive phase. A similar period of a home cage group was also recorded. The most typical differences between the two rebound groups were the increased cumulative time and longer average duration of REMS episodes without significant change in the number of these episodes of the small platform animals during the passive phase. Results obtained by cosinor analysis were in accordance with the findings above. Since we did not find any difference in the average duration of REMS episodes comparing the large platform rebound group and the home cage group, we concluded that the increased mean duration of REMS episodes is a selective marker for the rebound caused by small platform sleep deprivation, while other changes in sleep architecture may be the consequence of stress and also some sleep deficit.

  16. Repeated static contractions increase mitochondrial vulnerability toward oxidative stress in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Mogensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Repeated static contractions (RSC) induce large fluctuations in tissue oxygen tension and increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the effect of RSC on muscle contractility, mitochondrial respiratory function, and in vitro sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+...

  17. Repeated exposure to noise increases tolerance in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Mills, Suzanne C; Lecchini, David; Nedelec, Brendan; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-09-01

    Some anthropogenic noise is now considered pollution, with evidence building that noise from human activities such as transportation, construction and exploration can impact behaviour and physiology in a broad range of taxa. However, relatively little research has considered the effects of repeated or chronic noise; extended exposures may result in habituation or sensitisation, and thus changes in response. We conducted a field-based experiment at Moorea Island to investigate how repeated exposure to playback of motorboat noise affected a coral reef fish (Dascyllus trimaculatus). We found that juvenile D. trimaculatus increased hiding behaviour during motorboat noise after two days of repeated exposure, but no longer did so after one and two weeks of exposure. We also found that naïve individuals responded to playback of motorboat noise with elevated ventilation rates, but that this response was diminished after one and two weeks of repeated exposure. We found no strong evidence that baseline blood cortisol levels, growth or body condition were affected by three weeks of repeated motorboat-noise playback. Our study reveals the importance of considering how tolerance levels may change over time, rather than simply extrapolating from results of short-term studies, if we are to make decisions about regulation and mitigation.

  18. Roles of regional transport and heterogeneous reactions in the PM2.5 increase during winter haze episodes in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxia; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Daizhou; Wang, Xiaojia; Xia, Yunjie; Liu, Xinyu; Tian, Ping; Han, Zhiwei; Xia, Xiangao; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Renjian

    2017-12-01

    Regional transport and chemical conversions are two major processes that lead to the severe haze pollution in China. Our observations during five haze episodes in Beijing between February 19 and March 12 of 2014 show that the two processes played different roles as PM2.5 increased from the clean (250μgm(-3)) pollution. In the initial twelve hours of each episode, the PM2.5 reached the light-medium level with an increase of approximately 120μgm(-3). At the same time, the particle (~10-700nm) number concentration also showed a distinct increase accompanied by a rapid increase in the mean diameter. A light-medium PM2.5 occurred in the south areas prior to the haze occurrence in Beijing and the southerly winds were predominant, indicating the rapid increase of PM2.5 in the initial stage was caused by the regional transport from the south. Subsequently, PM2.5 elevated to the heavy and severe levels when the wind was weak, relative humidity was high and ozone concentration was low. The increase of PM2.5 in the elevated stages was characterized by a high percentage (45% for the heavy level and 55% for the severe level) of secondary inorganic components, indicating the substantial contribution of the formation of secondary aerosols. In addition, the increases of the mean diameter (from 108nm to 120nm) and the total volume concentration (by 67%) are regarded as a consequence of heterogeneous reactions on the surfaces of aerosol particles because the particle number concentration remained nearly constant in these two stages. Our results indicate that, during the five winter haze episodes, the regional transport from the south was the major reason for the initial-stage PM2.5 increase, while heterogeneous reactions dominated the later elevation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased Frontal Gyrification Negatively Correlates with Executive Function in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabayashi, Daiki; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishiyama, Shimako; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-04-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of gyrification, a possible marker of early neurodevelopment, in schizophrenia patients have reported inconsistent results. In addition, it remains unclear whether aberrant gyrification in schizophrenia patients, if present, is associated with cognitive impairment, which is one of the core features of schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 62 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 57 healthy control subjects. Using FreeSurfer software, local gyrification index (LGI) of the entire cortex was compared between the groups. The relationship between LGI and performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was also examined in a subgroup of patients (n= 28). Compared with the controls, the patients showed a significantly higher LGI in a wide range of bilateral frontal regions as well as in the right inferior parietal and bilateral occipital regions. The number of WCST categories archived in patients was negatively correlated with the LGI mainly in the rostral middle frontal and anterior cingulate regions in the right hemisphere. Our findings suggested a widespread hypergyrification pattern in schizophrenia patients, which supported early neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Our results also suggested that executive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients may be at least partly related to aberrant neurodevelopment, especially in the right frontal regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Repeated toluene exposure increases c-Fos in catecholaminergic cells of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Aulerich, Kelsey E; Bowen, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Toluene is a frequently abused solvent. Previous studies have suggested that toluene acts like other drugs of abuse, specifically on the dopaminergic system in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the mesolimbic pathway. Although changes in dopamine (DA) levels and c-Fos have been observed in both acute and repeated exposure paradigms, the extent to which c-Fos is localized to catecholaminergic cells is unknown. The present study tested the effects of repeated toluene exposure (1000-4000ppm) on locomotor activity and cells containing c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), or both in the core and shell of the NAc, as well as the anterior and posterior VTA. We focused our study on adolescents, since adolescence is a time of great neural change and a time when individuals tend to be more susceptible to drug abuse. In early tests, toluene dose-dependently increased locomotor activity. Repeated exposure to the highest concentration of toluene resulted in sensitization to toluene's effects on locomotor activity. Although the number of cells immunopositive for c-Fos or TH did not significantly differ across groups, cells immunopositive for TH+c-Fos were higher in the NAc shell of animals exposed to 4000ppm than in animals exposed to air (control) or 1000ppm. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that repeated high dose toluene exposure increases locomotor activity as well as activation of catecholaminergic cells in the shell of the NAc. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can the Palatability of Healthy, Satiety-Promoting Foods Increase with Repeated Exposure during Weight Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguah, Katherene O.-B.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Craig, Bruce A.; Gehrke, Malinda M.; Palmer, Philip A.; Eichelsdoerfer, Petra E.; McCrory, Megan A.

    2017-01-01

    Repeated exposure to sugary, fatty, and salty foods often enhances their appeal. However, it is unknown if exposure influences learned palatability of foods typically promoted as part of a healthy diet. We tested whether the palatability of pulse containing foods provided during a weight loss intervention which were particularly high in fiber and low in energy density would increase with repeated exposure. At weeks 0, 3, and 6, participants (n = 42; body mass index (BMI) 31.2 ± 4.3 kg/m2) were given a test battery of 28 foods, approximately half which had been provided as part of the intervention, while the remaining half were not foods provided as part of the intervention. In addition, about half of each of the foods (provided as part or not provided as part of the intervention) contained pulses. Participants rated the taste, appearance, odor, and texture pleasantness of each food, and an overall flavor pleasantness score was calculated as the mean of these four scores. Linear mixed model analyses showed an exposure type by week interaction effect for taste, texture and overall flavor pleasantness indicating statistically significant increases in ratings of provided foods in taste and texture from weeks 0 to 3 and 0 to 6, and overall flavor from weeks 0 to 6. Repeated exposure to these foods, whether they contained pulses or not, resulted in a ~4% increase in pleasantness ratings. The long-term clinical relevance of this small increase requires further study. PMID:28231094

  2. Repeated stress increases catalytic TrkB mRNA in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibuya, M; Takahashi, M; Russell, D S; Duman, R S

    1999-05-28

    Northern blot analysis was utilized to distinguish between catalytic and truncated TrkB mRNA on the basis of transcript size. Repeated (10 days), but not acute, immobilization stress significantly increased levels of catalytic TrkB mRNA, but did not influence expression of truncated TrkB transcripts in rat hippocampus. Exposure to another paradigm, a combination of different, unpredictable stressors, also increased levels of catalytic, but not truncated, TrkB mRNA. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that chronic stress up-regulated TrkB mRNA in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granule cells layers of hippocampus. As previously reported, both acute and chronic immobilization stress decreased expression of BDNF mRNA, suggesting that up-regulation of catalytic TrkB mRNA may be a compensatory adaptation to repeated stress.

  3. Very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) detected during episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events in Cascadia using a match filter method indicate repeating events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, A. A.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) occur in transitional zones of faults, releasing seismic energy in the 0.02-0.05 Hz frequency band over a 90 s duration and typically have magntitudes within the range of Mw 3.0-4.0. VLFEs can occur down-dip of the seismogenic zone, where they can transfer stress up-dip potentially bringing the locked zone closer to a critical failure stress. VLFEs also occur up-dip of the seismogenic zone in a region along the plate interface that can rupture coseismically during large megathrust events, such as the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake [Ide et al., 2011]. VLFEs were first detected in Cascadia during the 2011 episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event, occurring coincidentally with tremor [Ghosh et al., 2015]. However, during the 2014 ETS event, VLFEs were spatially and temporally asynchronous with tremor activity [Hutchison and Ghosh, 2016]. Such contrasting behaviors remind us that the mechanics behind such events remain elusive, yet they are responsible for the largest portion of the moment release during an ETS event. Here, we apply a match filter method using known VLFEs as template events to detect additional VLFEs. Using a grid-search centroid moment tensor inversion method, we invert stacks of the resulting match filter detections to ensure moment tensor solutions are similar to that of the respective template events. Our ability to successfully employ a match filter method to VLFE detection in Cascadia intrinsically indicates that these events can be repeating, implying that the same asperities are likely responsible for generating multiple VLFEs.

  4. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M; Bulow, J; Galitzky, J; Harant, I; Suljkovicova, H; Lafontan, M; Rivière, D; Crampes, F

    2000-04-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate leaving the adipose tissue. Seven male subjects performed two repeated bouts of 60-min exercise at 50% of their maximal aerobic power, separated by a 60-min recovery period. The exercise-induced increases in extracellular glycerol concentrations in adipose tissue and in plasma glycerol concentrations were significantly higher during the second exercise bout compared with the first (P < 0.05). The responses of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and plasma epinephrine were higher during the second exercise bout, whereas the response of norepinephrine was unchanged and that of growth hormone lower. Plasma insulin levels were lower during the second exercise bout. The results suggest that adipose tissue lipolysis during aerobic exercise of moderate intensity is enhanced when an exercise bout is preceded by exercise of the same intensity and duration performed 1 h before. This response pattern is associated with an increase in the exercise-induced rise of epinephrine and with lower plasma insulin values during the repeated exercise bout.

  5. Repeat Guests’ Perception about New Facilities and Increased Price at Padma Hotel Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ashari Nasution

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 after one and a half year closed for reconstruction, Malya Hotel Bandung renewed,reopened, rebranded with new name Padma Hotel Bandung. The changes are not only aboutthe name but also the logo, the concept, the grade, and the facilities inside and outside room.This results in higher price to customers. At the opening, Padma Hotel Bandung has focusedtheir marketing promotion on Malya repeat guest . The management concerns about theguests’ perception about the additional price because they will be the main visitors to thehotel. Survey was conducted and the findings reveal that the guests’ perception about theoverall inside and outside room is really good. They agreed that Padma Hotel Bandung hasprovided better facilities compared to Malya Hotel. Some facilities have been identified toinfluence customers’ perception about the overall perception about new facilities. Related tothe increased price, the answer quite varies. The repeat guests stated their doubt about thefairness of the price. Even though, they wanted to come back due to emotional benefitscustomers can get from the new Padma Hotel.Key words: repeat customer, rebranding, customer perception, repurchase intention, servicemarketing

  6. Repeat Guests’ Perception about New Facilities and Increased Price at Padma Hotel Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ashari Nasution

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 after one and a half year closed for reconstruction, Malya Hotel Bandung renewed,reopened, rebranded with new name Padma Hotel Bandung. The changes are not only aboutthe name but also the logo, the concept, the grade, and the facilities inside and outside room.This results in higher price to customers. At the opening, Padma Hotel Bandung has focusedtheir marketing promotion on Malya repeat guest . The management concerns about theguests’ perception about the additional price because they will be the main visitors to thehotel. Survey was conducted and the findings reveal that the guests’ perception about theoverall inside and outside room is really good. They agreed that Padma Hotel Bandung hasprovided better facilities compared to Malya Hotel. Some facilities have been identified toinfluence customers’ perception about the overall perception about new facilities. Related tothe increased price, the answer quite varies. The repeat guests stated their doubt about thefairness of the price. Even though, they wanted to come back due to emotional benefitscustomers can get from the new Padma Hotel.Key words: repeat customer, rebranding, customer perception, repurchase intention, servicemarketing

  7. Increased frequency of first-episode poststroke depression after discontinuation of escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Jorge, Ricardo E; Moser, David J; Arndt, Stephan; Jang, Mijin; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Hegel, Mark T; Robinson, Robert G

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare escitalopram, problem-solving therapy, and placebo to prevent poststroke depression during 6 months after discontinuation of treatment. We examined for depression 33 patients assigned to placebo, 34 to escitalopram, and 41 to problem-solving therapy. After controlling for age, gender, prior mood disorder, and severity of stroke, new-onset major depression and Hamilton Depression scores were significantly higher 6 months after escitalopram was discontinued compared with the problem-solving therapy or placebo groups. Discontinuation of escitalopram may increase poststroke depressive symptoms.

  8. Increased frequency of first episode poststroke depression following discontinuation of escitalopram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Jorge, Ricardo E.; Moser, David J.; Arndt, Stephan; Jang, Mijin; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Hegel, Mark T.; Robinson, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose To compare escitalopram, problem-solving therapy (PST), and placebo, to prevent poststroke depression during 6 months after discontinuation of treatment. Methods We examined for depression, 33 patients assigned to placebo, 34 to escitalopram, and 41 to PST. Results After controlling for age, gender, prior mood disorder, and severity of stroke, new onset major depression and Hamilton Depression scores were significantly higher 6 months after escitalopram was discontinued, compared to the PST or placebo groups. Conclusions Discontinuation of escitalopram may increase poststroke depressive symptoms. PMID:21868736

  9. The increasing number of surgical procedures for female genital fistula in England: analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, S I M F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the number and trend of surgical procedures for female genital fistula in England. An online search of Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data was carried out. Data were available for the 4-year period from 2002-03 until 2005-06. The total number of surgical procedures carried out for female genital fistula steadily increased by 28.7% from 616 in 2002-03 to 793 in 2005-06. The number of surgical procedures performed for rectovaginal fistula exceeded the total number of surgical procedures carried out for vesicovaginal and urethrovaginal fistula in each year of the study period. This pattern needs to be monitored and investigated further.

  10. Repeated bonding of fixed retainer increases the risk of enamel fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinvipas, Netrporn; Hasegawa, Yuh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of repeated bonding, using 2 different orthodontic adhesive systems, on the shear bond strength (SBS) and the enamel surface morphology. Sixty premolars were divided into 2 groups (n = 30), and either Transbond XT (T group) or Fuji Ortho LC (F group) adhesives were used. SBS was measured 24 h after bonding, using a universal testing machine. Then, the enamel surfaces were investigated and the mode of failure was described using adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. After each debonding, 10 teeth from each group were examined by scanning electron microscopy to determine the penetration of adhesives, the length of resin tags, and the state of the enamel surface. The other teeth were subjected to two more bonding/debonding procedures. In T group, the second debonding sequences had significantly higher bond strengths than the other sequences. The length of resin tags was greatest in the second debonding sequence, although there was no significant difference. In F group, the SBS increased with further rebonding and the failure mode tended towards cohesive failure. In both groups, the ARI scores increased with rebonding. Enamel loss could have occurred with both adhesives, although the surfaces appeared unchanged to the naked eye. From this study, we suggest that enamel damage caused by repeated bonding is of concern. To prevent bond failure, we should pay attention to the adhesion method used for bondable retainers.

  11. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  12. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  13. Increased advanced glycation end product specific fluorescence in repeatedly heated used cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Anupriya; Bhatia, Alka; Ram, Anil Kumar; Goel, Sumit

    2017-07-01

    Repeated heating of cooking oils is known to cause their degradation and generation of toxins. Dietary Advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are formed when the foods are cooked in dry heat at very high temperatures. dAGEs are believed to contribute significantly to total pool of AGEs in body. In this study, cooking oil samples used for frying snacks were collected from 102 shops. AGEs were extracted using Aqueous-TCA-chloroform method. Fluorescent AGE levels were determined using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and compared with AGEs in corresponding fresh oil samples collected from same shops. Palm oil was most commonly (62.5%) used for cooking. Most of the samples were subjected to several rounds of heating (1-6). AGE specific fluorescence (ASF) in used oil (range = 8.5-745.11) samples was found to be significantly higher in 88/102 as compared to the corresponding fresh oil samples. Treatment with inhibitors like lime concentrate and vitamin C decreased ASF (10/14 and 10/11 samples respectively) of the used oils. The results suggest that cooking oil subjected to repeated heating can contribute to increase in fluorescent AGEs in diet. Simple practices like liberal use of common household substances like lime concentrate may help to reduce these in fried food.

  14. Age-related deficits in selective attention during encoding increase demands on episodic reconstruction during context retrieval: An ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Taylor; Strunk, Jonathan; Arndt, Jason; Duarte, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) and neuroimaging evidence suggests that directing attention toward single item-context associations compared to intra-item features at encoding improves context memory performance and reduces demands on strategic retrieval operations in young and older adults. In everyday situations, however, there are multiple event features competing for our attention. It is not currently known how selectively attending to one contextual feature while attempting to ignore another influences context memory performance and the processes that support successful retrieval in the young and old. We investigated this issue in the current ERP study. Young and older participants studied pictures of objects in the presence of two contextual features: a color and a scene, and their attention was directed to the object’s relationship with one of those contexts. Participants made context memory decisions for both attended and unattended contexts and rated their confidence in those decisions. Behavioral results showed that while both groups were generally successful in applying selective attention during context encoding, older adults were less confident in their context memory decisions for attended features and showed greater dependence in context memory accuracy for attended and unattended contextual features (i.e., hyper-binding). ERP results were largely consistent between age groups but older adults showed a more pronounced late posterior negativity (LPN) implicated in episodic reconstruction processes. We conclude that age-related suppression deficits during encoding result in reduced selectivity in context memory, thereby increasing subsequent demands on episodic reconstruction processes when sought after details are not readily retrieved. PMID:27094851

  15. Repeated dexamphetamine treatment alters the dopaminergic system and increases the phMRI response to methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrantee, Anouk; Tremoleda, Jordi L.; Wylezinska-Arridge, Marzena; Bouet, Valentine; Hesseling, Peter; Meerhoff, Gideon F.; de Bruin, Kora M.; Koeleman, Jan; Freret, Thomas; Boulouard, Michel; Desfosses, Emilie; Galineau, Laurent; Gozzi, Alessandro; Dauphin, François; Gsell, Willy; Booij, Jan; Lucassen, Paul J.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    Dexamphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant drug that is used both recreationally and as medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated exposure to AMPH can induce damage to nerve terminals of dopamine (DA) neurons. We here assessed the underlying neurobiological changes in the DA system following repeated AMPH exposure and pre-treated rats with AMPH or saline (4 times 5 mg/kg s.c., 2 hours apart), followed by a 1-week washout period. We then used pharmacological MRI (phMRI) with a methylphenidate (MPH) challenge, as a sensitive and non-invasive in-vivo measure of DAergic function. We subsequently validated the DA-ergic changes post-mortem, using a.o. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and autoradiography. In the AMPH pre-treated group, we observed a significantly larger BOLD response to the MPH challenge, particularly in DA-ergic brain areas and their downstream projections. Subsequent autoradiography studies showed that AMPH pre-treatment significantly reduced DA transporter (DAT) density in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens, whereas HPLC analysis revealed increases in the DA metabolite homovanillic acid in the CPu. Our results suggest that AMPH pre-treatment alters DAergic responsivity, a change that can be detected with phMRI in rats. These phMRI changes likely reflect increased DA release together with reduced DAT binding. The ability to assess subtle synaptic changes using phMRI is promising for both preclinical studies of drug discovery, and for clinical studies where phMRI can be a useful tool to non-invasively investigate DA abnormalities, e.g. in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:28241065

  16. Molecular mechanisms of increased cerebral vulnerability after repeated mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Kamnaksh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of a mild traumatic brain injury can be especially severe if it is repeated within the period of increased cerebral vulnerability (ICV that follows the initial insult. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to ICV, we exposed rats to different levels of mild blast overpressure (5 exposures; total pressure range: 15.54–19.41 psi or 107.14–133.83 kPa at a rate of 1 per 30 min, monitored select physiological parameters, and assessed behavior. Two days post-injury or sham, we determined changes in protein biomarkers related to various pathologies in behaviorally relevant brain regions and in plasma. We found that oxygen saturation and heart rate were transiently depressed following mild blast exposure and that injured rats exhibited significantly increased anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. Proteomic analyses of the selected brain regions showed evidence of substantial oxidative stress and vascular changes, altered cell adhesion, and inflammation predominantly in the prefrontal cortex. Importantly, these pathological changes as well as indications of neuronal and glial cell loss/damage were also detected in the plasma of injured rats. Our findings illustrate some of the complex molecular changes that contribute to the period of ICV in repeated mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Further studies are needed to determine the functional and temporal relationship between the various pathomechanisms. The validation of these and other markers can help to diagnose individuals with ICV using a minimally invasive procedure and to develop evidence-based treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric conditions.

  17. Expanded CAG repeats in the murine Huntington's disease gene increases neuronal differentiation of embryonic and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Matthew T; Zawistowski, Virginia A

    2009-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an uncommon autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats. Increased neurogenesis was demonstrated recently in Huntington's disease post-mortem samples. In this manuscript, neuronally differentiated embryonic stem cells with expanded CAG repeats in the murine Huntington's disease homologue and neural progenitors isolated from the subventricular zone of an accurate mouse Huntington's disease were examined for increased neurogenesis. Embryonic stem cells with expanded CAG repeats in the murine Huntington's disease homologue were demonstrated to undergo facilitated differentiation first into neural progenitors, then into more mature neurons. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone of a Huntington's disease knock-in animal displayed increased production of neural progenitors and increased neurogenesis. These findings suggested that neuronally differentiating embryonic stem cells with expanded CAG repeats is a reasonable system to identify factors responsible for increased neurogenesis in Huntington's disease. Expression profiling analysis comparing neuronally differentiating embryonic stem cells with expanded CAG repeats to neuronally differentiating embryonic stem cells without expanded CAG repeats identified transcripts involved in development and transcriptional regulation as factors possibly mediating increased neurogenesis in response to expanded CAG repeats.

  18. Repeated cocaine exposure increases fast-spiking interneuron excitability in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanac, Emilie; Hoffman, Dax A

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in cocaine addiction. However, how chronic cocaine exposure affects cortical networks remains unclear. Most studies have focused on layer 5 pyramidal neurons (the circuit output), while the response of local GABAergic interneurons to cocaine remains poorly understood. Here, we recorded from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-IN) after repeated cocaine exposure and found altered membrane excitability. After cocaine withdrawal, FS-IN showed an increase in the number of spikes evoked by positive current injection, increased input resistance, and decreased hyperpolarization-activated current. We also observed a reduction in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, whereas miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current activity was unaffected. We show that, in animals with cocaine history, dopamine receptor D(2) activation is less effective in increasing FS-IN intrinsic excitability. Interestingly, these alterations are only observed 1 wk or more after the last cocaine exposure. This suggests that the dampening of D(2)-receptor-mediated response may be a compensatory mechanism to rein down the excitability of FS-IN.

  19. Expanded CAG repeats in the murine Huntington’s disease gene increases neuronal differentiation of embryonic and neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lorincz, Matthew T.; Zawistowski, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is an uncommon autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats. Increased neurogenesis was demonstrated recently in Huntington’s disease postmortem samples. In this manuscript, neuronally differentiated embryonic stem cells with expanded CAG repeats in the murine Huntington’s disease homologue and neural progenitors isolated from the subventricular zone of an accurate mouse Huntington’s disease were examined for increased neurogenesi...

  20. Increased activities of both superoxide dismutase and catalase were indicators of acute depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2016-01-30

    Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and S100B in patients with MDD in an acute phase, and evaluate the changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein carbonyl content (PCC), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine after treatment (8-OHdG), catalase (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and S100B. We consecutively enrolled 21 MDD inpatients in an acute phase and 40 healthy subjects. Serum oxidative stress markers were measured with assay kits. Serum SOD and CAT activities in MDD patients in an acute phase were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects, and serum PCC levels were significantly lower. The HAM-D scores had a significantly positive association with S100B levels. Eighteen depressed patients were followed up, and there was no significant difference among all of the markers after treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased activities of both SOD and CAT might be indicators of acute depressive episodes in MDD patients.

  1. Increased leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin- like domains 1 expression enhances chemosensitivity in glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohui Liu; Shenqi Zhang; Dong Ruan; Xiaonan Zhu; Zhentao Guo; Huimin Dong; Mingmin Yan; Qianxue Chen; Daofeng Tian; Liquan Wu; Junmin Wang; Qiang Cai; Heng Shen; Baowei Ji; Long Wang

    2011-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is an anti-oncogene.LRIG1 is correlated with Bcl-2 in ependymomas.Decreased Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase expression can improve the chemosensitivity of glioma.In the present study, a tissue microarray of human brain astrocytomas was constructed.To investigate the relationship of LRIG1 with Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase, LRIG1, Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase expression in our tissue microarray was determined using immunohistochemistry.In addition, we constructed the LRIG1-U251 cell line, and its responses to doxorubicin and temozolomide were detected using the MTT assay.Results showed that LRIG1 expression was significantly negatively correlated with Bcl-2 and manganese superoxide dismutase expression in glioma.Also, proliferation of LRIG1-U251 cells exposed to doxorubicin or temozolomide was significantly inhibited, i.e.in the LRIG1-U251 cell line, the chemosensitivity to doxorubicin and temozolomide was increased.This indicates that increased LRIG1 expression produces a chemosensitivity in glioma.

  2. Behavioral analysis of narcoleptic episodes in orexin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibiger, Judith; Fendt, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Orexin-deficient mice express narcoleptic episodes which mirror some of the main symptoms of human narcolepsy. Therefore, they are often used in narcolepsy research. However, little is known about some behavioral characteristics of narcoleptic episodes, e.g. about episode types, duration, and variability. In the present study, 351 narcoleptic episodes of orexin-deficient mice were behaviorally characterized. Based on this data, we describe different onset and progression episodes types. These episode types affected episode duration, i.e. abrupt onsets and 'shaking'-like movements increased episode duration. Our data suggests that promoting motor activity enhances the frequency of narcoleptic episode. Inter-individual variability of episode frequency and duration was large; however, the intra-individual frequency was relatively stable. Based on these findings we suggest the following to increase the statistical power of experiments in orexin-deficient mice: Using a pre-screen and selecting the mice with decent episode frequency, using an enriched environment as well as using repeated-measure designs.

  3. Exposure to repeated immobilization stress inhibits cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in the rat ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Abarca, Jorge; Araya, Katherine A; Renard, Georgina M; Andrés, María E; Gysling, Katia

    2015-11-01

    A higher vulnerability to drug abuse has been observed in human studies of individuals exposed to chronic or persistent stress, as well as in animal models of drug abuse. Here, we explored the effect of repeated immobilization stress on cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in VTA and its regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and GABA systems. Cocaine (10mg/Kg i.p.) induced an increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in control rats. However, this effect was not observed in repeated stress rats. Considering the evidence relating stress with CRF, we decided to perfuse CRF and CP-154526 (selective antagonist of CRF1 receptor) in the VTA of control and repeated stress rats, respectively. We observed that perfusion of 20μM CRF inhibited the increase of VTA DA extracellular levels induced by cocaine in control rats. Interestingly, we observed that in the presence of 10μM CP-154526, cocaine induced a significant increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats. Regarding the role of VTA GABA neurotransmission, cocaine administration induced a significant increase in VTA GABA extracellular levels only in repeated stress rats. Consistently, cocaine was able to increase VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats when 100μM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABAA receptor, was perfused intra VTA. Thus, both CRF and GABA systems are involved in the lack of response to cocaine in the VTA of repeated stress rats. It is tempting to suggest that the loss of response in VTA dopaminergic neurons to cocaine, after repeated stress, is due to an interaction between CRF and GABA systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lithium increases platelet serine-9 phosphorylated GSK-3β levels in drug-free bipolar disorder during depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Rafael T; Zanetti, Marcus V; Talib, Leda L; Serpa, Mauricio H; Chaim, Tiffany M; Carvalho, Andre F; Brunoni, Andre R; Busatto, Geraldo F; Gattaz, Wagner F; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2015-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK3β) is an intracellular enzyme directly implicated in several neural processes relevant to bipolar disorder (BD) pathophysiology. GSK3β is also an important target for lithium and antidepressants. When phosphorylated at serine-9, GSK3β becomes inactive. Few studies evaluated serine-9 phosphorylated GSK3β (phospho-GSK3β) levels in BD subjects in vivo and no study has assessed it specifically in bipolar depression. Also, the effect of lithium monotherapy on GSK3β has never been studied in humans. In 27 patients with bipolar depression, total GSK3β and phospho-GSK3β were assessed in platelets by enzyme immunometric assay. Subjects were evaluated before and after 6 weeks of lithium treatment at therapeutic levels. Healthy subjects (n = 22) were used as a control group. No differences in phospho-GSK3β or total GSK3β were observed when comparing drug-free BD subjects in depression and healthy controls. Baseline HAM-D scores were not correlated with phospho-GSK3β and total GSK3β levels. From baseline to endpoint, lithium treatment inactivated GSK3β by significantly increasing phospho-GSK3β levels (p = 0.010). Clinical improvement (baseline HAM-D - endpoint HAM-D) negatively correlated with the increase in phospho-GSK3β (p = 0.03). The present results show that lithium inactivates platelet GSK3β in BD during mood episodes. No direct association with pathophysiology of BD was observed. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of GSK3β as a key biomarker in BD and its association with treatment response as well as the relevance of GSK3β in other neuropsychiatric disorders and as a new therapeutic target per se. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Serine-Aspartate Repeat Protein D Increases Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Survival in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Satoshi; Valderrama, J. Andrés; Ajayi, Clement; Sollid, Johanna U. E.; van Sorge, Nina M.; Nizet, Victor; van Strijp, Jos A. G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus expresses a panel of cell wall-anchored adhesins, including proteins belonging to the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) family, exemplified by the serine-aspartate repeat protein D (SdrD), which serve key roles in colonization and infection. Deletion of sdrD from S. aureus subsp. aureus strain NCTC8325-4 attenuated bacterial survival in human whole blood ex vivo, which was associated with increased killing by human neutrophils. Remarkably, SdrD was able to inhibit innate immune-mediated bacterial killing independently of other S. aureus proteins, since addition of recombinant SdrD protein and heterologous expression of SdrD in Lactococcus lactis promoted bacterial survival in human blood. SdrD contributes to bacterial virulence in vivo, since fewer S. aureus subsp. aureus NCTC8325-4 ΔsdrD bacteria than bacteria of the parent strain were recovered from blood and several organs using a murine intravenous infection model. Collectively, our findings reveal a new property of SdrD as an important key contributor to S. aureus survival and the ability to escape the innate immune system in blood. PMID:27795358

  6. Cross-reactive anti-viral T cells increase prior to an episode of viral reactivation post human lung transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi H O Nguyen

    Full Text Available Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV reactivation continues to influence lung transplant outcomes. Cross-reactivity of anti-viral memory T cells against donor human leukocyte antigens (HLA may be a contributing factor. We identified cross-reactive HLA-A*02:01-restricted CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL co-recognizing the NLVPMVATV (NLV epitope and HLA-B27. NLV-specific CD8+ T cells were expanded for 13 days from 14 HLA-A*02:01/CMV seropositive healthy donors and 11 lung transplant recipients (LTR then assessed for the production of IFN-γ and CD107a expression in response to 19 cell lines expressing either single HLA-A or -B class I molecules. In one healthy individual, we observed functional and proliferative cross-reactivity in response to B*27:05 alloantigen, representing approximately 5% of the NLV-specific CTL population. Similar patterns were also observed in one LTR receiving a B27 allograft, revealing that the cross-reactive NLV-specific CTL gradually increased (days 13-193 post-transplant before a CMV reactivation event (day 270 and reduced to basal levels following viral clearance (day 909. Lung function remained stable with no acute rejection episodes being reported up to 3 years post-transplant. Individualized immunological monitoring of cross-reactive anti-viral T cells will provide further insights into their effects on the allograft and an opportunity to predict sub-clinical CMV reactivation events and immunopathological complications.

  7. Petrological insights into the 1976-2000 eruption episode of White Island, New Zealand: an eruption fuelled by repeated mafic recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Geoff; Moune, Severine; Della Pasqua, Fernando; Christenson, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    White Island is a partially submerged volcano located ~ 50 km to the NE of North Island, New Zealand. It is New Zealand's most active volcano and the island is a popular tourist destination. Surprisingly, little is known about the magmatic processes that led to historical eruptions given the potential vulnerability of tourists and its high level of historical activity. In addition, the volcano has been monitored with an array of methods since 1967; from geodetic surveying techniques to geochemical analyses of fluids and gases. Access to an excellent sample record has allowed us to examine a temporal record of magmatic processes, through the careful analysis of scoria clasts. We have then been able to compare apparent timescales of magmatic events to monitored signals. In this work we examine an extended eruptive episode (1976-2000) in order to determine the causes of signals produced throughout this sequence. Previous petrological and geophysical analysis of the 1976-2000 eruptive episode suggested that magma resided at a very shallow depth (i.e., ~ 500 m) for extended periods. This was primarily based on the focussed deformation signal and the low H2O ( 1 km depth prior to eruption. Significant magma degassing into the hydrothermal system was likely responsible for the deformation signal and is unrelated to very shallow magma residence. Taken together, these data provide an important link between petrology and geophysical monitoring at White Island.

  8. Serine aspartate repeat protein D increases Staphylococcus aureus virulence and survival in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askarian, Fatemeh; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Valderrama, J. Andrés; Ajayi, Clement; Sollid, Johanna U E; van Sorge, Nina M.; Nizet, Victor; van Strijp, Jos A G; Johannessen, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus expresses a panel of cell wall-anchored adhesins, including proteins belonging to the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) family, exemplified by the serine-aspartate repeat protein D (SdrD), which serve key roles in colonization and

  9. Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased during a repeated bout of aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stich, V; de Glisezinski, I; Berlan, M

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether lipid mobilization from adipose tissue undergoes changes during repeated bouts of prolonged aerobic exercise. Microdialysis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was used for the assessment of lipolysis; glycerol concentration was measured in the dialysate...

  10. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  11. Increased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine in two cases with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, R.; Yasuda, T.; Higashi, Y.; Terao, A.

    1989-09-01

    We present two cases with mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), which showed both increased and decreased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)-iodoamphetamine (/sup 123/I-IMP) in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The increased accumulation of the tracer occurred before low density appeared on conventional computed tomography, suggesting that /sup 123/I-IMP SPECT may be useful in pathophysiological study of MELAS. (orig.).

  12. Survey of severe spatial disorientation episodes in Japan Air Self-Defense Force fighter pilots showing increased severity in night flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yuko; Hisada, Tetsuya; Kuwada, Naruo; Sakai, Masao; Akamatsu, Tomomitsu

    2009-06-01

    Spatial disorientation (SD) is one of the most severe causative factors in aviation accidents. We analyzed the reported SD episodes to evaluate the characteristics of severe SD in fighter pilots. Three hundred seventeen cases (95.5%) of 332 total valid cases experienced SD, and the ratio of night and day SD experiences (52.7% vs. 47.3%) (p < 0.05) shows a clear prevalence of night SD events. The severity of SD episodes at night (2.23 +/- 1.09) was higher than at day (1.89 +/- 1.04) (p < 0.01). In addition, the severity of visual illusions was significantly higher at night. A significant difference was found for meteorological conditions, such as visual meteorological conditions (VMC), instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) and VMC-IMC (VI) transition, among times of days. In conclusion, the severity of the SD episodes was higher at night. This may be due to an increase in visual severe SD episodes at night.

  13. Increased Brain Lactate During Depressive Episodes and Reversal Effects by Lithium Monotherapy in Drug-Naive Bipolar Disorder: A 3-T 1H-MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Zanetti, Marcus V; Otaduy, Maria C; De Sousa, Rafael T; Soeiro-de-Souza, Marcio G; Costa, Alana C; Carvalho, Andre F; Leite, Claudia C; Busatto, Geraldo F; Zarate, Carlos A; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism impairment are key components in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) and may involve a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Measurement of brain lactate in vivo using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) represents an important tool to evaluate mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction during mood episodes, as well as to monitor treatment response. To date, very few studies have quantified brain lactate in BD. In addition, no study has longitudinally evaluated lactate using H-MRS during depressive episodes or its association with mood stabilizer therapy. This study aimed to evaluate cingulate cortex (CC) lactate using 3-T H-MRS during acute depressive episodes in BD and the possible effects induced by lithium monotherapy. Twenty medication-free outpatients with short length of BD (80% drug-naive) in a current major depressive episode were matched with control subjects. Patients were treated for 6 weeks with lithium monotherapy at therapeutic doses in an open-label trial (blood level, 0.48 ± 0.19 mmol/L). Cingulate cortex lactate was measured before (week 0) and after lithium therapy (week 6) using H-MRS. Antidepressant efficacy was assessed with the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale as the primary outcome. Subjects with BD depression showed a significantly higher CC lactate in comparison to control subjects. Furthermore, a significant decrease in CC lactate was observed after 6 weeks of lithium treatment compared with baseline (P = 0.002). CC Lactate levels was associated with family history of mood disorders and plasma lithium levels. This is the first report of increased CC lactate in patients with bipolar depression and lower levels after lithium monotherapy for 6 weeks. These findings indicate a shift to anaerobic metabolism and a role for lactate as a state marker during mood episodes. Energy and redox dysfunction may represent key targets for lithium's therapeutic actions.

  14. Aridification drove repeated episodes of diversification between Australian biomes: evidence from a multi-locus phylogeny of Australian toadlets (Uperoleia: Myobatrachidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catullo, Renee A; Scott Keogh, J

    2014-10-01

    Australia is a large and complex landmass that comprises diverse biomes ranging from tropical rainforests to harsh deserts. While Australian biotic diversity has evolved in response to landscape and climate changes, evidence of Miocene or later biome shifts are few. The Australo-Papuan endemic frog genus Uperoleia is widely distributed across mesic, monsoonal tropic and arid regions of Australia. Thus, it represents an ideal system to evaluate biome shifts as they relate to known landscape and climate history. We comprehensively sampled the distributional range of 25 described Uperoleia species and generated a detailed molecular phylogeny for the genus based on one mitochondrial and five nuclear loci. Our results support a single origin of monsoonal tropic taxa, followed by diversification within the region under the influence of the Australian monsoon. Molecular dating analyses suggest the major divergence between eastern mesic and monsoonal species occurred in the Miocene approximately 17million years ago, with repeated evolution of species from monsoonal biomes to arid or mesic biomes in the later Miocene, early Pliocene and at the beginning of the Pleistocene. Our detailed sampling helps to clarify the true distributions of species and contributes to on-going work to improve the taxonomy of the genus. Topological differences between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies within major clades suggest a history of mitochondrial introgression and capture, and reduce the ability to resolve close interspecific relationships.

  15. Increases in fruit intakes in older low consumers of fruit following two community-based repeated exposure interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K M

    2013-03-14

    The present study investigated the value of two repeated exposure interventions for increasing intakes of fruit in older people. A total of ninety-five participants (aged 65 years and over) were randomised to receive either one (E1), five (E5) or five plus (E5+) exposures to fruit over a 5-week period. Fruit exposures occurred in community-based church and social groups, through fruit-tasting sessions involving familiar fruits and novel fruit products and dishes (E1, E5, E5+), and through fruit provision (E5+). Daily intakes of fruit and vegetables were assessed before and after all interventions. Liking for all fruits was also measured during repeated exposure (E5, E5+). In low consumers of fruit (one portion/d or less), fruit intakes increased significantly in the repeated exposure groups (E5, E5+) (t(30) = 5·79, Polder low consumers of fruit, although no benefits of additional fruit provision were found. Repeated exposure was also easy to implement, of low cost and enjoyable.

  16. Detection rate of clinically insignificant prostate cancer increases with repeat prostate biopsies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bumsoo Park; Seong-Soo Jeon; Sung-Ho Ju; Byong-Chang Jeong; Seong-Il Seo; Hyun-Moo Lee; Han-Yong Choi

    2013-01-01

    To analyze if clinically insignificant prostate cancer (ClPC) is more frequently detected with repeat prostate biopsies,we retrospectively analyzed the records of 2146 men diagnosed with prostate cancer after one or more prostate biopsies.The patients were divided into five groups according to the number of prostate biopsies obtained,e.g.group 1 had one biopsy,group 2 had two biopsies and group 3 had three biopsies.Of the 2146 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer,1956 (91.1%),142 (6.6%),38 (1.8%),9 (0.4%) and 1 (0.1%) men were in groups 1,2,3,4 and 5,respectively.Groups 4 and 5 were excluded because of the small sample sizes.The remaining three groups (groups 1,2 and 3) were statistically analyzed.There were no differences in age or prostate-specific antigen level among the three groups.ClPC was detected in 201 (10.3%),28 (19.7%) and 9 (23.7%) patients in groups 1,2 and 3,respectively (P<0.001).A multivariate analysis showed that the number of biopsies was an independent predictor to detect CIPC (0R=2.688 for group 2; 0R=4.723 for group 3).In conclusion,patients undergoing multiple prostate biopsies are more likely to be diagnosed with CIPC than those who only undergo one biopsy.However,the risk still exists that the patient could have clinically significant prostate cancer.Therefore,when counseling patients with regard to serial repeat biopsies,the possibility of prostate cancer overdiagnosis and overtreatment must be balanced with the continued risk of clinically significant disease.

  17. Repeated oral administration of capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours with prolonged stress-response in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y-J Choi; J Y Kim; S B Yoo; J-H Lee; J W Jahng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the psycho-emotional effects of repeated oral exposure to capsaicin, the principal active component of chili peppers. Each rat received 1 mL of 0.02% capsaicin into its oral cavity daily, and was subjected to behavioural tests following 10 daily administrations of capsaicin. Stereotypy counts and rostral grooming were significantly increased, and caudal grooming decreased, in capsaicin-treated rats during the ambulatory activity test. In elevated plus maze test, not only the time spent in open arms but also the percent arm entry into open arms was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats compared with control rats. In forced swim test, although swimming duration was decreased, struggling increased in the capsaicin group, immobility duration did not differ between the groups. Repeated oral capsaicin did not affect the basal levels of plasma corticosterone; however, the stress-induced elevation of plasma corticosterone was prolonged in capsaicin treated rats. Oral capsaicin exposure significantly increased c-Fos expression not only in the nucleus tractus of solitarius but also in the paraventricular nucleus. Results suggest that repeated oral exposure to capsaicin increases anxiety-like behaviours in rats, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may play a role in its pathophysiology.

  18. Mild cognitive impairment, poor episodic memory, and late-life depression are associated with cerebral cortical thinning and increased white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motonobu eFujishima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In various independent studies to date, cerebral cortical thickness and white matter hyperintensity (WMH volume have been associated with episodic memory, depression, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The aim of this study was to uncover variations in cortical thickness and WMH volume in association with episodic memory, depressive state, and the presence of MCI simultaneously in a single study population. The participants were 186 individuals with MCI (clinical dementia rating [CDR] of 0.5 and 136 healthy elderly controls (HCs; CDR of 0 drawn from two community-based cohort studies in northern Japan. We computed cerebral cortical thickness and WMH volume by using MR scans and statistically analyzed differences in these indices between HCs and MCI participants. We also assessed the associations of these indices with memory performance and depressive state in participants with MCI. Compared with HCs, MCI participants exhibited thinner cortices in the temporal and inferior parietal lobes and greater WMH volumes in the corona radiata and semioval center. In MCI participants, poor episodic memory was associated with thinner cortices in the left entorhinal region and increased WMH volume in the posterior periventricular regions. Compared with non-depressed MCI participants, depressed MCI participants showed reduced cortical thickness in the anterior medial temporal lobe and ambient gyrus adjacent to the amygdala bilaterally, as well as greater WMH volume as a percentage of the total intracranial volume (WMHr. A higher WMHr was associated with cortical thinning in the frontal, temporal, and parietal regions in MCI participants. These results demonstrate that episodic memory and depression are associated with both cortical thickness and WMH volume in MCI participants. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the dynamic associations and interactions among these indices.

  19. Over-representation of repeats in stress response genes: a strategy to increase versatility under stressful conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo P C; Matic, Ivan; Taddei, François

    2002-05-01

    The survival of individual organisms facing stress is enhanced by the induction of a set of changes. As the intensity, duration and nature of stress is highly variable, the optimal response to stress may be unpredictable. To face such an uncertain future, it may be advantageous for a clonal population to increase its phenotypic heterogeneity (bet-hedging), ensuring that at least a subset of cells would survive the current stress. With current techniques, assessing the extent of this variability experimentally remains a challenge. Here, we use a bioinformatic approach to compare stress response genes with the rest of the genome for the presence of various kinds of repeated sequences, elements known to increase variability during the transfer of genetic information (i.e. during replication, but also during gene expression). We investigated the potential for illegitimate and homologous recombination of 296 Escherichia coli genes related to repair, recombination and physiological adaptations to different stresses. Although long repeats capable of engaging in homologous recombination are almost absent in stress response genes, we observed a significant high number of short close repeats capable of inducing phenotypic variability by slipped-mispair during DNA, RNA or protein synthesis.

  20. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    ). This was done for all women who had records of one or more singleton births from 1998 until 2012. In total, we had information on 822 439 children born to 491 242 unique mothers. Results showed first-time psychiatric episodes treated at inpatient facilities were rare during pregnancy, but increased...... significantly shortly following childbirth (0.02 vs 0.25 per 1000 births). In comparison, first-time psychiatric episodes treated at outpatient facilities were more common, and showed little variation across pregnancy and postpartum. For every single birth resulting in postpartum episodes treated at inpatient...

  1. Microbiology of Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients with Multiple Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessim, Sharon J.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Bargman, Joanne M.; Jassal, Sarbjit V.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)–associated peritonitis clusters within patients. Patient factors contribute to peritonitis risk, but there is also entrapment of organisms within the biofilm that forms on PD catheters. It is hypothesized that this biofilm may prevent complete eradication of organisms, predisposing to multiple infections with the same organism. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in the Canadian multicenter Baxter POET (Peritonitis, Organism, Exit sites, Tunnel infections) database from 1996 to 2005, we studied incident PD patients with 2 or more peritonitis episodes. We determined the proportion of patients with 2 or more episodes caused by the same organism. In addition, using a multivariate logistic regression model, we tested whether prior peritonitis with a given organism predicted the occurrence of a subsequent episode with the same organism. ♦ Results: During their time on PD, 558 patients experienced 2 or more peritonitis episodes. Of those 558 patients, 181 (32%) had at least 2 episodes with the same organism. The organism most commonly causing repeat infection was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), accounting for 65.7% of cases. Compared with peritonitis caused by other organisms, a first CNS peritonitis episode was associated with an increased risk of subsequent CNS peritonitis within 1 year (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.8; p peritonitis, 48% of repeat episodes occurred within 6 months of the earlier episode. ♦ Conclusions: In contrast to previous data, we did not find a high proportion of patients with multiple peritonitis episodes caused by the same organism. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the organism most likely to cause peritonitis more than once in a given patient, and a prior CNS peritonitis was associated with an increased risk of CNS peritonitis within the subsequent year. PMID:22215659

  2. No increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes during 48 h of subcutaneous glucagon-like-peptide-1 administration in fasting healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Susanne; Soendergaard, Liselotte; Rungby, Joergen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is uncertain whether the ability to avoid hypoglycaemia during fasting is preserved, and the risk of reactive hypoglycaemia after an oral glucose stimulus following a prolonged fasting period is increased at augmented glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. DESIGN: A randomized...... of insulin and C-peptide were higher with GLP-1 infusion. However, PG was similar during GLP-1 vs. placebo infusions. GLP-1 infusion increased norepinephrine and cortisol levels during OGTT. CONCLUSION: The counter-regulatory response during 48 h of subcutaneous GLP-1 infusion was preserved despite long......-term fasting with no apparent increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes. No reactive hypoglycaemia was observed when the fast was followed by an OGTT. Thus use of long-acting GLP-1 analogues may not increase the risk of hypoglycaemia....

  3. Impact of increasing heat waves on U.S. ozone episodes in the 2050s: Results from a multimodel analysis using extreme value theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L.; Mickley, L. J.; Gilleland, E.

    2016-04-01

    We develop a statistical model using extreme value theory to estimate the 2000-2050 changes in ozone episodes across the United States. We model the relationships between daily maximum temperature (Tmax) and maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) ozone in May-September over 2003-2012 using a Point Process (PP) model. At ~20% of the sites, a marked decrease in the ozone-temperature slope occurs at high temperatures, defined as ozone suppression. The PP model sometimes fails to capture ozone-Tmax relationships, so we refit the ozone-Tmax slope using logistic regression and a generalized Pareto distribution model. We then apply the resulting hybrid-extreme value theory model to projections of Tmax from an ensemble of downscaled climate models. Assuming constant anthropogenic emissions at the present level, we find an average increase of 2.3 d a-1 in ozone episodes (>75 ppbv) across the United States by the 2050s, with a change of +3-9 d a-1 at many sites.

  4. Suicidal changes in patients with first episode psychosis: clinical predictors of increasing suicidal tendency in the early treatment phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    in the first year of treatment of psychosis. Patients were grouped and ranked according to their highest suicidal tendency in the year before treatment: not suicidal, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicide attempt(s). Predictors for becoming more suicidal in the first year of treatment were examined...... with suicidal thoughts, plans or suicide attempt. In first year of treatment of psychosis, hallucinations increased the risk for becoming more suicidal, whereas delusions reduced this risk in already suicidal patients....

  5. Effect of increasing urban albedo on meteorology and air quality of Montreal (Canada) - Episodic simulation of heat wave in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchaei, Ali G.; Akbari, Hashem; Tessum, Christopher W.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing albedo is an effective strategy to mitigate urban air temperature in different climates. Using reflective urban surfaces decreases the air temperature, which potentially reduces the rate of generation of smog. However, for implementing the albedo enhancement, complicated interactions between air, moisture, aerosols, and other gaseous contaminant in the atmosphere should be considered. We used WRF-CHEM to investigate the effect of increasing albedo in Montreal, Canada, during a heat wave period (July 10th through July 12th, 2005) on air quality and urban climate. The reflectivity of roofs, walls, and roads are increased from 0.2 to 0.65, 0.6, and 0.45, respectively. Air temperature at 2-m elevation is decreased during all hours in the simulation period and the maximum reduction is about 1 °C on each day (Tmax is reduced by about 0.7 °C) The concentration of two regulated pollutants -ozone (O3) and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) - is calculated at a height of 5-m above the ground. The maximum decrease in 8-h averaged ozone concentration is about 3% (∼0.2 ppbv). 24-h averaged PM2.5 concentration decreases by 1.8 μg/m3. This relatively small change in concentration of pollutants is related to the decrease in planetary boundary layer height caused by increasing the albedo. Additionally, the combined effect of decreased solar heat gain by building surfaces and decreased air temperature reduces the energy consumption of HVAC systems by 2% (∼0.1 W/m2), which exacerbates the positive effect of the albedo enhancement on the air quality.

  6. Seismicity rate increases associated with slow slip episodes prior to the 2012 Mw 7.4 Ometepec earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Harmony V.; Sit, Stefany M.; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Graham, Shannon E.; DeMets, Charles; Holtkamp, Stephen G.; Skoumal, Robert J.; Ghouse, Noorulann; Cabral-Cano, Enrique; Kostoglodov, Vladimir; Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra

    2017-04-01

    The March 20, 2012 Mw 7.4 Ometepec earthquake in the Oaxaca region of Southern Mexico provides a unique opportunity to examine whether subtle changes in seismicity, tectonic tremor, or slow slip can be observed prior to a large earthquake that may illuminate changes in stress or background slip rate. Continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) data reveal a 5-month-long slow slip event (SSE) between ∼20 and 35 km depth that migrated toward and reached the vicinity of the mainshock a few weeks prior to the earthquake. Seismicity in Oaxaca is examined using single station tectonic tremor detection and multi-station waveform template matching of earthquake families. An increase in seismic activity, detected with template matching using aftershock waveforms, is only observed in the weeks prior to the mainshock in the region between the SSE and mainshock. In contrast, a SSE ∼15 months earlier occurred at ∼25-40 km depth and was primarily associated with an increase in tectonic tremor. Together, these observations indicate that in the Oaxaca region of Mexico shallower slow slip promotes elevated seismicity rates, and deeper slow slip promotes tectonic tremor. Results from this study add to a growing number of published accounts that indicate slow slip may be a common pre-earthquake signature.

  7. Repeated sauna therapy attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats by increasing coronary vascularity of noninfarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobajima, Mitsuo; Nozawa, Takashi; Shida, Takuya; Ohori, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Matsuki, Akira; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Repeated sauna therapy (ST) increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and improves cardiac function in heart failure as well as peripheral blood flow in ischemic limbs. The present study investigates whether ST can increase coronary vascularity and thus attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We induced MI by ligating the left coronary artery of Wistar rats. The rats were placed in a far-infrared dry sauna at 41°C for 15 min and then at 34°C for 20 min once daily for 4 wk. Cardiac hemodynamic, histopathological, and gene analyses were performed. Despite the similar sizes of MI between the ST and non-ST groups (51.4 ± 0.3 vs. 51.1 ± 0.2%), ST reduced left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (9.7 ± 0.4 vs. 10.7 ± 0.5 mm, P myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA levels. Vascular density was reduced in the noninfarcted myocardium of non-ST rats, and the density of cells positive for CD31 and for α-smooth muscle actin was decreased. These decreases were attenuated in ST rats compared with non-ST rats and associated with increases in myocardial eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. In conclusion, ST attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI, at least in part, through improving coronary vascularity in the noninfarcted myocardium. Repeated ST might serve as a novel noninvasive therapy for patients with MI.

  8. 儿童支气管哮喘反复性发作的相关危险因素分析%Analysis on associated risk factors of repeated episodes of child bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢伟洪

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童支气管哮喘反复性发作的相关危险因素,为流行病学研究提供依据,指导临床预防和控制.方法 随机选取在我院治疗的儿童哮喘患者88例为哮喘组,另取正常儿童88例为对照组,两组儿童性别、年龄差异无显著性.对两组儿童进行问卷调查,对结果进行统计学对比分析.结果 统计学研究显示,造成儿童支气管哮喘的危险因素包括居住环境、饮食习惯、呼吸道感染、家族遗传哮喘史、个人过敏史、家庭成员吸烟等.结论 为避免呼吸道感染、个人过敏史等危险因素使儿童支气管哮喘反复性发作,应加强对居住环境和饮食习惯的控制、提高父母文化教育程度、坚持母乳喂养和儿童补充鱼肝油,加强儿童支气管哮喘的预防和控制.%Objective To study the associated risk factors of repeated episodes of child bronchial asthma.and to provide basis for epidemiology research.guiding clinical prevention and control.Methods 88 patients with child bronchial asthma were randomly selected as the asthma group,another 88 normal children as control group.In two groups,children's gender and age had no significant difference.We used the questionnaire survey,and the results used statistical analysis.Results Statistics research showed that risk factors of child bronchial asthma included living environment,dietary habits,respiratory infection,family history of asthma,individual genetic history of allergies and family members smoking.Conclusions To avoid respiratory infection and the risk factors such as history of allergies to make child bronchial asthma repeated attacks,we should strengthen living environment and eating habits,improve parents' education degree,adhere to the breasffeeding and add cod-liver oil,in order to strengthen prevention and control for child bronchial asthma.

  9. Increased Mesohippocampal Dopaminergic Activity and Improved Depression-Like Behaviors in Maternally Separated Rats Following Repeated Fasting/Refeeding Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Won Jahng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that rats that experienced 3 h of daily maternal separation during the first 2 weeks of birth (MS showed binge-like eating behaviors with increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis when they were subjected to fasting/refeeding cycles repeatedly. In this study, we have examined the psychoemotional behaviors of MS rats on the fasting/refeeding cycles, together with their brain dopamine levels. Fasting/refeeding cycles normalized the ambulatory activity of MS rats, which was decreased by MS experience. Depression-like behaviors, but not anxiety, by MS experience were improved after fasting/refeeding cycles. Fasting/refeeding cycles did not significantly affect the behavioral scores of nonhandled (NH control rats. Fasting/refeeding cycles increased dopamine levels not only in the hippocampus but also in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in MS rats, but not in NH controls. Results demonstrate that fasting/refeeding cycles increase the mesohippocampal dopaminergic activity and improve depression-like behaviors in rats that experienced MS. Together with our previous paper, it is suggested that increased dopamine neurotransmission in the hippocampus may be implicated in the underlying mechanisms by which the fasting/refeeding cycles induce binge-like eating and improve depression-like behaviors in MS rats.

  10. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  11. High altitude increases alteration in maximal torque but not in rapid torque development in knee extensors after repeated treadmill sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eGIRARD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 x 5-s all-out sprints (passive recovery = 25 s on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%, at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.6% and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3% normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively. Explosive (∼1 s; fast instruction and maximal (∼5 s; hard instruction voluntary isometric contractions (MVC of the knee extensors, with concurrent electromyographic (EMG activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS rise from 0 to 30, -50, -100 and -200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P>0.05 in all conditions. A larger (P0.05. Irrespectively of condition (P>0.05, peak RTD (-6±11%; P0.05, whereas it increased (P<0.05 for RF muscle during all epochs post-exercise, independently of the conditions. In summary, alteration in repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia.

  12. High Altitude Increases Alteration in Maximal Torque but Not in Rapid Torque Development in Knee Extensors after Repeated Treadmill Sprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 × 5-s “all-out” sprints (passive recovery = 25 s) on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%), at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.8%) and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3%) normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively). Explosive (~1 s; “fast” instruction) and maximal (~5 s; “hard” instruction) voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE), with concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD) and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS) rise from 0 to 30, −50, −100, and −200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P > 0.05) in all conditions. A larger (P sprint decrement score and a shorter (P sprints occurred in HA (−8 ± 4% and 178 ± 11 m) but not in LA (−7 ± 3% and 181 ± 10 m) compared to NM (−5 ± 2% and 183 ± 9 m). Compared to NM (−9 ± 7%), a larger (P 0.05). Irrespectively of condition (P > 0.05), peak RTD (−6 ± 11%; P 0.05), whereas it increased (P repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia. PMID:27014095

  13. Repeated Listening Increases the Liking for Music Regardless of Its Complexity: Implications for the Appreciation and Aesthetics of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy; Schiölde, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Psychological and aesthetic theories predict that music is appreciated at optimal, peak levels of familiarity and complexity, and that appreciation of music exhibits an inverted U-shaped relationship with familiarity as well as complexity. Because increased familiarity conceivably leads to improved processing and less perceived complexity, we test whether there is an interaction between familiarity and complexity. Specifically, increased familiarity should render the music subjectively less complex, and therefore move the apex of the U curve toward greater complexity. A naturalistic listening experiment was conducted, featuring 40 music examples (ME) divided by experts into 4 levels of complexity prior to the main experiment. The MEs were presented 28 times each across a period of approximately 4 weeks, and individual ratings were assessed throughout the experiment. Ratings of liking increased monotonically with repeated listening at all levels of complexity; both the simplest and the most complex MEs were liked more as a function of listening time, without any indication of a U-shaped relation. Although the MEs were previously unknown to the participants, the strongest predictor of liking was familiarity in terms of having listened to similar music before, i.e., familiarity with musical style. We conclude that familiarity is the single most important variable for explaining differences in liking among music, regardless of the complexity of the music. PMID:28408864

  14. Prolonged Increase in the Sensitivity of the Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area to the Reinforcing Effects of Ethanol following Repeated Exposure to Cycles of Ethanol Access and Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodd, Zachary A.; Bell, Richard L.; McQueen, Victoria K.; Davids, Michelle R.; Hsu, Cathleen C.; Murphy, James M.; Li, Ting-Kai; Lumeng, Lawrence; McBride, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The posterior ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a neuroanatomical substrate mediating the reinforcing effects of ethanol in rats. Repeated alcohol deprivations produce robust ethanol intakes of alcohol-preferring (P) rats during relapse and increase the reinforcing effects of oral alcohol self-administration. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that alcohol drinking and repeated alcohol deprivations will increase the reinforcing effects of ethanol within the posterior VTA of ...

  15. Repeated Cycles of Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Increases Basal Glutamate in the Nucleus Accumbens of Mice without affecting glutamate transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Griffin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure increase voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice. Previous work has shown that extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc is significantly elevated in ethanol dependent mice and that pharmacologically manipulating glutamate concentrations in the NAc will alter ethanol drinking, indicating that glutamate homeostasis plays a crucial role in ethanol drinking in this model. The present studies were designed to measure extracellular glutamate at a time point in which mice would ordinarily be allowed voluntary access to ethanol in the CIE model and, additionally, to measure glutamate transport capacity in the NAc at the same time point. Extracellular glutamate was measured using quantitative microdialysis procedures. Glutamate transport capacity was measured under Na+ dependent and Na+ independent conditions to determine whether the function of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs; also known as system XAG or of system Xc- (Glial cysteine-glutamate exchanger was influenced by CIE exposure. The results of the quantitative microdialysis experiment confirm increased extracellular glutamate (~2 –fold in the NAc of CIE exposed mice (i.e. ethanol-dependent compared to non-dependent mice in the NAc, consistent with earlier work. However, the increase in extracellular glutamate was not due to altered transporter function in the NAc of ethanol-dependent mice, because neither Na+ dependent nor Na+ independent glutamate transport was significantly altered by CIE exposure. These findings point to the possibility that hyperexcitability of cortical-striatal pathways underlies the increases in extracellular glutamate found in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol-dependent mice.

  16. Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: intersections between memory and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K

    2015-01-01

    This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one's personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one's personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions.

  17. How can we increase physical activity and exercise among youth experiencing first-episode psychosis? A systematic review of intervention variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Simon; Lederman, Oscar; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Stanton, Robert; Ward, Philip B

    2016-10-01

    To review intervention variables and outcomes of studies designed to increase physical activity or exercise participation among people experiencing first-episode psychosis. A systematic review of electronic databases was conducted from inception to November 2014. Eleven eligible studies describing 12 interventions were included (n = 351; 14-35 years) incorporating health coaching (n = 5), exercise prescriptions based on physiological parameters (e.g. heart rate) (n = 3), supervised, individually tailored programmes (n = 2), an Internet-delivered intervention and a yoga intervention. The majority of the interventions were delivered over 12 weeks (n = 6) and in community settings (n = 11). Five studies assessed aerobic capacity (VO2 max or VO2 peak) and three studies assessed self-reported physical activity levels. Considerable heterogeneity in the design, implementation and assessment of interventions was found. There is an urgent need to better understand how physical activity can be increased in line with the internationally endorsed HeaL (Healthy Active Lives) Declaration 5-year physical activity target. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Cannabis Use Is Associated With Increased Psychotic Symptoms and Poorer Psychosocial Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis: A Report From the UK National EDEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Jennifer L; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B; Fowler, David; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-05-01

    The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly "continued use," was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Repeated applications of CPPU on highbush blueberry cv. Duke increase yield and enhance fruit quality at harvest and during postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B Retamales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl-N'-phenylurea (CPPU can increase blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. yield and fruit size, but their impact on postharvest is unknown. We studied repeated CPPU applications effects on yield and quality (harvest, postharvest, over 2 yr on mature 'Duke' plants in South-Central Chile. The first year, 5 or 10 mL L-1 CPPU was applied at 3, 10, and/or 17 d after full bloom (DAFB plus a non-sprayed control. The second year, 5 or 10 mL L-1 CPPU were sprayed 10 and 17 DAFB plus a control. The first year, only 10 mL L-1 CPPU sprayed 3+17 DAFB increased yield (32.5% > control; 10 mL L-1 CPPU applied 10 or 3+17 DAFB had highest fruit diameter; and 10 mL L-1 CPPU at 17 DAFB or at 3+10+17 DAFB had highest soluble solids. Overall, 10 mL L-1 CPPU applied 3+17 DAFB, was the best treatment for year one, since it increased fruit yield and diameter, while soluble solids and postharvest weight loss were similar to control. The second year, 10 mL L-1 CPPU reduced fruit coloration (blue color coverage index: BCCI and soluble solids, but not firmness at harvest. This rate increased berry weight (24.2% and fruit wax (59% > wax coverage index: WCI at harvest. Harvest and postharvest WCI increased consistently as CPPU rate increased. CPPU reduced fruit rotting (15% at 45+5 evaluation. During storage, CPPU-treated-fruit had a slower decrease in firmness (30.5% < control at 30+1, but no difference at 30+5. CPPU-treated-fruit usually had higher post harvest soluble solids. Ten mL L-1 CPPU retarded color evolution at harvest and at 30+1, but not at 30+5, 40+1 or 40+5.

  20. Enhanced detection of polymicrobic bacteremia by repeat subculture of previously positive blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, S.L.; Hetmanski, J

    1983-01-01

    Blood subcultures repeated 3 days after the cultures were first identified as positives increased our detection of polymicrobic bacteremia in 9.1 to 27% of clinically significant patient episodes. Reincubation and repeated subculture of previously positive blood cultures had a direct impact on the therapeutic management of patients with polymicrobic bacteremia.

  1. Increasing the repeating units of ethylene glycol-based dimethacrylates directed toward reduced oxidative stress and co-stimulatory factors expression in human monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Fukumoto, Izumi; Yui, Nobuhiko; Matsumura, Mitsuaki; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The ethylene glycol-based dimethacrylates are commonly used in biomaterials and dental restorative materials as a cross-linking agent. In this study, toxic effect of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylates (PEG-DMAs) with various ethylene glycol repeating units was investigated in terms of cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and the expression of co-stimulatory factors in human leukemia cell line (THP-1 cells) to verify the effect of ethylene glycol repeating units. Note that the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of PEG-based dimethacrylates decreased with increasing the ethylene glycol repeating units, indicating that the hydrophilicity of PEG-DMAs increased with ethylene glycol repeating units. The toxic effect of PEG-DMAs such as cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and the expression of CD86 in treated THP-1 cells are reduced with increasing the ethylene glycol repeating units in PEG-DMAs. However, the expression of CD54 in treated THP-1 cells was not influenced with the ethylene glycol repeating units and the maximal expression level of CD54 was observed at the concentration range of 2-4 mM for all samples. Accordingly, hydrophilic character of PEG-DMAs with long ethylene glycol chains definitely alleviates the some toxic aspect of PEG-based DMAs. This finding would provide important insight into the design of new biomaterials and dental materials with superior biocompatibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Autobiographically significant concepts: more episodic than semantic in nature? An electrophysiological investigation of overlapping types of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Louis; Davidson, Patrick S R; Schmitz, Erika; Park, Lillian; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A common assertion is that semantic memory emerges from episodic memory, shedding the distinctive contexts associated with episodes over time and/or repeated instances. Some semantic concepts, however, may retain their episodic origins or acquire episodic information during life experiences. The current study examined this hypothesis by investigating the ERP correlates of autobiographically significant (AS) concepts, that is, semantic concepts that are associated with vivid episodic memories. We inferred the contribution of semantic and episodic memory to AS concepts using the amplitudes of the N400 and late positive component, respectively. We compared famous names that easily brought to mind episodic memories (high AS names) against equally famous names that did not bring such recollections to mind (low AS names) on a semantic task (fame judgment) and an episodic task (recognition memory). Compared with low AS names, high AS names were associated with increased amplitude of the late positive component in both tasks. Moreover, in the recognition task, this effect of AS was highly correlated with recognition confidence. In contrast, the N400 component did not differentiate the high versus low AS names but, instead, was related to the amount of general knowledge participants had regarding each name. These results suggest that semantic concepts high in AS, such as famous names, have an episodic component and are associated with similar brain processes to those that are engaged by episodic memory. Studying AS concepts may provide unique insights into how episodic and semantic memory interact.

  3. Impact of episodic thinking on altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Richard; Pickover, Alison; Stuppy-Sullivan, Allison M; Baker, Sydney; Landes, Reid D

    2016-07-01

    Episodic future thinking, which refers to the use of prospective imagery to concretely imagine oneself in future scenarios, has been shown to reduce delay discounting (enhance self-control). A parallel approach, in which prospective imagery is used to concretely imagine other's scenarios, may similarly reduce social discounting (i.e., enhance altruism). In study 1, participants engaged in episodic thinking about the self or others, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. Reductions in social discounting were observed as a function of episodic thinking about others, though an interaction with order was also observed. Using an independent-measures design in study 2, the effect of episodic thinking about others was replicated. Study 3 addressed a limitation of studies 1 and 2, the possibility that simply thinking about others decreased social discounting. Capitalizing on Construal Level Theory, which specifies that social distance and time in the future are both dimensions of a common psychological distance, we hypothesized that episodic future thinking should also decrease social discounting. Participants engaged in episodic future thinking or episodic present thinking, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. The pattern of results was similar to study 1, providing support for the notion that episodic thinking about psychologically distant outcomes (for others or in the future) reduces social discounting. Application of similar episodic thinking approaches may enhance altruism.

  4. Motivation and episodic memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ngaosuvan, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    In everyday life, motivation and learning are connected like music and dancing. Many educators realize this and work hard to improve their students' motivation. A motivated student may repeat and self-rehearse the content of a chapter more often, which leads to better learning. However, from a cognitive psychology point of view, it is still uncertain if motivation without differences in repetition or attention, affects episodic memory performance. That is, would a motivated student perform be...

  5. Increased risk of breast cancer in women bearing a combination of large CAG and GGN repeats in the exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana; Javier Dorta, F; Rodriguez, Germán; Brito, Buenaventura; Rodríguez, M A Del Cristo; Cabrera, Antonio; Díaz-Chico, Juan C; Reyes, Ricardo; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando; Nicolás Díaz-Chico, B

    2007-11-01

    The exon 1 of the human androgen receptor gene (AR) contains both CAG (polyglutamine) and GGN (polyglycine) repeat length polymorphisms. Large CAG repeats have been related to an increased risk of breast cancer (BC), whereas the influence of the GGN repeats is still unclear. Here, we have studied how the length of CAG and GGN repeats is associated with the risk of BC in a population from Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The study was carried out on 257 woman diagnosed with BC and 393 controls, nesting in the 'CDC of the Canary Islands' cohort study. The AR CAG and GGN genotyping was performed by means of PCR amplification with specific fluorescently labelled primers followed by a capillary electrophoresis. The allelic distribution of CAG and GGN polymorphisms was similar in cases and controls. The mean of short and long CAG and GGN alleles did not show differences between cases and controls and the same was true when the average length of both CAG alleles (CAG(n)) and GGN alleles (GGN(n)) was considered. However, when CAG(n) and GGN(n) were categorised using 22 and 24 repeats as the cut-off point, respectively, significant differences between cases and controls were observed. The CAG(n)>22 repeats were more frequent in cases than in controls, being associated with an increased risk of BC (OR=1.49; CI(95%)=1.06-2.09; p=0.021). No significant differences were found for categorised GGN(n). For CAG(n)/GGN(n) combinations, the highest BC risk was found to be associated with the CAG(n)>22/GGN(n)24 combination (OR=2.47; CI(95%)=1.37-4.46; p=0.003). In conclusion, our results indicate that longer CAG(n)/GGN(n) combinations increase the risk of BC and suggest that CAG and GGN AR polymorphisms should be considered in order to assess the BC risk.

  6. Low episodic memory performance in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with increased posterior cingulate gray matter N-acetylaspartate: a (1)H MRSI study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G

    2016-12-01

    Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. General strategies to increase the repeatability in non-target screening by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Tobias; Schulz, Wolfgang; Kümmerer, Klaus; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2016-09-01

    This article focuses on the data evaluation of non-target high-resolution LC-MS profiles of water samples. Taking into account multiple technical replicates, the difficulties in peak recognition and the related problems of false positive and false negative findings are systematically demonstrated. On the basis of a combinatorial approach, different models involving sophisticated workflows are evaluated, particularly with regard to the repeatability. In addition, the improvement resulting from data processing was systematically taken into consideration where the recovery of spiked standards emphasized that real peaks of interest were barely or not removed by the derived filter criteria. The comprehensive evaluation included different matrix types spiked with up to 263 analytical standards which were analyzed repeatedly leading to a total number of more than 250 injections that were incorporated in the assessment of different models of data processing. It was found that the analysis of multiple replicates is the key factor as, on the one hand, it provides the option of integrating valuable filters in order to minimize the false positive rate and, on the other hand, allows correcting partially false negative findings occurring during the peak recognition. The developed processing strategies including replicates clearly point to an enhanced data quality since both the repeatability as well as the peak recognition could be considerably improved. As proof of concept, four different matrix types, including a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, were spiked with 130 isotopically labeled standards at different concentration levels. Despite the stringent filter criteria, at 100 ng L(-1) recovery rates of up to 93% were reached in the positive ionization mode. The proposed model, comprising three technical replicates, filters less than 5% and 2% of the standards recognized at 100 and 500 ng L(-1), respectively and thus indicates the general applicability of the

  8. Transfer of genetic therapy across human populations: molecular targets for increasing patient coverage in repeat expansion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Miguel A; Curtis, Helen J; Douglas, Andrew G L; Hammond, Suzan M; O'Loughlin, Aisling J; Sobrido, Maria J; Scholefield, Janine; Wood, Matthew J A

    2016-02-01

    Allele-specific gene therapy aims to silence expression of mutant alleles through targeting of disease-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, SNP linkage to disease varies between populations, making such molecular therapies applicable only to a subset of patients. Moreover, not all SNPs have the molecular features necessary for potent gene silencing. Here we provide knowledge to allow the maximisation of patient coverage by building a comprehensive understanding of SNPs ranked according to their predicted suitability toward allele-specific silencing in 14 repeat expansion diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy 1, myotonic dystrophy 2, Huntington's disease and several spinocerebellar ataxias. Our systematic analysis of DNA sequence variation shows that most annotated SNPs are not suitable for potent allele-specific silencing across populations because of suboptimal sequence features and low variability (>97% in HD). We suggest maximising patient coverage by selecting SNPs with high heterozygosity across populations, and preferentially targeting SNPs that lead to purine:purine mismatches in wild-type alleles to obtain potent allele-specific silencing. We therefore provide fundamental knowledge on strategies for optimising patient coverage of therapeutics for microsatellite expansion disorders by linking analysis of population genetic variation to the selection of molecular targets.

  9. Influences of increased daily repeated upstream releases and varying meteorological conditions on temperature distributions in a river-reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Fang, X.

    2016-08-01

    Temperature distribution in a river-reservoir system was simulated using a calibrated three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code model under various hypothetical weather conditions and daily repeated large releases (DRLRs) from the upstream boundary. Both DRLRs and weather conditions affect and control the formation and spread of density currents and then affect the bottom-layer temperatures. The DRLRs with longer durations (e.g., 6 or 8 hours) can relatively quickly push cooler release water to the Gorgas upstream monitoring station (GOUS) and the river intake. With the air temperature drops in the first 6 days, simulated bottom temperatures at GOUS for 6- and 8-hr DRLRs are lower than one under 4-hr DRLR, but relatively larger bottom-layer temperature drops only primarily occur during the air-temperature drop and rise period. The release with larger flow rate can also maintain the cooler water temperature downstream. Releasing the same amounts of water, with different release durations and flow rates, has a very similar effect on the downstream water temperatures.

  10. R region sequences in the long terminal repeat of a murine retrovirus specifically increase expression of unspliced RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, A M; Okenquist, S A; Lenz, J

    1999-04-01

    A stem-loop structure at the 5' end of the R region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the murine leukemia virus SL3 and other type C mammalian retroviruses is important for maximum levels of expression of a reporter gene under the control of the viral LTR. This element, termed the R region stem-loop (RSL), has a small effect on transcriptional initiation and no effect on RNA polymerase processivity. Its major effect is on posttranscriptional processing of LTR-driven transcripts. Here we tested whether the RSL affected the production of RNAs from a full-length SL3 genome. Mutation of the RSL in the 5' LTR of SL3 reduced the cytoplasmic levels of full-length viral transcripts but not those of spliced, env mRNA transcripts. Thus, the RSL specifically affected the cytoplasmic levels of the unspliced viral RNA. To test further whether the effect was specific for unspliced transcripts, a system was devised in which the expression of a reporter gene under the control of the viral LTR was tested in the presence or absence of an intron. Mutation of the RSL resulted in only about a twofold decline in the level of reporter gene expression when the transcripts contained an intron. However, when the intron was removed, mutation of the RSL reduced expression of the reporter gene about 10- to 60-fold in various cell lines. The secondary structure of the RSL was essential for its activity on the intronless transcript. Thus, the RSL appears to be important for the cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced viral RNA and unspliced RNA from chimeric transcription units under the control of the viral LTR.

  11. Water quality limits for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. exposed to short term reductions in pH and increased aluminum simulating episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kristensen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Acidification has caused the loss or reduction of numerous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. populations on both sides of the North Atlantic. Acid deposition peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers. At present, water quality is improving in all affected rivers due to reduced acid deposition. However, spring snow melt, heavy rainfall and sea salt episodes can still cause short term drops in pH and elevated concentrations of bioavailable aluminum. Technical malfunction in lime dozers will cause short termed episodic spates in the limed rivers. The current situation has prompted a need for dose-response relationships based on short term exposures of Atlantic salmon to assess the potential population effects of episodic acidification. Water quality guidelines for salmon have been lacking, despite a large number of experiments, all demonstrating dose-response relationships between water chemistry and fish health. We have summarized results from 347 short-term (<14 days exposures of salmon parr and smolt performed between 1990 and 2003 in Norway. The experiments have been performed as bioassays, where fish have been exposed in tanks fed river water, in tanks where the river water quality has been manipulated (added H+ and Al and as Carlin-tagged smolt releases after preexposure to moderately acidic waters. The results from the various bioassays are compared to water quality limits proposed on basis of the relationship between water quality and population status/health in Norwegian rivers. The focus of this article is placed on chemical-biological interactions that can be drawn across experiments and exposure protocols. We propose dose-response relationships for acid neutralizing capacity (ANC, pH, cationic Al and gill accumulated Al, versus mortality in freshwater, effects on hypo-osmoregulatory capacity in seawater challenge tests and on smolt to adult survival in release experiments. The "no effect" dose

  12. Water quality limits for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. exposed to short term reductions in pH and increased aluminum simulating episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kristensen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Acidification has caused the loss or reduction of numerous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. populations on both sides of the North Atlantic. Acid deposition peaked in the 1980's and resulted in both chronically and episodically acidified rivers. At present, water quality is improving in all affected rivers due to reduced acid deposition. However, spring snow melt, heavy rainfall and sea salt episodes can still cause short term drops in pH and elevated concentrations of bioavailable aluminum. Technical malfunction in lime dozers will cause short termed episodic spates in the limed rivers. The current situation has prompted a need for dose-response relationships based on short term exposures of Atlantic salmon to assess the potential population effects of episodic acidification. Water quality guidelines for salmon have been lacking, despite a large number of experiments, all demonstrating dose-response relationships between water chemistry and fish health. We have summarized results from 347 short-term (<14 days exposures of salmon parr and smolt performed between 1990 and 2003 in Norway. The experiments have been performed as bioassays, where fish have been exposed in tanks fed river water, in tanks where the river water quality has been manipulated (added H+ and Al and as Carlin-tagged smolt releases after preexposure to moderately acidic waters. The results from the various bioassays are compared to water quality limits proposed on basis of the relationship between water quality and population status/health in Norwegian rivers. The focus of this article is placed on chemical-biological interactions that can be drawn across experiments and exposure protocols. We propose dose-response relationships for acid neutralizing capacity (ANC, pH, cationic Al and gill accumulated Al, versus mortality in freshwater, effects on hypo-osmoregulatory capacity in seawater challenge tests and on smolt to adult survival in release experiments. The "no effect" dose

  13. Episodic memories in anxiety disorders: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin eZlomuzica

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD. The available literature on explicit-, autobiographical- and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.

  14. Increased resting-state perfusion after repeated encoding is related to later retrieval of declarative associative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Groen

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in animals have shown coordinated reactivation of neuronal ensembles during a restricted time period of behavioral inactivity that immediately followed active encoding. In the present study we directly investigated off-line processing of associative memory formation in the human brain. Subjects' regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as a surrogate marker of neural activity during rest was measured by MR-based perfusion imaging in a sample of 14 healthy male subjects prior to (Pre2 and after (Post extensive learning of 24 face-name associations within a selective reminding task (SR. Results demonstrated significant Post-Pre2 rCBF increases in hippocampal and temporal lobe regions, while in a control comparison of two perfusion scans with no learning task in-between (Pre2-Pre1 no differences in rCBF emerged. Post perfusion scanning was followed by a surprise cued associative recall task from which two types of correctly retrieved names were obtained: older names already correctly retrieved at least once during one of the SR blocks, and recent names acquired during the last SR block immediately prior to the Post scan. In the anterior hippocampus individual perfusion increases were correlated with both correct retrievals of older and recent names. By contrast, older but not recently learned names showed a significant correlation with perfusion increases in the left lateral temporal cortex known to be associated with long-term memory. Recent, but not older names were correlated with dopaminergic midbrain structures reported to contribute to the persistence of memory traces for novel information. Although the direct investigation of off-line memory processing did not permit concomitant experimental control, neither intentional rehearsal, nor substantial variations in subjects' states of alertness appear to contribute to present results. We suggest that the observed rCBF increases might reflect processes that possibly

  15. Increased resting-state perfusion after repeated encoding is related to later retrieval of declarative associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Georg; Sokolov, Alexander N; Jonas, Christina; Roebling, Robert; Spitzer, Manfred

    2011-05-12

    Electrophysiological studies in animals have shown coordinated reactivation of neuronal ensembles during a restricted time period of behavioral inactivity that immediately followed active encoding. In the present study we directly investigated off-line processing of associative memory formation in the human brain. Subjects' regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as a surrogate marker of neural activity during rest was measured by MR-based perfusion imaging in a sample of 14 healthy male subjects prior to (Pre2) and after (Post) extensive learning of 24 face-name associations within a selective reminding task (SR). Results demonstrated significant Post-Pre2 rCBF increases in hippocampal and temporal lobe regions, while in a control comparison of two perfusion scans with no learning task in-between (Pre2-Pre1) no differences in rCBF emerged. Post perfusion scanning was followed by a surprise cued associative recall task from which two types of correctly retrieved names were obtained: older names already correctly retrieved at least once during one of the SR blocks, and recent names acquired during the last SR block immediately prior to the Post scan. In the anterior hippocampus individual perfusion increases were correlated with both correct retrievals of older and recent names. By contrast, older but not recently learned names showed a significant correlation with perfusion increases in the left lateral temporal cortex known to be associated with long-term memory. Recent, but not older names were correlated with dopaminergic midbrain structures reported to contribute to the persistence of memory traces for novel information. Although the direct investigation of off-line memory processing did not permit concomitant experimental control, neither intentional rehearsal, nor substantial variations in subjects' states of alertness appear to contribute to present results. We suggest that the observed rCBF increases might reflect processes that possibly contribute to the long

  16. Over-representation of repeats in stress response genes: a strategy to increase versatility under stressful conditions?

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Matic, Ivan; Taddei, François

    2002-01-01

    The survival of individual organisms facing stress is enhanced by the induction of a set of changes. As the intensity, duration and nature of stress is highly variable, the optimal response to stress may be unpredictable. To face such an uncertain future, it may be advantageous for a clonal population to increase its phenotypic heterogeneity (bet-hedging), ensuring that at least a subset of cells would survive the current stress. With current techniques, assessing the extent of this variabili...

  17. The specificity of stimulus-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex increases with repeated exposure to the adapting stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Paul M; Krumbholz, Katrin

    2013-12-01

    The neural response to a sensory stimulus tends to be more strongly reduced when the stimulus is preceded by the same, rather than a different, stimulus. This stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is ubiquitous across the senses. In hearing, SSA has been suggested to play a role in change detection as indexed by the mismatch negativity. This study sought to test whether SSA, measured in human auditory cortex, is caused by neural fatigue (reduction in neural responsiveness) or by sharpening of neural tuning to the adapting stimulus. For that, we measured event-related cortical potentials to pairs of pure tones with varying frequency separation and stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). This enabled us to examine the relationship between the degree of specificity of adaptation as a function of frequency separation and the rate of decay of adaptation with increasing SOA. Using simulations of tonotopic neuron populations, we demonstrate that the fatigue model predicts independence of adaptation specificity and decay rate, whereas the sharpening model predicts interdependence. The data showed independence and thus supported the fatigue model. In a second experiment, we measured adaptation specificity after multiple presentations of the adapting stimulus. The multiple adapters produced more adaptation overall, but the effect was more specific to the adapting frequency. Within the context of the fatigue model, the observed increase in adaptation specificity could be explained by assuming a 2.5-fold increase in neural frequency selectivity. We discuss possible bottom-up and top-down mechanisms of this effect.

  18. Lithium chloride administration prevents spatial learning and memory impairment in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice by depressing apoptosis and increasing BDNF expression in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingyue; Jin, Wei; Zhao, Haifeng; Xiao, Yining; Jia, Yanqiu; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Jing; Meng, Nan; Lv, Peiyuan

    2015-09-15

    Lithium has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, but the preventive and treated role on cognition impairment and the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. In the present study, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce the learning and memory deficits. 2 mmol/kg or 5 mmol/kg of lithium chloride (LiCl) was injected intraperitoneally per day before (for 7 days) or post (for 28 days) the operation. This repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced dynamic overexpression of ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and BDNF in hippocampus of mice. LiCl pretreatment and treatment significantly decreased the escape latency and increased the percentage of time that the mice spent in the target quadrant in Morris water maze. 2 mmol/kg LiCl evidently reversed the morphologic changes, up-regulated the survival neuron count and increased the BDNF gene and protein expression. 5 mmol/kg pre-LiCl significantly increased IR-stimulated reduce of Bcl-2/Bax and p-CREB/CREB. These results described suggest that pre-Li and Li treatment may induce a pronounced prevention on cognitive impairment. These effects may relay on the inhibition of apoptosis and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression.

  19. Repeat survey of current practice regarding corticosteroid prophylaxis for patients at increased risk of adverse reaction to intravascular contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, S. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sureshradhakrish@hotmail.com; Manoharan, S. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom); Fleet, M. [Department of Radiology, Wishaw General Hospital, Lanarkshire Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, 50, Netherton Street, Wishaw, Lanarkshire ML2 0DP (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the findings of a survey undertaken by us in 2002 regarding steroid premedication given in radiology departments to reduce the risk of adverse reactions in patients at increased risk of intravascular contrast media reactions with a similar survey published in 1994 by R. Seymour et al. The high risk patients considered in our survey were patients with history of asthma, drug allergies, hay fever and eczema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 225 questionnaires were sent to the consultant in charge for audit for radiology departments from the list given by the Royal College of Radiologists. 175 of the 225 questionnaires were returned (response rate 77.8%) and of these 172 were analysed with respect to the type, dose and duration of steroids. RESULTS: Compared to the survey in 1994, it was found that the number of departments who use steroid cover for all category of risk factors had increased compared to previous survey (73.8% in 2002 versus 55.3% in 1994 (p=0.001). There is now almost universal use of non-ionic contrast 98.8% versus 82.4% in 1994 (p=0.001). There is no agreed policy among radiology departments for the need or the dose or duration of steroid cover. CONCLUSION: Despite the more widespread use of non-ionic contrast media, the use of steroid premedication has increased which is contrary to what is expected as the incidence of adverse reaction to non ionic media is less than ionic contrast media.

  20. Episode-Based Evolution Pattern Analysis of Haze Pollution: Method Development and Results from Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangjie; Duan, Fengkui; Ma, Yongliang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Tao; Kimoto, Takashi; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; He, Kebin

    2016-05-01

    Haze episodes occurred in Beijing repeatedly in 2013, resulting in 189 polluted days. These episodes differed in terms of sources, formation processes, and chemical composition and thus required different control policies. Therefore, an overview of the similarities and differences among these episodes is needed. For this purpose, we conducted one-year online observations and developed a program that can simultaneously divide haze episodes and identify their shapes. A total of 73 episodes were identified, and their shapes were linked with synoptic conditions. Pure-haze events dominated in wintertime, whereas mixed haze-dust (PM2.5/PM10 haze-fog (Aerosol Water/PM2.5 ∼ 0.3) events dominated in spring and summer-autumn, respectively. For all types, increase of ratio of PM2.5 in PM10 was typically achieved before PM2.5 reached ∼150 μg/m(3). In all PM2.5 species observed, organic matter (OM) was always the most abundant component (18-60%), but it was rarely the driving factor: its relative contribution usually decreased as the pollution level increased. The only OM-driven episode observed was associated with intensive biomass-burning activities. In comparison, haze evolution generally coincided with increasing sulfur and nitrogen oxidation ratios (SOR and NOR), indicating the enhanced production of secondary inorganic species. Applicability of these conclusions required further tests with simultaneously multisite observations.

  1. Agar-agar entrapment increases the stability of endo-β-1,4-xylanase for repeated biodegradation of xylan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Zainab; Shahid, Faiza; Ul Qader, Shah Ali; Aman, Afsheen

    2015-04-01

    Microbial xylanases, specially endo-β-1,4-xylanase catalyzes the hydrolysis of xylan, is considered one of the most significant hydrolases. It has numerous applications but most extensively is utilized in paper and pulp industry as a bio-bleaching agent. Immobilization technique is comprehensively studied with the expectation of modifying and improving enzyme stability and characteristics for commercial purposes. Currently, matrix entrapment technique is applied to immobilize endo-β-1,4-xylanase within agar-agar gel beads produced by Geobacillus stearothermophilus KIBGE-IB29. Maximal enzyme immobilization yield was achieved at 2.5% of agar-agar concentration. Optimized conditions demonstrated an increase in the optimal reaction time from 05 min to 30 min and incubation temperature from 50 °C to 60 °C with reference to free enzyme whereas; no effect was observed for optimum pH. Entrapment technique uniquely changed the kinetic parameters of immobilized endo-β-1,4-xylanase (Km: 0.5074 mg min(-1) to 0.5230 mg min(-1) and Vmax: 4773 U min(-1) to 968 U min(-1)) as compared to free enzyme. However, immobilized enzyme displayed broad thermal stability and retained 79.0% of its initial activity at 80 °C up to 30 min whereas; free enzyme completely lost its activity at this temperature. With respect to economic feasibility, the immobilized enzyme showed impressive recycling efficiency up to six reaction cycles.

  2. Repeated exposure to corticosterone increases depression-like behavior in two different versions of the forced swim test without altering nonspecific locomotor activity or muscle strength.

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    Marks, Wendie; Fournier, Neil M; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2009-08-01

    We have recently shown that repeated high dose injections of corticosterone (CORT) reliably increase depression-like behavior on a modified one-day version of the forced swim test. The main purpose of this experiment was to compare the effect of these CORT injections on our one-day version of the forced swim test and the more traditional two-day version of the test. A second purpose was to determine whether altered behavior in the forced swim test could be due to nonspecific changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength. Separate groups of rats received a high dose CORT injection (40 mg/kg) or a vehicle injection once per day for 21 consecutive days. Then, half the rats from each group were exposed to the traditional two-day forced swim test and the other half were exposed to our one-day forced swim test. After the forced swim testing, all the rats were tested in an open field and in a wire suspension grip strength test. The CORT injections significantly increased the time spent immobile and decreased the time spent swimming in both versions of the forced swim test. However, they had no significant effect on activity in the open field or grip strength in the wire suspension test. These results show that repeated CORT injections increase depression-like behavior regardless of the specific parameters of forced swim testing, and that these effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength.

  3. Imagining the personal past: Episodic counterfactuals compared to episodic memories and episodic future projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    life script), and how these were affected by temporal distance (1 month, 1 year, 5+ years). The findings showed that the three types of events differed phenomenologically. First, episodic memories were remembered more easily, with more sensory details, and from a dominantly field perspective compared...... memories and future projections by neither having the positivity bias of the future events nor the enhanced sensory details of the past events. Across all three event types sensory details decreased, whereas importance, reference to cultural life script, and centrality increased with increasing temporal...... are few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e.g., imagery, emotional valence, rehearsal) and content (e.g., reference to cultural...

  4. Repeated maternal dexamethasone treatments in late gestation increases 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in the hippocampus of the newborn rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shunlun; Hao, Rusong; Sun, Kang

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of repeated maternal injections of dexamethasone in late gestation on the expression of newborn hippocampal 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), the enzyme amplifying glucocorticoids' action by converting biologically inactive 11-ketone metabolites into active glucocorticoids. Daily dexamethasone treatments (0.10 mg/kg body weight) in the last week of gestation were carried out in the pregnant rat. The expression of 11beta-HSD1 in the newborn hippocampal tissue was analyzed with Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The effect of corticosterone on the expression of 11beta-HSD1 was studied in cultured hippocampal neurons derived from newborn offspring received prenatal dexamethasone treatments. Both body and brain weights of the offspring were reduced significantly by repeated dexamethasone treatments in the last week of gestation. Western blot and real-time PCR analysis showed that both 11beta-HSD1 protein and mRNA expressions were increased significantly in the hippocampus of the newborn offspring on the first and seventh days after birth. Corticosterone could induce 11beta-HSD1 expression in cultured hippocampal neurons prepared from newborns received prenatal dexamethasone treatments, which was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486. The above findings suggest that repeated prenatal dexamethasone treatments at the end of gestation increase 11beta-HSD1 expression in the hippocampal tissue of the offspring, which may trigger a positive feedback pathway for the generation of biologically active glucocorticoids in the hippocampal tissue of the newborns.

  5. Episodic neurological channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Devon P; Ptácek, Louis J

    2010-10-21

    Inherited episodic neurological disorders are often due to mutations in ion channels or their interacting proteins, termed channelopathies. There are a wide variety of such disorders, from those causing paralysis, to extreme pain, to ataxia. A common theme in these is alteration of action potential properties or synaptic transmission and a resulting increased propensity of the resulting tissue to enter into or stay in an altered excitability state. Manifestations of these disorders are triggered by an array of precipitants, all of which stress the particular affected tissue in some way and aid in propelling its activity into an aberrant state. Study of these disorders has aided in the understanding of disease risk factors and elucidated the cause of clinically related sporadic disorders. The findings from study of these disorders will aid in the diagnosis and efficient targeted treatment of affected patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Episodic future thinking in generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jade Q; Szpunar, Karl K; Godovich, Sheina A; Schacter, Daniel L; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-12-01

    Research on future-oriented cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has primarily focused on worry, while less is known about the role of episodic future thinking (EFT), an imagery-based cognitive process. To characterize EFT in this disorder, we used the experimental recombination procedure, in which 21 GAD and 19 healthy participants simulated positive, neutral and negative novel future events either once or repeatedly, and rated their phenomenological experience of EFT. Results showed that healthy controls spontaneously generated more detailed EFT over repeated simulations. Both groups found EFT easier to generate after repeated simulations, except when GAD participants simulated positive events. They also perceived higher plausibility of negative-not positive or neutral-future events than did controls. These results demonstrate a negativity bias in GAD individuals' episodic future cognition, and suggest their relative deficit in generating vivid EFT. We discuss implications for the theory and treatment of GAD.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

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    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  8. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2010-01-01

    -induced phosphorylation of Erk2 in the prefrontal cortex occurs following acute, but not repeated administration. Our results demonstrate that repeated agonist administration increases the number of alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, and leads to coupling versus uncoupling of specific intracellular signaling....... Here we investigate the effects of repeated agonism on alpha7 nAChR receptor levels and responsiveness in vivo in rats. Using [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) autoradiography we show that acute or repeated administration with the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 increases the number of alpha7 n......-120596 and NS1738 do not increase [(125)I]-BTX binding. Furthermore, A-582941-induced increase in Arc and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex is enhanced and unaltered, respectively, after repeated administration, demonstrating that the alpha7 nAChRs remain responsive. Contrarily, A-582941...

  9. Talking about Teaching Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; DiMattia, Cara; Ribeiro, Branca; Lara-Meloy, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines two types of discourse in which teachers engage when discussing case studies based on classroom episodes, and the ways in which the availability of video data of these episodes may motivate a shift in the mode of discourse used. We interviewed two pairs of secondary school mathematics teachers after they had read a case study…

  10. Expansion of GA Dinucleotide Repeats Increases the Density of CLAMP Binding Sites on the X-Chromosome to Promote Drosophila Dosage Compensation.

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    Guray Kuzu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dosage compensation is an essential process that equalizes transcript levels of X-linked genes between sexes by forming a domain of coordinated gene expression. Throughout the evolution of Diptera, many different X-chromosomes acquired the ability to be dosage compensated. Once each newly evolved X-chromosome is targeted for dosage compensation in XY males, its active genes are upregulated two-fold to equalize gene expression with XX females. In Drosophila melanogaster, the CLAMP zinc finger protein links the dosage compensation complex to the X-chromosome. However, the mechanism for X-chromosome identification has remained unknown. Here, we combine biochemical, genomic and evolutionary approaches to reveal that expansion of GA-dinucleotide repeats likely accumulated on the X-chromosome over evolutionary time to increase the density of CLAMP binding sites, thereby driving the evolution of dosage compensation. Overall, we present new insight into how subtle changes in genomic architecture, such as expansions of a simple sequence repeat, promote the evolution of coordinated gene expression.

  11. Change in access to prescribed medication following an episode of deliberate self-poisoning: a multilevel approach.

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    Bergljot Gjelsvik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patients with a history of deliberate self-poisoning (DSP are prescribed a greater amount of medication than the general public. DSP is the most robust risk factor for repeat episodes of DSP and subsequent death by suicide, and one might therefore expect that access to prescribed medication would be reduced following an episode of DSP. However, it is unclear whether access to prescribed medication changes after an episode of DSP. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes in 1 overall, psychotropic, non-psychotropic and the psychotropic subgroup antidepressant prescribed medication availability in DSP patients following an episode of DSP, 2 prescribing of the medication ingested in the episode, and 3 potential effects of gender, age and repeater status on such change. METHODS: The design was longitudinal. We included 171 patients admitted for DSP between January 2006 and March 2007. Data on patients' prescriptions prior to admission were retrieved from The Norwegian Prescription Database. The outcome measure was the difference between medication load in the year following compared to the year prior to the DSP episode. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in total medication load following DSP, including both psychotropic and non-psychotropic medication. Antidepressant medication load remained stable. There was a tendency for access to drugs ingested in the episode to increase following the episode, albeit not significantly. Medication load increased with age across all medication groups irrespective of time period and gender. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that physicians do not curb prescribing to patients who have recently deliberately self-poisoned. Moreover, they highlight the need for cautious and judicious prescribing for these patients, in combination with psychological and social interventions.

  12. Greater sensitivity to novelty in rats is associated with increased motor impulsivity following repeated exposure to a stimulating environment: implications for the etiology of impulse control deficits.

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    Ferland, Jacqueline-Marie N; Zeeb, Fiona D; Yu, Katrina; Kaur, Sukhbir; Taves, Matthew D; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2014-12-01

    Heightened motor impulsivity and increased novelty-seeking commonly co-occur in psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, the relationship between these two phenomena remains unclear. One-time tests of novelty sensitivity commonly used in preclinical experiments, such as the open-field or novel-object test, fail to capture the fact that novelty-seekers repeatedly experience novel, stimulating situations. The present study therefore investigated whether repeated exposure to a novel, stimulating environment (SE) altered impulsive action. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) which measures motor impulsivity in the form of premature responding as well as attention and motivation. Animals were then exposed to a novel SE (1 h/day for 16 days) immediately prior to the 5CSRTT. Significant increases in premature responding were observed in a subgroup of reactive animals termed high responders (HR-SE). These rats were not more impulsive at baseline, and levels of impulsivity normalised once exposure to the SE was discontinued. No other aspect of 5CSRTT performance was affected by the SE challenge. We also determined that HR-SE rats were hyperactive in a novel environment. Biochemical analyses revealed changes in gene and protein expression within the dorsal hippocampus of HR-SE rats, including decreases in mRNA encoding the dopamine D1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These results indicate a novel mechanism by which impulsivity and novelty-reactivity interact that may enhance addiction vulnerability synergistically. Furthermore, studying such context-induced impulsivity may provide insight into the process by which environmental load precipitates psychiatric symptoms in impulse control disorders.

  13. Retracted: 'Increased ICAM, VCAM, and E-selectin levels in first manic episode' by Sermin Kesebir, Çetin Turan, Özgür Süner, and Elif Tatlidil Yaylaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bdi.12269/pdf. The above article from Bipolar Disorders - An International Journal of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, published online on 16 October 2014 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bdi.12269/abstract), has been retracted by agreement among the authors, the journal Editors-in-Chief, K.N. Roy Chengappa and Samuel Gershon, and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to overlap between this article and the following article published in the Journal of Affective Disorders, 'Are ICAM, VCAM and E-selectin levels different in first manic episode and subsequent remission?' by Çetin Turan, Sermin Kesebir, and Özgür Süner, Volume 163, 2014, pages 76-80. Reference Kesebir S, TuranÇ, Süner Ö, Yaylaci ET. Increased ICAM, VCAM, and E-selectin levels in first manic episode. Bipolar Disord doi/10.1111/bdi.12269.

  14. First Episode Psychosis

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    ... About Psychosis Treatment Share Fact Sheet: First Episode Psychosis Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy En Español Facts About Psychosis The word psychosis is used to describe conditions ...

  15. A moderate increase of physiological CO2 in a critical range during stable NREM sleep episode: A potential gateway to REM sleep

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    Vibha eMadan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is characterized as rapid eye movement (REM and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Studies suggest that wake-related neurons in the basal forebrain, posterior hypothalamus and brainstem and NREM sleep-related neurons in the anterior-hypothalamic area inhibit each other, thus alternating sleep-wakefulness. Similarly, pontine REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons reciprocally inhibit each other for REM sleep modulation. It has been proposed that inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC REM-OFF neurons is pre-requisite for REM sleep genesis, but it remains ambiguous how REM-OFF neurons are hyperpolarized at REM sleep onset. The frequency of breathing pattern remains high during wake, slows down during NREM sleep but further escalates during REM sleep. As a result, brain CO2 level increases during NREM sleep, which may alter REM sleep manifestation. It has been reported that hypocapnia decreases REM sleep while hypercapnia increases REM sleep periods. The groups of brainstem chemosensory neurons, including those present in LC, sense the alteration in CO2 level and respond accordingly. For example; one group of LC neurons depolarize while other hyperpolarize during hypercapnia. In another group, hypercapnia initially depolarizes but later hyperpolarizes LC neurons. Besides chemosensory functions, LC’s REM-OFF neurons are an integral part of REM sleep executive machinery. We reason that increased CO2 level during a stable NREM sleep period may hyperpolarize LC neurons including REM-OFF, which may help initiate REM sleep. We propose that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: episodic ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions episodic ataxia episodic ataxia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Episodic ataxia is a group of related conditions that affect ...

  17. Repeated social defeat causes increased anxiety-like behavior and alters splenocyte function in C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Steven G; Bailey, Michael T; Sheridan, John F; Padgett, David A; Avitsur, Ronit

    2007-05-01

    The experimental model, social disruption (SDR), is a model of social stress in which mice are repeatedly attacked and defeated in their home cage by an aggressive conspecific. In terms of the impact of this stressor on the immune response, SDR has been reported to cause hyperinflammation and glucocorticoid insensitivity. To this point however, the behavioral consequences of SDR have not been thoroughly characterized. Because social defeat has been reported to cause anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, the current study was designed to assess whether SDR also causes anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Using the light/dark preference test and the open field test as tools to measure behaviors characteristic of anxiety, the data showed that C57BL/6 and CD-1 male mice subjected to SDR displayed increased anxiety-like behavior. The increase in anxiety-like behaviors persisted for at least 1 week after the cessation of the stressor. In contrast, depressive-like behaviors were not elicited by SDR as assessed by the forced swim test or the tail suspension test. These data indicate that social disruption stress causes an increase in anxiety-like behaviors, but not depressive-like behaviors.

  18. A subtle grey-matter increase in first-episode, drug-naive major depressive disorder with panic disorder after 6 weeks' duloxetine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Han; Hsu, Yuan-Yu

    2011-03-01

    We designed this study to investigate the modulating effects of duloxetine on symptoms and grey matter of patients with major depressive disorder combined with panic disorder. We also aimed to discover if there was any persistence of grey-matter deficits after remission and to find 'trait markers' for this comorbidity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometric measurements were performed on 15 patients at baseline and remitted status (week 6) compared to 15 healthy control subjects who were scanned twice within 6 wk. The rating scales of depressive and panic symptoms improved with statistical significance (corrected pgrey-matter deficits in infero-frontal, limbic, occipital, temporo-parietal, cerebellar areas (trait marker regions) in drug-naive patients were observed compared to controls at baseline (family-wise error corrected pgrey matter in healthy controls over the 6-wk period. Duloxetine-induced increases of grey matter were very subtle in left infero-frontal cortex, right fusiform gyrus, and right cerebellum VIIIa areas (state marker regions) after 6-wk therapy (uncorrected pgrey matter to the level of control subjects and grey-matter deficits in patients appear largely unaffected by duloxetine. We suggest that short-term duloxetine therapy improved the clinical symptoms of patients with major depressive disorder combined with panic disorder. These improvements might be related to a modest increase of grey matter in state marker regions of the brain. The deficits of trait marker regions were more evident and are likely to be important for pathogenesis.

  19. Peroxynitrite formed during a transient episode of brain ischaemia increases endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type dilations in thromboxane/prostaglandin receptor-stimulated rat cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, Y; Dantas, A P; Pérez, B; McNeish, A J; Vila, E; Jiménez-Altayó, F

    2017-05-01

    Increased thromboxane A2 and peroxynitrite are hallmarks of cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Stimulation of thromboxane/prostaglandin receptors (TP) attenuates endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH). We investigated whether EDH-type middle cerebral artery (MCA) relaxations following TP stimulation are altered after I/R and the influence of peroxynitrite. Vascular function was determined by wire myography after TP stimulation with the thromboxane A2 mimetic 9,11-dideoxy-9α, 11α -methano-epoxy prostaglandin F2α (U46619) in MCA of Sprague Dawley rats subjected to MCA occlusion (90 min)/reperfusion (24 h) or sham operation, and in non-operated (control) rats. Some rats were treated with saline or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron (III) (20 mg kg(-1) ). Protein expression was evaluated in MCA and in human microvascular endothelial cells submitted to hypoxia (overnight)/reoxygenation (24 h) (H/R) using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. In U46619-pre-constricted MCA, EDH-type relaxation by the proteinase-activated receptor 2 agonist serine-leucine-isoleucine-glycine-arginine-leucine-NH2 (SLIGRL) was greater in I/R than sham rats due to an increased contribution of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa ), which was confirmed by the enlarged relaxation to the SKCa activator N-cyclohexyl-N-2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinamine. I/R and H/R induced endothelial protein tyrosine nitration and filamentous-actin disruption. In control MCA, either cytochalasin D or peroxynitrite disrupted endothelial filamentous-actin and augmented EDH-type relaxation. Furthermore, peroxynitrite decomposition during I/R prevented the increase in EDH-type responses. Following TP stimulation in MCA, EDH-type relaxation to SLIGRL is greater after I/R due to endothelial filamentous-actin disruption by peroxynitrite, which prevents TP-induced block of SKCa input to EDH. These

  20. Episodic and Semantic Memory Contribute to Familiar and Novel Episodic Future Thinking

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    Tong Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that episodic future thinking (EFT relies on both episodic and semantic memory; however, event familiarity may importantly affect the extent to which episodic and semantic memory contribute to EFT. To test this possibility, two behavioral experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the proportion of episodic and semantic memory used in an EFT task. The results indicated that more episodic memory was used when imagining familiar future events compared with novel future events. Conversely, significantly more semantic memory was used when imagining novel events compared with familiar events. Experiment 2 aimed to verify the results of Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we found that familiarity moderated the effect of priming the episodic memory system on EFT; particularly, it increased the time required to construct a standard familiar episodic future event, but did not significantly affect novel episodic event reaction time. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that event familiarity importantly moderates episodic and semantic memory’s contribution to EFT.

  1. Hoffmann reflex is increased after 14 days of daily repeated Achilles tendon vibration for the soleus but not for the gastrocnemii muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapole, Thomas; Pérot, Chantal

    2012-02-01

    In a previous study, Achilles tendon vibrations were enough to improve the triceps surae (TS) activation capacities and also to slightly increase TS Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) obtained by summing up soleus (Sol) and gastrocnemii (GM and GL) EMGs. The purpose of the present study was to analyze separately Sol and GM or GL reflexes to account for different effects of the vibrations on the reflex excitability of the slow soleus and of the gastrocnemii muscles. A control group (n = 13) and a vibration group (n = 16) were tested in pre-test and post-test conditions. The Achilles tendon vibration program consisted of 1 h of daily vibration (frequency: 50 Hz) applied during 14 days. Maximal Sol, GM and GL H-reflexes, and M-waves were recorded, and their H(max)/M(max) ratios gave the index of reflex excitability. After the vibration protocol, only Sol H(max)/M(max) was enhanced (p vibration is in favor of a decrease in the pre-synaptic inhibition due to the repeated vibrations and the high solicitation of the reflex pathway. Those results of a short period of vibration applied at rest may be limited to the soleus because of its high density in muscle spindles and slow motor units, both structures being very sensitive to vibrations.

  2. Repeated 6-Hz Corneal Stimulation Progressively Increases FosB/ΔFosB Levels in the Lateral Amygdala and Induces Seizure Generalization to the Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Carmela; Vinet, Jonathan; Curia, Giulia; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to repetitive seizures is known to promote convulsions which depend on specific patterns of network activity. We aimed at evaluating the changes in seizure phenotype and neuronal network activation caused by a modified 6-Hz corneal stimulation model of psychomotor seizures. Mice received up to 4 sessions of 6-Hz corneal stimulation with fixed current amplitude of 32 mA and inter-stimulation interval of 72 h. Video-electroencephalography showed that evoked seizures were characterized by a motor component and a non-motor component. Seizures always appeared in frontal cortex, but only at the fourth stimulation they involved the hippocampus, suggesting the establishment of an epileptogenic process. Duration of seizure non-motor component progressively decreased after the second session, whereas convulsive seizures remained unchanged. In addition, a more severe seizure phenotype, consisting of tonic-clonic generalized convulsions, was predominant after the second session. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence experiments revealed a significant increase in neuronal activity occurring in the lateral amygdala after the fourth session, most likely due to activity of principal cells. These findings indicate a predominant role of amygdala in promoting progressively more severe convulsions as well as the late recruitment of the hippocampus in the seizure spread. We propose that the repeated 6-Hz corneal stimulation model may be used to investigate some mechanisms of epileptogenesis and to test putative antiepileptogenic drugs.

  3. Repeated 6-Hz Corneal Stimulation Progressively Increases FosB/ΔFosB Levels in the Lateral Amygdala and Induces Seizure Generalization to the Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Giordano

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive seizures is known to promote convulsions which depend on specific patterns of network activity. We aimed at evaluating the changes in seizure phenotype and neuronal network activation caused by a modified 6-Hz corneal stimulation model of psychomotor seizures. Mice received up to 4 sessions of 6-Hz corneal stimulation with fixed current amplitude of 32 mA and inter-stimulation interval of 72 h. Video-electroencephalography showed that evoked seizures were characterized by a motor component and a non-motor component. Seizures always appeared in frontal cortex, but only at the fourth stimulation they involved the hippocampus, suggesting the establishment of an epileptogenic process. Duration of seizure non-motor component progressively decreased after the second session, whereas convulsive seizures remained unchanged. In addition, a more severe seizure phenotype, consisting of tonic-clonic generalized convulsions, was predominant after the second session. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence experiments revealed a significant increase in neuronal activity occurring in the lateral amygdala after the fourth session, most likely due to activity of principal cells. These findings indicate a predominant role of amygdala in promoting progressively more severe convulsions as well as the late recruitment of the hippocampus in the seizure spread. We propose that the repeated 6-Hz corneal stimulation model may be used to investigate some mechanisms of epileptogenesis and to test putative antiepileptogenic drugs.

  4. Pediatric Brain: Repeated Exposure to Linear Gadolinium-based Contrast Material Is Associated with Increased Signal Intensity at Unenhanced T1-weighted MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Thomas F; Stence, Nicholas V; Maloney, John A; Mirsky, David M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether repeated exposure of the pediatric brain to a linear gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) is associated with an increase in signal intensity (SI) relative to that in GBCA-naive control subjects at unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This single-center, retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. The authors evaluated 46 pediatric patients who had undergone at least three GBCA-enhanced MR examinations (30 patients for two-group analysis and 16 for pre- and post-GBCA exposure comparisons) and 57 age-matched GBCA-naive control subjects. The SI in the globus pallidus, thalamus, dentate nucleus, and pons was measured at unenhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. Globus pallidus-thalamus and dentate nucleus-pons SI ratios were calculated and compared between groups and relative to total cumulative gadolinium dose, age, sex, and number of and mean time between GBCA-enhanced examinations. Analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Patients who underwent multiple GBCA-enhanced examinations had increased SI ratios within the dentate nucleus (mean SI ratio ± standard error of the mean for two-group comparison: 1.007 ± 0.0058 for GBCA-naive group and 1.046 ± 0.0060 for GBCA-exposed group [P mean SI ratio for pre- and post-GBCA comparison: 0.995 ± 0.0062 for pre-GBCA group and 1.035 ± 0.0063 for post-GBCA group [P mean SI ratio for two-group comparison: 1.131 ± 0.0070 for GBCA-naive group and 1.014 ± 0.0091 for GBCA-exposed group [P = .21]; mean SI ratio for pre- and post-GBCA comparison: 1.068 ± 0.0094 for pre-GBCA group and 1.093 ± 0.0134 for post-GBCA group [P = .12]). There was a significant correlation between dentate nucleus SI and total cumulative gadolinium dose (r = 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03, 0.67; P = .03), but not between dentate nucleus SI and patient age

  5. Lifespan trends of autobiographical remembering: episodicity and search for meaning.

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    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena; Welzer, Harald

    2013-09-01

    Autobiographical memories of older adults show fewer episodic and more non-episodic elements than those of younger adults. This semantization effect is attributed to a loss of episodic memory ability. However the alternative explanation by an increasing proclivity to search for meaning has not been ruled out to date. To test whether a decrease in episodicity and an increase in meaning-making in autobiographical narratives are related across the lifespan, we used different instructions, one focussing on specific episodes, the other on embedding events in life, in two lifespan samples. A continuous decrease of episodic quality of memory (memory specificity, narrative quality) was confirmed. An increase of search for meaning (interpretation, life story integration) was confirmed only up to middle adulthood. This non-inverse development of episodicity and searching for meaning in older age speaks for an autonomous semantization effect that is not merely due to an increase in interpretative preferences.

  6. Deletion of intragenic tandem repeats in unit C of FLO1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the conformational stability of flocculin under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Li

    Full Text Available Flocculation is an attractive property for Saccaromyces cerevisiae, which plays important roles in fermentation industry and environmental remediation. The process of flocculation is mediated by a family of cell surface flocculins. As one member of flocculins, Flo1 is characterized by four families of repeats (designated as repeat units A, B, C and D in the central domain. It is generally accepted that variation of repeat unit A in length in Flo1 influences the degree of flocculation or specificity for sugar recognization. However, no reports were observed for other repeat units. Here, we compared the flocculation ability and its sensitivity to environmental factors between yeast strain YSF1 carrying the intact FLO1 gene and yeast strains carrying the derived forms of FLO1 with partial or complete deletion of repeats in unit C. No obvious differences in flocculation ability and specificity of carbohydrate recognition were observed among these yeast strains, which indicates the truncated flocculins can stride across the cell wall and cluster the N-terminal domain on the surface of yeast cells as the intact Flo1 thereby improving intercellular binding. However, yeast strains with the truncated flocculins required more mannose to inhibit completely the flocculation, displayed broad tolerance of flocculation to pH fluctuation, and the fewer the repeats in unit C, the stronger adaptability of flocculation to pH change, which was not relevant to the position of deletion. This suggests that more stable active conformation is obtained for flocculin by deletion the repeat unit C in the central domain of Flo1, which was validated further by the higher hydrophobicity on the surface of cells of YSF1c with complete deletion of unit C under neutral and alkaline conditions and the stabilization of GFP conformation by fusion with flocculin with complete deletion of unit C in the central domain.

  7. First-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    . Patients with first-episode psychosis had significantly high NEO-PI-R scores for neuroticism and agreeableness, and lower scores for conscientiousness and extroversion. The median time for remission in the total sample was three months. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less...

  8. Primary Episodic Ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and genetic diagnosis, genotype-phenotype correlations, pathophysiology and treatment of primary episodic ataxia syndromes are reviewed by researchers from Departments of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA; National Hospital for Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; and University of Rochester School of Medicine, NY, USA.

  9. [Hereditary episodic ataxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riant, F; Vahedi, K; Tournier-Lasserve, E

    2011-05-01

    Episodic ataxia (EA) designates a group of autosomal dominant channelopathies that manifest as paroxysmal attacks of imbalance and incoordination. EA conditions are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Seven types of EA have been reported so far but the majority of clinical cases result from two recognized entities. Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is characterized by brief episodes of ataxia and dysarthria, and interictal myokymia. Onset occurs during the first two decades of life. Associated epilepsy has been reported in some EA1 patients. EA1 is caused by mutations of the KCNA1 gene coding for the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1. Mutation is mostly missense mutations. Acetazolamide, a carbonic-anhydrase inhibitor, may reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks in some but not all affected individuals. Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is characterized by episodes lasting longer than in EA1, that manifest by ataxia, dysarthria, vertigo, and also, in most of the cases, an interictal nystagmus. Other clinical features as developmental delay or epilepsy can be present in some patients. Brain MRI shows frequently a vermian atrophy. Onset occurs typically in childhood or early adolescence, but can sometimes be in adulthood. EA2 is caused by mutations in CACNA1A, a gene coding for the neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav1.1. For two-thirds of the cases, mutations lead to a stop codon. This type is most often responsive to acetazolamide that reduces the frequency and severity of attacks, but does not appear to prevent the progression of interictal symptoms. This article summarizes current knowledge on episodic ataxia type 1 and 2 and describes briefly the other types of EA. Molecular analysis of KCNA1 or CACNA1A provides a confirmation of the diagnosis of EA1 and EA2. Other types remain rare phenotypic variants. Among them, only two genes have been identified: CACNB4 in EA5 and SLC1A3 in EA6 and mutations have been found in a very few cases. No mutation

  10. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  11. Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C. de

    2012-01-01

    Food intake and a food’s expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food’s satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a

  12. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  13. Perspectives on Episodic-like and Episodic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M Pause

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory.

  14. Repeated Social Defeat Causes Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior and Alters Splenocyte Function in C57BL/6 and CD-1 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Steven G.; Bailey, Michael T.; Sheridan, John F.; Padgett, David A.; Avitsur, Ronit

    2006-01-01

    The experimental model, social disruption (SDR), is a model of social stress in which mice are repeatedly attacked and defeated in their home cage by an aggressive conspecific. In terms of the impact of this stressor on the immune response, SDR has been reported to cause hyperinflammation and glucocorticoid insensitivity. To this point however, the behavioral consequences of SDR have not been thoroughly characterized. Because social defeat has been reported to cause anxiety- and depressive-li...

  15. Repeated sensory contact with aggressive mice rapidly leads to an anticipatory increase in core body temperature and physical activity that precedes the onset of aversive responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Marie-Christine; Kendall, David A; Pérez-Diaz, Fernando; Duxon, Mark S; Marsden, Charles A

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated whether the 'psychological threat' induced by sensory contact with an aggressive conspecific would be a sufficient factor in inducing behavioural and physiological disturbances. Repeated sensory contact with an aggressive mouse (social threat) in a partitioned cage was compared with repeated exposure to a novel partitioned cage in male NMRI mice. We first examined parameters of stress responsiveness (body weight, plasma corticosterone levels, frequency of self-grooming and defecation). The temperature and physical activity responses to stress were also recorded during and after the 4 weeks of stress using radiotelemetry. Finally, cognitivo-emotional performance was assessed after acute stress and 2 and 4 weeks of stress by measuring decision making, sequential alternation performance and behaviour in the elevated T-maze. Social threat had a greater impact than novel cage exposure on most parameters of stress responsiveness, although mice did not habituate to either stressor. Social threat rapidly led to an anticipatory rise in core body temperature and physical activity before the scheduled stress sessions. Such anticipation developed within the first week and persisted for 9 days after ending the stress procedure. Some memory impairment in the sequential alternation test was found in stressed mice, independent of the stressor. After 4 weeks of stress, inhibitory avoidance in the elevated T-maze was enhanced in socially stressed mice and reduced in novel cage mice. The sustained anticipation of stress in the social threat group preceded aversive responding. It remains to be established whether anticipation contributes to the development of aversive responses.

  16. Time course of episodes of definitive vertigo in Meniere's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Perez, Paz; Sanz, Ricardo; Orts, Miguel; Marco, Jaime; Barona, Rafael; Tapia, Mari C; Aran, Ismael; Cenjor, Carlos; Perez, Nicolas; Morera, Constantino; Ramirez, Rafael

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the frequency and duration of episodes of definitive vertigo in Ménière's disease. Prospective longitudinal study. Multiple tertiary referral centers. Five hundred ten individuals from 8 hospitals that met the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery diagnostic criteria for definitive Ménière's disease. Conservative treatment. Frequency and duration of episodes of definitive vertigo during follow-up. Ménière's disease affects both sexes and both ears equally, with onset generally in the fourth decade of life. The number of episodes of vertigo is greater in the first few years of the disease. Although episodes of vertigo that last longer than 6 hours are less frequent than shorter episodes, they occur with similar frequency throughout the natural course of the disease. The percentage of patients without episodes of vertigo increases as the disease progresses, and 70% of patients who did not have an episode of vertigo for 1 year will continue to be free of episodes during the following year. Thus, there is a relationship between the frequency of episodes in consecutive years, although this association decreases rapidly as the number of years increases. The frequency of definitive episodes of vertigo in Ménière's disease decreased during follow-up, and many individuals reached a steady-state phase free of vertigo.

  17. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cerebral oedema in episodic ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevits, L; Cambron, M; Anseeuw, S

    2009-03-01

    We report a patient with episodic ataxia (presumably of type 2) who developed cerebral oedema secondary to a common infection (presumably viral). Cerebral oedema may be a part of the clinical spectrum of familial episodic ataxia and argues for an overlap with hemiplegic migraine. It is suggested to consider a diagnosis of episodic ataxia or familial hemiplegic migraine in catastrophic reactions to apparent trivial trauma or infection.

  19. Familial episodic ataxia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugundhan, K; Thiruvarutchelvan, K; Sivakumar, S

    2011-10-01

    The familial episodic ataxia type II is a rare, dominantly inherited disease characterized by episodes of ataxia of early onset, often with completely normal cerebellar function between attacks. We report a family with affected members who had features of episodic ataxia type II and cerebellar atrophy on MRI imaging. All the affected members were successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. They are asymptomatic at 2 year follow-up.

  20. The evolution of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  1. Semantic Boost on Episodic Associations: An Empirically-Based Computational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yaron; Bentin, Shlomo; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2007-01-01

    Words become associated following repeated co-occurrence episodes. This process might be further determined by the semantic characteristics of the words. The present study focused on how semantic and episodic factors interact in incidental formation of word associations. First, we found that human participants associate semantically related words…

  2. Repeated 3-minute stair climbing-descending exercise after a meal over 2 weeks increases serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels in people with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroto; Igaki, Makoto; Hatanaka, Yuki; Komatsu, Motoaki; Tanaka, Shin-Ichiro; Miki, Tetsuo; Matsuki, Yumika; Takaishi, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycemic effect of a postprandial exercise program using brief stair climbing-descending exercise in people with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven males with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes (age 68.0 ± 3.7 years) performed two sets of stair climbing-descending exercise 60 and 120 min after each meal for the first 2 weeks but not for the following 2 weeks. Each set of exercise comprised 3-min of continuous repetition of climbing briskly to the second floor followed by slow waking down to the first floor in their home. A rest period of 1–2 min was allowed between each set. [Results] Serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol level was significantly higher by 11.5% at the end of the 2-week exercise period than at the baseline. By contrast, the 1,5-anhydroglucitol level at the end of the following 2-week period did not differ from the baseline value. Fasting blood glucose level and insulin resistance index at the end of the exercise period did not differ from the baseline value. [Conclusion] Repeated 3-min bouts of stair climbing-descending exercise after a meal may be a promising method for improving postprandial glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28210043

  3. Increased WD-repeat containing protein 1 in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas shown by comparative proteomic analysis of malignant and healthy gynecological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Wiig, Helge; Tenstad, Olav

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian cancer employing multiple fractioning and high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, and asked whether specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates or therapeutic targets could be identified. High throughput proteomics was conducted on immunodepleted and fractioned interstitial fluid from pooled samples of ovarian carcinomas, using endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue as controls. Differential analysis revealed the up-regulation of extracellular proteasomes in tumor interstitial fluid compared to the healthy control. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared with control tissues were identified. Detection of proteasome 20S related proteins in TIF compared to IF from healthy tissue indicates that the 20S proteasome can have a role in the tumor microenvironment. Six selected proteins, CEACAM5, FREM2, MUC5AC, TFF3, PYCARD and WDR1, were independently validated in individual tumor lysates from ovarian carcinomas by multiple reaction monitoring initiated detection and sequence analysis, Western blot and/or selected reaction monitoring. Quantification of specific proteins revealed substantial heterogeneity between individual samples. Nevertheless, WD repeat-containing protein 1 was confirmed as being significantly overexpressed in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared to healthy ovarian tissue by Orbitrap analysis of individual native interstitial fluid from ovarian and endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue. We suggest that this protein should be explored as a therapeutic target in ovarian carcinomas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

  4. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  5. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  6. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  7. Witness recall across repeated interviews in a case of repeated abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; La Rooy, David

    2014-02-01

    In this illustrative case study we examine the three forensic interviews of a girl who experienced repeated sexual abuse from ages 7 to 11. She disclosed the abuse after watching a serialized television show that contained a storyline similar to her own experience. This triggered an investigation that ended in successful prosecution of the offender. Because this case involved abuse that was repeated on a weekly basis for 4 years we thus investigated the degree to which the child's narrative reflected specific episodes or generic accounts, and both the interviewer's and child's attempts to elicit and provide, respectively, specific details across the 3 interviews collected in a 1 month period. Across the 3 interviews, the child's account was largely generic, yet on a number of occasions she provided details specific to individual incidents (episodic leads) that could have been probed further. As predicted: earlier interviews were characterized more by episodic than generic prompts and the reverse was true for the third interview; the child often responded using the same style of language (episodic or generic) as the interviewer; and open questions yielded narrative information. We discuss the importance of adopting children's words to specify occurrences, and the potential benefits of permitting generic recall in investigative interviews on children's ability to provide episodic leads. Despite the fact that the testimony was characterized by generic information about what usually happened, rather than specific episodic details about individual occurrences, this case resulted in successful prosecution.

  8. Episodic Memory and Beyond: The Hippocampus and Neocortex in Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, Morris; Cabeza, Roberto; Winocur, Gordon; Nadel, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen dramatic technological and conceptual changes in research on episodic memory and the brain. New technologies, and increased use of more naturalistic observations, have enabled investigators to delve deeply into the structures that mediate episodic memory, particularly the hippocampus, and to track functional and structural interactions among brain regions that support it. Conceptually, episodic memory is increasingly being viewed as subject to lifelong transformations that are reflected in the neural substrates that mediate it. In keeping with this dynamic perspective, research on episodic memory (and the hippocampus) has infiltrated domains, from perception to language and from empathy to problem solving, that were once considered outside its boundaries. Using the component process model as a framework, and focusing on the hippocampus, its subfields, and specialization along its longitudinal axis, along with its interaction with other brain regions, we consider these new developments and their implications for the organization of episodic memory and its contribution to functions in other domains.

  9. Cannabis use and first manic episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, Nathalie; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2014-08-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug among patients with bipolar disorder. Available data has shown that the risk of psychotic disorders increases with the frequency and intensity of cannabis abuse. The present purpose was to review relevant studies to investigate whether cannabis use can be linked to the onset of mania in bipolar disorder. Articles published between 1972 and December 2013 were searched on Medline and PsychInfo using the following keywords: first manic episode, or onset mania, or bipolar disorder and cannabis. Relevant papers cited in the references of selected articles were further considered for inclusion into the review. Lifetime use of cannabis among bipolar patients appears to be around 70% and approximately 30% of patients with a bipolar disorder present a comorbidity of cannabis abuse or dependence. Cannabis use is associated with younger age at onset of first mania and with more frequent depressive or manic episodes, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent. Likewise cannabis consumption is related to poorer outcome and an increased risk of rapid cycling or mixed episodes. In contrast, neuro-cognitive functioning seems to be positively affected in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. While cannabis use often precedes first manic episodes, the causal direction remains to be determined. Variations in definition of cannabis use/dependence. Lack of controlled studies limiting definite conclusions about a putative causal relationship between cannabis and onset of mania. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relationships between cannabis use and first manic episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeatedly Heading a Soccer Ball Does Not Increase Serum Levels of S-100B, a Biochemical Marker of Brain Tissue Damage: an Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie; Sojka, Peter

    2008-02-29

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse whether the controlled heading of soccer balls elicits increased serum concentrations of a biochemical marker of brain tissue damage S-100B. METHODS: Nineteen male soccer players were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. Group A headed a soccer ball falling from 18 m five times, while group B served as controls (no heading). Blood samples were taken before and 0.5 h, 2 h and 4 h after the heading for analysis of S-100B. RESULTS: No statistically significant (p > 0.05) increases in serum concentrations of S-100B were encountered in group A at 0.5 h (0.109 +/-0.024 mug/L), 2 h (0.098 +/- 0.026 mug/L), and 4 h (0.113 +/- 0.035 mug/L) when the blood samples obtained before and after the heading were compared (0.157 +/- 0.134 mug/L). No statistically significant difference was found when the serum concentrations of S-100B were compared between groups A and B either before or after heading. CONCLUSIONS: Heading a soccer ball dropped from a height of 18 m five times was not found to cause an increase in serum concentrations of S-100B, indicating that the impact was not sufficient to cause biochemically discernible damage of brain tissue.

  11. Repeatedly Heading a Soccer Ball Does Not Increase Serum Levels of S-100B, a Biochemical Marker of Brain Tissue Damage: an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sojka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyse whether the controlled heading of soccer balls elicits increased serum concentrations of a biochemical marker of brain tissue damage S-100B.Methods: Nineteen male soccer players were randomly divided into two groups, A and B. Group A headed a soccer ball falling from 18 m five times, while group B served as controls (no heading. Blood samples were taken before and 0.5 h, 2 h and 4 h after the heading for analysis of S-100B.Results: No statistically significant (p > 0.05 increases in serum concentrations of S-100B were encountered in group A at 0.5 h (0.109 ± 0.024 μg/L, 2 h (0.098 ± 0.026 μg/L, and 4 h (0.113 ± 0.035 μg/L when the blood samples obtained before and after the heading were compared (0.157 ± 0.134 μg/L. No statistically significant difference was found when the serum concentrations of S-100B were compared between groups A and B either before or after heading.Conclusions: Heading a soccer ball dropped from a height of 18 m five times was not found to cause an increase in serum concentrations of S-100B, indicating that the impact was not sufficient to cause biochemically discernible damage of brain tissue.

  12. Aseismic strain episodes at Campi Flegrei, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Roberto; Amoruso, Antonella; Bilham, Roger; Di Lieto, Bellina; Errico, Antonio; Linde, Alan; Sacks, Selwyn

    2014-05-01

    Since spring 2004 a research project has been developed in Italy to install borehole Sacks-Evertson strainmeters (dilatometers) aimed to improve monitoring systems of the Italian volcanoes. 6 borehole dilatometers have been installed around Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius during 2004-2005 (Scarpa et al., 2007). This small network has been implemented by two arrays of long-baseline water tube tiltmeters installed in underground tunnels since 2008. Relevant strainmeter and tiltmeter data have been collected and analyzed at the instruments installed at Campi Flegrei during the recent unrest episodes. Renewed activity started since 2004-2005, characterized by a quite low rate of vertical vertical displacement, amounting initially to a few cm/year. A long term strain episode occurred during summer 2006, in correspondence to an increase of CO2 emission and displacements measured also by tiltmeters and GPS transducers. This strain episode preceded the seismic activity by few months, as also observed during the 1982 most significant unrest. Other aseismic slip episodes have been recorded in 2009, in correspondence of the renewal of gas emission activity at Solfatara, in 2010, one day before a seismic swarm, and in September 2012, few days before the most significant seismic swarm occurred after the 1982-1984 uplift. The time scale of these phenomena is ranging from some hours to several days, putting further constraints on the origin of ground uplifts at Campi Flegrei. Their location is compatible with the source inferred from long term deformation signals, at about 4 km depth beneath Pozzuoli.

  13. Progressive Seizure Aggravation in the Repeated 6-Hz Corneal Stimulation Model Is Accompanied by Marked Increase in Hippocampal p-ERK1/2 Immunoreactivity in Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Carmela; Costa, Anna M.; Lucchi, Chiara; Leo, Giuseppina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Torsello, Antonio; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The 6-Hz corneal stimulation test is used to screen novel antiepileptic molecules to overcome the problem of drug refractoriness. Although recognized as a standard test, it has been evaluated only recently in the attempt to characterize the putative neuronal networks involved in seizures caused by corneal stimulation. In particular, by recording from the CA1 region we previously established that the hippocampus participates to propagation of seizure activity. However, these findings were not corroborated by using markers of neuronal activation such as FosB/ΔFosB antigens. In view of this discrepancy, we performed new experiments to characterize the changes in levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (p-ERK1/2), which are also used as markers of neuronal activation. To this aim, mice underwent corneal stimulation up to three different times, in three sessions separated by an interval of 3 days. To characterize a group in which seizures could be prevented by pharmacological treatment, we also considered pretreatment with the ghrelin receptor antagonist EP-80317 (330 μg/kg). Control mice were sham-treated. Video electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings were obtained from mice belonging to each group of treatment. Animals were finally used to characterize the immunoreactivity for FosB/ΔFosB and p-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus. As previously shown, FosB/ΔFosB levels were highly increased throughout the hippocampus by the first induced seizure but, in spite of the progressively increased seizure severity, they were restored to control levels after the third stimulation. At variance, corneal stimulation caused a progressive increase in p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity all over the hippocampus, especially in CA1, peaking in the third session. Predictably, EP-80317 administration reduced both duration and severity of seizures, prevented the increase in FosB/ΔFosB levels in the first session, and partially counteracted the increase in p-ERK1/2 levels in

  14. Guidance for Contributors to Episodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Episodes is distributed to awide range of scientists in over 150 countries. It aims to keep readers informed, of new and current developments in earth science and is a vital communications link in the global geological community.

  15. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  16. Women, but not men, report increasingly more pain during repeated (un)predictable painful electrocutaneous stimulation: Evidence for mediation by fear of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Ann; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2012-05-01

    An abundance of animal research suggests that fear inhibits pain whereas anxiety increases it. Human studies on this topic are more scarce, and the existing evidence seems rather inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the divergent effects of both negative emotional states-that is, pain-related fear and anxiety on pain sensitivity and unpleasantness. Possible sex-related differences were also under investigation, as well as the potential mediational role of fear of movement-related pain on the differences in pain intensity and unpleasantness between both sexes. We employed a voluntary joystick movement paradigm using movements as conditioned stimuli (CSs) and a painful electrocutaneous stimulus as the unconditioned stimulus. Healthy participants received predictable shocks in one condition and unpredictable shocks in another condition. The former procedure is known to induce fear of movement-related pain to the CS+ movement (movement consistently followed by pain), whereas the latter procedure induces (contextual) pain-related anxiety. Results showed that fear of movement-related pain indeed resulted in decreased pain intensity/unpleasantness ratings, while pain-related anxiety led to increased pain intensity/unpleasantness reports. Further, the anticipated sex difference was modulated by time. That is, women gradually reported more pain/unpleasantness, whereas men do not show such a sensitization effect. Moreover, this sex-specific sensitization is partially mediated by (conditioned) fear of movement-related pain. Women also report increasingly more fear of pain over conditioning blocks, while men do not. These results might be interesting in the light of the overrepresentation of women in a number of clinical pain conditions as well as anxiety disorders.

  17. Episodic ataxias 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloh, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    The episodic ataxias are autosomal dominant disorders usually beginning in the first two decades of life. Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is characterized by brief episodes of ataxia, typically lasting seconds, and interictal myokymia, while episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) is manifested by longer episodes of ataxia (hours) with interictal nystagmus. The EA1 gene (KCNA1) codes for the six transmembrane segments (S1 to S6) of the Kv1.1 potassium channel subunit and the EA2 gene (CACNA1A) encodes for the Ca(v)2.1 subunit of the P/Q calcium channel complex. EA1 mutations are always missense while most EA2 mutations disrupt the reading frame. Studies of the biophysical properties of the mutant Kv1.1 and Ca(v)2.1 channels in Xenopus oocytes and mammalian cell lines demonstrate clear physiologic consequences of the genetic mutations although no consistent pattern for genotype-phenotype correlation has emerged. Genetic testing for EA1 and EA2 is available, but since no single mutation is prominent for either KCNA1 or CACNA1A, all of the coding regions of the genes need to be screened for mutations. Acetazolamide can be dramatic in controlling episodes of ataxia with EA2 but is typically less beneficial with EA1. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing Belief in the Effectiveness of HIV Treatment as Prevention: Results of Repeated, National Surveys of Australian Gay and Bisexual Men, 2013-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Murphy, Dean; Rosengarten, Marsha; Crawford, David; Ellard, Jeanne; Kolstee, Johann; de Wit, John

    2016-07-01

    We surveyed Australian gay and bisexual men, assessing belief in HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) and support for early treatment. We identified the characteristics of participants who believed in TasP and supported early treatment using multivariate logistic regression. In 2013, 1316 men participated; 1251 participated in 2015. Belief in TasP increased from 2.6 % in 2013 to 13.1 % in 2015 (p HIV treatment was associated with being younger, living in New South Wales and being in paid employment. We recommend continued monitoring of the growing gap in belief about TasP between HIV-positive men and HIV-negative/untested men.

  19. Cre/loxP-mediated excision of a neomycin resistance expression unit from an integrated retroviral vector increases long terminal repeat-driven transcription in human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernex, C; Dubreuil, P; Mannoni, P; Bagnis, C

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant retroviruses are currently the most attractive vehicles for gene transfer into hematopoietic cells. Retroviral vectors often contain an easily selectable marker gene in addition to the gene of interest. However, the presence and selection for expression of the selectable gene often result in a significant reduction of the expression of the gene of interest in the transduced cells. In order to circumvent this problem, we have developed a Cre/loxP recombination system for specific excision of the selectable expression unit from integrated retroviruses. A retroviral vector, containing both a neomycin resistance expression unit flanked by loxP sites and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor cDNA, was used to transduce the human hematopoietic K-562 cell line. Four transduced cell clones were then superinfected with a retrovirus containing a Cre recombinase expression unit. Molecular analyses of 30 doubly transduced subclones showed a strict correlation between cre expression and loxP-flanked selectable cassette excision, thus implying that Cre recombinase activity is very efficient in a retroviral context. Moreover, the excision of the selectable cassette results in a significant increase of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor transcription driven by the retroviral promoter. PMID:9311833

  20. School-based intervention with children. Peer-modeling, reward and repeated exposure reduce food neophobia and increase liking of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureati, Monica; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Pagliarini, Ella

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the 'Food Dudes' school-based intervention consisting of rewards, peer-modeling and food exposure on food neophobia and the liking of fruits and vegetables (FV) in a large cohort of children. Five-hundred sixty children recruited from three schools were assigned to the experimental or control group. For 16 days, children in the experimental group watched motivational videos, were read letters to encourage them to eat FV and received a small reward for eating one portion of both a fruit and a vegetable. The control group was only provided with FV for the same time period. Food neophobia and liking were measured in both groups of children before and after the intervention, and a follow-up measurement was carried out 6 months later. The intervention was effective in reducing food neophobia and, most importantly, a persistent effect was observed 6 months after the intervention as children of the experimental group showed significantly lower neophobia scores than the control group. Additionally, the program was effective in increasing liking for both FV; however, this effect was maintained only for fruit after 6 months.

  1. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  2. The Fossile Episode

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an inital pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form expr...

  3. The Fossil Episode

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler, John; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    We build a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with one-sided substitutability between fossil carbon and biocarbon. One shock only, the discovery of the technology to use fossil fuels, leads to a transition from an initial pre-industrial phase to three following phases: a pure fossil carbon phase, a mixed fossil and biocarbon phase and an absorbing biocarbon phase. The increased competition for biocarbon during phase 3 and 4 leads to increasing food prices. We provide closed form exp...

  4. N-terminal Ile-Orn- and Trp-Orn-motif repeats enhance membrane interaction and increase the antimicrobial activity of apidaecins against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina E. C. Bluhm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a life-threatening nosocomial pathogen due to its generally low susceptibility towards antibiotics. Furthermore, many strains have acquired resistance mechanisms requiring new antimicrobials with novel mechanisms to enhance treatment options. Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides, such as the apidaecin analog Api137, are highly efficient against various Enterobacteriaceae infections in mice, but less active against P. aeruginosa in vitro. Here, we extended our recent work by optimizing lead peptides Api755 (gu-OIORPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH; gu = N,N,N’,N’-tetramethylguanidino, O = L-ornithine and Api760 (gu-OWORPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH by incorporation of Ile-Orn- and Trp-Orn-motifs, respectively. Api795 (gu-O(IO2RPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OH and Api794 (gu O(WO3RPVYOPRPRPPHPRL-OHwere highly active against P. aeruginosa with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8-16 µg/mL and 8-32 µg/mL against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Assessed using a quartz crystal microbalance, these peptides inserted into a membrane layer and the surface activity increased gradually from Api137, over Api795, to Api794. This mode of action was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy indicating some membrane damage only at the high peptide concentrations. Api794 and Api795 were highly stable against serum proteases (half-life times > 5 h and non-hemolytic to human erythrocytes at peptide concentrations of 0.6 g/L. At this concentration, Api795 reduced the cell viability of HeLa cells only slightly, whereas the IC50 of Api794 was 0.23 ± 0.09 g/L. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed no colocalization of 5(6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled Api794 or Api795 with the mitochondria, excluding interactions with the mitochondrial membrane. Interestingly, Api795 was localized in endosomes, whereas Api794 was present in endosomes and the cytosol. This was verified using flow cytometry showing a 50 % higher uptake of Api794 in HeLa cells compared

  5. [A new assessment for episodic memory. Episodic memory test and caregiver's episodic memory test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Factitious psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Romano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs for epileptic seizures (ES is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder.

  7. TRAJECTORIES OF DEPRESSIVE EPISODES AND HYPERTENSION OVER 24 YEARS: THE WHITEHALL II PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Hermann; Chastang, Jean-François; Lefèvre, Thomas; Dugravot, Aline; Melchior, Maria; Marmot, Michael G.; Shipley, Martin J.; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Prospective data on depressive symptoms and blood pressure (BP) are scarce, and the impact of age on this association is poorly understood. The present study examines longitudinal trajectories of depressive episodes and the probability of hypertension associated with these trajectories over time. Participants were 6,889 men and 3,413 women London based civil servants, aged 35–55 years at baseline, followed for 24 years between 1985 and 2009. Depressive episode (defined as scoring 4 or more on the General Health Questionnaire-Depression subscale or using prescribed antidepressant medication) and hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication) were assessed concurrently at five medical examinations. In the fully adjusted longitudinal logistic regression analyses based on Generalized-Estimating-Equations using age as the time scale, participants in the “increasing depression” group had a 24% (p<0.05) lower risk of hypertension at ages 35–39, compared to those in the “low/transient depression” group. However, there was a faster age-related increase in hypertension in the “increasing depression” group, corresponding to a 7% (p<0.01) greater increase in the odds of hypertension for every each five-year increase in age. A higher risk of hypertension in the first group of participants was not evident before age 55. A similar pattern of association was observed in men and women although it was stronger in men. This study suggests that the risk of hypertension increases with repeated experience of depressive episodes over time and becomes evident in later adulthood. PMID:21339474

  8. Apathy in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored.......Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored....

  9. Repeat retail clinic visits: impact of insurance coverage and age of patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Bernard, Matthew E; Rohrer, James E; Garrison, Gregory M; Maclaughlin, Kathy L

    2012-12-01

    As retail clinics provide a less costly alternative for health care, it would be reasonable to expect an increase in multiple (repeat) retail visits by those patients who may have expenses for receiving primary care. If costs were not a significant factor, then repeat visits should not be significantly different between these patients and those with coverage for primary care visits. The hypothesis for this study was that patients with the potential for out-of-pocket expenses would have a higher frequency of repeat retail clinic visits within 180 days compared to those with primary care coverage. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 5703 patients utilizing a retail clinic in Rochester, Minnesota from January 1, 2009 through June 30, 2009. The first visit to the retail clinic was considered the index visit and the chart was reviewed for repeat retail clinic visits within the next 180 days. Using a multiple logistic regression model, the odds of a pediatric patient (N=2344) having a repeat retail visit within 180 days of the index visit were not significantly impacted by insurance coverage (P=0.4209). Of the 3359 adult patients, those with unknown coverage had a 25.6% higher odds ratio of repeat retail clinic visits than those with insurance coverage (odds ratio 1.2557, confidence interval 1.0421-1.5131). This study suggested that when cost is an issue, the adult patient may favor retail clinics for episodic, low-acuity health care. In contrast, the pediatric population did not, suggesting that other factors, such as convenience, may play more of a role in the choice of episodic health care for this age group.

  10. Gender differences in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, A; Nilsson, L G; Bäckman, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between gender and memory has been largely neglected by research, despite occasional studies reporting gender differences in episodic memory performance. The present study examined potential gender differences in episodic memory, semantic memory, primary memory, and priming. Five hundred thirty women and 470 men, randomly sampled from the city of Umeå, Sweden, 35-80 years of age, participated in the study. There were no differences between men and women with regard to age or education, or on a measure of global intellectual functioning. As has been demonstrated previously, men out performed women on a visuospatial task and women outperformed men on tests of verbal fluency. In addition, the results demonstrated that women consistently performed at a higher level than did men on the episodic memory tasks, although there were no differences between men and women on the tasks assessing semantic memory, primary memory, or priming. The women's higher level of performance on the episodic memory tasks could not be fully explained by their higher verbal ability.

  11. Increasing productivity of phosphatidyserine by repeated batch reaction%反复分批式反应提高磷脂酰丝氨酸的生产能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封娟娟; 朱南南; 邓杨敏; 韩晓玲; 张小里; 赵彬侠

    2016-01-01

    磷脂酶D(PLD)催化大豆磷脂合成磷脂酰丝氨酸(PS)反应是在油-水两相体系中进行的,大豆磷脂(PC)溶于有机相中,L-丝氨酸溶于水相中,但反应过程中产生副产物——胆碱,抑制酶的催化反应速率,需及时移除胆碱。本文主要采用反复分批式反应来解决这一问题。并考察了增大底物 PC 的浓度,PS 的收率大大降低。低底物PC浓度下,添加不同浓度胆碱,转酯速率及PS收率都降低;高底物PC浓度下,采用反复分批式反应去除胆碱,转酯反应速率提高38%,PS收率达67%。研究表明反复分批式操作是一种生产磷脂的新型工艺,其中PS的生产能力明显提高,而且重复10次反应后,固定化酶活力仍保持58%,纳米SiO2固定化磷脂酶D较好地适用于反复分批式反应。%The synthetic reaction of phosphatidyserine from soybean lecithin catalyzed by immobilized phospholipase D was carried out in oil-water two phase system,with PC and L-serine rich in oil and water phase,respectively. However,the by-product choline restrains the enzyme-catalyzed reaction rate and should be removed in time. In order to solve this problem,we adopted the repeated batch reaction. Increasing the substrate (PC) concentration decreased the yield of PS greatly. When various concentrations of choline chloride were added into the reaction mixture at low PC concentrations,there was a significant decrease in transphosphatidylation rate and the yield of PS. The using of repeated batch reaction was examined at high PC concentration to remove choline,the transphosphatidylation rate increased by 38%,and PS yield was 67%. The paper reported that the repeated batch operation is a novel technology for the synthesis of phosphlipid and increased the productivity of PS significantly. And the immobilized enzyme activity remained 58% after ten batches and nano-SiO2-immobilized-PLD was suitable for repeated batch reaction.

  12. Delayed ischemic electrocortical suppression during rapid repeated cerebral ischemia and kainate-induced seizures in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Spulber, Stefan; Avramescu, Sinziana;

    2006-01-01

    Global cerebral ischemia induces, within seconds, suppression of spontaneous electrocortical activity, partly due to alterations in synaptic transmission. In vitro studies have found that repeated brief hypoxic episodes prolong the persistence of synaptic transmission due to weakened adenosine re...

  13. Episodic fieldwork, updating, and sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, M.

    2013-01-01

    on these relationships. I draw on Simmel's concept of sociability to explore the significance of the recurring updates that are so much a part of long-term and thus episodic fieldwork. Updating suggests participation, positionality, and transformation-as well as play and familiarity. The presumption of familiarity......, which is at the heart of sociability, becomes a tool for exploring time and new social experiences and the ways in which chronology is interwoven with shifting social positions....

  14. Late onset hereditary episodic ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damak, M; Riant, F; Boukobza, M; Tournier-Lasserve, E; Bousser, M-G; Vahedi, K

    2009-05-01

    Episodic ataxias (EA) are hereditary paroxysmal neurological diseases with considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. So far seven loci have been reported and four different genes have been identified. Analysis of additional sporadic or familial cases is needed to better delineate the clinical and genetic spectrum of EA. A two generation French family with late onset episodic ataxia was examined. All consenting family members had a brain MRI with volumetric analysis of the cerebellum. Haplotype analysis was performed for the EA2 locus (19p13), the EA5 locus (2q22), the EA6 locus (5p13) and the EA7 locus (19q13). Mutation screening was performed for all exons of CACNA1A (EA2), EAAT1 (EA6) and the coding sequence of KCNA1 (EA1). Four family members had episodic ataxia with onset between 48 and 56 years of age but with heterogeneity in the severity and duration of symptoms. The two most severely affected had daily attacks of EA with a slowly progressive and disabling permanent cerebellar ataxia and a poor response to acetazolamide. Brain MRI showed in three affected members a decrease in the ratio of cerebellar volume:total intracranial volume, indicating cerebellar atrophy. No deleterious mutation was found in CACNA1A, SCA6, EAAT1 or KCNA1. In addition, the EA5 locus was excluded. A new phenotype of episodic ataxia has been described, characterised clinically by a late onset and progressive permanent cerebellar signs, and genetically by exclusion of the genes so far identified in EA.

  15. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  16. Rat dams exposed repeatedly to a daily brief separation from the pups exhibit increased maternal behavior, decreased anxiety and altered levels of receptors for estrogens (ERα, ERβ), oxytocin and serotonin (5-HT1A) in their brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Antonios; Kalpachidou, Theodora; Raftogianni, Androniki; Zografou, Efstratia; Tzanou, Athanasia; Pondiki, Stavroula; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2015-02-01

    In the present study we investigated the neurobiological mechanisms underlying expression of maternal behavior. Increased maternal behavior was experimentally induced by a brief 15-min separation between the mother and the pups during postnatal days 1 to 22. On postnatal days (PND) 12 and 22, we determined in experimental and control dams levels of anxiety in the elevated plus maze (EPM) as well as the levels of receptors for estrogens (ERα, ERβ), oxytocin (OTR) and serotonin (5-HT1AR) in areas of the limbic system (prefrontal cortex-PFC, hippocampus, lateral septum-SL, medial preoptic area-MPOA, shell of nucleus accumbens-nAc-Sh, central-CeA and basolateral-BLA amygdala), involved in the regulation of maternal behavior. Experimental dams, which showed increased maternal behavior towards their offspring, displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM on both PND12 and PND22. These behavioral differences could be attributed to neurochemical alterations in their brain: On both PND12 and PND22, experimental mothers had higher levels of ERα and OTRs in the PFC, hippocampus, CeA, SL, MPOA and nAc-Sh. The experimental manipulation-induced increase in ERβ levels was less widespread, being localized in PFC, the hippocampal CA2 area, MPOA and nAc-Sh. In addition, 5-HT1ARs were reduced in the PFC, hippocampus, CeA, MPOA and nAc-Sh of the experimental mothers. Our results show that the experience of the daily repeated brief separation from the pups results in increased brain ERs and OTRs, as well as decreased 5-HT1ARs in the dam's brain; these neurochemical changes could underlie the observed increase in maternal behavior and the reduction of anxiety.

  17. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  18. Repeated ischaemic preconditioning: a novel therapeutic intervention and potential underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Maxwell, Joseph; Green, Daniel J; Cable, N Timothy; Jones, Helen

    2016-06-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review discusses the effects of repeated exposure of tissue to ischaemic preconditioning on cardiovascular function, the attendant adaptations and their potential clinical relevance. What advances does it highlight? We discuss the effects of episodic exposure to ischaemic preconditioning to prevent and/or attenuate ischaemic injury and summarize evidence pertaining to improvements in cardiovascular function and structure. Discussion is provided regarding the potential mechanisms that contribute to both local and systemic adaptation. Findings suggest that clinical benefits result from both the prevention of ischaemic events and the attenuation of their consequences. Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) refers to the phenomenon whereby short periods of cyclical tissue ischaemia confer subsequent protection against ischaemia-induced injury. As a consequence, IPC can ameliorate the myocardial damage following infarction and can reduce infarct size. The ability of IPC to confer remote protection makes IPC a potentially feasible cardioprotective strategy. In this review, we discuss the concept that repeated exposure of tissue to IPC may increase the 'dose' of protection and subsequently lead to enhanced protection against ischaemia-induced myocardial injury. This may be relevant for clinical populations, who demonstrate attenuated efficacy of IPC to prevent or attenuate ischaemic injury (and therefore myocardial infarct size). Furthermore, episodic IPC facilitates repeated exposure to local (e.g. shear stress) and systemic stimuli (e.g. hormones, cytokines, blood-borne substances), which may induce improvement in vascular function and health. Such adaptation may contribute to prevention of cardio- and cerebrovascular events. The clinical benefits of repeated IPC may, therefore, result from both the prevention of ischaemic events and the attenuation of their consequences. We provide an overview of the literature pertaining to the impact

  19. Labeling of Medication and Placebo Alters the Outcome of Episodic Migraine Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam-Hansen, Slavenka; Jakubowski, Moshe; Kelley, John M.; Kirsch, Irving; Hoaglin, David C.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Burstein, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Information provided to patients is thought to influence placebo and drug effects. We investigated the potential relationship between treatment labeling and its outcome in a prospective, within-subjects, repeated measures study of episodic migraine. A cohort of 66 participants documented 7 separate migraine attack: one untreated attack, followed by six attacks that were randomly assigned for either rizatriptan (10 mg Maxalt) or placebo treatments, each of which labeled once as ‘Maxalt’, once as ‘Placebo’, and once as ‘Maxalt or Placebo’ (459 documented attacks). Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed model statistics. While Maxalt was generally superior to placebo, the placebo effect, and to a lesser extent Maxalt efficacy, increased monotonically with treatment labeling as follows: ‘Placebo’ label 50% of Maxalt effect under the corresponding labeling condition. Thus, incremental “positive” information yielded incremental efficacy of placebo and medication during migraine attacks. PMID:24401940

  20. Planning Physical Education Lessons as Teaching "Episodes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoupis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    An "episode" is a unit of time within which teachers and students are working on the same objective and are engaged in the same teaching/learning style. The duration of each episode, as well as the number of them in a single lesson, may vary. Additionally, the multiple episodes of a lesson may have similar objectives, offer similar…

  1. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  2. Effect of Repeated Anthelminthic Treatment on Malaria in School Children in Kenya: A Randomized, Open-Label, Equivalence Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepha, Stella; Nuwaha, Fred; Nikolay, Birgit; Gichuki, Paul; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Mwinzi, Pauline N; Odiere, Maurice R; Edwards, Tansy; Allen, Elizabeth; Brooker, Simon J

    2016-01-15

    School children living in the tropics are often concurrently infected with plasmodium and helminth parasites. It has been hypothesized that immune responses evoked by helminths may modify malaria-specific immune responses and increase the risk of malaria. We performed a randomized, open-label, equivalence trial among 2436 school children in western Kenya. Eligible children were randomized to receive either 4 repeated doses or a single dose of albendazole and were followed up during 13 months to assess the incidence of clinical malaria. Secondary outcomes were Plasmodium prevalence and density, assessed by repeat cross-sectional surveys over 15 months. Analysis was conducted on an intention-to-treat basis with a prespecified equivalence range of 20%. During 13 months of follow-up, the incidence rate of malaria was 0.27 episodes/person-year in the repeated treatment group and 0.26 episodes/person-year in the annual treatment group (incidence difference, 0.01; 95% confidence interval, -.03 to .06). The prevalence and density of malaria parasitemia did not differ by treatment group at any of the cross-sectional surveys. Our findings suggest that repeated deworming does not alter risks of clinical malaria or malaria parasitemia among school children and that school-based deworming in Africa may have no adverse consequences for malaria. NCT01658774. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Exposição repetida à cafeína aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos Repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Helena Paro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A cafeína e o femproporex são substâncias psicoestimulantes. O femproporex é muito utilizado no Brasil como anorexígeno enquanto a cafeína é amplamente consumida como constituinte regular da dieta. A administração repetida de psicoestimulantes induz sensibilização comportamental que se caracteriza pelo aumento progressivo dos seus efeitos locomotores. Pode ocorrer ainda sensibilização cruzada entre essas substâncias. Investigamos se a administração repetida de cafeína aumenta a locomoção induzida pelo femproporex em ratos adolescentes e adultos. Quarenta e oito ratos adolescentes (dia pós-natal 27 e 32 adultos (dia pós-natal 60 foram distribuídos em dois grupos que receberam injeção intra-peritoneal de 10,0 mg/kg de cafeína (CAF (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 ou salina (SAL (adolescentes N = 24; adultos N = 16 diariamente durante 10 dias. Três dias após a última injeção, cada grupo CAF ou SAL foi subdividido em dois subgrupos que receberam injeção i.p. de salina (SAL (1 mL/kg ou femproporex (FEM (2,0 mg/kg. Após as injeções, a atividade locomotora foi avaliada automaticamente em intervalos de 5 minutos durante 1 hora. Nossos resultados demonstraram que em ratos adolescentes e adultos o pré-tratamento com CAF aumenta a atividade locomotora induzida pela administração aguda de FEM, sugerindo que a cafeína causa sensibilização aos efeitos locomotores desse derivado anfetamínico.Caffeine and femproporex are psychostimulants drugs widely consumed in Brazil. Behavioral sensitization is defined as an augmentation in the behavioral effect of a psychostimulant upon re-administration. Repeated administration of a psychostimulant produces behavioral sensitization to that drug and cross-sensitization to other drugs. We investigated whether repeated administration of caffeine increases femproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Forty-eight adolescent (postnatal day 27 and 32 adult

  4. Modeling HIV-1 drug resistance as episodic directional selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Murrell

    Full Text Available The evolution of substitutions conferring drug resistance to HIV-1 is both episodic, occurring when patients are on antiretroviral therapy, and strongly directional, with site-specific resistant residues increasing in frequency over time. While methods exist to detect episodic diversifying selection and continuous directional selection, no evolutionary model combining these two properties has been proposed. We present two models of episodic directional selection (MEDS and EDEPS which allow the a priori specification of lineages expected to have undergone directional selection. The models infer the sites and target residues that were likely subject to directional selection, using either codon or protein sequences. Compared to its null model of episodic diversifying selection, MEDS provides a superior fit to most sites known to be involved in drug resistance, and neither one test for episodic diversifying selection nor another for constant directional selection are able to detect as many true positives as MEDS and EDEPS while maintaining acceptable levels of false positives. This suggests that episodic directional selection is a better description of the process driving the evolution of drug resistance.

  5. Episodic retrieval and feature facilitation in intertrial priming of visual search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Arni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Huang, Holcombe, and Pashler (Memory & Cognition, 32, 12–20, 2004) found that priming from repetition of different features of a target in a visual search task resulted in significant response time (RT) reductions when both target brightness and size were repeated. But when only one...... feature was repeated and the other changed, RTs were longer than when neither feature was repeated. From this, they argued that priming in visual search reflected episodic retrieval of memory traces, rather than facilitation of repeated features. We tested different varia- tions of the search task...... introduced by Huang et al., with the aim of uncovering when priming is episodic and when feature based. We found that varying the signal strength of target against distractors had a strong effect on the priming pattern. In difficult search with low signal-to-noise ratios of target against distractors...

  6. Mood states preceding and following compulsive buying episodes: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Johnson, Joshua; Claes, Laurence; de Zwaan, Martina

    2012-12-30

    This study examined the extent to which patterns of mood and daily stress experienced by individuals with compulsive buying (CB) are associated with CB episodes by using Ecological Momentary Assessment. The comparison of mood and the impact of daily stress on days on which CB occurred to those days on which CB episodes did not occur did not reveal any significant differences. Within-day analysis indicated that negative affect increased significantly and positive affect decreased significantly prior to a CB episode. There was also evidence of a significant decrease in negative affect following a CB episode. Positive affect did not change significantly after a CB episode. The findings suggest that CB episodes hold negative reinforcing properties for individuals with CB. Treatment of patients with CB should focus on functional assessment of the affective antecedents and consequences of CB episodes and the identification of alternative, more functional behaviors to deal with these affective states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Repeated intermittent alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent increases expression of the GABA(A) receptor δ subunit in cerebellar granule neurons and delays motor development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marvin R; Vollmer, Cyndel C; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula A; Vollmer, William; Blomquist, Samantha L; Morton, Russell A; Everett, Julie C; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Yu, Jieying; Orser, Beverley A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during fetal development can lead to long-lasting alterations, including deficits in fine motor skills and motor learning. Studies suggest that these are, in part, a consequence of cerebellar damage. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are the gateway of information into the cerebellar cortex. Functionally, CGNs are heavily regulated by phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition from Golgi cell interneurons; however, the effect of EtOH exposure on the development of GABAergic transmission in immature CGNs has not been investigated. To model EtOH exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy, neonatal pups were exposed intermittently to high levels of vaporized EtOH from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. This exposure gradually increased pup serum EtOH concentrations (SECs) to ∼60 mM (∼0.28 g/dl) during the 4 h of exposure. EtOH levels gradually decreased to baseline 8 h after the end of exposure. Surprisingly, basal tonic and phasic GABAergic currents in CGNs were not significantly affected by postnatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, PAE increased δ subunit expression at P28 as detected by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Also, electrophysiological studies with an agonist that is highly selective for δ-containing GABA(A) receptors, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP), showed an increase in THIP-induced tonic current. Behavioral studies of PAE rats did not reveal any deficits in motor coordination, except for a delay in the acquisition of the mid-air righting reflex that was apparent at P15 to P18. These findings demonstrate that repeated intermittent exposure to high levels of EtOH during the equivalent of the last trimester of human pregnancy has significant but relatively subtle effects on motor coordination and GABAergic transmission in CGNs in rats.

  8. Sympathetic activation and baroreflex function during intradialytic hypertensive episodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvora Rubinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of intradialytic increases in blood pressure are not well defined. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of autonomic nervous system activation during intradialytic hypertensive episodes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Continuous interbeat intervals (IBI and systolic blood pressure (SBP were monitored during hemodialysis in 108 chronic patients. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes defined as a period of at least 10 mmHg increase in SBP between the beginning and the end of a dialysis session or hypertension resistant to ultrafiltration occurring during or immediately after the dialysis procedure, were detected in 62 out of 113 hemodialysis sessions. SBP variability, IBI variability and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS in the low (LF and high (HF frequency ranges were assessed using the complex demodulation technique (CDM. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes were associated with an increased (n = 45 or decreased (n = 17 heart rate. The maximal blood pressure was similar in both groups. In patients with increased heart rate the increase in blood pressure was associated with marked increases in SBP and IBI variability, with suppressed BRS indices and enhanced sympatho-vagal balance. In contrast, in those with decreased heart rate, there were no significant changes in the above parameters. End-of-dialysis blood pressure in all sessions associated with hypertensive episode was significantly higher than in those without such episodes. In logistic regression analysis, predialysis BRS in the low frequency range was found to be the main predictor of intradialytic hypertension. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data point to sympathetic overactivity with feed-forward blood pressure enhancement as an important mechanism of intradialytic hypertension in a significant proportion of patients. The triggers of increased sympathetic activity during hemodialysis remain to be determined. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes

  9. [Are intravenous immunoglobulins useful in severe episodes of autoimmune hemolytic anemia?: Comparative results in 21 episodes from a single centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Fernández, Juan José; Flores Ballester, Elena; González Martínez, María; Arévalo-Serrano, Juan; Tamayo Martín, Ana Teresa; Burgaleta Alonso de Ozalla, Carmen

    2013-09-07

    To analyze haemolytic episodes in patients with warm antibody autoimmune haemolytic anemia (AIHA) and compare corticosteroids treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) (group A) or without IVIG (group B). Observational study that includes 21 haemolytic episodes occurred in 17 patients (9 males and 12 females), with a median age of 59 years (26-82). In group A, 8 episodes received IGIV + corticosteroids and in group B, 12 episodes received only corticosteroids and one rituximab. Hemoglobin (Hb) value at diagnosis was 1.8 g/dl lower (95% confidence interval: 0.6 to 3.1; P = .007) in group A, with a median Hb of 6.3g/dl in this group vs 7.9 g/dl in group B. There were non-significant differences in red blood cells transfusion (50 vs 23%; P > .20) and global increase of Hb values (7.3 vs 5.6; P > .20). Overall hematological responses were similar: 88 vs 92% (P > .20). Hematological response achieved in more severe episodes with the use of IVIG was similar to non-severe episodes treated without IVIG. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Should a Preschool Child with Acute Episodic Wheeze be Treated with Oral Corticosteroids? A Pro/Con Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigelman, Avraham; Durrani, Sandy; Guilbert, Theresa W

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, preschool-aged children with an acute wheezing episode have been treated with oral corticosteroids (OCSs) based on the efficacy of OCSs in older children and adolescents. However, this practice has been recently challenged based on the results of recent studies. The argument supporting the use of OCSs underscores the observation that many children with recurrent preschool wheezing develop atopic disease in early life which predicts both an increased risk to develop asthma in later life and response to OCS therapy. Further, review of the literature demonstrates heterogeneity of study designs, OCS dosage, interventions, study medication adherence, and settings and overall lack of predefined preschool wheezing phenotypes. The heterogeneity of these studies does not allow a definitive recommendation discouraging OCS use. Advocates against the use of OCSs in this population argue that most of studies investigating the efficacy of OCSs in acute episodic wheeze in preschool-aged children have not demonstrated beneficial effects. Moreover, repeated OCS bursts may be associated with adverse effects. Finally, both sides can agree that there is a significant need to conduct efficacy trials evaluating OCS treatment in preschool-aged children with recurrent wheezing targeted at phenotypes that would be expected to respond to OCSs. This article presents a summary of recent literature regarding the use of OCSs for acute episodic wheezing in preschool-aged children and a "pro" and "con" debate for such use.

  11. Episodic subgreenschist facies metamorphism in the Andes of Chile - is it a valid model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, R. E.; Robinson, D.; Aguirre, L.; Vergara, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Central Andes of Chile are characterized by subgreenschist facies burial metamorphism that is reported as having developed in up to seven episodic cycles of some 40Myr duration. The main evidence in support of the model is reported as mineralogical breaks at major stratigraphic boundaries that are interpreted as documenting sharp breaks in metamorphic grade. Here we test this model by examination of the progressive secondary mineral development, reaction progress in mafic phyllosilicates, and topological variations of the low-grade assemblages in metabasites for Jurassic to Miocene sequences east of Santiago. The mafic phyllosilicates (smectite - mixed-layer chlorite/smectite - chlorite) show increasing reaction progress with stratigraphic age and there is a continuum across the main stratigraphic boundaries, such there is no offset or gap in the reaction progress at these boundaries. There are some differences in mineral assemblages between the various stratigraphic units, such as between prehnite+pumpellyite+/-laumonite or amphibole-bearing and non amphibole bearing rocks, from which contrasting subgreenschist facies can be recognised. However, consideration of the controls on mineral parageneses at subgreenschist facies conditions demonstrates that these different facies cannot be used solely as evidence of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at unconformities, as has been reported in many previous publications for the Andes. The presently accepted model for the Central Andes, involving repeated cycles of episodic metamorphism developing in extensional basins, is, therefore, partly unfounded. Consideration of the overall tectonic evolution of this part of the Andes concurs that the burial metamorphism developed in extensional settings, but in only two events, namely in mid-late Cretaceous and Late Miocene times respectively. The results from this work suggest that the record of sharp metamorphic breaks and the episodic model of metamorphism reported for many

  12. Episode-specific drinking-to-cope motivation, daily mood, and fatigue-related symptoms among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeli, Stephen; O'Hara, Ross E; Ehrenberg, Ethan; Sullivan, Tami P; Tennen, Howard

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine whether within-person, episode-specific changes in drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation from the previous evening were associated with concurrent daily mood and fatigue-related symptoms among college student drinkers (N = 1,421; 54% female). We conducted an Internet-based daily diary study in which students reported over 30 days on their previous night's drinking level and motivation and their current mood (i.e., sadness, anxiety, anger/hostility, and positive mood) and fatigue-related symptoms. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear models in which the current day's outcome was predicted by last night's levels of DTC motivation and drinking, controlling for drinking to enhance motivation, sex, current day's physical symptoms and drinking, and yesterday's level of the outcome. Subsequent models also predicted outcomes 2 days following the drinking event. Relative increases in previous night's DTC motivation were associated with higher levels of current day negative mood and fatigue-related symptoms and lower levels of positive mood. Also, the association between episode-specific DTC motivation and negative mood was stronger in the positive direction when individuals reported higher levels of nonsocial drinking from the previous night. Last, episode-specific DTC showed similar associations with sadness and anger/hostility 2 days after the drinking event. The results are generally consistent with the posited attention allocation and ego-depletion mechanisms. Findings suggest that the deleterious effects of repeated episodes of DTC, over time, could help to explain the increased likelihood of alcohol-related problems seen in prior studies.

  13. Course of insight in manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insight is an important factor associated with non compliance and poor outcome. Poor level of insight has been described as a characteristic in patients with acute bipolar disorder with more unawareness in social consequences with increasing severity in manic episode. Aim: Main aim of study was to see the baseline and longitudinal relationship between dimensions of insight with improvement in psychopathology. Setting and Design: Forty four patients diagnosed with mania, were selected from an inpatient setting at Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra with mean age of 31.07(±9.00 years. They were assessed at base line and were followed up weekly or psychopathology and insight. Materials and Methods: The Young′s mania rating scale for psychopathology and insight was assessed on three dimensions of SUMD. Results: Twenty five patients eventually completed the study. There was a positive correlation with global insight and with psychopathology consistent in longitudinal follow-up (P<0.05, but not correlating for awareness for achieved effect of medication and social consequences. Linear regression showed a positive relationship at the first and second week of assessment of SUMD and YMRS scores (P=0.001; 0.019. Conclusion: Improvement in insight is graded in a manic episode as compared to psychopathology. There is slower improvement in awareness of social consequences of mental disorder. It means that improvement in psychopathology may not necessarily indicate remission and need further supervision to improve insight and hence monitoring.

  14. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  15. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  16. Acute effects of ambient air pollution episodes on respiratory health of children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, G.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis the acute effects of air pollution episodes on respiratory health of seven to eleven year old children living in non-urban communities in the Netherlands are discussed. Repeated measurements of pulmonary function (spirometry) and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms using a da

  17. Familial episodic ataxia in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, I G; Jolly, R D; Burnham, D; Ridler, A I; Poff, G J; Blair, H T

    2013-03-01

    A similar episodic neurological disorder occurred in new born lambs on two unrelated properties involving disparate breeds of sheep. Because of the number of lambs born, cross-breeding and the fact it occurred in some mating groups and not others, a dominant mode of inheritance was, initially and separately, suspected in each case. The sires of affected lambs were apparently normal. Whereas one was New Zealand Romney, the other was a composite breed with East Friesian genetics, but both rams originated from the same source property. To investigate the pathogenesis of the disorder these two rams were acquired and mated with unrelated sheep, under experimental conditions in a more controlled environment. A proportion of lambs born to both sires exhibited a similar neurological disorder. Some lambs were noted to be abnormal at birth, both on home properties and in the experimental flock. They tended to adopt a head and neck extended posture and were slow to get to their feet and suckle when they then became more or less normal. When forced to move, they and other more robust lambs elicited an asymmetric gait, base-wide extensor hypertonia (hypometria) of thoracic limbs and flexor hypertonia (hypermetria) of pelvic limbs. In some there was nystagmus. After several metres of asymmetric ataxic gait they would fall to one side, sometimes adopting a sitting position. Recovery usually occurred in one to several minutes. As lambs aged, it became more difficult to elicit the episodes of dysfunction and by 6 months of age they appeared normal. The disorder was diagnosed as a dominant familial episodic cerebellovestibular ataxia inherited as a dominant trait, with incomplete penetration of observed clinical signs and variable expressivity. A proportion of affected lambs are likely to die in the neonatal period so the specific nature of the disorder may go unrecognised. Because of incomplete penetrance and varying expressivity, many of the lambs carrying this mutation will

  18. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  19. Caregiver psychoeducation for first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.

  20. Episodic memory--from brain to mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbinteanu, Janina; Kennedy, Pamela J; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal mechanisms of episodic memory, the conscious recollection of autobiographical events, are largely unknown because electrophysiological studies in humans are conducted only in exceptional circumstances. Unit recording studies in animals are thus crucial for understanding the neurophysiological substrate that enables people to remember their individual past. Two features of episodic memory--autonoetic consciousness, the self-aware ability to "travel through time", and one-trial learning, the acquisition of information in one occurrence of the event--raise important questions about the validity of animal models and the ability of unit recording studies to capture essential aspects of memory for episodes. We argue that autonoetic experience is a feature of human consciousness rather than an obligatory aspect of memory for episodes, and that episodic memory is reconstructive and thus its key features can be modeled in animal behavioral tasks that do not involve either autonoetic consciousness or one-trial learning. We propose that the most powerful strategy for investigating neurophysiological mechanisms of episodic memory entails recording unit activity in brain areas homologous to those required for episodic memory in humans (e.g., hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) as animals perform tasks with explicitly defined episodic-like aspects. Within this framework, empirical data suggest that the basic structure of episodic memory is a temporally extended representation that distinguishes the beginning from the end of an event. Future research is needed to fully understand how neural encodings of context, sequences of items/events, and goals are integrated within mnemonic representations of autobiographical events.

  1. Possible anticipation associated with a novel splice site mutation in episodic ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Yook, Ji-Won; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Park, Young-Eun; Kim, Ji Soo; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Jin-Hong; Kim, Dae-Seong

    2013-09-01

    Anticipation is a phenomenon characterized by decreasing age at onset and increasing severity of symptoms of a disease in successive generations within a pedigree. Anticipation mostly occurs in neurodegenerative diseases with expansion of unstable trinucleotide repeats. However, it has not been previously pointed out in episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2). Clinical and genetic analyses were performed in nine members from three consecutive generations of a Korean family with EA2. We performed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based direct sequence analysis of all coding regions of CACNA1A using genomic DNA. The clinically affected family members showed recurrent vertigo, interictal nystagmus, and childhood epilepsy. There is a decrease in the age onset (possible genetic anticipation) in three succeeding generations of the family. Genetic analysis identified a splice site mutation (p.Val1465Glyfs13X) and normal trinucleotide repeats in CACNA1A in all clinically affected and one unaffected members. Recognizing anticipation would aid in genetic counseling in EA2.

  2. [First-episode psychosis, cognitive difficulties and remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidailhet, P

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive difficulties are a core feature of schizophrenia. They are frequent, severe, and clearly associated with functional disabilities. They have been explored during different phases of the disease, but what we know essentially concerns the chronic period in middle-age patients. In this article we will specifically focus on cognition at the time of first episode. First episode is a key life period, occurring while social demands are increasing and more complex on the one hand, and while there are important changes in structural and functional cerebral anatomy on the other hand. Exploring cognitive difficulties at the time of first episode offers the opportunity to better know their time course, to avoid interpretative difficulties due to the chronicity of the disease and its treatments, and to develop early therapeutics in order to improve outcome. Cognitive difficulties are clearly present at the time of first episode; their nature and severity appear similar to those observed in more chronic patients. Therefore, they cannot be entirely explained by treatments, hospitalizations or chronicity, and appear more as an intrinsic feature of the disease. The course of their trajectory through the progression of the disease remains uncertain; while they are already present during childhood or adolescence in some subjects who will later declare schizophrenia, they seem to worsen during the period of early prodroms, that is years before psychotic symptoms emerge. Whether they aggravate again during the first episode process is still a matter of debate. While longer DUP is associated with a poor outcome, this does not seem to hold true for cognitive impairments. Cannabis or tobacco use are neither associated with worse cognitive abilities in first-episode patients; a reverse relationship even sometimes exists. Cognitive impairment appears as largely independent from other clinical dimensions, acknowledging its own physiopathology and requiring specific evaluation and

  3. Late postoperative episodic and constant hypoxaemia and associated ECG abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Rasmussen, Verner; von Jessen, F

    1990-01-01

    heart rate increased 16 beat min-1 (P less than 0.001) and mean oxygen saturation (SaO2) decreased 2.6% (P less than 0.001) after operation. Episodic oxygen desaturation to less than 80% occurred in four patients before operation, but in 13 patients after operation (P less than 0.05). ECG abnormalities...

  4. fMRI evidence of word frequency and strength effects during episodic memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zubicaray, Greig I; McMahon, Katie L; Eastburn, Matthew M; Finnigan, Simon; Humphreys, Michael S

    2005-03-01

    Word frequency (WF) and strength effects are two important phenomena associated with episodic memory. The former refers to the superior hit-rate (HR) for low (LF) compared to high frequency (HF) words in recognition memory, while the latter describes the incremental effect(s) upon HRs associated with repeating an item at study. Using the "subsequent memory" method with event-related fMRI, we tested the attention-at-encoding (AE) [M. Glanzer, J.K. Adams, The mirror effect in recognition memory: data and theory, J. Exp. Psychol.: Learn Mem. Cogn. 16 (1990) 5-16] explanation of the WF effect. In addition to investigating encoding strength, we addressed if study involves accessing prior representations of repeated items via the same mechanism as that at test [J.L. McClelland, M. Chappell, Familiarity breeds differentiation: a subjective-likelihood approach to the effects of experience in recognition memory, Psychol. Rev. 105 (1998) 724-760], entailing recollection [K.J. Malmberg, J.E. Holden, R.M. Shiffrin, Modeling the effects of repetitions, similarity, and normative word frequency on judgments of frequency and recognition memory, J. Exp. Psychol.: Learn Mem. Cogn. 30 (2004) 319-331] and whether less processing effort is entailed for encoding each repetition [M. Cary, L.M. Reder, A dual-process account of the list-length and strength-based mirror effects in recognition, J. Mem. Lang. 49 (2003) 231-248]. The increased BOLD responses observed in the left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) for the WF effect provide support for an AE account. Less effort does appear to be required for encoding each repetition of an item, as reduced BOLD responses were observed in the LIPC and left lateral temporal cortex; both regions demonstrated increased responses in the conventional subsequent memory analysis. At test, a left lateral parietal BOLD response was observed for studied versus unstudied items, while only medial parietal activity was observed for repeated items at study

  5. Cannabis and Alcohol Abuse Among First Psychotic Episode Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gregory; Kunyvsky, Yehuda; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi; Raskin, Sergey; Abramowitz, Moshe Z

    2016-01-01

    Psychoactive substance abuse, which includes abuse of alcohol and street drugs, is common among first-episode psychosis patients, but the prevalence of cannabis abuse is particularly high. However, there have been very few reported studies concerning the occurrence of psychoactive substance abuse among first-episode psychotic individuals using standard toxicological testing. We study the prevalence of cannabis and alcohol abuse among first-psychoticepisode inpatients as well as compare the demographic, diagnostic, and psychopathological profiles of substance abusers versus nonusers. Subjects were recruited from the Jerusalem Mental Health Center between 2012 and 2014. Ninety-one consecutively admitted psychiatric patients diagnosed using the DSM-IV criteria with a first psychotic episode due to schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, bipolar disorder, brief psychotic episode, and psychosis NOS disorder entered the study. The diagnoses of schizophrenia (all types), psychosis NOS disorder, brief psychotic episode, and schizophreniform disorder were categorized as "only psychosis" and those of bipolar disorder manic episode with psychotic features (congruent and incongruent) and severe depression with psychotic features were categorized as "predominantly affective symptoms." Urine tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were performed during the first 48 hours of admission, and likewise self-report questionnaires were administered. Alcohol abuse and dependence were diagnosed by self-report. Of the 91 subjects in the study, 49 (53.8%) did not abuse any illegal psychoactive substance. Twenty patients (22%) abused only cannabis; 14 (15.4%) abused cannabis and another psychoactive substance; 54 (59.3%) of the subjects reported no alcohol abuse; 33 (36.3%) reported occasional drinking (between two and ten times a month); and 4 (4.4%) reported continuous repeated drinking (more than ten times a month). There was no correlation between the demographic characteristics and the

  6. Meteorological Modeling of a Houston Ozone Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.

    2002-12-01

    The State of Texas requires accurate meteorological simulations of a Houston-Galveston ozone episode to drive their photochemical model for regulatory purposes. The episode of greatest interest occurred during TexAQS-2000, so there is an unusually large amount of data available for driving and validating the simulation. The key meteorological process to simulate is the sea breeze. In the Houston area, this sea breeze takes two forms, both of which typically occur on a summertime day. The first form is the sea breeze front, which forms along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay if the midday winds are light or offshore and travels inland during the afternoon and early evening. The second form is an inertia-gravity wave response of unusually large amplitude and horizontal scale, due to Houston's proximity to 30 N. It manifests itself as a steady rotation of the wind, superimposed on the background flow, with an amplitude of 2-3 m/s. The MM5 (v3.4) model characteristics were tailored to simulate this phenomenon. Over 20 vertical levels were located in the lowest 300 mb. The soil moisture availability was adjusted according to rainfall prior to and during the event so that the model simulated a reasonably accurate land-sea and urban-rural temperature contrast. A planetary boundary layer scheme was chosen to produce lower atmospheric structures similar to those observed in special soundings. To further increase the agreement between the model and observed fields, data from five profilers and one Doppler lidar were assimilated into the simulation. Assimilation parameters were chosen to provide a large impact on the large-scale, slowly-varying winds while allowing the smaller-scale sea breeze front and other such phenomena to evolve according to the internal dynamics of the model. The assimilation was essential for compelling the model to capture a nighttime low-level jet that was present during part of the episode and which the unassimilated model runs were

  7. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  8. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  9. Police Response to Family Abduction Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass, Peggy S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines role of police in responding to family abduction episodes using data from a national survey. Addresses questions concerning frequency of police involvement, how abductions to which police respond differ from those to which they don't, actions taken by police, and the effects of their actions on episode outcomes. (LKS)

  10. Intrusions in Episodic Memory: Reconsolidation or Interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingmüller, Angela; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Sommer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a…

  11. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  12. Episodic Volcanism and Geochemistry in Western Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, I.; Carr, M. J.; Gazel, E.; Swisher, C.; Turrin, B.

    2007-12-01

    The active volcanic arc in western Nicaragua is separated from the Miocene arc by a temporal gap in the volcanic record, during which little volcanic material was erupted. Previous work suggested that this gap lasted from 7 to 1.6 Ma, during which volcanic production in Nicaragua was limited or nonexistent. Because the precise timing and duration of this gap has been poorly constrained, recent fieldwork has focused on locating samples that may have erupted close to or even during this apparent hiatus in activity. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dates reveal pulses of low- level episodic volcanism at 7 Ma and 1 Ma between the active and Miocene arcs with current volcanism beginning ~350 ka. In addition, sampling from an inactive area between Coseguina and San Cristobal yielded two distinct groupings of ages; one of Tamarindo age (13 Ma) and the other around 3.5 Ma-the only samples of that age collected on-strike with the active arc. This raises the possibility the bases of the other active volcanoes contain lavas that are older than expected, but have been covered by subsequent eruptions. The Miocene arc differs from the active arc in Central America in several ways, with the latter having higher Ba/La and U/Th values due to increased slab input and changes in subducted sediment composition. Analysis of sample C-51 and others taken from the same area may shed light on the timing of this shift from high to low Ba/La and U/Th values. More importantly, it may help explain why the arc experienced such a dramatic downturn in volcanic production during this time. We also report 25 new major and trace element analyses that shed some light on the origins of these minor episodes of Nicaraguan volcanism. These samples are currently awaiting Sr and Nd isotopic analyses.

  13. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  14. [First episode of schizophrenia and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacon, Bianca Cristina Ciccone; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari

    2006-06-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the main health problems in current days, requiring considerable investment from the health system. Intervening in the first episode offers a unique opportunity in the treatment of schizophrenia and influences the course of the illness. This article consists of a critical literature review aimed at examining knowledge on first episode schizophrenia and discussing the contribution of nursing care. A research was carried out in bibliographical databases. The data collected made possible the organization of information on the general concept of schizophrenia, its first episode, types of intervention and nursing performance. We found out that in Brazil there are few studies related to first episode schizophrenia in Nursing, few available specialized services, and few social resources. This situation reveals the need for more studies on first episode schizophrenia.

  15. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  16. The presence of a depressive episode predicts lower return to work rate after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter; Zuidersma, Marij; Bultmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Context: No studies have evaluated whether the presence of a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk of not returning to work following myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives: To examine the prospective associations between depressive episode and anxiety disorders with return to work

  17. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  18. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  19. Microbial Translocation Contribute to Febrile Episodes in Adults with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle; Barqasho, Babilonia; Öhrmalm, Lars; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Nowak, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine the contribution of microbial translocation to febrile episodes with no attributable microbiological cause (Fever of Unknown Origin, FUO) in an adult febrile neutropaenic cohort. Endotoxin concentrations were measured with the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Assay and used as a direct measure of bacterial products whilst soluble CD14 (sCD14), measured with ELISA was selected as an indicator of the early host response to endotoxins. Endotoxin concentrations in this cohort were generally elevated but did not differ with the presentation of fever. Further stratification of the febrile episodes based on the microbiological findings revealed significantly (p = 0.0077) elevated endotoxin concentrations in FUO episodes compared with episodes with documented bacterial and viral findings. sCD14 concentrations were however, elevated in febrile episodes (p = 0.0066) and no association was observed between sCD14 concentration and microbiological findings. However, FUO episodes and episodes with Gram-negative bacteraemia were associated with higher median sCD14 concentrations than episodes with Gram-positive bacteraemia (p = 0.030). In conclusion, our findings suggest that in the absence of microbiological findings, microbial translocation could contribute to febrile episodes in an adult neutropaenic cohort. We further observed an association between prophylactic antibiotic use and increased plasma endotoxin concentrations (p = 0.0212). PMID:23874493

  20. Microbial translocation contribute to febrile episodes in adults with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wong

    Full Text Available In this study we sought to determine the contribution of microbial translocation to febrile episodes with no attributable microbiological cause (Fever of Unknown Origin, FUO in an adult febrile neutropaenic cohort. Endotoxin concentrations were measured with the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Assay and used as a direct measure of bacterial products whilst soluble CD14 (sCD14, measured with ELISA was selected as an indicator of the early host response to endotoxins. Endotoxin concentrations in this cohort were generally elevated but did not differ with the presentation of fever. Further stratification of the febrile episodes based on the microbiological findings revealed significantly (p = 0.0077 elevated endotoxin concentrations in FUO episodes compared with episodes with documented bacterial and viral findings. sCD14 concentrations were however, elevated in febrile episodes (p = 0.0066 and no association was observed between sCD14 concentration and microbiological findings. However, FUO episodes and episodes with Gram-negative bacteraemia were associated with higher median sCD14 concentrations than episodes with Gram-positive bacteraemia (p = 0.030. In conclusion, our findings suggest that in the absence of microbiological findings, microbial translocation could contribute to febrile episodes in an adult neutropaenic cohort. We further observed an association between prophylactic antibiotic use and increased plasma endotoxin concentrations (p = 0.0212.

  1. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: ionic controls of episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigington, P.J.; DeWalle, David R.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Kretser, W.A.; Simonin, H.A.; Van Sickle, J.; Baker, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Episodic Response Project (ERP), we intensively monitored discharge and stream chemistry of 13 streams located in the Northern Appalachian region of Pennsylvania and in the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York from fall 1988 to spring 1990. The ERP clearly documented the occurrence of acidic episodes with minimum episodic pH ??? 5 and inorganic monomeric Al (Alim) concentrations >150 ??g/L in at least two study streams in each region. Several streams consistently experienced episodes with maximum Alim concentrations >350 ??g/L. Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) depressions resulted from complex interactions of multiple ions. Base cation decreases often made the most important contributions to ANC depressions during episodes. Organic acid pulses were also important contributors to ANC depressions in the Adirondack streams, and to a lesser extent, in the Catskill and Pennsylvania streams. Nitrate concentrations were low in the Pennsylvania streams, whereas the Catskill and Adirondack study streams had high NO3- concentrations and large episodic pulses (???54 ??eq/L). Most of the Pennsylvania study streams also frequently experienced episodic pulses of SO42- (???78 ??eq/L), whereas the Adirondack and Catskill streams did not. High baseline concentrations of SO42- (all three study areas) and NO3- (Adirondacks and Catskills) reduced episodic minimum ANC, even when these ions did not change during episodes. The ion changes that controlled the most severe episodes (lowest minimum episodic ANC) differed from the ion changes most important to smaller, more frequent episodes. Pulses of NO3- (Catskills and Adirondacks), SO42- (Pennsylvania), or organic acids became more important during major episodes. Overall, the behavior of streamwater SO42- and NO4- is an indicator that acidic deposition has contributed to the severity of episodes in the study streams.

  2. Memory's penumbra: episodic memory decisions induce lingering mnemonic biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Katherine; Sadanand, Arhanti; Davachi, Lila

    2012-07-27

    How do we decide if the people we meet and the things we see are familiar or new? If something is new, we need to encode it as a memory distinct from already stored episodes, using a process known as pattern separation. If familiar, it can be used to reactivate a previously stored memory, by a process known as pattern completion. To orchestrate these conflicting processes, current models propose that the episodic memory system uses environmental cues to establish processing biases that favor either pattern separation during encoding or pattern completion during retrieval. To assess this theory, we measured how people's memory formation and decisions are influenced by their recent engagement in episodic encoding and retrieval. We found that the recent encoding of novel objects improved subsequent identification of subtle changes, a task thought to rely on pattern separation. Conversely, recent retrieval of old objects increased the subsequent integration of stored information into new memories, a process thought to rely on pattern completion. These experiments provide behavioral evidence that episodic encoding and retrieval evoke lingering biases that influence subsequent mnemonic processing.

  3. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  4. Episodic memory: from mind to brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulving, Endel

    2002-01-01

    Episodic memory is a neurocognitive (brain/mind) system, uniquely different from other memory systems, that enables human beings to remember past experiences. The notion of episodic memory was first proposed some 30 years ago. At that time it was defined in terms of materials and tasks. It was subsequently refined and elaborated in terms of ideas such as self, subjective time, and autonoetic consciousness. This chapter provides a brief history of the concept of episodic memory, describes how it has changed (indeed greatly changed) since its inception, considers criticisms of it, and then discusses supporting evidence provided by (a) neuropsychological studies of patterns of memory impairment caused by brain damage, and (b) functional neuroimaging studies of patterns of brain activity of normal subjects engaged in various memory tasks. I also suggest that episodic memory is a true, even if as yet generally unappreciated, marvel of nature.

  5. [Episodic memory: from mind to brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulving, E

    2004-04-01

    Episodic memory is a neurocognitive (brain/mind) system, uniquely different from other memory systems, that enables human beings to remember past experiences. The notion of episodic memory was first proposed some 30 Years ago. At that time it was defined in terms of materials and tasks. It was subsequently refined and elaborated in terms of ideas such as self, subjective time, and autonoetic consciousness. This chapter provides a brief history of the concept of episodic memory, describes how it has changed (indeed greatly changed) since its inception, considers criticisms of it, and then discusses supporting evidence provided by (a) neuropsychological studies of patterns of memory impairment caused by brain damage, and (b) functional neuroimaging studies of patterns of brain activity of normal subjects engaged in various memory tasks. I also suggest that episodic memory is a true, even if as yet generally unappreciated, marvel of nature.

  6. Febrile Episodic Ataxia with Novel Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2 kindred with ataxic spells induced by fever or high environmental temperature and a novel CACNA1A mutation were identified and reported from the Universities of Mississippi and Minnesota.

  7. Frequent fever episodes and the risk of febrile seizures: the Generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Annemarie M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Breteler, Monique M B; Hofman, Albert; Moll, Henriette A; Arts, Willem Frans M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the number of fever episodes and the risk of febrile seizures. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study from early foetal life onwards. Information about the occurrence of febrile seizures and fever episodes was collected by questionnaires at the ages of 12, 24 and 36 months. Analyses were based on 3033 subjects. The risk of febrile seizures was compared between children with frequent fever episodes (>2 per year), and children with only 1 or 2 fever episodes per year. The frequency of fever episodes was not associated with the risk of febrile seizures in the age range of 6-12 months. In the second and third year of life, having more than 2 fever episodes was associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures (odds ratios 2.02 [95% confidence interval 1.13-3.62] and 2.29 [95% confidence interval 1.00-5.24], respectively). In the age range between 6 and 36 months, we observed a significant trend between the frequency of fever episodes (4 per year) and the risk of febrile seizures (p-value for trend febrile seizures was stronger for children with recurrent febrile seizures. Frequent fever episodes are associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures in the second and third years of life. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Interplay of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Guiding Repeated Search in Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Melissa L.-H.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    It seems intuitive to think that previous exposure or interaction with an environment should make it easier to search through it and, no doubt, this is true in many real-world situations. However, in a recent study, we demonstrated that previous exposure to a scene does not necessarily speed search within that scene. For instance, when observers…

  9. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  10. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry

    2013-01-01

    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis.......Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  11. Hippocampal place cells, context, and episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2006-01-01

    Although most observers agree that the hippocampus has a critical role in learning and memory, there remains considerable debate about the precise functional contribution of the hippocampus to these processes. Two of the most influential accounts hold that the primary function of the hippocampus is to generate cognitive maps and to mediate episodic memory processes. The well-documented spatial firing patterns (place fields) of hippocampal neurons in rodents, along with the spatial learning impairments observed with hippocampal damage support the cognitive mapping hypothesis. The amnesia for personally experienced events seen in humans with hippocampal damage and the data of animal models, which show severe memory deficits associated with hippocampal lesions, support the episodic memory account. Although an extensive literature supports each of these hypotheses, a specific contribution of place cells to episodic memory has not been clearly demonstrated. Recent data from our laboratory, together with previous findings, indicate that hippocampal place fields and neuronal responses to task-relevant stimuli are highly sensitive to the context, even when the contexts are defined by abstract task demands rather than the spatial geometry of the environment. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that place fields reflect a more general context processing function of the hippocampus. Hippocampal context representations could serve to differentiate contexts and prime the relevant memories and behaviors. Since episodic memories, by definition, include information about the time and place where the episode occurred, contextual information is a necessary prerequisite for any episodic memory. Thus, place fields contribute importantly to episodic memory as part of the needed context representations. Additionally, recent findings indicate that hippocampal neurons differentiate contexts at progressively finer levels of detail, suggesting a hierarchical coding scheme which

  12. Timing of spontaneous sleep-paralysis episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A; Cheyne, J Allan

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this prospective naturalistic field study was to determine the distribution of naturally occurring sleep-paralysis (SP) episodes over the course of nocturnal sleep and their relation to bedtimes. Regular SP experiencers (N = 348) who had previously filled out a screening assessment for SP as well as a general sleep survey were recruited. Participants reported, online over the World Wide Web, using a standard reporting form, bedtimes and subsequent latencies of spontaneous episodes of SP occurring in their homes shortly after their occurrence. The distribution of SP episodes over nights was skewed to the first 2 h following bedtime. Just over one quarter of SP episodes occurred within 1 h of bedtime, although episodes were reported throughout the night with a minor mode around the time of normal waking. SP latencies following bedtimes were moderately consistent across episodes and independent of bedtimes. Additionally, profiles of SP latencies validated self-reported hypnagogic, hypnomesic, and hypnopompic SP categories, as occurring near the beginning, middle, and end of the night/sleep period respectively. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that SP timing is controlled by mechanisms initiated at or following sleep onset. These results also suggest that SP, rather than uniquely reflecting anomalous sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, may result from failure to maintain sleep during REM periods at any point during the sleep period. On this view, SP may sometimes reflect the maintenance of REM consciousness when waking and SP hallucinations the continuation of dream experiences into waking life.

  13. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    L., Passarelli; E., Rivalta; A., Shuler

    2014-01-01

    As continental rifts evolve towards mid-ocean ridges, strain is accommodated by repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism. Discrete rifting episodes have been observed along two subaerial divergent plate boundaries, the Krafla segment of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone in Iceland and the Manda-Hararo segment of the Red Sea Rift in Ethiopia. In both cases, the initial and largest dike intrusion was followed by a series of smaller intrusions. By performing a statistical analysis of these rifting episodes, we demonstrate that dike intrusions obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, and the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law. Due to the effects of magma supply, the timing of secondary dike intrusions differs from that of the aftershocks. This work provides evidence of self-similarity in the rifting process. PMID:24469260

  14. Polymorphic GGC repeat differentially regulates human reelin gene expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, A M; Levitt, P; Pimenta, A F

    2006-10-01

    The human gene encoding Reelin (RELN), a pivotal protein in neurodevelopment, includes a polymorphic GGC repeat in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). CHO cells transfected with constructs encompassing the RELN 5'UTR with 4-to-13 GGC repeats upstream of the luciferase reporter gene show declining luciferase activity with increasing GGC repeat number (P autism.

  15. [Multiple latency test in a patient with episodes of sleep induced by pergolide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Jiménez, F J; Velasco, I; de Toledo, M; Sayed, Y; Zurdo, J; Ortí-Pareja, M

    Recently, there have been report sleep attacks in parkinsonian patients as a side effect of pramipexole and ropinirole. We report a patient with similar episodes related with pergolide. A 64 year old man with rigid akinetic parkinsonism, treated with carbidopa/levodopa and pergolide, developed sudden, irresistible sleep episodes after increasing the dose of pergolide to 2.25 mg/day because of bad control of parkinsonian symptoms. These episodes started 30 minutes after each dose of pergolide and lasted 2 hours. Following reduction of the dose of pergolide to 1.5 mg/day the sleep episodes disappeared. Two double blind multiple sleep latency tests were performed, one after intaking pergolide and other after intaking placebo. The latencies to sleep onset were lower with pergolide than with placebo, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. There was no premature REM sleep onset. Sleep episodes are likely a not specific effect of dopamine agonists

  16. Brief Communication: Twelve-year cyclic surging episode at Donjek Glacier in Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Surge-type glaciers repeat their short active phase and much longer quiescent phase usually every several decades or longer, but detailed observations of the evolution cycles have been limited to a few glaciers. Here we report three surging episodes in 1989, 2001, and 2013 at Donjek Glacier in the Yukon, indicating remarkably regular and short repeat cycles of 12 years. The surging area is limited within the ~ 20 km section from the terminus, where the flow width significantly narrows than upstream, suggesting a strong control of the valley constriction on the surge dynamics.

  17. Brief Communication: Twelve-year cyclic surging episodes at Donjek Glacier in Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Furuya, Masato; Sakakibara, Daiki

    2016-07-01

    Surge-type glaciers repeat their short active phase and their much longer quiescent phase usually every several decades or longer, but detailed observations of the evolution cycles have been limited to only a few glaciers. Here we report three surging episodes in 1989, 2001, and 2013 at Donjek Glacier in the Yukon, Canada, indicating remarkably regular and short repeat cycles of 12 years. The surging area is limited within the ˜ 20 km section from the terminus, originating in an area where the flow width significantly narrows downstream, suggesting a strong control of the valley constriction on the surge dynamics.

  18. Brief Communication: Twelve-year cyclic surging episode at Donjek Glacier in Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T.; Furuya, M.; Sakakibara, D.

    2015-11-01

    Surge-type glaciers repeat their short active phase and much longer quiescent phase usually every several decades or longer, but detailed observations of the evolution cycles have been limited to a few glaciers. Here we report three surging episodes in 1989, 2001, and 2013 at Donjek Glacier in the Yukon, indicating remarkably regular and short repeat cycles of 12 years. The surging area is limited within the ~ 20 km section from the terminus, where the flow width significantly narrows than upstream, suggesting a strong control of the valley constriction on the surge dynamics.

  19. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  20. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eGanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as memory detection, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  1. Mutations in the sodium channel gene SCN2A cause neonatal epilepsy with late-onset episodic ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, N; Hahn, A; Bast, T; Müller, S; Löffler, H; Maljevic, S; Gaily, E; Prehl, I; Biskup, S; Joensuu, T; Lehesjoki, A-E; Neubauer, B A; Lerche, H; Hedrich, U B S

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in SCN2A cause epilepsy syndromes of variable severity including neonatal-infantile seizures. In one case, we previously described additional childhood-onset episodic ataxia. Here, we corroborate and detail the latter phenotype in three further cases. We describe the clinical characteristics, identify the causative SCN2A mutations and determine their functional consequences using whole-cell patch-clamping in mammalian cells. In total, four probands presented with neonatal-onset seizures remitting after five to 13 months. In early childhood, they started to experience repeated episodes of ataxia, accompanied in part by headache or back pain lasting minutes to several hours. In two of the new cases, we detected the novel mutation p.Arg1882Gly. While this mutation occurred de novo in both patients, one of them carries an additional known variant on the same SCN2A allele, inherited from the unaffected father (p.Gly1522Ala). Whereas p.Arg1882Gly alone shifted the activation curve by -4 mV, the combination of both variants did not affect activation, but caused a depolarizing shift of voltage-dependent inactivation, and a significant increase in Na(+) current density and protein production. p.Gly1522Ala alone did not change channel gating. The third new proband carries the same de novo SCN2A gain-of-function mutation as our first published case (p.Ala263Val). Our findings broaden the clinical spectrum observed with SCN2A gain-of-function mutations, showing that fairly different biophysical mechanisms can cause a convergent clinical phenotype of neonatal seizures and later onset episodic ataxia.

  2. Prediction of episodic acidification in North-eastern USA: An empirical/mechanistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T.D.; Tranter, M.; Wigington, P.J.; Eshleman, K.N.; Peters, N.E.; Van Sickle, J.; DeWalle, David R.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    1999-01-01

    Observations from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Episodic Response Project (ERP) in the North-eastern United States are used to develop an empirical/mechanistic scheme for prediction of the minimum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) during episodes. An acidification episode is defined as a hydrological event during which ANC decreases. The pre-episode ANC is used to index the antecedent condition, and the stream flow increase reflects how much the relative contributions of sources of waters change during the episode. As much as 92% of the total variation in the minimum ANC in individual catchments can be explained (with levels of explanation >70% for nine of the 13 streams) by a multiple linear regression model that includes pre-episode ANC and change in discharge as independent variable. The predictive scheme is demonstrated to be regionally robust, with the regional variance explained ranging from 77 to 83%. The scheme is not successful for each ERP stream, and reasons are suggested for the individual failures. The potential for applying the predictive scheme to other watersheds is demonstrated by testing the model with data from the Panola Mountain Research Watershed in the South-eastern United States, where the variance explained by the model was 74%. The model can also be utilized to assess 'chemically new' and 'chemically old' water sources during acidification episodes.Observations from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Episodic Response Project (ERP) in the Northeastern United States are used to develop an empirical/mechanistic scheme for prediction of the minimum values of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) during episodes. An acidification episode is defined as a hydrological event during which ANC decreases. The pre-episode ANC is used to index the antecedent condition, and the stream flow increase reflects how much the relative contributions of sources of waters change during the episode. As much as 92% of the total variation in

  3. Hand-washing reduces diarrhoea episodes: a study in Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J M; Chandler, G N; Muslihatun; Jamiluddin

    1991-01-01

    Sixty-five mothers from Balai Lua, Central Lombok, Indonesia were given soap and an explanation of the faecal-oral route of diarrhoea transmission. This very simple health message was repeated and reinforced fortnightly when mothers were also asked whether any members of their family had suffered from diarrhoea over the previous 2 weeks. Children of these mothers experienced an 89% reduction in diarrhoea episodes compared to a control period before the intervention.

  4. Imagining the personal past: Episodic counterfactuals compared to episodic memories and episodic future projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    memories and future projections by neither having the positivity bias of the future events nor the enhanced sensory details of the past events. Across all three event types sensory details decreased, whereas importance, reference to cultural life script, and centrality increased with increasing temporal...

  5. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  6. Geodetic And Seismic Signatures of Episodic Tremor And Slip Beneath Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragert, H.; Rogers, G.; Wang, K.

    2004-05-01

    Slip events with an average duration of about 10 days and effective total slip displacements of several centimetres have been detected on the deeper (25 to 45 km) part of the northern Cascadia subduction zone plate interface by a network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) sites. The slip events occur down-dip from the currently locked, seismogenic portion of the plate interface, and, for the geographic region around Victoria, British Columbia, repeat at 13 to 16 month intervals. These episodes of slip are accompanied by distinct, low frequency, non-earthquake tremors, similar to those reported in the forearc region of southern Japan, prompting the naming of this phenomenon as Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS). The tremor-like seismic signals have now been identified beneath most of Vancouver Island. For northern Vancouver Island, where plate convergence is at a much slower rate, return periods of about 14 months were also observed for significant (duration exceeding 7 days) tremor sequences, but about 6 months out of phase with southern Vancouver Island. Slip associated with northern island tremors has not been resolved clearly enough to allow modeling because of sparse GPS coverage, but 3 to 4 mm surface displacements coincident with the most recent tremors were observed at two newer GPS stations located on the northwest coast of Vancouver Island. The total amount of tremor activity, and by inference slip activity, appears to be the same in northern and southern Vancouver Island and therefore independent of plate convergence rate. ETS activity is observed to migrate along the strike of the subduction zone at speeds of 5 to 15 km/day and this migration does not appear to be impeded by the Nootka Fault Zone that marks the change in subduction rates. It is strongly suspected that the youth of the subducting plate and the release of fluids from slab dehydration are key factors contributing to the episodic, semi-brittle behaviour of the ETS zone. It

  7. Role of DNA Polymerases in Repeat-Mediated Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik A. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of simple DNA repeats cause numerous hereditary diseases in humans. We analyzed the role of DNA polymerases in the instability of Friedreich’s ataxia (GAAn repeats in a yeast experimental system. The elementary step of expansion corresponded to ∼160 bp in the wild-type strain, matching the size of Okazaki fragments in yeast. This step increased when DNA polymerase α was mutated, suggesting a link between the scale of expansions and Okazaki fragment size. Expandable repeats strongly elevated the rate of mutations at substantial distances around them, a phenomenon we call repeat-induced mutagenesis (RIM. Notably, defects in the replicative DNA polymerases δ and ∊ strongly increased rates for both repeat expansions and RIM. The increases in repeat-mediated instability observed in DNA polymerase δ mutants depended on translesion DNA polymerases. We conclude that repeat expansions and RIM are two sides of the same replicative mechanism.

  8. Distribution of delta activity across nonrapid eye movement sleep episodes in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preud'homme, X A; Lanquart, J P; Mendlewicz, J; Linkowski, P

    1997-04-01

    The distribution of delta activity across successive nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episodes and its night-to-night stability across three consecutive nights were investigated by studying delta power with spectral analysis in 31 healthy young men. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with polynomial contrast was applied to grouped data of absolute delta power and three indexes: (1) the rate of delta power per NREM episode to its duration, 2) the standardized rate for the last NREM episode, and 3) the logarithm of the standardized rate. A significant linear decrease across NREM episodes was observed for each variable in each successive night. In addition, using night as a second within-subjects factor, no night effect was observed. Yet, the subsequent analysis of the logarithmic data yielded greater F values in all three nights' data as well as a linear function that accounted for a greater proportion of total variance than the analysis of the nonlogarithmic data. Since a linear decline for the logarithm of a variable implies an exponential distribution for that variable, we conclude that delta activity is distributed exponentially across NREM episodes, and this finding shows a remarkable night-to-night stability.

  9. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  10. Late postoperative nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia and associated sleep pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Wildschiødtz, G; Pedersen, M H;

    1994-01-01

    pattern is disturbed severely with early depression of REM and slow wave sleep and with rebound of REM sleep on the second and third nights. Postoperative rebound of REM sleep may contribute to the development of sleep disordered breathing and nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia....... significantly after surgery (P sleep decreased significantly on the first night after operation (P sleep (rebound) on the second, third or both nights after operation compared with the preoperative night. Slow wave sleep...... was depressed significantly on the first two nights after operation (P sleep-associated hypoxaemic episodes for individual patients increased about three-fold on the second and third nights after operation compared with the night before operation (P sleep...

  11. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  12. Autobiographical Memory and Episodic Future Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Recalling the past and imagining the future is thought to employ very similar cognitive mechanisms. The strategic retrieval of specific past autobiographical events has been shown to depend on executive processes, and to be affected by cue imageability. The cognitive mechanisms underlying...... the construction of specific events during episodic future thinking remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined whether episodic future thoughts depend on executive processes and are affected by cue imageability to the same extent as autobiographical remembering of past events. Results showed...... that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking were affected similarly by cue imageability, suggesting that retrieval strategy can be manipulated in similar ways for both temporal directions. Furthermore, executive control processes (as measured by verbal fluency) was correlated with fluency and number...

  13. Migraine with benign episodic unilateral mydriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabr FI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nedaa Skeik1, Fadi I Jabr21Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Horizon Medical Center, Hospital Medicine, Dickson, TN, USAAbstract: Pupil asymmetry or anisocoria can have benign or malignant causes, and be categorized as acute or chronic. It can also be a normal finding in about 20% of cases. Benign episodic unilateral mydriasis is an isolated benign cause of intermittent pupil asymmetry. The exact pathophysiology is not always understood. According to one hypothesis, it is due to discordance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. It is occasionally seen in patients with migraine. Some authors consider it a limited form of ophthalmoplegic migraine. We report a case of benign episodic unilateral mydriasis diagnosed in a 30-year-old lady with a history of migraine who had extensive negative neurological evaluation.Keywords: anisocoria, migraine, unilateral episodic mydriasis

  14. Latent inhibition is disrupted by acute and repeated administration of corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, U.; Feldon, J.; Weiner, I.

    1998-12-01

    Latent inhibition (LI), namely, a retardation in conditioning to a stimulus, as a consequence of its prior non- reinforced pre-exposure, is disrupted in amphetamine-treated rats and humans and in some subsets of schizophrenic patients. One factor that has been repeatedly implicated in precipitating and/or exacerbating psychotic episodes is stress. Since a principal biological response to stress is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, leading, as its end product, to the secretion of corticosterone, the present experiments tested whether increase in corticosterone levels following exogenous corticosterone administration would disrupt LI. Both repeated (Experiment 1) and acute (Experiment 2) administration of corticosterone led to LI disruption, providing evidence for the involvement of the HPA axis alterations in LI and further supporting the viability of disrupted LI as an animal model of psychosis. Both regimens also increased amphetamine-induced activity. We suggest that disrupted LI may reflect a cognitive mechanism whereby prolonged periods of increased corticosterone levels can lead to 'sensory flooding' characteristic of psychosis.

  15. Increased serum S100B protein in the first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia%首发未服药精神分裂症患者血清S100B蛋白浓度变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩笑乐; 谭云龙; 杨甫德; 王志仁; 李英丽; 陈松; 王玥婵; 邹义壮; 周东丰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of the serum S100B protein levels with psychopathological symptoms in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia. Methods The serum S100B protein levels in 64 first-episode medication-free schizophrenic patients (schizophrenic group) and 66 healthy volunteers (control group) were examined by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELSIA). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed by using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale(PANSS) , the relationship of the serum S100B levels and the PANSS scores were analyzed in schizophrenic group. Results ①The serum S100B levels in schizophrenic group(0.27±0.13)μg/L were significantly higher than those of the control group(0.11±0.04) μg/L(P <0.001) ; ②Significant differences were found among four sub-groups in schizophrenics(F=4.63, P=0.006) , the serum S100B levels of the patients with residential sub-type were significantly higher than those of the patients with paranoid(P=0.001) and disorganized(P=0.012) ; Moreover, the serum S100B levels four sub-types group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.001) ③The serum S100B levels markedly correlated with age, ill duration and negative and total score of the PANSS(all P <0.005)in schizophrenic group. Conclusions The serum S100B protein levels in first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia are increased, and correlated with psychopathological symptoms which indicate that serum S100B protein level might reflect the severity of schizophrenia in some degree.%目的 探讨血清S100B蛋白浓度与首发未服用抗精神病药的精神分裂症患者精神病理症状间的关系.方法 采用酶联免疫(ELISA)方法 检测64例首发未服用抗精神病药精神分裂症患者和66名正常对照的血清S100B蛋白浓度,比较2组间的差异;采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)评定精神病理症状,分析血清S100B蛋白浓度与PANSS评分、患者年龄、发病

  16. The Influence of Comorbid Disorders on the Episodicity of Bipolar Disorder in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shirley; Stout, Robert; Hower, Heather; Killam, Matthew A.; Weinstock, Lauren M.; Topor, David R.; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ryan, Neal D.; Strober, Michael; Sala, Regina; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bipolar Disorder (BP) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. We examine whether course of anxiety disorders (ANX), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and substance use disorders (SUD) influence likelihood of recovery and recurrence of depression and mania in BP youth. Method Weekly ratings of psychiatric disorder intensity were obtained from 413 participants of the Course and Outcome of BP Youth project, followed for an average of 7.75 years. Multiple-event Cox proportional hazards regression analyses examined worsening of comorbid disorders as predictors of mood episode recovery and recurrence. Results Increased severity in ANX and SUD predicted longer time to recovery and less time to next depressive episode, and less time to next manic episode. Multivariate models with ANX and SUD found that significant effects of ANX remained, but SUD only predicted longer time to depression recovery. Increased severity of ADHD and DBD predicted shorter time to recurrence for depressive and manic episodes. Conclusion There are significant time-varying relationships between the course of comorbid disorders and episodicity of depression and mania in BP youth. Worsening of comorbid conditions may present as a precursor to mood episode recurrence or warn of mood episode protraction. PMID:26475572

  17. Repeat endocarditis: analysis of risk factors based on the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, L; Park, L P; Nicholson, B P; Keiger, A J; Strahilevitz, J; Morris, A; Wray, D; Gordon, D; Delahaye, F; Edathodu, J; Miró, J M; Fernández-Hidalgo, N; Nacinovich, F M; Shahid, R; Woods, C W; Joyce, M J; Sexton, D J; Chu, V H

    2014-06-01

    Repeat episodes of infective endocarditis (IE) can occur in patients who survive an initial episode. We analysed risk factors and 1-year mortality of patients with repeat IE. We considered 1874 patients enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study between January 2000 and December 2006 (ICE-PCS) who had definite native or prosthetic valve IE and 1-year follow-up. Multivariable analysis was used to determine risk factors for repeat IE and 1-year mortality. Of 1874 patients, 1783 (95.2%) had single-episode IE and 91 (4.8%) had repeat IE: 74/91 (81%) with new infection and 17/91 (19%) with presumed relapse. On bivariate analysis, repeat IE was associated with haemodialysis (p 0.002), HIV (p 0.009), injection drug use (IDU) (p < 0.001), Staphylococcus aureus IE (p 0.003), healthcare acquisition (p 0.006) and previous IE before ICE enrolment (p 0.001). On adjusted analysis, independent risk factors were haemodialysis (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3), IDU (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.4), previous IE (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.1) and living in the North American region (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4). Patients with repeat IE had higher 1-year mortality than those with single-episode IE (p 0.003). Repeat IE is associated with IDU, previous IE and haemodialysis. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors in order to recognize patients who are at risk of repeat IE.

  18. Hemicrania continua evolving from episodic paroxysmal hemicrania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Pinedo, F; Zurdo, M; Martínez-Acebes, E

    2006-09-01

    A 45-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed in our unit with episodic paroxysmal hemicrania, was seen 2 years later for ipsilateral hemicrania continua in remitting form. Both types of headache had a complete response to indomethacin and did not occur simultaneously. The patient had a previous history of episodic moderate headaches that met criteria for probable migraine without aura and also had a family history of headache. The clinical course in this case suggests a pathogenic relationship between both types of primary headache.

  19. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Reward and Novelty Enhance Imagination of Future Events in a Motivational-Episodic Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Bulganin

    Full Text Available Thinking about personal future events is a fundamental cognitive process that helps us make choices in daily life. We investigated how the imagination of episodic future events is influenced by implicit motivational factors known to guide decision making. In a two-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we controlled learned reward association and stimulus novelty by pre-familiarizing participants with two sets of words in a reward learning task. Words were repeatedly presented and consistently followed by monetary reward or no monetary outcome. One day later, participants imagined personal future events based on previously rewarded, unrewarded and novel words. Reward association enhanced the perceived vividness of the imagined scenes. Reward and novelty-based construction of future events were associated with higher activation of the motivational system (striatum and substantia nigra/ ventral tegmental area and hippocampus, and functional connectivity between these areas increased during imagination of events based on reward-associated and novel words. These data indicate that implicit past motivational experience contributes to our expectation of what the future holds in store.

  1. Reward and Novelty Enhance Imagination of Future Events in a Motivational-Episodic Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulganin, Lisa; Wittmann, Bianca C

    2015-01-01

    Thinking about personal future events is a fundamental cognitive process that helps us make choices in daily life. We investigated how the imagination of episodic future events is influenced by implicit motivational factors known to guide decision making. In a two-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we controlled learned reward association and stimulus novelty by pre-familiarizing participants with two sets of words in a reward learning task. Words were repeatedly presented and consistently followed by monetary reward or no monetary outcome. One day later, participants imagined personal future events based on previously rewarded, unrewarded and novel words. Reward association enhanced the perceived vividness of the imagined scenes. Reward and novelty-based construction of future events were associated with higher activation of the motivational system (striatum and substantia nigra/ ventral tegmental area) and hippocampus, and functional connectivity between these areas increased during imagination of events based on reward-associated and novel words. These data indicate that implicit past motivational experience contributes to our expectation of what the future holds in store.

  2. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  3. Autobiographical thinking interferes with episodic memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Craig

    Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.

  4. Autobiographical Memory and Episodic Future Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine; Berntsen, Dorthe

    that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking were affected similarly by cue imageability, suggesting that retrieval strategy can be manipulated in similar ways for both temporal directions. Furthermore, executive control processes (as measured by verbal fluency) was correlated with fluency and number...

  5. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  6. How successful are first episode programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Rasmussen, Jesper Østrup; Melau, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been hypothesized that the first 5 years after first episode of psychosis are a critical period with opportunities for ameliorating the course of illness. On the basis of this rationale, specialized assertive early intervention services were developed. We wanted to inves...

  7. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  8. Gender differences in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...

  9. Attentional control and competition between episodic representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyürek, Elkan G.; Schubö, Anna; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between attentional control and episodic representation was investigated in six experiments that employed a variant of the classic attentional blink paradigm. We introduced a task-irrelevant (unpredictive) color match between the first and second target stimulus in a three-stream ra

  10. Episodic neurological dysfunction in hereditary peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Baburao Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Episodic transient neurological symptoms are an important set of problems presenting to a neurologist in his routine practice. Occasionally, detailed clinical history including past and family history supplemented with focused examination can bring out a rare cause for such symptoms. We describe in this report in a young male presenting with episodic focal neurological dysfunction, with family history of similar episodes in mother and brother. Examination showed features of pes cavus and peripheral neuropathy for which patient was asymptomatic. Mother and brother were established cases of hereditary neuropathy. Imaging on multiple occasions showed reversible white matter abnormalities. Clinical suspicion of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1X was confirmed with detection of mutation in Gap Junction B1 (GJB1 gene, which codes for connexin 32 protein (c.425G>A; p.R142Q hemizygous mutation. Though this mutation has been already reported in CMTX patients, it has not been associated with transient neurological dysfunctions. This is probably the first reported case of CMTX patient with transient neurological dysfunction from India, whose family members had similar episodes.

  11. Family Intervention in First-Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Sadath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Family interventions have produced benefits on clinical and family outcomes in long standing psychosis. However, little is known about the efficacy of such interventions in the early stages of psychosis. This article reviews published research over the last two decades on family intervention in first-episode psychosis. Electronic databases, such as PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect, have been systematically searched. In addition, an exhaustive Internet search was also carried out using Google and Google Scholar to identify the potential studies that evaluated family interventions in first-episode psychosis. We have identified seven reports of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs and five non-randomized and uncontrolled studies of family intervention. Our review on 12 reports of family intervention studies has shown mixed effects on outcomes in first-episode psychosis. Most of the reports showed no added benefits or very short-term benefits on primary clinical or family outcome variables. There is a dearth of family intervention studies in first-episode psychosis. More RCTs are needed to reach reliable conclusions.

  12. The Interpersonal Conflict Episode: A Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawski, Carl

    A detailed systems diagram elaborates the process of dealing with a single conflict episode between two parties or persons. Hypotheses are fully stated to lead the reader through the flow diagram. A concrete example illustrates its use. Detail is provided in an accounting scheme of virtually all possible variables to consider in analyzing a…

  13. Episodic memory decline and healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.C.; Daselaar, S.M.; Cabeza, R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the cognitive functions most affected by the aging process is our memory for personally experienced past events or episodic memory (EM). The advent of functional neuroimaging has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of EM and its decline with age. The current chapter revi

  14. CRITICAL WAVE EPISODES FOR ASSESSMENT OF ROLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2006-01-01

    the time-varying restoring moment and the heave acceleration. The result is the mean outcrossing rate of the roll angle together with corresponding most probable wave scenarios (critical wave episodes), leading to specific maximum roll angles. The procedure is computationally very effective and can thus...

  15. Mental health nursing and first episode psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, L. van; Goossens, P.J.J.; Achterberg, T. van

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to identify mental health nursing's contribution to the care and treatment of patients with a first episode of psychosis; A systematic literature review was undertaken, with 27 articles selected for study. Five domains were identified: development of

  16. A human experimental model of episodic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrini, Laura; Hennings, Kristian; Li, Xi

    2014-01-01

    An experimental model of daily episodic pain was developed to investigate peripheral sensitization and cortical reorganization in healthy individuals. Two experiments (A and B) were conducted. Experiments A and B consisted of one and five consecutive days, respectively, in which the participants ...

  17. Original Symbols in Episode Four of Ulysses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2015-01-01

    Ulysses is considered to be the masterpiece of James Joyce's literary accomplishments.Many symbols are applied in this novel,of which the implied meanings are obscure but significant.This paper is intended to make a detailed analysis of the original symbols in the fourth episode of Ulysses.

  18. Original Symbols in Episode Four of Ulysses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨

    2015-01-01

    Ulysses is considered to be the masterpiece of James Joyce’s literary accomplishments.Many symbols are applied in this novel,of which the implied meanings are obscure but significant.This paper is intended to make a detailed analysis of the original symbols in the fourth episode of Ulysses.

  19. A calendar savant with episodic memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian E; Drowos, David B; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-06-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures and retain some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year-old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient's memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable.

  20. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  1. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Hans; Ginter, Filip; Marsi, Erwin; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Salakoski, Tapio; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a--possibly unfinished--care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task.

  2. Seroepidemiological studies indicate frequent and repeated exposure to Campylobacter spp. during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, C W; Teunis, P F M; Herbrink, P; Keijser, J; Van Duynhoven, Y H T P; Visser, C E; Van Pelt, W

    2011-09-01

    The annual number of episodes of clinical gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter spp. in The Netherlands is estimated to be 75 000, i.e. once per 200 person life-years. This number is based on extrapolation of culture results from population-based studies. The number of culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection peaks in the first 3 years of life and again between the ages of 20 and 25 years. The seroepidemiology of Campylobacter describes the relationship between age and exposure to Campylobacter and reflects both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Using a validated ELISA system, antibodies to Campylobacter were measured in an age-stratified sample (n=456) of the PIENTER serum collection of the Dutch general population. The seroprevalence of Campylobacter IgG antibodies increased with age, reaching almost 100% at age 20 years. Antibody levels steadily increased with age until young adulthood, suggesting repeated exposure to Campylobacter. In conclusion, seroepidemiological data demonstrated repeated exposures to Campylobacter throughout life, most of which do not lead to clinical symptoms. From young adulthood, >95% of the population in The Netherlands had serological evidence for exposure to Campylobacter.

  3. Period derivative of the Soft Gamma-ray Repeater SGR 1627-41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Esposito; A. Tiengo; S. Mereghetti; A. De Luca; G.L. Israel; D. Gotz; N. Rea; R. Turolla; S. Zane; P. Romano; M. Burgay; A. Possenti

    2009-01-01

    After nearly a decade of quiescence, the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41 reactivated on 2008 May 28 with a bursting episode (Esposito et al. 2008, MNRAS, 390, L34). On 2008 September 27-28 we performed an XMM-Newton target of opportunity observation of the source and discovered its long-sought s

  4. Practice increases procedural errors after task interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Erik M; Hambrick, David Z

    2017-05-01

    Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions of task interruption. As steps of a procedure are performed more quickly, memory for past performance should become less accurate, increasing the rate of skipped or repeated steps after an interruption. We found this effect, with practice generally improving speed and accuracy, but impairing accuracy after interruptions. The results show that positive effects of practice can interact with architectural constraints on episodic memory to have negative effects on performance. In practical terms, the results suggest that practice can be a risk factor for procedural errors in task environments with a high incidence of task interruption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  6. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  7. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  8. Treatment and violent behavior in persons with first episode psychosis during a 10-year prospective follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, Johannes; Bjørkly, Stål; Auestad, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First episode psychosis (FEP) patients have an increased risk for violence and criminal activity prior to initial treatment. However, little is known about the prevalence of criminality and acts of violence many years after implementation of treatment for a first episode psychosis. AI...

  9. Textural Evidence of Episodic Introduction of Metallic Nanoparticles into Bonanza Epithermal Ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Saunders

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tertiary low sulfidation (LS epithermal deposits in the western USA often show evidence of the former presence of nanoparticle-sized precious-metal and silica phases in the highest grade (bonanza ores. Here, nanoparticles are defined to have a size less than ~10−7 m. The ore-mineral textures that formed from aggregation of nanoparticles (or colloids observed to date in these ores include electrum and naumannite (Ag2Se. Here it is proposed that chalcopyrite also forms nanoparticles in these ores, but sulfide nanoparticles apparently have significantly different physical (surface properties than the precious-metal phases, and thus exhibit different mineral textures (e.g., no textural evidence of previous chalcopyrite nanoparticles. Textures described here show that nanoparticles of precious-metal phases and silica were episodically and often repeatedly deposited to form the banded bonanza veins typical of many western USA epithermal deposits. Chalcopyrite is the most abundant metal-sulfide mineral in these bonanza ores, and it was also deposited episodically as well, and it appears to replace earlier formed naumannite dendrites. However, this apparent “replacement” texture may just be the result of naumannite dendrite limbs trapping chalcopyrite nanoparticles that later recrystallized to the apparent replacement texture. The episodic and repetitive nature of the metal-depositing events may record periodic “degassing” of magma chambers at depth, where metals are repeatedly delivered to the shallow epithermal environment by “vapor-phase” metal (loid transport.

  10. Executive function, episodic memory, and Medicare expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Alex C; Austin, Andrea M; Grodstein, Francine; Bynum, Julie P W

    2017-07-01

    We examined the relationship between health care expenditures and cognition, focusing on differences across cognitive systems defined by global cognition, executive function, or episodic memory. We used linear regression models to compare annual health expenditures by cognitive status in 8125 Nurses' Health Study participants who completed a cognitive battery and were enrolled in Medicare parts A and B. Adjusting for demographics and comorbidity, executive impairment was associated with higher total annual expenditures of $1488 per person (P executive function, but not episodic memory ($584 higher for every 1 standard deviation decrement in executive function; P executive function is specifically and linearly associated with higher health care expenditures. Focusing on management strategies that address early losses in executive function may be effective in reducing costly services. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Directed forgetting in frontal patients' episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Pilar; Van der Linden, Martial; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2007-03-25

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of patients with lesions of the prefrontal cortex in directed forgetting in episodic memory, i.e. the capacity to actively forget irrelevant information. Four lists of 24 intermixed to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) words were presented for retention. Restricted (TBR only) and unrestricted (TBR and TBF) recall were tested. The results showed that prefrontal patients presented with a general reduction in episodic memory but a normal ability to selectively recall the TBR items during restricted and unrestricted recall. These results are consistent with previous reports of intact directed forgetting in frontal patients and are discussed in terms of their implications for the current debate on the neural substrate of executive functions.

  12. Antipsychotic medication for early episode schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, John; Kao, Dennis; Soydan, Haluk; Adams, Clive E

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications in early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders is common, but both short and long-term effects on the illness are unclear. There have been numerous suggestions that people with early episodes of schizophrenia appear to respond differently than those with multiple prior episodes. The number of episodes may moderate response to drug treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of antipsychotic medication treatment on people with early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group register (July 2007) as well as references of included studies. We contacted authors of studies for further data. Selection criteria Studies with a majority of first and second episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders comparing initial antipsychotic medication treatment with placebo, milieu, or psychosocial treatment. Data collection and analysis Working independently, we critically appraised records from 681 studies, of which five studies met inclusion criteria. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) where possible. For continuous data, we calculated mean difference (MD). We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. Main results Five studies (combined total n=998) met inclusion criteria. Four studies (n=724) provided leaving the study early data and results suggested that individuals treated with a typical antipsychotic medication are less likely to leave the study early than those treated with placebo (Chlorpromazine: 3 RCTs n=353, RR 0.4 CI 0.3 to 0.5, NNT 3.2, Fluphenaxine: 1 RCT n=240, RR 0.5 CI 0.3 to 0.8, NNT 5; Thioridazine: 1 RCT n=236, RR 0.44 CI 0.3 to 0.7, NNT 4.3, Trifulperazine: 1 RCT n=94, RR 0.96 CI 0.3 to 3.6). Two studies contributed data to assessment of adverse effects and present a general pattern of more frequent side effects among individuals treated with typical antipsychotic medications

  13. Variable protostellar accretion with episodic bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest development of the disk gravitational instability and fragmentation model, originally introduced by us to explain episodic accretion bursts in the early stages of star formation. Using our numerical hydrodynamics model with improved disk thermal balance and star-disk interaction, we computed the evolution of protostellar disks formed from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In agreement with our previous studies, we find that cores of higher initial mass and angular momentum produce disks that are more favorable to gravitational instability and fragmentation, while a higher background irradiation and magnetic fields moderate the disk tendency to fragment. The protostellar accretion in our models is time-variable, thanks to the nonlinear interaction between different spiral modes in the gravitationally unstable disk, and can undergo episodic bursts when fragments migrate onto the star owing to the gravitational interaction with other fragments or spiral arms. Most bursts occur...

  14. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  15. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  16. Paroxysmal movement disorders and episodic ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, Emilio; Perez-Dueñas, Belén

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarizes clinical symptoms of some paroxysmal dyskinesias (PDs) of infancy and childhood, as well as episodic ataxias. PDs refer to a complex group of disorders whose main feature is the occurrence of sudden, intermittent attacks of abnormal postures and involuntary movements. PDs can sometimes be symptomatic (secondary PDs), but usually an underlying cerebral lesion is not present (primary PDs). Some of the primary PDs are transient, such as benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy. Chronic PDs are subdivided into nonkinesigenic (Mount and Reback type), kinesigenic (Kertesz type), and exercise-induced (Lance type) but cases that overlap with these types are on record. They are autosomal dominant inherited conditions. The myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 gene is responsible for nonkinesigenic PDs. To date, the genetic basis of kinesigenic PDs remains unknown. Several clinical entities associated epilepsy with PDs, such as infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA). Exercise-induced PD type can be produced by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene that encodes Glut1 (glucose transporter type1). Episodic ataxias are inherited disorders of intermittent ataxia. The attacks are brief and triggered by abrupt exercise and emotional stimulus. Between attacks, palpebral and hand muscle myokymia is often seen in episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1). In episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) interictal nystagmus is usually present. Some of these latter patients develop progressive ataxia with vermian atrophy. This disorder is associated with mutations in the human Ca channel alfa 1 subunit CACN1A4 gene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive dissonance resolution depends on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammat, Mariam; Karoui, Imen El; Allali, Sébastien; Hagège, Joshua; Lehongre, Katia; Hasboun, Dominique; Baulac, Michel; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Michon, Agnès; Dubois, Bruno; Navarro, Vincent; Salti, Moti; Naccache, Lionel

    2017-01-23

    The notion that past choices affect preferences is one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first report in the 50 s, and its theorization within the cognitive dissonance framework. In the free-choice paradigm (FCP) after choosing between two similarly rated items, subjects reevaluate chosen items as more attractive and rejected items as less attractive. However the relations prevailing between episodic memory and choice-induced preference change (CIPC) remain highly debated: is this phenomenon dependent or independent from memory of past choices? We solve this theoretical debate by demonstrating that CIPC occurs exclusively for items which were correctly remembered as chosen or rejected during the choice stage. We used a combination of fMRI and intra-cranial electrophysiological recordings to reveal a modulation of left hippocampus activity, a hub of episodic memory retrieval, immediately before the occurrence of CIPC during item reevaluation. Finally, we show that contrarily to a previous influential report flawed by a statistical artifact, this phenomenon is absent in amnesic patients for forgotten items. These results demonstrate the dependence of cognitive dissonance on conscious episodic memory. This link between current preferences and previous choices suggests a homeostatic function of this regulative process, aiming at preserving subjective coherence.

  18. The neural basis of involuntary episodic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shana A; Rubin, David C; Miles, Amanda; Davis, Simon W; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of involuntary memory largely unknown. We hypothesized that, because the main difference between voluntary and involuntary memory is the controlled retrieval processes required by the former, there would be greater frontal activity for voluntary than involuntary memories. Conversely, we predicted that other components of the episodic retrieval network would be similarly engaged in the two types of memory. During encoding, all participants heard sounds, half paired with pictures of complex scenes and half presented alone. During retrieval, paired and unpaired sounds were presented, panned to the left or to the right. Participants in the involuntary group were instructed to indicate the spatial location of the sound, whereas participants in the voluntary group were asked to additionally recall the pictures that had been paired with the sounds. All participants reported the incidence of their memories in a postscan session. Consistent with our predictions, voluntary memories elicited greater activity in dorsal frontal regions than involuntary memories, whereas other components of the retrieval network, including medial-temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and ventral parietal regions were similarly engaged by both types of memories. These results clarify the distinct role of dorsal frontal and ventral occipitotemporal regions in predicting strategic retrieval and recalled information, respectively, and suggest that, although there are neural differences in retrieval, involuntary memories share neural components with established voluntary memory systems.

  19. Narrative construction is intact in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keven, Nazim; Kurczek, Jake; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Craver, Carl F

    2017-07-28

    Autobiographical remembering and future imagining overlap in their underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms. The hippocampus and surrounding regions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL), known for their role in forming and maintaining autobiographical episodic memories, are also thought to play an essential role in fictitious and future constructions. Amnesic individuals with bilateral hippocampal damage cannot reconstruct their past personal experiences and also have severe deficits in the ability to construct coherent fictitious or future narratives. However, it is not known whether this impairment reflects a failure to generate details from autobiographical episodic memory to populate personal narratives or an inability to bind such details into coherent narratives. We show that four individuals with hippocampal damage and episodic amnesia can construct narratives when the relevant details of the story are provided in a picture book and that their narratives maintain overall coherence on several measures. These findings indicate that individuals with hippocampal damage can bind details into coherent narratives when details are available to them. We conclude that the hippocampal system instead likely plays a role in the generation of details from which narratives are constructed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive dissonance resolution depends on episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammat, Mariam; Karoui, Imen El; Allali, Sébastien; Hagège, Joshua; Lehongre, Katia; Hasboun, Dominique; Baulac, Michel; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Michon, Agnès; Dubois, Bruno; Navarro, Vincent; Salti, Moti; Naccache, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    The notion that past choices affect preferences is one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first report in the 50 s, and its theorization within the cognitive dissonance framework. In the free-choice paradigm (FCP) after choosing between two similarly rated items, subjects reevaluate chosen items as more attractive and rejected items as less attractive. However the relations prevailing between episodic memory and choice-induced preference change (CIPC) remain highly debated: is this phenomenon dependent or independent from memory of past choices? We solve this theoretical debate by demonstrating that CIPC occurs exclusively for items which were correctly remembered as chosen or rejected during the choice stage. We used a combination of fMRI and intra-cranial electrophysiological recordings to reveal a modulation of left hippocampus activity, a hub of episodic memory retrieval, immediately before the occurrence of CIPC during item reevaluation. Finally, we show that contrarily to a previous influential report flawed by a statistical artifact, this phenomenon is absent in amnesic patients for forgotten items. These results demonstrate the dependence of cognitive dissonance on conscious episodic memory. This link between current preferences and previous choices suggests a homeostatic function of this regulative process, aiming at preserving subjective coherence. PMID:28112261

  1. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  2. Fusion of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1-derived glycine-alanine repeat to trans-dominant HIV-1 Gag increases inhibitory activities and survival of transduced cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Diana; Wild, Jens; Ludwig, Christine; Asbach, Benedikt; Notka, Frank; Wagner, Ralf

    2008-06-01

    Trans-dominant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag derivatives have been shown to efficiently inhibit late steps of HIV-1 replication in vitro by interfering with Gag precursor assembly, thus ranking among the interesting candidates for gene therapy approaches. However, efficient antiviral activities of corresponding transgenes are likely to be counteracted in particular by cell-mediated host immune responses toward the transgene-expressing cells. To decrease this potential immunogenicity, a 24-amino acid Gly-Ala (GA) stretch derived from Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) and known to overcome proteasomal degradation was fused to a trans-dominant Gag variant (sgD1). To determine the capacity of this fusion polypeptide to repress viral replication, PM-1 cells were transduced with sgD1 and GAsgD1 transgenes, using retroviral gene transfer. Challenge of stably transfected permissive cell lines with various viral strains indicated that N-terminal GA fusion even enhanced the inhibitory properties of sgD1. Further studies revealed that the GA stretch increased protein stability by blocking proteasomal degradation of Gag proteins. Immunization of BALB/c mice with a DNA vaccine vector expressing sgD1 induced substantial Gag-specific immune responses that were, however, clearly diminished in the presence of GA. Furthermore, recognition of cells expressing the GA-fused transgene by CD8(+) T cells was drastically reduced, both in vitro and in vivo, resulting in prolonged survival of the transduced cells in recipient mice.

  3. Efficiency of sodium oxybate in episodic cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hildegard; Uhl, Verena; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Sándor, Peter S; Kallweit, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man suffering from episodic cluster headache treated successfully with sodium oxybate. Sodium oxybate may be a therapeutic option in attacks of episodic cluster headache.

  4. [Episodic foresight in normal cognitive and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Valentina; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-03-01

    The ability to project the self forward in time to pre-experience personal events is referred to as episodic future thinking. Different theories have been proposed to try to explain the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying episodic future thinking. In this paper we focus on studies concerning the episodic prospection capacity in cognitive aging and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia. Older adults usually produce fewer episodic details than young adults when recalling past events and when imagining future events. Patients with early to moderate Alzheimer's disease have impaired capacity in the generation of episodic details for retrieved past events and imagined future events. Similarly patients with early to moderate semantic dementia have difficulties in episodic future thinking whereas they succeed to retrieve episodic past events. These patterns are discussed with regard to the respective role of the episodic and personal semantic representations in future personal thoughts as a function of temporal distance by purposing a new neurocognitive model (TEDIFT).

  5. Higher Death Rate Among Youth With First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases News Release Thursday, April 6, 2017 Higher death rate among youth with first episode psychosis NIH- ... experiencing first episode psychosis have a much higher death rate than previously thought. Researchers analyzed data on ...

  6. Ecological momentary assessment of eating episodes in obese adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G; Durkin, Nora; Beach, Heather M; Berg, Kelly C; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2014-01-01

    The context of eating episodes in obesity is poorly understood. This study examined emotional, physiological, and environmental correlates of pathological and nonpathological eating episodes in a heterogeneous sample of obese adults...

  7. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Stomby, Andreas; Ryberg, Mats; Lindahl, Bernt; Larsson, Christel; Nyberg, Lars; Olsson, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  8. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Johan Boraxbekk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010 after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

  9. The "when" and the "where" of single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance in young children: Insights into the development of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre; Banta Lavenex, Pamela

    2017-03-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, "where" with respect to the surrounding environment, is one of the three fundamental components of episodic memory: what, where, when. Whereas basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably observed in children after 2 years of age, coinciding with the offset of infantile amnesia, the resolution of allocentric spatial memory acquired over repeated trials improves from 2 to 4 years of age. Here, we first show that single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance improves in children from 3.5 to 7 years of age, during the typical period of childhood amnesia. Second, we show that large individual variation exists in children's performance at this age. Third, and most importantly, we show that improvements in single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance are due to an increasing ability to spatially and temporally separate locations and events. Such improvements in spatial and temporal processing abilities may contribute to the gradual offset of childhood amnesia.

  10. Geodetic and seismic signatures of episodic tremor and slip in the northern Cascadia subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; Rogers, G.

    2004-12-01

    Slip events with an average duration of about 10 days and effective total slip displacements of severalc entimetres have been detected on the deeper (25 to 45 km) part of the northern Cascadia subduction zone interface by observing transient surface deformation on a network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) sites. The slip events occur down-dip from the currently locked, seismogenic portion of the subduction zone, and, for the geographic region around Victoria, British Columbia, repeat at 13 to 16 month intervals. These episodes of slip are accompanied by distinct, low-frequency tremors, similar to those reported in the forearc region of southern Japan. Although the processes which generate this phenomenon of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) are not well understood, it is possible that the ETS zone may constrain the landward extent of megathrust rupture, and conceivable that an ETS event could precede the next great thrust earthquake.

  11. Cortisol response to psychosocial stress during a depressive episode and remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cortisol responses to a standardized psychosocial stressor during a major depressive episode (MDE) and again during remission in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-six individuals with no personal or family history of a major psychiatric disorder (NC) and 24 individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at Time 1 participated in the study. The MDD group showed robust cortisol responses during their index episode and after recovery. In contrast, the NC group showed habituation to the repeated psychosocial stressor, as evident in a flatter cortisol response profile at Time 2. Within the MDD group, net peak cortisol during the first stress test was positively associated with the duration of the index MDE and negatively associated with the total duration of all MDEs. Whereas summary indices of cortisol responses were relatively stable across repeated stress tasks within the MDD group, this was not the case for NC. Results demonstrate that cortisol responses fail to habituate to repeated psychosocial stress during recovery from an MDE and could reflect a trait-like marker of risk for recurrence.

  12. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  13. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  14. Theory of mind is independent of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Stuss, Donald T; Levine, Brian; Tulving, Endel

    2007-11-23

    Theory of mind (ToM) to infer other people's current mental states and episodic memory of personal happenings have been assumed to be closely related. We report two participants with severely impaired episodic memory who perform indistinguishably from healthy controls on objective ToM tests. These results suggest that ToM can function independently of episodic memory.

  15. Patterns of symptom onset and remission in episodes of hopelessness depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoviello, Brian M; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Choi, Jimmy Y; Morgan, Julia E

    2013-06-01

    Hopelessness depression (HD) is a subtype of depression postulated by the Hopelessness Theory of Depression to present as a constellation of symptoms occurring when an individual with a specific cognitive vulnerability (negative inferential style) experiences negative life events. In the current study, the course of HD episodes was evaluated prospectively and analyzed to explore patterns of symptom onset and remission. In 169 HD episodes reported by 65 participants, survival analyses were conducted on the time to onset or remission for 29 individual symptoms. Survival analyses yielded probability density graphs for risk of onset and risk of offset that indicated whether the symptom tended to appear or remit early, late, or unpredictably during the episode. The symptom of hopelessness often appeared earliest in HD episodes, followed by self-blame, brooding/worry, decreased self-esteem, dependency, and decreased appetite. Hopelessness, decreased self-esteem, self-blame, brooding/worry, dependency, and increased appetite were typically the latest symptoms to remit. The current study provided evidence for patterns of symptom onset and remission in HD episodes. Hopelessness and other symptoms predicted to appear according to the Hopelessness Theory were generally the earliest to appear, latest to remit, and appeared to form the core syndrome of these HD episodes. Identifying patterns of symptom onset and remission may provide a tool for subtyping depression episodes. Clinically, these results point to the utility of attending to patterns of symptom onset and remission in patients presenting with HD episodes, particularly for treatment planning and monitoring. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Symptom characteristics of depressive episodes prior to the onset of mania or hypomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, A; Ritter, P S; Höfler, M; Lieb, R; Bauer, M; Wittchen, H-U; Beesdo-Baum, K

    2016-03-01

    Depressive episodes are typically the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. The evidence as to whether depressive episodes occurring in persons who later convert to bipolar disorder are symptomatically distinct from episodes of unipolar depression remains controversial. As there are crucial differences in the therapeutic management, symptom profiles indicating subsequent bipolar conversion may aid in appropriate treatment. A representative community sample of originally N = 3021 adolescents and young adults aged 14-24 years at baseline was assessed up to four times over 10 years. Assessment of symptoms was conducted by clinically trained interviewers using the standardized M-CIDI. Symptom profiles of depressive episodes were compared via logistic regression between subjects that subsequently developed (hypo-)manic episodes (n = 35) or remained unipolar depressive (n = 659). Initial depression amongst prospective converters was characterized by significantly increased suicidality (odds ratio, OR = 2.31), higher rates of feelings of worthlessness and excessive guilt (OR = 2.52), complete loss of pleasure (OR = 2.53) and diurnal variation (OR = 4.30). No differences were found for hyperphagia, hypersomnia and psychomotor alterations. Findings suggest that the symptom profile of initial depressive episodes may be useful in the identification of subjects with an elevated risk for the subsequent conversion to bipolar disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  18. Constraints on continued episodic inflation at Long Valley Caldera, based on seismic and geodetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lujia; Newman, Andrew V.

    2009-06-01

    Long Valley Caldera, a large and potentially explosive silicic system, has experienced highly anomalous continued inflation since late 1970s. We characterize an episode of rapid episodic uplift occurring between 2002 and 2003 following similar episodes of 1979-1980, 1983, 1989-1990, and 1997-1998. This most recent episode was the first to be observed by a dense array of 13 continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Similar to previously observed episodes of deformation, uplift is quasi-radially symmetric and is mostly explained by a compact pressure source located ˜3 km west of the resurgent dome. The maximum uplift during the 2002-2003 episode is ˜35 ± 8 mm, about 1/3 the magnitude but with a similar time-dependent behavior as the 1997-1998 episode. The horizontal source location is well constrained at -118.930°, 37.678°, for a small spherical source, and indistinguishable from the location of a vertically dipping prolate spheroidal source. A trade-off between depth and volume change is observed for both spherical and prolate models, with depth between 7.5 and 13.5 km and a volume change of 0.01-0.03 km3 at 95% confidence. For prolate spheroidal models, depth and volume change are additionally affected by the source axis ratio (b/a), which is greater than 0.55. Though the background seismicity remained low during the 2002-2003 episode, we identified a significant spike in activity during the maximum rate of uplift, similar to observations in both the much larger episodes in 1989-1990, and 1997-1998. More interestingly, we additionally find that all three episodes begin immediately after a short period of seismic quiescence, with background seismicity falling to levels below background levels following the prior uplift event. With the dense GPS coverage, we also identify increased opening of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain after the 2002-2003 episode suggesting potential interaction of magmatic fluids between the two systems.

  19. [The impact of disease course and type of episodes in bipolar disorder on caregiver burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Evrim; Alpman, Nilay; Özdemir, Armağan; Fıstıkcı, Nurhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how the disease course and type of episodes in patients with bipolar I disorder (BPD-I) affect caregiver burden. The study was conducted between February and July 2010, and included 89 euthymic-state BPD-I patients (55 with a natural course and 34 with ≥1 mixed episode or a rapid cycling course) diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and 89 of their caregivers. The patients were evaluated using a sociodemographic clinical form, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and Global Assessment of Functionality Scale (GAFS). The caregivers were evaluated using a sociodemographic form and the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZCBI). In all, 44% of the BPD-I patients' caregivers had moderate to severe burden. More of the caregivers of patients with rapid cycling or mixed episodes had social relationships negatively affected by caregiver burden (P caregivers with moderate to severe burden (Pcaregiving during the euthymic period increased (P caregiver-perceived dependency also increased; as caregiver age and the duration of caregiving increased, the perception of economic burden decreased (Pcaregiving, even when patients are in a euthymic state, results in considerable caregiver burden. Mixed episodes or rapid cycling increases the severity of caregiver burden, as does the number of manic episodes and the presence of subsyndromal manic features.

  20. Recovery from Multiple Episodes of Bipolar I Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David A; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Leon, Andrew C.; Coryell, William; Endicott, Jean; Li, Chunshan; Boland, Robert J.; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the duration of bipolar I major and minor depressive episodes and factors associated with time to recovery. Method 219 participants with bipolar I disorder based on Research Diagnostic Criteria analogs to DSM-IV-TR criteria were recruited from 1978–1981 and followed for up to 25 years. Psychopathology was assessed with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. The probability of recovery over time from multiple successive depressive episodes was examined with survival analytic techniques, including mixed-effects grouped-time survival models. Results The median duration of major depressive episodes was 14 weeks, and over 70% recovered within 12 months of onset of the episode. The median duration of minor depressive episodes was 8 weeks, and approximately 90% recovered within 6 months of onset of the episode. Aggregated data demonstrated similar durations of the first three major depressive episodes. However, for each participant with multiple episodes of major depression or minor depression, the duration of each episode was not consistent (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.07 and 0.25 for major and minor depression, respectively). The total number of years in episode over follow-up with major plus minor depression prior to onset of a major depressive episode was significantly associated with a decreased probability of recovery from that episode; with each additional year, the likelihood of recovery was reduced by 7% (hazard ratio: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89–0.98, p=0.002). Conclusions Bipolar I major depression generally lasts longer than minor depression, and the duration of multiple episodes within an individual varies. However, the probability of recovery over time from an episode of major depression appears to decline with each successive episode. PMID:23561241

  1. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-08-26

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the -1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded repeats with more than 35 consecutive CAG codons. An atypical +1 shift site, UUC C at the 5' end of CAG repeats, which has some resemblance to the influenza A virus shift site, triggers the +1 frameshifting and is enhanced by the increased propensity of the expanded CAG repeats to form a stem-loop structure. The +1 trans-frame-encoded product can directly influence the aggregation of the parental Htt exon 1.

  2. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  3. First-episode schizophrenia: characterization and clinical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Bilder

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological impairments are well documented in schizophrenia and are important targets of treatment. Information about the severity and pattern of deficits after treatment for the first psychotic episode and about relationships between these deficits and syndromal characteristics remains limited. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments including 41 individual tests were given to 94 patients with first-episode schizophrenia after initial stabilization of psychosis and to a comparison group of 36 healthy volunteers. Profiles of neuropsychological deficits and the relationship of deficits to sex and handedness were examined. Correlations of neuropsychological deficit with a broad range of historical and clinical characteristics, including outcome, were explored. Patients had a large generalized neuropsychological deficit. Patients also had, superimposed on the generalized deficit, subtle relative deficits in memory and executive functions. Learning/memory dysfunction best distinguished patients from healthy individuals; after accounting for this difference, only motor deficits further distinguished the groups. Patients with higher neuropsychological ability had only memory deficits, and patients with lower ability had both memory and executive deficits. Dextral patients had less severe generalized deficit. Severity of residual symptoms was associated with greater generalized deficit. Executive and attentional deficits were most linked to global functional impairment and poor outcome. The results document a large generalized deficit, and more subtle differential deficits, in clinically stabilized first-episode patients. Learning/memory deficits were observed even in patients with less severe generalized deficit, but the pattern was unlike the amnestic syndrome and probably reflects different mechanisms. Executive and attentional deficits marked the more severe ly disabled patients, and may portend relatively poor outcome. Failure to

  4. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  5. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  6. Antibiotic Treatment for First Episode of Acute Otitis Media Is Not Associated with Future Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Molder, Marthe; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Smit, Henriette A.; Schilder, Anne G. M.; Damoiseaux, Roger A. M. J.; Venekamp, Roderick P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) has been suggested to increase the risk of future AOM episodes by causing unfavorable shifts in microbial flora. Because current evidence on this topic is inconclusive and long-term follow-up data are scarce, we wanted to estimate the effect of antibiotic treatment for a first AOM episode occurring during infancy on AOM recurrences and AOM-related health care utilization later in life. Methods We obtained demographic information and risk factors from data of the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn, a prospective birth cohort study in which all healthy newborns born in Leidsche Rijn (between 2001 and 2012), The Netherlands, were enrolled. These data were linked to children’s primary care electronic health records up to the age of four. Children with at least one family physician-diagnosed AOM episode before the age of two were included in analyses. The exposure of interest was the prescription of oral antibiotics (yes vs no) for a child’s first AOM episode before the age of two years. Results 848 children were included in analyses and 512 (60%) children were prescribed antibiotics for their first AOM episode. Antibiotic treatment was not associated with an increased risk of total AOM recurrences (adjusted rate ratio: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.78–1.13), recurrent AOM (≥3 episodes in 6 months or ≥4 in one year; adjusted risk ratio: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.57–1.11), or with increased AOM-related health care utilization during children’s first four years of life. Conclusions Oral antibiotic treatment of a first AOM episode occurring during infancy does not affect the number of AOM recurrences and AOM-related health care utilization later in life. This information can be used when weighing the pros and cons of various AOM treatment options. PMID:27632355

  7. Zinc-finger directed double-strand breaks within CAG repeat tracts promote repeat instability in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, David; Moye, Christopher; Morton, Jason; Sykoudis, Kristen; Lin, Yunfu; Carroll, Dana; Wilson, John H

    2009-06-16

    Expanded triplet repeats have been identified as the genetic basis for a growing number of neurological and skeletal disorders. To examine the contribution of double-strand break repair to CAG x CTG repeat instability in mammalian systems, we developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that recognize and cleave CAG repeat sequences. Engineered ZFNs use a tandem array of zinc fingers, fused to the FokI DNA cleavage domain, to direct double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a site-specific manner. We first determined that the ZFNs cleave CAG repeats in vitro. Then, using our previously described tissue culture assay for identifying modifiers of CAG repeat instability, we found that transfection of ZFN-expression vectors induced up to a 15-fold increase in changes to the CAG repeat in human and rodent cell lines, and that longer repeats were much more sensitive to cleavage than shorter ones. Analysis of individual colonies arising after treatment revealed a spectrum of events consistent with ZFN-induced DSBs and dominated by repeat contractions. We also found that expressing a dominant-negative form of RAD51 in combination with a ZFN, dramatically reduced the effect of the nuclease, suggesting that DSB-induced repeat instability is mediated, in part, through homology directed repair. These studies identify a ZFN as a useful reagent for characterizing the effects of DSBs on CAG repeats in cells.

  8. Response of two prairie forbs to repeated vole herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amy T; Howe, Henry F

    2011-04-01

    Vertebrate herbivores as diverse as ungulates, geese, and rabbits preferentially feed on plants that have previously experienced herbivory. Here, we ask whether smaller grassland "cryptic consumers" such as voles (Microtus ochrogaster and M. pennsylvanicus) preferentially clip (cut stems for access to leaves or seeds) or avoid previously clipped individuals of two tallgrass prairie species (Desmanthus illinoensis and Echinacea purpurea) within a growing season. Further, we ask how these plants respond to repeated clipping within a growing season, and whether the effects of this herbivory last into the subsequent growing season. Voles preferentially clipped stems of D. illinoensis and E. purpurea plants that had been previously clipped. The exception was indiscriminant clipping of stems of E. purpurea late in the growing season when its achenes, a favorite vole food, ripened. For D. illinoensis, repeated clipping resulted in a 59% reduction in biomass, 42% lower ratio of reproductive to vegetative biomass, and 57% fewer seeds produced per plant compared with unclipped plants. These effects lasted into the following growing season in which plants were protected from voles. In contrast, the only effect of repeated clipping for E. purpurea was that the number of achenes per plant was substantially reduced by three episodes of clipping. This effect did not carry over to the next growing season. Such differences in D. illinoensis and E. purpurea response to repeated stem clipping by voles offer insights into how these small rodents can effect major changes in composition and dominance in grassland communities.

  9. Efficacy and safety of fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine vs. artemether-lumefantrine for repeated treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Ugandan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adoke Yeka

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of the two most widely used fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT, artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ and artemether-lumefantrine (AL are well established for single episodes of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the effects of repeated, long-term use are not well documented. We conducted a 2-year randomized, open-label, longitudinal, phase IV clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose ASAQ and AL for repeated treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children under 5 years at Nagongera Health Centre, Uganda. Participants were randomized to ASAQ or AL and all subsequent malaria episodes were treated with the same regimen. 413 children were enrolled and experienced a total of 6027 malaria episodes (mean 15; range, 1-26. For the first malaria episode, the PCR-corrected-cure rate for ASAQ (97.5% was non-inferior to that for AL (97.0%; 95% CI [-0.028; 0.037]. PCR-corrected cure rates for subsequent malaria episodes that had over 100 cases (episodes 2-18, ranged from 88.1% to 98.9% per episode, with no clear difference between the treatment arms. Parasites were completely cleared by day 3 for all malaria episodes and gametocyte carriage was less than 1% by day 21. Fever clearance was faster in the ASAQ group for the first episode. Treatment compliance for subsequent episodes (only first dose administration observed was close to 100%. Adverse events though common were similar between treatment arms and mostly related to the disease. Serious adverse events were uncommon, comparable between treatment arms and resolved spontaneously. Anemia and neutropenia occurred in <0.5% of cases per episode, abnormal liver function tests occurred in 0.3% to 1.4% of cases. Both regimens were safe and effective for repeated treatment of malaria.Current Controlled Trials NCT00699920.

  10. Effect of blonanserin on cognitive function in antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenjin, Tomomi; Miyamoto, Seiya; Miyake, Nobumi; Ogino, Shin; Kitajima, Rei; Ojima, Kazuaki; Arai, Jun; Teramoto, Haruki; Tsukahara, Sachiko; Ito, Yukie; Tadokoro, Masanori; Anai, Kiriko; Funamoto, Yasuyuki; Kaneda, Yasuhiro; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Yamaguchi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blonanserin, a novel antipsychotic, on cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia. Twenty-four antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia participated in the study. Blonanserin was given in an open-label design for 8 weeks. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia-Japanese language version (BACS-J) was administered as the primary outcome measure at baseline and 8 weeks. Clinical evaluation included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale-Japanese language version (SQLS-J), and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness Scale (CGI-S). To exclude the possibility of retest effects on the BACS-J, 10 age-matched patients with chronic schizophrenia treated with blonanserin were tested at baseline and after an 8-week interval. Twenty first-episode patients completed the study. Repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed a significant group-by-time interaction effect on the letter fluency task due to better performance in the first-episode group, but not in the control group. Main effect of time or group-by-time interaction effect on the Tower of London task was not significant; however, the first-episode group, but not the control group, showed substantial improvement with a moderate effect size. All items on the PANSS, SQLS-J, and CGI-S significantly improved after 8 weeks of treatment. These results suggest that blonanserin improves some types of cognitive function associated with prefrontal cortical function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Phenomenology of high-ozone episodes in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Xavier; Gangoiti, Gotzon; Mantilla, Enrique; Alastuey, Andrés; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Amato, Fulvio; Reche, Cristina; Viana, Mar; Moreno, Teresa; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Rivas, Ioar; Pérez, Noemí; Ripoll, Anna; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Pandolfi, Marco; Lee, Hong-Ku; Eun, Hee-Ram; Park, Yong-Hee; Escudero, Miguel; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy M.; Bertrand, Amelie; Marchand, Nicolas; Lyasota, Andrei; Codina, Bernat; Olid, Miriam; Udina, Mireia; Jiménez-Esteve, Bernat; Soler, María R.; Alonso, Lucio; Millán, Millán; Ahn, Kang-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Ground-level and vertical measurements (performed using tethered and non-tethered balloons), coupled with modelling, of ozone (O3), other gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, CO, SO2) and aerosols were carried out in the plains (Vic Plain) and valleys of the northern region of the Barcelona metropolitan area (BMA) in July 2015, an area typically recording the highest O3 episodes in Spain. Our results suggest that these very high O3 episodes were originated by three main contributions: (i) the surface fumigation from high O3 reservoir layers located at 1500-3000 m a.g.l. (according to modelling and non-tethered balloon measurements), and originated during the previous day(s) injections of polluted air masses at high altitude; (ii) local/regional photochemical production and transport (at lower heights) from the BMA and the surrounding coastal settlements, into the inland valleys; and (iii) external (to the study area) contributions of both O3 and precursors. These processes gave rise to maximal O3 levels in the inland plains and valleys northwards from the BMA when compared to the higher mountain sites. Thus, a maximum O3 concentration was observed within the lower tropospheric layer, characterised by an upward increase of O3 and black carbon (BC) up to around 100-200 m a.g.l. (reaching up to 300 µg m-3 of O3 as a 10 s average), followed by a decrease of both pollutants at higher altitudes, where BC and O3 concentrations alternate in layers with parallel variations, probably as a consequence of the atmospheric transport from the BMA and the return flows (to the sea) of strata injected at certain heights the previous day(s). At the highest altitudes reached in this study with the tethered balloons (900-1000 m a.g.l.) during the campaign, BC and O3 were often anti-correlated or unrelated, possibly due to a prevailing regional or even hemispheric contribution of O3 at those altitudes. In the central hours of the days a homogeneous O3 distribution was evidenced for the lowest

  12. On the Development of Episodic Memory: Two Basic Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold

    2013-01-01

    In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ...

  13. Comparison of episodic acidification of mid-Atlantic upland and Coastal Plain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Anne K.; Rice, Karen C.; Kennedy, Margaret M.; Bricker, Owen P.

    1993-01-01

    Episodic acidification was examined in five mid-Atlantic watersheds representing three physiographic provinces: Coastal Plain, Valley and Ridge, and Blue Ridge. Each of the watersheds receives a similar loading of atmospheric pollutants (SO42− and NO3−) and is underlain by different bedrock type. The purpose of this research was to quantify and compare the episodic variability in storm flow chemistry in Reedy Creek, Virginia (Coastal Plain), Mill Run and Shelter Run, Virginia (Valley and Ridge), and Fishing Creek Tributary and Hunting Creek, Maryland (Blue Ridge). Because episodic responses were similar from storm to storm in each of the watersheds, a representative storm from each watershed was discussed. Acidification, defined as the loss of acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), was observed in all streams except Mill Run. Mill Run chemistry showed little episodic variability. During storms in the other streams, pH decreased while SO42−, NO3−, and K+ concentrations increased. Concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ increased in Reedy Creek and Fishing Creek Tributary, but decreased in Shelter Run and Hunting Creek. Therefore the net effect of episodic changes on the acid-base status differed among the streams. In general, greater losses of ANC were observed during storms at Shelter Run and Hunting Creek, watersheds underlain by reactive bedrock (carbonate, metabasalt); comparatively smaller losses in ANC were observed at Reedy Creek and Fishing Creek Tributary, watersheds underlain by quartzites and unconsolidated quartz sands and cobbles. Increased SO42− concentrations were most important during storms at Reedy Creek and Fishing Creek Tributary, but organic anions (inferred by anion deficit) were also a factor in causing the loss of ANC. Dilution of base cations was the most important factor in the loss of ANC at Shelter Run. Both increased sulfate and dilution of base flow were important in causing the episodic acidification at Hunting Creek. The role of SO42

  14. Long-term response in episodic acidification to declining SO42– deposition in two streams in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laudon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in anthropogenically driven episodic acidification associated with extended winter snow melt/rain episodes between 1983 and 1998 were investigated for two streams in Nova Scotia, Canada. The anthropogenic contribution to Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC was analysed using the Boreal Dilution Model (Bishop et al., 2000 modified by applying a sea-salt correction to all input hydrochemistry. The anthropogenic contribution to episodic ANC decline was statistically significant and strongly correlated with the decline in acid deposition, which decreased by approximately 50% during the period of record. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the BDM can be applied to surface waters with sea-salt contributions although the correction increases model uncertainty. Results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of reduced emissions in North America in the last decades in decreasing the severity of episodic acidification in the Atlantic region of Canada. Keywords: episodic acidification, acidification recovery, Nova Scotia, snowmelt, winter

  15. Episodic Aging and End States of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2008-01-01

    It is known that comets are aging very rapidly on cosmic scales, because they rapidly shed mass. The processes involved are (i) normal activity - sublimation of ices and expulsion of dust from discrete emission sources on and/or below the surface of a comet's nucleus, and (ii) nuclear fragmentation. Both modes are episodic in nature, the latter includes major steps in the comet's life cycle. The role and history of dynamical techniques used are described and results on mass losses due to sublimation and dust expulsion are reviewed. Studies of split comets, Holmes-like exploding comets, and cataclysmically fragmenting comets show that masses of 10 to 100 million tons are involved in the fragmentation process. This and other information is used to investigate the nature of comets' episodic aging. Based on recent advances in understanding the surface morphology of cometary nuclei by close-up imaging, a possible mechanism for large-scale fragmentation events is proposed and shown to be consistent with evidence available from observations. Strongly flattened pancake-like shapes appear to be required for comet fragments by conceptual constraints. Possible end states are briefly examined.

  16. Cabergoline-induced manic episode: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Rabia Nazik; Elyas Kaya, Zeynep; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Cingi Yirün, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Cabergoline is an orally administered synthetic dopamine agonist that is used for the treatment of hyperprolactinemia, Parkinson’s disease and antipsychotic-induced prolactin elevation. One of the main characteristics of cabergoline is its long duration of effect. It is highly effective in suppressing prolactin levels up to 21 days after a single 1 mg oral dose. The prolonged elimination half-life offers an advantage of once-daily dosing, but it might be a handicap in terms of washout of adverse effects such as psychosis. Cabergoline has been associated with adverse reactions consistent with other dopaminergic agonists including cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric effects. It is known that dopaminergic treatment is a remarkable risk factor for psychosis. A number of reports implicate dopamine agonists in the development of psychosis, but there is no knowledge in the literature of dopamine agonist-induced mania. In this case, we report the first manic episode occurring after cabergoline use for hyperprolactinemia treatment. In susceptible individuals, cabergoline can cause manic episodes and cabergoline should be used more carefully considering the risk–benefit ratio. PMID:27354910

  17. Episodic Aging and End States of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2008-01-01

    It is known that comets are aging very rapidly on cosmic scales, because they rapidly shed mass. The processes involved are (i) normal activity - sublimation of ices and expulsion of dust from discrete emission sources on and/or below the surface of a comet's nucleus, and (ii) nuclear fragmentation. Both modes are episodic in nature, the latter includes major steps in the comet's life cycle. The role and history of dynamical techniques used are described and results on mass losses due to sublimation and dust expulsion are reviewed. Studies of split comets, Holmes-like exploding comets, and cataclysmically fragmenting comets show that masses of 10 to 100 million tons are involved in the fragmentation process. This and other information is used to investigate the nature of comets' episodic aging. Based on recent advances in understanding the surface morphology of cometary nuclei by close-up imaging, a possible mechanism for large-scale fragmentation events is proposed and shown to be consistent with evidence available from observations. Strongly flattened pancake-like shapes appear to be required for comet fragments by conceptual constraints. Possible end states are briefly examined.

  18. [Therapeutic strategies in the first psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douki, S; Taktak, M J; Ben Zineb, S; Cheour, M

    1999-11-01

    A first psychotic episode includes a wide range of disorders with different outcomes: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, brief reactive psychosis, organic psychoses and delusional disorder. The course and outcome of a first psychotic episode is greatly dependent on its initial management. Major clinical, etiopathogenic and therapeutic advances have been achieved in this field and have allowed specific management strategies to be adopted. The primary task of therapists involved in the management of patients who have experienced a first episode of psychosis is promotion of recovery and prevention of secondary morbidity, relapse and persistent disability. The main guidelines of an early psychosis management are:--to keep in mind that early psychosis is not early schizophrenia. Thus, clinicians and therapists should avoid an early diagnosis of schizophrenia. Diagnosis in early psychosis can be highly unstable. A diagnosis of schizophrenia, with its implications of pessimism, relapse and disability, does not contribute anything positive in terms of guiding treatment. On the contrary, such a diagnosis may damage the patient and family by stigmatizing them and affecting the way they are viewed and managed by healthcare professionals.--To integrate biological, psychological and social interventions: effective medications is useful in reducing the risk of relapse, but is not a guarantee against it. Psychological and social interventions can greatly help promote recovery.--To tailor the various strategies to met the needs of an individual: as an example, it is important to formulate appropriate strategies for the different stages of the illness (prodromal phase, acute phase, early recovery phase and late recovery phase) because patients have different therapeutic needs at each stage.--In the acute treatment, not to concentrate on short-term goals in indicating antipsychotic treatment: prescribing

  19. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  20. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  1. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  2. Haze Research in Brunei Darussalam During the 1998 Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, M.

    - Brunei Darussalam experienced a severe haze episode between the beginning of February and the end of April 1998 due mainly to local peat and forest fires in Brunei and in neighbouring Sabah and Sarawak. The extensive research studies of the haze carried out in Brunei are outlined together with selected results. Particulate matter (PM10) was the only significant criteria pollutant and it exceeded WHO guidelines and accepted air quality standards on most days during the haze episode. Gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NO2, O3) were generally well below WHO guidelines and at these concentrations they are expected to have no significant health or environmental effects. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed the presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), aldehydes, phenol, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Personal exposure monitoring of PM10 revealed significant differences in exposure patterns between different individuals depending on the location, time and activity. Data on outpatient visits showed an increase for some illnesses (e.g., acute respiratory infection) during the months of haze. No significant impacts of haze on rainwater acidity or deposition were noted. Emission factors for some volatile compounds were determined in combustion experiments in which peat was burned at temperatures typical of smouldering.

  3. Episodic weakness and vacuolar myopathy in hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basali, Diana; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-11-01

    We report a 50-year-old woman who presented with a 20 year history of gradually progressive lower extremity weakness, characterized by knee buckling with occasional falls and foot dragging. She also experienced difficulty in lifting her arms above her shoulders. The primary periodic paralyses are rare disorders caused by dysfunctional ion channels in skeletal muscle. The hypokalemic type is generally an autosomal dominant condition, due to missense mutations in the alpha subunits of the skeletal muscle L-type calcium channel genes, CACN1AS, or the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene, SCN4A. The affected patients typically present with episodic weakness. For our patient, the consumption of foods high in carbohydrates seemed to precipitate the episodes of weakness. Her family history was significant for six blood relatives, including three sons and three relatives on the paternal side, who had experienced similar symptoms. A biopsy of the left rectus femoralis muscle showed vacuolar myopathic changes in the scattered muscle fibers, accompanied by occasional degenerating and regenerating muscle fibers. There was no evidence of inflammation on the biopsy. The vacuoles were often associated with increased acid phosphatase staining. An electron microscopic examination showed that the vacuolar changes were due to T-tubule dilation, a characteristic of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Other metabolic etiologies of vacuolar myopathy, such as acid phosphatase (lysosomal) associated acid maltase deficiency (a glycogen storage disease), need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Episodic arterial oxygen desaturation and heart rate variations following major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Dirkes, W E; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    In 20 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery, heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation were monitored continuously during the night 2 days before operation and during the first and second nights after operation (23:00 to 07:30). Mean heart rate increased by 16 beat min-1 (P less than...... arrhythmias on the morning of the third day after operation. In another patient the episodes of desaturation correlated with increases in heart rate. There was no correlation between administration of opioids and heart rate and saturation disturbances. The mechanism and clinical relevance of episodic...

  5. An experimental model of episodic gas release through fracture of fluid confined within a pressurized elastic reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Stefano; Woods, Andrew W.; Harrington, Jon; Norris, Simon

    2017-01-01

    We present new experiments that identify a mechanism for episodic release of gas from a pressurized, deformable reservoir confined by a clay seal, as a result of the transition from bulk deformation to channel growth through the clay. Air is injected into the center of a thin cylindrical cell initially filled with a mixture of bentonite clay and water. For sufficiently dry mixtures, the pressure initially increases with little volume change. On reaching the yield stress of the clay-water mixture, the lid of the cell then deforms elastically and an air-filled void forms in the center of the cell as the clay is driven radially outward. With continued supply of air, the pressure continues to increase until reaching the fracture strength of the clay. A fracture-like channel then forms and migrates to the outer edge of the cell, enabling the air to escape. The pressure then falls, and the clay flows back toward the center of the cell and seals the channel so the cycle can repeat. The phenomena may be relevant at mud volcanoes.

  6. Mononucleotide repeats are asymmetrically distributed in fungal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaff Leo H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic analyses of sequence features have resulted in a better characterisation of the organisation of the genome. A previous study in prokaryotes on the distribution of sequence repeats, which are notoriously variable and can disrupt the reading frame in genes, showed that these motifs are skewed towards gene termini, specifically the 5' end of genes. For eukaryotes no such intragenic analysis has been performed, though this could indicate the pervasiveness of this distribution bias, thereby helping to expose the selective pressures causing it. Results In fungal gene repertoires we find a similar 5' bias of intragenic mononucleotide repeats, most notably for Candida spp., whereas e.g. Coccidioides spp. display no such bias. With increasing repeat length, ever larger discrepancies are observed in genome repertoire fractions containing such repeats, with up to an 80-fold difference in gene fractions at repeat lengths of 10 bp and longer. This species-specific difference in gene fractions containing large repeats could be attributed to variations in intragenic repeat tolerance. Furthermore, long transcripts experience an even more prominent bias towards the gene termini, with possibly a more adaptive role for repeat-containing short transcripts. Conclusion Mononucleotide repeats are intragenically biased in numerous fungal genomes, similar to earlier studies on prokaryotes, indicative of a similar selective pressure in gene organization.

  7. Intragenic tandem repeat variation between Legionella pneumophila strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarraud Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genomes harbour a large number of tandem repeats, yet the possible phenotypic effects of those found within the coding region of genes are only beginning to be examined. Evidence exists from other organisms that these repeats can be involved in the evolution of new genes, gene regulation, adaptation, resistance to environmental stresses, and avoidance of the immune system. Results In this study, we have investigated the presence and variability in copy number of intragenic tandemly repeated sequences in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Within the genome of the Philadelphia strain, we have identified 26 intragenic tandem repeat sequences using conservative selection criteria. Of these, seven were "polymorphic" in terms of repeat copy number between a large number of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. These strains were collected from a wide variety of environments and patients in several geographical regions. Within this panel of strains, all but one of these seven genes exhibited statistically different patterns in repeat copy number between samples from different origins (environmental, clinical, and hot springs. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that intragenic tandem repeats could play a role in virulence and adaptation to different environments. While tandem repeats are an increasingly popular focus of molecular typing studies in prokaryotes, including in L. pneumophila, this study is the first examining the difference in tandem repeat distribution as a function of clinical or environmental origin.

  8. No Associations between Interindividual Differences in Sleep Parameters and Episodic Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Rasch, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep and memory are stable and heritable traits that strongly differ between individuals. Sleep benefits memory consolidation, and the amount of slow wave sleep, sleep spindles, and rapid eye movement sleep have been repeatedly identified as reliable predictors for the amount of declarative and/or emotional memories retrieved after a consolidation period filled with sleep. These studies typically encompass small sample sizes, increasing the probability of overestimating the real association strength. In a large sample we tested whether individual differences in sleep are predictive for individual differences in memory for emotional and neutral pictures. Design: Between-subject design. Setting: Cognitive testing took place at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Sleep was recorded at participants' homes, using portable electroencephalograph-recording devices. Participants: Nine hundred-twenty-nine healthy young participants (mean age 22.48 ± 3.60 y standard deviation). Interventions: None. Measurements and results: In striking contrast to our expectations as well as numerous previous findings, we did not find any significant correlations between sleep and memory consolidation for pictorial stimuli. Conclusions: Our results indicate that individual differences in sleep are much less predictive for pictorial memory processes than previously assumed and suggest that previous studies using small sample sizes might have overestimated the association strength between sleep stage duration and pictorial memory performance. Future studies need to determine whether intraindividual differences rather than interindividual differences in sleep stage duration might be more predictive for the consolidation of emotional and neutral pictures during sleep. Citation: Ackermann S, Hartmann F, Papassotiropoulos A, de Quervain DJF, Rasch B. No associations between interindividual differences in sleep parameters and episodic memory consolidation. SLEEP 2015;38(6):951

  9. Heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related injuries: An open cohort study among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Doallo, Sonia; Corral, Montserrat; Rodriguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) on the incidence of alcohol-related injuries among university students in Spain, taking sex into consideration. We carried out an open cohort study among college students in Spain (992 women and 371 men). HED and alcohol-related injuries were measured by question 3rd and 9th of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22, 24 and 27. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for alcohol and cannabis use. The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 0.028year(-1) for females and 0.036year(-1) for males. The multivariate analysis showed that among females a high frequency of HED and use of cannabis are risk factors for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.64 and OR=3.68), while being more than 23 is a protective factor (OR=0.34). For males, bivariate analysis also showed HED like risk factor (OR=4.69 and OR=2.51). Finally, the population attributable fraction for HED among females was 37.12%. HED leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries in both sexes and being over 23 years old acts as a protective factor among women. Our results suggest that about one third of alcohol-related injuries among women could be avoided by removing HED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aberrant topology of striatum's connectivity is associated with the number of episodes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chun; Brandl, Felix; Tahmasian, Masoud; Shao, Junming; Manoliu, Andrei; Scherr, Martin; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Bäuml, Josef; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2014-02-01

    In major depressive disorder, depressive episodes reoccur in ∼60% of cases; however, neural mechanisms of depressive relapse are poorly understood. Depressive episodes are characterized by aberrant topology of the brain's intrinsic functional connectivity network, and the number of episodes is one of the most important predictors for depressive relapse. In this study we hypothesized that specific changes of the topology of intrinsic connectivity interact with the course of episodes in recurrent depressive disorder. To address this hypothesis, we investigated which changes of connectivity topology are associated with the number of episodes in patients, independently of current symptoms and disease duration. Fifty subjects were recruited including 25 depressive patients (two to 10 episodes) and 25 gender- and age-matched control subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, Harvard-Oxford brain atlas, wavelet-transformation of atlas-shaped regional time-series, and their pairwise Pearson's correlation were used to define individual connectivity matrices. Matrices were analysed by graph-based methods, resulting in outcome measures that were used as surrogates of intrinsic network topology. Topological scores were subsequently compared across groups, and, for patients only, related with the number of depressive episodes and current symptoms by partial correlation analysis. Concerning the whole brain connectivity network of patients, small-world topology was preserved but global efficiency was reduced and global betweenness-centrality increased. Aberrant nodal efficiency and centrality of regional connectivity was found in the dorsal striatum, inferior frontal and orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the occipital and somatosensory cortex. Inferior frontal changes were associated with current symptoms, whereas aberrant right putamen network topology was associated with the number of episodes. Results were controlled for effects of total grey matter

  11. The influence of comorbid personality disorder and neuroticism on treatment outcome in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has never been investigated whether comorbid personality disorder or neuroticism predicts a poor treatment outcome in first episode depression. METHODS: Medically treated patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital...... of any kind. Comorbid personality disorder was associated with a 2.2-times (95% CI: 1.1-4.2) increased risk of non-remission following the first antidepressant trial, whereas no effect was found following the second antidepressant trial (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.4). A high level of neuroticism...... was associated with non-remission in first as well as second trials. CONCLUSION: Comorbid personality disorder and high levels of neuroticism in first episode depression predict an increased risk of non-remission from depression....

  12. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  13. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  14. Motor-behavioral episodes in REM sleep behavior disorder and phasic events during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Raffaele; Terzaghi, Michele; Glorioso, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    To investigate if sudden-onset motor-behavioral episodes in REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) are associated with phasic events of REM sleep, and to explore the potential meaning of such an association. Observational review analysis. Tertiary sleep center. Twelve individuals (11 males; mean age 67.6 +/- 7.4 years) affected by idiopathic RBD, displaying a total of 978 motor-behavioral episodes during nocturnal in-laboratory video-PSG. N/A. The motor activity displayed was primitive in 69.1% and purposeful/semi-purposeful in 30.9% of the motor-behavioral episodes recorded. Sleeptalking was significantly more associated with purposeful/semi-purposeful motor activity than crying and/or incomprehensible muttering (71.0% versus 21.4%, P<0.005). In 58.2% of the motor-behavioral episodes, phasic EEG-EOG events (rapid eye movements [REMs], alpha bursts, or sawtooth waves [STWs]) occurred simultaneously. Each variable (REMs, STWs, alpha bursts) was associated more with purposefullsemi-purposeful than with primitive movements (P<0.05). Motor-behavioral episodes in RBD were significantly more likely to occur in association with phasic than with tonic periods of REM sleep. The presence of REMs, alpha bursts and STWs was found to be more frequent in more complex episodes. We hypothesize that motor-behavioral episodes in RBD are likely to occur when the brain, during REM sleep, is in a state of increased instability (presence of alpha bursts) and experiencing stronger stimulation of visual areas (REMs).

  15. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Delhomel, Gregory; Brughelli, Matt; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effects of explosive strength (ExpS) vs. repeated shuttle sprint (RS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in young elite soccer players, 15 elite male adolescents (14.5 ± 0.5 years) performed, in addition to their soccer training program, RS (n = 7) or ExpS (n = 8) training once a week for a total of 10 weeks. RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 × 15- to 20-m repeated shuttle sprints interspersed with 14 seconds of passive or 23 seconds of active recovery (≈2 m·s⁻¹); ExpS training consisted of 4-6 series of 4-6 exercises (e.g., maximal unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs), calf and squat plyometric jumps, and short sprints). Before and after training, performance was assessed by 10 and 30 m (10 and 30 m) sprint times, best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test, a CMJ, and a hopping (Hop) test. After training, except for 10 m (p = 0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all p's repeated shuttle sprint test were only observed after RS training, whereas CMJ height was only increased after ExpS. Because RS and ExpS were equally efficient at enhancing maximal sprinting speed, RS training-induced improvements in RSA were likely more related to progresses in the ability to change direction.

  16. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  17. Personality disorders in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Haahr, Ulrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    or more personality disorders, while one-third of the patients did not fulfil the criteria for any personality disorder. The schizoid and the avoidant were the most frequent personality disorders and both were associated with social withdrawal during childhood and adolescence. The limitation of the study......The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of personality disorders in the early course of first-episode psychosis and their likely presence in the premorbid period. Fifty-five patients were enrolled at baseline and premorbid function was evaluated by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale....... Thirty-three of these of the patients were assessed at two-year follow-up for comorbid personality disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and by the self-report instrument Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. Half of the patients met the criteria of two...

  18. Heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mavrakis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to investigate the possible temporal correlation between heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays' activity, on various time scales. Cosmic rays measurements are sparse and cover less extended periods than those of precipitation. Precipitation is largely influenced by local climatic and even physiographic conditions, while cosmic rays' distribution is far more uniform over an area. Thus, in an effort to cover a larger range of climatic characteristics, each cosmic rays station was correlated with several nearby precipitation stations. Selected statistical methods were employed for the data processing. The analysis was preformed on annual, seasonal, monthly and daily basis whenever possible. Wet and dry regions and/or seasons seem to present a different response of precipitation to cosmic rays variations. Also Forbush decreases in most cases will not lead to heavy precipitation, yet this might be sensitive to precipitable water availability.

  19. Episodic Ataxias: Clinical and Genetic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Dong; Choi, Jae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Episodic ataxia (EA) is a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that are characterized by recurrent spells of truncal ataxia and incoordination lasting minutes to hours. Most have an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. To date, 8 subtypes have been defined according to clinical and genetic characteristics, and five genes are known to be linked to EAs. Both EA1 and EA2, which are caused by mutations in KCNA1 and CACNA1A, account for the majority of EA, but many patients with no identified mutations still exhibit EA-like clinical features. Furthermore, genetically confirmed EAs have mostly been identified in Caucasian families. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the clinical and genetic characteristics of EAs. Additionally, we summarize the phenotypic features of the genetically confirmed EA2 families in Korea. PMID:27667184

  20. Suicidal Ideation Induced by Episodic Cannabis Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Raja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The report describes a patient who presented suicidal ideation only in two different occasions, immediately after acute cannabis intoxication. He used cannabis only in these two circumstances. Although a definite association between cannabis use and suicidal ideation or behavior has been already reported in the literature, the described case presents two original clinical aspects that deserve consideration. First, episodic assumption of cannabis induced suicidal ideation abruptly. Second, suicidal ideation appeared independent of mood depression, stressors, or life events, suggesting that suicidality may be not a direct consequence of depression and appears to be a relatively independent psychopathological dimension. There seems to be no linear relation between the severity of depression and the risk of suicide.

  1. Happiness in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agid, Ofer; McDonald, Krysta; Siu, Cynthia; Tsoutsoulas, Christopher; Wass, Caroline; Zipursky, Robert B; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2012-10-01

    Happiness is a core dimension of a person's life, related to both functioning and success. As patients with schizophrenia experience marked functional deficits, it would be informative to investigate their level of happiness. There are limited data currently available, perhaps due to the longstanding belief that anhedonia is an inherent feature of this illness. The present study set out to specifically assess happiness in schizophrenia in relation to both clinical and functional measures of outcome. Thirty-one first-episode remitted patients and 29 age- and sex-matched controls participated in the study. Patients' clinical status was assessed and a series of self-report questionnaires were used to measure levels of happiness, life satisfaction, success and functioning in both patients and controls. Patients experienced marked functional impairment versus healthy controls (phappiness (p=0.113) and satisfaction with life (p=0.350). In the patient group, we found that higher happiness ratings were significantly associated with less depression, less negative symptoms, less social withdrawal, greater life satisfaction, and higher social and occupational functioning. Both cognitive functioning and insight had no significant direct effects on ratings of happiness in the patient group. Despite marked functional impairment, individuals with first-episode schizophrenia are as happy as controls. Mechanisms that might allow for this are discussed, as are the implications for rehabilitation efforts that assume an individual holds to the same drives and goals as before the illness onset and/or is unhappy with their present functional status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Diabetic ketoacidosis. Revision of 82 episodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, J R; Cortés, E; Pallotta, M G; Domínguez, J M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 82 episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis were analysed in 70 adult patients. Population characteristics can be seen in Table 1. It was possible to determine the causes of 74 episodes (Table 2); infections, insulin reduction or suppression and psychic stress included 89 % of these causes. The most frequent infection sites were airway, urinary tract and skin surface. The most important symptoms and signs shown by patients on admission (Table 3) were digestive and those derived from dehydration and acidosis. Figure 2 shows laboratory data on admission: average glycemia, 395 mg %, 90 % with pH values below 7.30; the majority revealed high hematocrit urea and kaliemia values. Unusual treatment performed in the classical way (Figure 3) can be divided into two periods: the first of eapid expansion and insulinization (first three hours) and the second of slow replenishment (4 to 24 hours) consisting of two stages in which the velocity of liquid infusion is diminished while glucose and potassium backing is started. No difference was found between the results of those who received bicarbonate and those who did not (Table 4). Response to treatment is shown in Fig. 4. On pointing out the decrease in kalemia (1.18 mEq/l in the first 6 hours), however, it must be kept in mind that on admission 10 % of the patients were in a state of hypokalemia with less than 3.5 mEq/l. Table 5 shows complications that arose during treatment: hypokalemia, 32 %; hupoglucemia, 11 % and phlebitis, 17 % (catheterized). Five patients, (7 5) died. Four had been admitted in a state of coma with a severe infectious state (bronchopneumonia, acute pyelonephritis, meningo-encephalitis). The analysis of this paper shows the importance of an adequate diabetic education and briefing both for the patients, to be aware of the unleashing factors, and for the physicians, in order to avoid the complications of treatment.

  3. Changes in Antibody Levels during and following an Episode of Acute Adenolymphangitis (ADL among Lymphedema Patients in Leogane, Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Mues

    Full Text Available Episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ADL are often the first clinical sign of lymphatic filariasis (LF. They are often accompanied by swelling of the affected limb, inflammation, fever, and general malaise and lead to the progression of lymphedema. Although ADL episodes have been studied for a century or more, questions still remain as to their etiology. We quantified antibody levels to pathogens that potentially contribute to ADL episodes during and after an episode among lymphedema patients in Léogâne, Haiti. We estimated the proportion of ADL episodes hypothesized to be attributed to specific pathogens.We measured antibody levels to specific pathogens during and following an ADL episode among 41 lymphedema patients enrolled in a cohort study in Léogâne, Haiti. We calculated the absolute and relative changes in antibody levels between the ADL and convalescent time points. We calculated the proportion of episodes that demonstrated a two-fold increase in antibody level for several bacterial, fungal, and filarial pathogens.Our results showed the greatest proportion of two-fold changes in antibody levels for the carbohydrate antigen Streptococcus group A, followed by IgG2 responses to a soluble filarial antigen (BpG2, Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B, and an antigen for the fungal pathogen Candida. When comparing the median antibody level during the ADL episode to the median antibody level at the convalescent time point, only the antigens for Pseudomonas species (P-value = 0.0351 and Streptolysin O (P-value = 0.0074 showed a significant result.Although our results are limited by the lack of a control group and few antibody responses, they provide some evidence for infection with Streptococcus A as a potential contributing factor to ADL episodes. Our results add to the current evidence and illustrate the importance of determining the causal role of bacterial and fungal pathogens and immunological antifilarial response in ADL episodes.

  4. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  5. What differentiates episodic future thinking from complex scene imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vito, Stefania; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the contributions of familiarity of setting, self-relevance and self-projection in time to episodic future thinking. The role of familiarity of setting was assessed, in Experiment 1, by comparing episodic future thoughts to autobiographical future events supposed to occur in unfamiliar settings. The role of self-relevance was assessed, in Experiment 2, by comparing episodic future thoughts to future events involving familiar others. The role of self-projection in time was assessed, in both Experiments, by comparing episodic future thoughts to autobiographical events that were not temporal in nature. Results indicated that episodic future thoughts were more clearly represented than autobiographical future events occurring in unfamiliar setting and future events involving familiar others. Our results also revealed that episodic future thoughts were indistinguishable from autobiographical atemporal events with respect to both subjective and objective detail ratings. These results suggest that future and atemporal events are mentally represented in a similar way.

  6. Fundamental aspects of episodic accretion chemistry explored with single-point models

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    We explore a set of single-point chemical models to study the fundamental chemical aspects of episodic accretion in low-mass embedded protostars. Our goal is twofold: (1) to understand how the repeated heating and cooling of the envelope affects the abundances of CO and related species; and (2) to identify chemical tracers that can be used as a novel probe of the timescales and other physical aspects of episodic accretion. We develop a set of single-point models that serve as a general prescription for how the chemical composition of a protostellar envelope is altered by episodic accretion. The main effect of each accretion burst is to drive CO ice off the grains in part of the envelope. The duration of the subsequent quiescent stage (before the next burst hits) is similar to or shorter than the freeze-out timescale of CO, allowing the chemical effects of a burst to linger long after the burst has ended. We predict that the resulting excess of gas-phase CO can be observed with single-dish or interferometer fa...

  7. FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF EPISODIC ACCRETION CHEMISTRY EXPLORED WITH SINGLE-POINT MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ruud; Bergin, Edwin A., E-mail: visserr@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We explore a set of single-point chemical models to study the fundamental chemical aspects of episodic accretion in low-mass embedded protostars. Our goal is twofold: (1) to understand how the repeated heating and cooling of the envelope affects the abundances of CO and related species; and (2) to identify chemical tracers that can be used as a novel probe of the timescales and other physical aspects of episodic accretion. We develop a set of single-point models that serve as a general prescription for how the chemical composition of a protostellar envelope is altered by episodic accretion. The main effect of each accretion burst is to drive CO ice off the grains in part of the envelope. The duration of the subsequent quiescent stage (before the next burst hits) is similar to or shorter than the freeze-out timescale of CO, allowing the chemical effects of a burst to linger long after the burst has ended. We predict that the resulting excess of gas-phase CO can be observed with single-dish or interferometer facilities as evidence of an accretion burst in the past 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} yr.

  8. Brain Events Underlying Episodic Memory Changes in Aging: A Longitudinal Investigation of Structural and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Sneve, Markus H; Storsve, Andreas B; Grydeland, Håkon; Yendiki, Anastasia; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-03-01

    Episodic memories are established and maintained by close interplay between hippocampus and other cortical regions, but degradation of a fronto-striatal network has been suggested to be a driving force of memory decline in aging. We wanted to directly address how changes in hippocampal-cortical versus striatal-cortical networks over time impact episodic memory with age. We followed 119 healthy participants (20-83 years) for 3.5 years with repeated tests of episodic verbal memory and magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of functional and structural connectivity and regional brain atrophy. While hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity predicted memory change in young, changes in cortico-striatal functional connectivity were related to change in recall in older adults. Within each age group, effects of functional and structural connectivity were anatomically closely aligned. Interestingly, the relationship between functional connectivity and memory was strongest in the age ranges where the rate of reduction of the relevant brain structure was lowest, implying selective impacts of the different brain events on memory. Together, these findings suggest a partly sequential and partly simultaneous model of brain events underlying cognitive changes in aging, where different functional and structural events are more or less important in various time windows, dismissing a simple uni-factorial view on neurocognitive aging.

  9. The evolution of periodic seismicity, waveform similarity, and conduit processes during unrest episodes at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew; Hernandez, Stephen; Gaunt, Elizabeth; Mothes, Patricia; Hidalgo, Silvana; Ruiz, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Tungurahua is a large andesitic stratovolcano located in the Andes of Ecuador. The current eruptive phase at Tungurahua began in 1999, and has been characterised by episodes of vulcanian and strombolian activity, interspersed by periods of relative quiescence. Despite showing only modest eruptive activity in 2015, seismic data revealed a pronounced change in the behaviour of the magma-conduit system compared to the preceding 15 years of activity. The change is most notable in the periodicity of interevent-times of volcanic earthquakes. Previous seismicity at Tungurahua is characterised by interevent-time periodicities typical of a Poisson process, or modestly clustered, with slightly elevated (anti-clustered) periodicities observed only rarely during vulcanian episodes. However, activity in 2015 saw a series of unrest episodes characterised by highly-periodic interevent-times, and including several notable episodes of 'drumbeat' earthquakes. Here we report seismic and associated geophysical signals recorded at Tungurahua in 2015 by the monitoring network of the Instituto Geofisico of Ecuador, their relation to conduit processes, and implications for the origins of unrest and likely future activity. Although the nature of the low-frequency seismic signals change both within and between unrest episodes, the underlying periodicity is more consistent and gradually evolving. Waveform similarity is high within phases, resulting from the repeated activation of persistent sources, but low between different episodes, suggesting the emergence of new sources and locations. The strength of periodicity is correlated with the average waveform similarity for all unrest episodes, with the relatively low waveform similarities observed for the highly periodic drumbeat earthquakes in April due to contamination from coexisting continuous tremor. Eruptive activity consisted of a few minor explosions and ash emission events. Notably, a short-lived episode of Strombolian activity in

  10. Testing episodic memory in animals: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, D P; Clayton, N S

    2001-08-01

    Episodic memory involves the encoding and storage of memories concerned with unique personal experiences and their subsequent recall, and it has long been the subject of intensive investigation in humans. According to Tulving's classical definition, episodic memory "receives and stores information about temporally dated episodes or events and temporal-spatial relations among these events." Thus, episodic memory provides information about the 'what' and 'when' of events ('temporally dated experiences') and about 'where' they happened ('temporal-spatial relations'). The storage and subsequent recall of this episodic information was thought to be beyond the memory capabilities of nonhuman animals. Although there are many laboratory procedures for investigating memory for discrete past episodes, until recently there were no previous studies that fully satisfied the criteria of Tulving's definition: they can all be explained in much simpler terms than episodic memory. However, current studies of memory for cache sites in food-storing jays provide an ethologically valid model for testing episodic-like memory in animals, thereby bridging the gap between human and animal studies memory. There is now a pressing need to adapt these experimental tests of episodic memory for other animals. Given the potential power of transgenic and knock-out procedures for investigating the genetic and molecular bases of learning and memory in laboratory rodents, not to mention the wealth of knowledge about the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the rodent hippocampus (a brain area heavily implicated in episodic memory), an obvious next step is to develop a rodent model of episodic-like memory based on the food-storing bird paradigm. The development of a rodent model system could make an important contribution to our understanding of the neural, molecular, and behavioral mechanisms of mammalian episodic memory.

  11. Characterization of aerosol particle episodes in Finland caused by wildfires in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Niemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the sources, compositions and size distributions of aerosol particles during long-range transport (LRT PM2.5 episodes which occurred on 12–15 August, 26–28 August and 5–6 September 2002 in Finland. Backward air mass trajectories, satellite detections of fire areas and dispersion modelling results indicate that emissions from wildfires in Russia and other Eastern European countries arrived in Finland during these episodes. Elemental analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyses (EDX showed that the proportions of S-rich particles and agglomerates (agglomeration was caused partly by the sampling method used increased during the episodes, and they contained elevated fractions of K, indicating emissions from biomass burning. These aerosols were mixed with S-rich emissions from fossil fuel burning during transport since air masses came through polluted areas of Europe. Minor amounts of coarse Ca-rich particles were also brought by LRT during the episodes, and they probably originated from wildfires and/or from Estonian and Russian oil-shale-burning industrial areas. Ion chromatography analysis showed that concentrations of sulphate (SO42-, total nitrate (NO3-+HNO3(g and total ammonium (NH4++NH3(g increased during the episodes, but the ratio of the total amount of these ions to PM10 concentration decreased, indicating unusually high fractions of other chemical components. Particle number size distribution measurements with differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS revealed that concentrations of particles 90–500 nm increased during the episodes, while concentrations of particles smaller than 90 nm decreased. The reduction of the smallest particles was caused by suppressed new particle formation due to vapour and molecular cluster uptake of LRT particles. Our results show that emissions from wildfires in Russian and other Eastern European countries deteriorated air quality of

  12. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  13. Altered Effective Connectivity of Hippocampus-Dependent Episodic Memory Network in mTBI Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are generally recognized to affect episodic memory. However, less is known regarding how external force altered the way functionally connected brain structures of the episodic memory system interact. To address this issue, we adopted an effective connectivity based analysis, namely, multivariate Granger causality approach, to explore causal interactions within the brain network of interest. Results presented that TBI induced increased bilateral and decreased ipsilateral effective connectivity in the episodic memory network in comparison with that of normal controls. Moreover, the left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG, the concept forming hub), left hippocampus (the personal experience binding hub), and left parahippocampal gyrus (the contextual association hub) were no longer network hubs in TBI survivors, who compensated for hippocampal deficits by relying more on the right hippocampus (underlying perceptual memory) and the right medial frontal gyrus (MeFG) in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC). We postulated that the overrecruitment of the right anterior PFC caused dysfunction of the strategic component of episodic memory, which caused deteriorating episodic memory in mTBI survivors. Our findings also suggested that the pattern of brain network changes in TBI survivors presented similar functional consequences to normal aging. PMID:28074162

  14. Altered Effective Connectivity of Hippocampus-Dependent Episodic Memory Network in mTBI Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs are generally recognized to affect episodic memory. However, less is known regarding how external force altered the way functionally connected brain structures of the episodic memory system interact. To address this issue, we adopted an effective connectivity based analysis, namely, multivariate Granger causality approach, to explore causal interactions within the brain network of interest. Results presented that TBI induced increased bilateral and decreased ipsilateral effective connectivity in the episodic memory network in comparison with that of normal controls. Moreover, the left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG, the concept forming hub, left hippocampus (the personal experience binding hub, and left parahippocampal gyrus (the contextual association hub were no longer network hubs in TBI survivors, who compensated for hippocampal deficits by relying more on the right hippocampus (underlying perceptual memory and the right medial frontal gyrus (MeFG in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC. We postulated that the overrecruitment of the right anterior PFC caused dysfunction of the strategic component of episodic memory, which caused deteriorating episodic memory in mTBI survivors. Our findings also suggested that the pattern of brain network changes in TBI survivors presented similar functional consequences to normal aging.

  15. Visual Hallucinations in First-Episode Psychosis: Association with Childhood Trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Solesvik

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a core diagnostic criterion for psychotic disorders and have been investigated with regard to its association with childhood trauma in first-episode psychosis samples. Research has largely focused on auditory hallucinations, while specific investigations of visual hallucinations in first-episode psychosis remain scarce.The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of visual hallucinations, and to explore the association between visual hallucination and childhood trauma in a first-episode psychosis sample.Subjects were included from TIPS-2, a first episode psychosis study in south Rogaland, Norway. Based on the medical journal descriptions of the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, a separate score for visual and auditory hallucinations was created (N = 204. Patients were grouped according to hallucination severity (none, mild, and psychotic hallucinations and multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with visual hallucination group.Visual hallucinations of a psychotic nature were reported by 26.5% of patients. The experience of childhood interpersonal trauma increased the likelihood of having psychotic visual hallucinations.Visual hallucinations are common in first-episode psychosis, and are related to childhood interpersonal trauma.

  16. Episodic Heavy Drinking and 20-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Analyses of moderate drinking have focused overwhelmingly on average consumption, which masks diverse underlying drinking patterns. This study examined the association between episodic heavy drinking and total mortality among moderate-drinking older adults. Methods At baseline, the sample was comprised of 446 adults aged 55 to 65: 74 moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking and 372 regular moderate drinkers. The database at baseline also included a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Death across a 20-year follow-up period was confirmed primarily by death certificate. Results In multiple logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for all covariates, as well as overall alcohol consumption, moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking had more than two times higher odds of 20-year mortality in comparison to regular moderate drinkers. Conclusions Among older moderate drinkers, those who engage in episodic heavy drinking show significantly increased total mortality risk compared to regular moderate drinkers. Episodic heavy drinking—even when average consumption remains moderate—is a significant public health concern. PMID:24588326

  17. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  18. Sex differences in episodic memory: minimal influence of estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E; Eriksson, Elias; Nilsson, Lars Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2003-07-01

    Sex differences exist for several cognitive tasks and estrogen has been suggested to influence these differences. Eighteen men and 18 women were matched on age and estradiol level. Potential sex differences were assessed in episodic memory, semantic memory, verbal fluency, problem solving, and visuospatial ability. Significant sex differences, favoring women, were found for tasks assessing episodic memory. Correlations between estradiol level and cognitive performance were significant for face recognition in females. Since sex differences remained in verbal episodic memory tasks and face recognition despite matched levels of estradiol, circulating estradiol does not appear to be of paramount consequence for observed sex differences in episodic memory.

  19. Estrogens, episodic memory, and Alzheimer's disease: a critical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Victor W

    2009-05-01

    Estrogen-containing hormone therapy initiated during late postmenopause does not improve episodic memory (an important early symptom of Alzheimer's disease), and it increases dementia risk. Cognitive consequences of exogenous estrogen exposures during midlife are less certain. Observational evidence implies that use of hormone therapy at a younger age close to the time of menopause may reduce risk of Alzheimer's disease later in life. However, there are concerns that observational findings may be systematically biased. Partial insight on this critical issue may be gleaned from results of ongoing clinical trials involving midlife postmenopausal women (Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estrogen; Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study). The effects of exogenous midlife estrogen exposures and Alzheimer risk can also be approached through better animal models, through carefully designed cohort studies, and through use of surrogate outcomes in randomized controlled trials in midlife women. Selective estrogen receptor modulators have the potential to affect cognitive outcomes and also merit additional study.

  20. Episodical CO2 emission during shoulder seasons in the arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Thomas; Elberling, Bo; Hansen, Birger

    Carbon cycling and trace gas emissions from high latitude ecosystems has over the last decade received increasing attention due to the dramatic climate change experienced and predicted by GCM scenarios for the region, and the effect that such changes may have on the carbon stored in the arctic...... of CO2 during spring. The other example, from a study during late autumn and winter from high arctic Svalbard we found that episodical emissions of CO2 accounted for a significant part of the total CO2 emission form the site. The emission pattern could be associated with temperature variations...... at the site and show high emission rates the freeze-in periods, whereas shorter periods with temperatures above freezing point resulted in lower emission rates. In We interpret this as emission of CO2 is being decoupled from the biological production during the freeze-in period and is primarily linked...

  1. Comparing episodes of antidepressants use with intermittent episodes of no use: A higher relative risk of suicide attempts but not of suicide at young age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termorshuizen, Fabian; Smeets, Hugo M; Boks, Marco Pm; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2016-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has issued a number of advisories regarding a possible causal link between antidepressants and suicide behaviour among young persons. We investigated the age dependency of (fatal) suicide attempts associated with antidepressants (N=232,561). By linking insurance claims with the death register of Statistics Netherlands (2002-2011), rates of (fatal) suicide attempts were estimated during antidepressant use and intermittent episodes without use. The age dependency of the relative risk of attempts and of suicide during episodes with compared with episodes without antidepressants was investigated by testing the {age × episode} interaction.The attempt rate during antidepressant use decreased with increasing age, concurrently with a decrease of the relative risk from 3.62 to 1.86 (p for interaction 5 years). No suicides were found among those aged 0.46). The association between antidepressants and suicide attempts at a young age does not necessarily point to a causal relationship, and, most importantly, did not translate to a similar age dependency for suicide.

  2. An unusual case of homicide by use of repeated administration of organophosphate insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Letter, E A; Cordonnier, J A C M; Piette, M H A

    2002-03-01

    We present an unusual murder case by use of repeated administration of organophosphate insecticides. A 49-year-old woman suffering from mental retardation, epileptic fits and acromegaly was poisoned by her husband. At first, her death was considered as a 'sudden and unexpected' natural death. Abdominal abscesses of pancreatic origin found at autopsy were compatible with repeated administration of pesticides with anticholinergic action. In her medical history at least one episode consistent with an organophosphate intoxication was retrieved. Thorough inquiry revealed that the victim had ingested phosphamidon and/or omethoate orally. Organophosphate intoxication should be considered when unexplained neurological symptoms are associated with pancreatic disturbances.

  3. The association between diabetes and an episode of depressive symptoms in the 2002 World Health Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Herr, R; Pouwer, F

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Depression is common in people with diabetes and increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including premature mortality. We explored the association between diabetes and an episode of depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional multinational study, which included a large number of low......- and middle-income non-Western countries. METHODS: Data from 47 countries of the 2002 World Health Organization World Health Survey were used, including 231,797 adults (mean age 41 years, 53% female). Diabetes was assessed by self-report of diagnosis or treatment. The presence of an episode of depressive...... symptoms was assessed by self-report using an algorithm based on DSM-IV criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to quantify associations between diabetes and episodes of depressive symptoms in the entire sample and for countries aggregated into four continents: Africa, South...

  4. Daylight savings time transitions and the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Sønderskov, Kim M; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate...... of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. METHODS......: Using time series intervention analysis of nationwide data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012 we compared the observed trend in the incidence rate of hospital contacts for unipolar depressive episodes after the transitions to and from summer time to the predicted...

  5. Extreme thermal episodes analyzed with MODIS products during the boreal winter (2000-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gomis-Cebolla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the XXI century is characterized by the intensification of the existing global warming situation and for a series of drastic global meteorological events. Particularly, during the winter season a series of extreme temperature episodes affecting large areas of the northern hemisphere have been produced. In this paper, these episodes are studied by analyzing the thermal anomalies spatial distribution and temporal evolution in the period 2001-2016 from Land Surface Temperature (LST products obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. The study regions considered in this investigation are eight of the northern hemisphere. The results obtained for the heating and cooling episodes do not reveal an important discrepancy, however, an increase in the area affected by heating versus cooling is observed.

  6. Episodic acidification of small streams in the northeastern united states: episodic response project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigington, P.J.; Baker, J.P.; DeWalle, David R.; Kretser, W.A.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Simonin, H.A.; Van Sickle, J.; Mcdowell, M.K.; Peck, D.V.; Barchet, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Episodic Response Project (ERP) was an interdisciplinary study designed to address uncertainties about the occurrence, nature, and biological effects of episodic acidification of streams in the northeastern United States. The ERP research consisted of intensive studies of the chemistry and biological effects of episodes in 13 streams draining forested watersheds in the three study regions: the Northern Appalachian region of Pennsylvania and the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Wet deposition was measured in each of the three study regions. Using automated instruments and samplers, discharge and chemistry of each stream was monitored intensively from fall 1988 through spring 1990. Biological studies focused on brook trout and native forage fish. Experimental approaches included in situ bioassays, radio transmitter studies of fish movement, and fish population studies. This paper provides an overview of the ERP, describes the methodology used in hydrologic and water chemistry components of the study, and summarizes the characteristics of the study sites, including the climatic and deposition conditions during the ERP and the general chemical characteristics of the study streams.

  7. CTG trinucleotide repeat "big jumps": large expansions, small mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions are the genetic cause of numerous human diseases, including fragile X mental retardation, Huntington disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Disease severity and age of onset are critically linked to expansion size. Previous mouse models of repeat instability have not recreated large intergenerational expansions ("big jumps", observed when the repeat is transmitted from one generation to the next, and have never attained the very large tract lengths possible in humans. Here, we describe dramatic intergenerational CTG*CAG repeat expansions of several hundred repeats in a transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1, resulting in increasingly severe phenotypic and molecular abnormalities. Homozygous mice carrying over 700 trinucleotide repeats on both alleles display severely reduced body size and splicing abnormalities, notably in the central nervous system. Our findings demonstrate that large intergenerational trinucleotide repeat expansions can be recreated in mice, and endorse the use of transgenic mouse models to refine our understanding of triplet repeat expansion and the resulting pathogenesis.

  8. Are primary care factors associated with hospital episodes for adverse drug reactions? A national observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ailsa J; Newson, Roger B; Soljak, Michael; Riboli, Elio; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem

    2015-12-29

    Identification of primary care factors associated with hospital admissions for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Cross-sectional analysis of 2010-2012 data from all National Health Service hospitals and 7664 of 8358 general practices in England. We identified all hospital episodes with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 code indicative of an ADR, in the 2010-2012 English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) admissions database. These episodes were linked to contemporary data describing the associated general practice, including general practitioner (GP) and patient demographics, an estimate of overall patient population morbidity, measures of primary care supply, and Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) quality scores. Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between primary care factors and ADR-related episode rates. 212,813 ADR-related HES episodes were identified. Rates of episodes were relatively high among the very young, older and female subgroups. In fully adjusted models, the following primary care factors were associated with increased likelihood of episode: higher deprivation scores (population attributable fraction (PAF)=0.084, 95% CI 0.067 to 0.100) and relatively poor glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) control among patients with diabetes (PAF=0.372; 0.218 to 0.496). The following were associated with reduced episode likelihood: lower GP supply (PAF=-0.016; -0.026 to -0.005), a lower proportion of GPs with UK qualifications (PAF=-0.035; -0.058 to -0.012), lower total QOF achievement rates (PAF=-0.021; -0.042 to 0.000) and relatively poor blood pressure control among patients with diabetes (PAF=-0.144; -0.280 to -0.022). Various aspects of primary care are associated with ADR-related hospital episodes, including achievement of particular QOF indicators. Further investigation with individual level data would help develop understanding of the associations identified. Interventions in primary care could help reduce the ADR burden

  9. Binding among Select Episodic Elements Is Altered via Active Short-Term Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Donna J.; Voss, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many elements that comprise an episode, are any disproportionately bound to the others? We tested whether active short-term retrieval selectively increases binding. Individual objects from multiobject displays were retrieved after brief delays. Memory was later tested for the other objects. Cueing with actively retrieved objects facilitated…

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy across the Stages of Psychosis: Prodromal, First Episode, and Chronic Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmaggia, Lucia R.; Tabraham, Paul; Morris, Eric; Bouman, Theo K.

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment for psychotic disorders. This paper describes the CBT of three cases, each at a different stage of psychotic disorder: at-risk mental state, first-episode psychosis, and chronic psychotic disorder. For the at-risk mental state, treatment…

  11. Ambient temperature during torpor affects NREM sleep EEG during arousal episodes in hibernating European ground squirrels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Ambient temperature (T-a) systematically affects the frequency of arousal episodes in mammalian hibernation. This variation might hypothetically be attributed to temperature effects on the rate of sleep debt increase in torpor. We studied this rate by recording sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in

  12. Mistakes as Stepping Stones: Effects of Errors on Episodic Memory among Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Anderson, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    The memorial costs and benefits of trial-and-error learning have clear pedagogical implications for students, and increasing evidence shows that generating errors during episodic learning can improve memory among younger adults. Conversely, the aging literature has found that errors impair memory among healthy older adults and has advocated for…

  13. Criminal offending and distinguishing features of offenders among persons experiencing a first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2011-02-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of criminal offending, particularly violent offending, as compared with the general population. Most offenders with SMI acquire convictions prior to contact with mental health services. This study examined offending among 301 individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis.

  14. Dimensions and Latent Classes of Episodic Mania-Like Symptoms in Youth: An Empirical Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringaris, Argyris; Stahl, Daniel; Santosh, Paramala; Goodman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic increase in diagnostic rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in the USA has led to an intense interest in the phenomenology of the disorder. Here we present data from a newly-developed instrument to assess episodic mania-like symptoms in youth in a large population-based sample (N = 5326) using parent- and self-report.…

  15. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppin Anja

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems

  16. Organizational risk management of resistance to care episodes in health facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Ashley; Guest, Maya; McLeod, Mary

    2012-09-01

    This article reports a study of organizational risk management approaches to resistance to care episodes in specific clinical areas: prevention measures, provision of subsequent support and follow-up by management and resultant organizational change. Resistance to care describes a patient's unwillingness to be assisted by healthcare staff and is manifested in defensive behaviours ranging from minor non-compliance/dissent to aggression. It has previously been studied in aged care settings and focused on patient behaviours and appropriate responses. This was a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of nurses (n = 5044) who were members of the New South Wales Nurses' Association in Australia, in 2008-2009. Of 1132 participants, 80% reported being involved in resistance to care episodes during the previous month and this was higher in some settings. Episodes were not routinely reported internally, and often did not lead to organizational change. Nurses reported that talking with other staff was the most effective action in dealing with the consequences of these episodes. Half of the respondents considered that they were provided with sufficient support and follow-up after a resistance to care episode. Prevention measures and follow-up strategies adopted by employers varied across clinical settings. Resistance to care is not confined to aged care settings, and risk management of resistance to care can increase safety in the workplace. Preventive strategies such as increased staff, training and security should be focused on high risk clinical areas; and appropriate support, follow-up and organizational change instituted in response to these episodes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. StaRProtein, A Web Server for Prediction of the Stability of Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongtao; Zhou, Xu; Huang, Meilan

    2015-01-01

    Repeat proteins have become increasingly important due to their capability to bind to almost any proteins and the potential as alternative therapy to monoclonal antibodies. In the past decade repeat proteins have been designed to mediate specific protein-protein interactions. The tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins are two classes of helical repeat proteins that form different binding pockets to accommodate various partners. It is important to understand the factors that define folding and stability of repeat proteins in order to prioritize the most stable designed repeat proteins to further explore their potential binding affinities. Here we developed distance-dependant statistical potentials using two classes of alpha-helical repeat proteins, tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins respectively, and evaluated their efficiency in predicting the stability of repeat proteins. We demonstrated that the repeat-specific statistical potentials based on these two classes of repeat proteins showed paramount accuracy compared with non-specific statistical potentials in: 1) discriminate correct vs. incorrect models 2) rank the stability of designed repeat proteins. In particular, the statistical scores correlate closely with the equilibrium unfolding free energies of repeat proteins and therefore would serve as a novel tool in quickly prioritizing the designed repeat proteins with high stability. StaRProtein web server was developed for predicting the stability of repeat proteins. PMID:25807112

  18. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  19. What's new@CERN, episode 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video productions

    2011-01-01

    On Monday 7 November at 4pm in English and 4.20pm in French, watch "What's new@CERN" on webcast.cern.ch. In this second episode: LHC performance, a journey to the particle source and this past month's news.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-posterframe-640x360-at-30-percent.jpg', '1394250', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4');

  20. Time and Space in Manic Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa Figueira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporality and Spatiality have been extensively addressed in philosophy, and their disturbances have been extensivelystudied in psychopathology (e.g. Wyllie 2005. Mental health patients: (1 describe pathological experiences of Timeand Space (Gallagher and Varela 2003; (2 show disturbed timing (Tysk 1984; (3 experience psychopathologicalphenomena that could be the cause of changes in temporality and spatiality. These topics will be discussed in the case ofmood disorders, in particular euphoric and dysphoric mania episodes. Any phenomenological study in mood disordersis delicate as affective disorders are in themselves phenomenologically diverse, because they have obscure meaning,multitude of criteria and inconsistent reference norms. Also, psychoanalytical, colloquial and cognitive psychologieskeep instilling comprehensive and epistemological structures onto both mood and time/space notions. Nevertheless,bridging philosophical phenomenology and epistemology on time and temporality with mood psychopathology andtaxonomy constitutes an on-going project. Theories by Heidegger, Husserl and Merleau-Ponty as well as by Minkowsky,Binswanger, Fuchs, Parnas, and Sass could help to describe this relation deepened into many other Twentieth-Centuryphilosophical papers. A similar account of space and spatiality will be brought about. We will reason about the conceptthat they provide evidence to address current conceptualization of “bipolar” disorder and the hierarchical grouping ofdysphoric and euphoria mania.

  1. Trigeminal neuralgia: unilateral episodic facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2015-06-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare cause of episodic unilateral facial pain and often in the initial presentation dental causes need to be eliminated, as it frequently presents in the lower trigeminal divisions. The pain description is characteristic of electric shock-like pain that is light-touch provoked, paroxysmal, and occurring daily; the condition can go into remission for weeks or months, however. The first-line drug is either carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine and has to be started in low doses. Over 70% of patients will initially obtain immediate relief. If efficacy or tolerability becomes a problem, then referral to a secondary care specialist should be made. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can determine if there is a symptomatic cause and whether surgery is indicated. Surgical options provide longest pain relief periods. Patients need to be given information about all treatment options so they can make a decision about treatment. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, © Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the Web site: www.paineurope.com , at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources.

  2. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  3. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  4. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Riggins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n = 40. Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4 regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability.

  5. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137... of an air pollution emergency within the Indian reservation due to the effects of these air... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.137 Rule for air pollution episodes. (a) What is...

  6. Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

  7. Using Story Grammar To Teach Literature: Episodic Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Ronald; Dickey, JoAnna Paterno

    To help students achieve a better understanding of narrative prose, yet still keep the benefits of semantic mapping, the traditional form of the semantic map is modified by incorporating the elements of story structure as part of the map. This format is called episodic mapping. Episodic mapping is based on the idea that most well-developed stories…

  8. Episodic Mapping: A Technique To Help Students Understand Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Ronald; Henson, Kenneth

    Semantic mapping is effective with expository prose but not as effective with narrative prose. To achieve a better understanding of narrative prose, yet still keep the benefits of semantic mapping, the traditional approach can be modified into a technique called "episodic mapping." Episodic mapping is based on the idea that most stories…

  9. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, MPM; Liddle, PF; Burgerhof, JGM; Knegtering, R; Bosch, RJ

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders. Method: We assessed NSS in a sample of 60 healthy controls, 191 first episode psychosis patients and 81 mood disorder patients. We used a principle component analy

  10. SCN2A mutation associated with neonatal epilepsy, late-onset episodic ataxia, myoclonus, and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y; Anttonen, A-K; Liukkonen, E; Gaily, E; Maljevic, S; Schubert, S; Bellan-Koch, A; Petrou, S; Ahonen, V E; Lerche, H; Lehesjoki, A-E

    2010-10-19

    Inherited and de novo mutations in sodium channel genes underlie a variety of channelopathies. Mutations in SCN2A, encoding the brain sodium channel Na(V)1.2, have previously been reported to be associated with benign familial neonatal infantile seizures, febrile seizures plus, and intractable epilepsy of infancy. We evaluated the clinical characteristics in a patient with a neonatal-onset complex episodic neurologic phenotype. We screened SCN2A for mutations and carried out in vitro electrophysiologic analyses to study the consequences of the identified mutation. We studied the developmental expression of Na(V)1.2 in cerebellum by immunohistochemical analysis. The patient presented with neonatal-onset seizures and variable episodes of ataxia, myoclonia, headache, and back pain after 18 months of age. The patient carries a de novo missense mutation (p.Ala263Val) in SCN2A, which leads to a pronounced gain-of-function, in particular an increased persistent Na(+) current. Immunohistochemical studies suggest a developmentally increasing expression of Na(V)1.2 in granule cell axons projecting to Purkinje neurons. These results can explain a neuronal hyperexcitability resulting in seizures and other episodic symptoms extending the spectrum of SCN2A-associated phenotypes. The developmentally increasing expression of Na(V)1.2 in cerebellum may be responsible for the later onset of episodic ataxia.

  11. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (psprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Key features of human episodic recollection in the cross-episode retrieval of rat hippocampus representations of space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Kelemen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological studies focus on memory retrieval as a reproduction of what was experienced and have established that neural discharge is replayed to express memory. However, cognitive psychology has established that recollection is not a verbatim replay of stored information. Recollection is constructive, the product of memory retrieval cues, the information stored in memory, and the subject's state of mind. We discovered key features of constructive recollection embedded in the rat CA1 ensemble discharge during an active avoidance task. Rats learned two task variants, one with the arena stable, the other with it rotating; each variant defined a distinct behavioral episode. During the rotating episode, the ensemble discharge of CA1 principal neurons was dynamically organized to concurrently represent space in two distinct codes. The code for spatial reference frame switched rapidly between representing the rat's current location in either the stationary spatial frame of the room or the rotating frame of the arena. The code for task variant switched less frequently between a representation of the current rotating episode and the stable episode from the rat's past. The characteristics and interplay of these two hippocampal codes revealed three key properties of constructive recollection. (1 Although the ensemble representations of the stable and rotating episodes were distinct, ensemble discharge during rotation occasionally resembled the stable condition, demonstrating cross-episode retrieval of the representation of the remote, stable episode. (2 This cross-episode retrieval at the level of the code for task variant was more likely when the rotating arena was about to match its orientation in the stable episode. (3 The likelihood of cross-episode retrieval was influenced by preretrieval information that was signaled at the level of the code for spatial reference frame. Thus key features of episodic recollection manifest in rat hippocampal

  13. EEG Suppression Associated with Apneic Episodes in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evonne Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the EEG findings from an ex-preterm neonate at term equivalent age who presented with intermittent but prolonged apneic episodes which were presumed to be seizures. A total of 8 apneic episodes were captured (duration 23–376 seconds during EEG monitoring. The baseline EEG activity was appropriate for corrected gestational age and no electrographic seizure activity was recorded. The average baseline heart rate was 168 beats per minute (bpm and the baseline oxygen saturation level was in the mid-nineties. Periods of complete EEG suppression lasting 68 and 179 seconds, respectively, were recorded during 2 of these 8 apneic episodes. Both episodes were accompanied by bradycardia less than 70 bpm and oxygen saturation levels of less than 20%. Short but severe episodes of apnea can cause complete EEG suppression in the neonate.

  14. Intermittent inhaled corticosteroids in infants with episodic wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Loland, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    secondary outcomes were the time to discontinuation due to persistent wheezing and safety, as evaluated by height and bone mineral density at the end of the study. RESULTS: We enrolled 411 infants and randomly assigned 294 to receive budesonide at a first episode of wheezing. The proportion of symptom...... not affected by treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent inhaled corticosteroid therapy had no effect on the progression from episodic to persistent wheezing and no short-term benefit during episodes of wheezing in the first three years of life. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00234390.).......BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that asthma is preceded by a stage of recurrent episodes of wheezing during the first years of life and that inhaled corticosteroid therapy during symptomatic episodes in this early phase may delay progression to persistent wheezing. METHODS: We assigned one...

  15. The dynamic regulation of cortical excitability is altered in episodic ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Rick C; Siebner, Hartwig R; Giffin, Nicola; Bestmann, Sven; Rothwell, John C; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2010-12-01

    Episodic ataxia type 2 and familial hemiplegic migraine are two rare hereditary disorders that are linked to dysfunctional ion channels and are characterized clinically by paroxysmal neurological symptoms. Impaired regulation of cerebral excitability is thought to play a role in the occurrence of these paroxysms, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Normal ion channels are crucial for coordinating neuronal firing in response to facilitatory input. Thus, we hypothesized that channel dysfunction in episodic ataxia type 2 and familial hemiplegic migraine may impair the ability to adjust cerebral excitability after facilitatory events. We tested this hypothesis in patients with episodic ataxia type 2 (n = 6), patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (n = 7) and healthy controls (n = 13). All subjects received a high-frequency burst (10 pulses at 20 Hz) of transcranial magnetic stimulation to transiently increase the excitability of the motor cortex. Acute burst-induced excitability changes were probed at 50, 250, 500 and 1000 ms after the end of the burst. This was done using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess corticospinal excitability, and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation at an interstimulus interval of 2 and 10 ms to assess intracortical inhibition and facilitation, respectively. The time course of burst-induced excitability changes differed between groups. Healthy controls showed a short-lived increase in excitability that was only present 50 ms after the burst. In contrast, patients with episodic ataxia type 2 showed an abnormally prolonged increase in corticospinal excitability that was still present 250 ms after the transcranial magnetic stimulation burst. Furthermore, while controls showed a decrease in intracortical facilitation during the 1 s period following the transcranial magnetic stimulation burst, patients with episodic ataxia type 2 had increased intracortical facilitation 1000 ms after the burst

  16. Emotions, self-esteem, and paranoid episodes: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewissen, Viviane; Bentall, Richard P; Oorschot, Margreet; A Campo, Joost; van Lierop, Thom; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2011-06-01

    OBJECTIVES. The evidence to date for a causal role of emotions in the generation of paranoid symptoms is scarce, mainly because of a lack of studies investigating the longitudinal association between emotional processes and paranoia. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether momentary emotional experiences (anxiety, depression, anger/irritability) and self-esteem predicted the onset and duration of a paranoid episode. We also studied whether levels of emotional experiences and self-esteem were respectively higher and lower during a paranoid episode. DESIGN. A 1-week, prospective momentary assessment study. METHODS. Data were collected using the experience sampling method, a structured self-assessment diary technique. The sample consisted of 158 individuals who ranged across the paranoia continuum. Participants with a psychotic disorder were recruited from in-patient and out-patient mental health services. Participants without psychotic disorder were sampled from the general population. RESULTS. Specific aspects of emotional experience were implicated in the onset and persistence of paranoid episodes. Both an increase in anxiety and a decrease in self-esteem predicted the onset of paranoid episodes. Cross-sectionally, paranoid episodes were associated with high levels of all negative emotions and low level of self-esteem. Initial intensity of paranoia and depression was associated with longer, and anger/irritability with shorter duration of paranoid episodes. CONCLUSIONS. Paranoid delusionality is driven by negative emotions and reductions in self-esteem, rather than serving an immediate defensive function against these emotions and low self-esteem. Clinicians need to be aware of the central role of emotion-related processes and especially self-esteem in paranoid thinking.

  17. Acute rejection episodes after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamida Fethi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute rejection episodes (AREs are a major determinant of renal allograft survival. The incorporation of new immunosuppressive agents explains, at least partially, the improvement seen in the results of transplantation in recent years. The objectives of this study are to analyze the incidence and severity of AREs, their risk factors and their influence on graft and patient survival. We retrospectively studied 280 kidney transplants performed in adults at the Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, between 1986 and 2004. The diagnosis of ARE was based on clinical data and response to treatment. Allograft biopsies were performed in ten cases. The treatment of AREs consisted of pulse methylprednisolone and anti-thymocyte globulin. There were 186 males (66.4% and 94 females (33.6%, and their mean age was 31 ± 8.9 years. Overall, the 280 study patients experienced a total of 113 AREs. Of them, 85 had only one ARE, 28 had two to three and none had more than three AREs. A total of 68 AREs were completely re-versible, 42 were partially reversible while three could not be reversed with treatment. The mean inci-dence of AREs was 40.4%. The incidence was > 45% between 1986 and 1997, decreased to 20.5% between 1998 and 2000 and to 9% between 2001 and 2004. Graft survival rates in patients with and without AREs were respectively 91% and 93% at three years, 82% and 90% at five years and 73% and 83% at 10 years. We found a decrease in the incidence of AREs in recent years in our study patients, and this was related to the introduction of sensitized cross-match and the newer immunosuppressive agents, particularly MMF. Additionally, AREs had a deleterious impact on late graft survival in our study population.

  18. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  19. Clinical Reasoning: a girl presenting with stiffness episodes during sleep, cafe-au-lait spots, and flecked retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moavero, Romina; Cusmai, Raffaella; Roberti, Maria Cristina; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-29

    A 4-year-old girl who had been born of normal pregnancy and delivery and had an unremarkable family or personal history was referred to a neuropsychiatric department because of the appearance of peculiar nocturnal episodes. Parents described that their child abruptly became stiff during sleep. These episodes usually ranged from 20 to 40 seconds, and after that the child continued to sleep. Initially she presented 1 episode per week, but there was a progressive increase in frequency up to 3 to 4 times per night. The child never presented similar episodes while awake. Her examination revealed some café-au-lait spots, congenital microcephaly (3rd centile) and low stature for the age (10th centile). She did not present any neurologic deficit, but she failed to develop an age-appropriate speech, with a delay in the main language milestones.

  20. Depressive episodes with suicide attempts in severe depression: suicides and controls differ only in the later episodes of unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of suicide attempts across the depressive episodes in suicides and controls with a severe depression. A blind record evaluation was performed of 100 suicide victims and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2006. There was a similar number of episodes in suicides and controls and in the early episodes a similar number of suicide attempts in both groups. However, in the later episodes future suicides showed more suicide attempts as compared to controls. This was found for unipolar depression only. This difference was found despite previously shown similar rates of adequate treatment and improvement. In conclusion, more depressive episodes including suicide attempts appeared to be related to suicide.

  1. Emotional Status, Perceived Control of Pain, and Pain Coping Strategies in Episodic and Chronic Cluster Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Valade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cluster headache (CH is a chronic syndrome characterized by excruciatingly painful attacks occurring with circadian and circannual periodicity. The objectives of the present study were, in CH patients, to determine by principal component analysis the factor structure of two instruments commonly used in clinics to evaluate pain locus of control (Cancer Locus of Control Scale–CLCS and coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire–CSQ, to examine the relationship between internal pain controllability and emotional distress, and to compare psychosocial distress and coping strategies between two subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH. Results indicate, for CLCS, a 3-factor structure (internal controllability, medical controllability, religious controllability noticeably different in CH patients from the structure reported in patients with other painful pathologies and, for CSQ, a 5-factor structure of CSQ which did not markedly diverge from the classical structure. Perceived internal controllability of pain was strongly correlated with study measures of depression (HAD depression/anhedonia subscale, Beck Depression Inventory. Comparison between subsets of patients with episodic or chronic CH of emotional status, pain locus of control, perceived social support and coping strategies did not reveal significant differences apart for the Reinterpreting pain sensations strategy which was more often used by episodic CH patients. Observed tendencies for increased anxiety and perceived social support in patients with episodic CH, and for increased depression and more frequent use of the Ignoring pain sensations strategy in patients with chronic CH, warrant confirmation in larger groups of patients.

  2. Lateralized differences in tympanic membrane temperature, but not induced mood, are related to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ruth E; Barr, Taylor D; Brunyé, Tad T

    2015-03-01

    The present research examined the effects of pre-encoding and pre-recall induced mood on episodic memory. It was hypothesized that happy and/or angry mood prior to encoding (increasing left hemisphere activity), in tandem with fearful mood prior to recall (increasing right hemisphere activity) would be associated with superior episodic memory. It was also hypothesized that tympanic membrane measures (TMT), indicative of hemispheric activity, would change as a function of induced mood. Although subjectively-experienced mood induction was successful, pre-encoding and pre-recall mood did not alter memory, and only altered TMT in the pre-encoding fear and pre-recall angry mood induction conditions. Interestingly, baseline absolute difference between left and right TMT, a measure of differential hemispheric activity, regardless of the direction of that activity, was significantly positively related to number of total words written, number of correctly recalled words, and corrected recall score. This same TMT measure pre-encoding, regardless of specific mood, was significantly negatively related to false recall. Results are discussed in terms the HERA model of episodic memory, and in the nature of interhemispheric interaction involved in episodic recall.

  3. Evidence for a Sudden Magnetic Field Reconfiguration in Soft Gamma Repeater 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Swank, Jean; Smith, Don A.; Hurley, Kevin; Thompson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of large flux changes in the persistent X-ray flux of soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1900 + 14 during its burst active episode in 1998. Most notably, we find a factor of approx. 700 increase in the nonburst X-ray flux following the August 27 flare, which decayed in time as a power law. Our measurements indicate that the pulse fraction remains constant throughout this decay. This suggests a global flux enhancement as a consequence of the August 27 flare rather than localized heating. While the persistent flux has since recovered to the preoutburst level, the pulse profile has not. The pulse shape changed to a near sinusoidal profile within the tail of the August 27 flare (in gamma-rays), and this effect has persisted for more than 1.5 years (in X-rays). The results presented here suggest that the magnetic field of the neutron star in SGR 1900 + 14 was significantly altered (perhaps globally) during the giant flare of August 27.

  4. Evidence for a Sudden Magnetic Field Reconfiguration in Soft Gamma Repeater 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Swank, Jean; Smith, Don A.; Hurley, Kevin; Thompson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of large flux changes in the persistent X-ray flux of soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1900 + 14 during its burst active episode in 1998. Most notably, we find a factor of approx. 700 increase in the nonburst X-ray flux following the August 27 flare, which decayed in time as a power law. Our measurements indicate that the pulse fraction remains constant throughout this decay. This suggests a global flux enhancement as a consequence of the August 27 flare rather than localized heating. While the persistent flux has since recovered to the preoutburst level, the pulse profile has not. The pulse shape changed to a near sinusoidal profile within the tail of the August 27 flare (in gamma-rays), and this effect has persisted for more than 1.5 years (in X-rays). The results presented here suggest that the magnetic field of the neutron star in SGR 1900 + 14 was significantly altered (perhaps globally) during the giant flare of August 27.

  5. Recent Findings on the Nature of Episodic Tremor and Slip Along the Northern Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; Kao, H.

    2008-12-01

    Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS), as observed along the northern Cascadia margin, has been defined empirically as repeated, transient ground motions at a plate margin, roughly opposite to longer-term interseismic deformation, occurring synchronously with low-frequency, emergent seismic signals. Although the exact causal processes are still a matter of debate, recent improvements in the monitoring of these transient events provide clearer constraints for the location and the migration of both tremor and slip. In areal distribution, the tremors continue to occur in a band overlying the 25 to 55 km depth contours of the nominal subducting plate interface. The previously reported extended depth distribution of tremor is also observed for the most recent tremor episodes, as is the coincidence of peak tremor activity with a band of seismic reflectors that is commonly interpreted to be positioned above the plate interface. In these episodes, tremors migrate along strike of the subduction zone from the southeast to the northwest at speeds ranging from 5 to 13 km/day. Tremor data also show changes in migration speed during the course of a single episode. No systematic migration in depth has yet been resolved. Denser GPS monitoring and the introduction of borehole strainmeters have also led to a better definition of the ETS surface deformations patterns, including those derived from the vertical GPS component. Inversion of the GPS data, constrained by limiting slip to the currently accepted plate interface, results in an area of slip that parallels the strike of the subduction zone, overlapping with but narrower than the band of tremor distribution and displaced slightly seaward. Inversion constrained by a shallower occurrence of slip, on or near the reflector band, results in a broader distribution of slip with reduced magnitudes. This would be more commensurate with the wider distribution of tremor. The current GPS deformation data are unable to tell whether the slip could

  6. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Effects of cortisol on the laterality of the neural correlates of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaj, Hamid A; Massey, Anna E; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2008-10-01

    Alterations in the laterality of cortical activity have been shown in depressive illnesses. One possible pathophysiological mechanism for this is an effect of corticosteroids. We have previously demonstrated that endogenous cortisol concentrations correlate with the asymmetry of cortical activity related to episodic memory in healthy subjects and depressed patients. To further-examine whether this is due to a causal effect of cortisol on the laterality of episodic memory, we studied the effect of exogenous administration of cortisol in healthy subjects. Twenty-three right-handed healthy male volunteers were tested in a double-blind cross-over study. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an episodic memory task following a four-day course of 160mg/day cortisol or placebo. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to identify brain regions involved in the neurocognitive task. Cortisol levels were measured in saliva samples. ERP and LORETA analysis following placebo demonstrated significant left parahippocampal activation associated with successful retrieval. Cortisol led to a decrease in the mean early frontal ERP voltage and an increase in the late right ERP voltage. LORETA suggested this to be due to a significant increased late activation of the right superior frontal gyrus. There was no significant effect of cortisol on episodic memory performance. This study suggests that exogenous cortisol leads to more positive-going waveforms over the right than the left hemisphere, possibly due to increased monitoring of the products of retrieval. The results support the hypothesis of causal effects of cortisol on the laterality of cortical activity occurring during an episodic memory task.

  8. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for episodic slow slip events in oceanic subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Meng, L.

    2016-12-01

    Episodic slow slip events occur widely along oceanic subduction zones at the brittle-ductile transition depths ( 20-50 km). Although efforts have been devoted to unravel their mechanical origins, it remains unclear about the physical controls on the wide range of their recurrence intervals and slip durations. In this study we present a simple mechanical model that attempts to account for the observed temporal evolution of slow slip events. In our model we assume that slow slip events occur in a viscoplastic shear zone (i.e., Bingham material), which has an upper static and a lower dynamic plastic yield strength. We further assume that the hanging wall deformation is approximated as an elastic spring. We envision the shear zone to be initially locked during forward/landward motion but is subsequently unlocked when the elastic and gravity-induced stress exceeds the static yield strength of the shear zone. This leads to backward/trenchward motion damped by viscous shear-zone deformation. As the elastic spring progressively loosens, the hanging wall velocity evolves with time and the viscous shear stress eventually reaches the dynamic yield strength. This is followed by the termination of the trenchward motion when the elastic stress is balanced by the dynamic yield strength of the shear zone and the gravity. In order to account for the zig-saw slip-history pattern of typical repeated slow slip events, we assume that the shear zone progressively strengthens after each slow slip cycle, possibly caused by dilatancy as commonly assumed or by progressive fault healing through solution-transport mechanisms. We quantify our conceptual model by obtaining simple analytical solutions. Our model results suggest that the duration of the landward motion increases with the down-dip length and the static yield strength of the shear zone, but decreases with the ambient loading velocity and the elastic modulus of the hanging wall. The duration of the backward/trenchward motion depends

  9. Examining Factors Associated with Heavy Episodic Drinking Among College Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholly, Kristen; Katz, Alan R; Kehl, Lisa

    2014-04-26

    Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students' heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one's social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students' perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.

  10. Elements of episodic-like memory in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2009-03-01

    Representations of unique events from one's past constitute the content of episodic memories. A number of studies with non-human animals have revealed that animals remember specific episodes from their past (referred to as episodic-like memory). The development of animal models of memory holds enormous potential for gaining insight into the biological bases of human memory. Specifically, given the extensive knowledge of the rodent brain, the development of rodent models of episodic memory would open new opportunities to explore the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and molecular mechanisms of memory. Development of such animal models holds enormous potential for studying functional changes in episodic memory in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, amnesia, and other human memory pathologies. This article reviews several approaches that have been used to assess episodic-like memory in animals. The approaches reviewed include the discrimination of what, where, and when in a radial arm maze, dissociation of recollection and familiarity, object recognition, binding, unexpected questions, and anticipation of a reproductive state. The diversity of approaches may promote the development of converging lines of evidence on the difficult problem of assessing episodic-like memory in animals.

  11. Examining factors associated with heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Scholly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking among college students is a serious health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with heavy episodic drinking behaviors amongst a predominately Asian undergraduate college student population in the United States. A survey measuring alcohol use behaviors was completed by a random sample of 18-24 year old undergraduates during April, 2011. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine factors associated with students’ heavy episodic drinking behavior. Independent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking included living on campus, ethnicity, perceived drinking behavior among peers, and a belief that alcohol is a central part of one’s social life. Heavy episodic drinking was also associated with poor academic performance. Campus-wide educational strategies to reduce heavy episodic drinking among college undergraduates should incorporate accurate information regarding alcohol use norms to correct students’ perceived over estimation of their peers alcohol consumption rates and the under estimation of students protective alcohol use behaviors. These efforts should focus in on-campus residence halls where a higher occurrence of heavy episodic drinking is often found.

  12. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism.

  13. Repeat-induced gene silencing in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, D; Fiering, S; Martin, D I; Whitelaw, E

    1998-01-01

    In both plants and Drosophila melanogaster, expression from a transgenic locus may be silenced when repeated transgene copies are arranged as a concatameric array. This repeat-induced gene silencing is frequently manifested as a decrease in the proportion of cells that express the transgene, resulting in a variegated pattern of expression. There is also some indication that, in transgenic mammals, the number of transgene copies within an array can exert a repressive influence on expression, with several mouse studies reporting a decrease in the level of expression per copy as copy number increases. However, because these studies compare different sites of transgene integration as well as arrays with different numbers of copies, the expression levels observed may be subject to varying position effects as well as the influence of the multicopy array. Here we describe use of the lox/Cre system of site-specific recombination to generate transgenic mouse lines in which different numbers of a transgene are present at the same chromosomal location, thereby eliminating the contribution of position effects and allowing analysis of the effect of copy number alone on transgene silencing. Reduction in copy number results in a marked increase in expression of the transgene and is accompanied by decreased chromatin compaction and decreased methylation at the transgene locus. These findings establish that the presence of multiple homologous copies of a transgene within a concatameric array can have a repressive effect upon gene expression in mammalian systems.

  14. Emotion episodes of Afrikaans-speaking employees in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara S. Jonker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Emotions must be investigated within the natural contexts in which they occur. It therefore becomes crucial to study episodes in the workplace.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative emotion episodes and frequencies of working Afrikaans-speaking adults.Motivation for the study: To date, no study has been conducted to determine emotion episodes amongst White Afrikaans-speaking working adults in South Africa. Gooty, Connelly, Griffith and Gupta also argue for research on emotions in the natural settings in which they occur – the workplace.Research design, approach and method: A survey design with an availability sample was used. The participants (N = 179 consisted of White Afrikaans-speaking working adults. The Episode Grid was administered to capture the emotion episodes.Main findings: The main emotion episodes reported on with positive content included goal achievement, receiving recognition and personal incidents. Emotion episodes with negative content included categories such as behaviour of work colleagues, acts of boss/superior/management and task requirements.Practical and/or managerial implications: The findings are useful for managers who want to enhance the emotional quality of the work-life of employees. Changes could be made, for example, to practices of giving recognition within work environments and the clarification of task requirements. The knowledge on emotion episodes could be very useful in planning interventions.Contribution and/or value-adding: The findings and results of this study provided insight into emotion episodes as events in the workplace can cause positive and negative workplace experiences. This information should be taken into consideration with regard to wellness and emotion measurement efforts.

  15. Genetics of human episodic memory: dealing with complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2011-09-01

    Episodic memory is a polygenic behavioral trait with substantial heritability estimates. Despite its complexity, recent empirical evidence supports the notion that behavioral genetic studies of episodic memory might successfully identify trait-associated molecules and pathways. The development of high-throughput genotyping methods, of elaborated statistical analyses and of phenotypic assessment methods at the neural systems level will facilitate the reliable identification of novel memory-related genes. Importantly, a necessary crosstalk between behavioral genetic studies and investigation of causality by molecular genetic studies will ultimately pave the way towards the identification of biologically important, and hopefully druggable, genes and molecular pathways related to human episodic memory.

  16. Imaging episodic memory: implications for cognitive theories and phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, L

    1999-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies are beginning to identify neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive functions. This paper presents results relevant to several theories and phenomena of episodic memory, including component processes of episodic retrieval, encoding specificity, inhibition, item versus source memory, encoding-retrieval overlap, and the picture-superiority effect. Overall, by revealing specific activation patterns, the results provide support for existing theoretical views and they add some unique information which may be important to consider in future attempts to develop cognitive theories of episodic memory.

  17. Cannabis potentially reduces recurrent episodes of hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phumpattra Chariyawong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare disease affecting an estimated 1 in 50,000 individuals in the United States.The clinical presentation involves recurrent episodes of angioedema, without urticaria or pruritus, in mucosal tissues of various organ systems. We present a case of HAE type II with concomitant use of cannabis that possibly decreased the frequency of his episodes of angioedema. Recent studies indicate that cannabis has an important role in regulating innate immunity and inflammatory responses through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. These effects might reduce episodes of angioedema, but more research is needed.

  18. Muscles and their role in episodic tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Ashina, S; Moore, K A

    2016-01-01

    recommendations for the treatment of episodic TTH based on these. RESULTS: Peripheral activation or sensitization of myofascial nociceptors is most probably involved in the development of muscle pain and the acute episode of TTH. Repetitive episodes of muscle pain may sensitize the central nervous system....... Ibuprofen 400 mg and aspirin 1000 mg are recommended as drugs of first choice based on treatment effect, safety profile and costs. Non-pharmacological therapies include electromyographic biofeedback, physiotherapy and muscle relaxation therapy. Future studies should aim to identify the triggers...

  19. Familial Hemiplegic Migraine and Recurrent Episodes of Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBianca, Sonja; Jensen, Rigmor; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare autosomal dominant form of migraine with motor aura. We present a case report of a father and son with very similar attacks of hemiplegic migraine and recurrent episodes of accompanying psychoses. Previously, such episodes led to hospitalization...... and extended clinical examinations, which further worsened the psychoses. Since the episodes were recognized as related to the hemiplegic migraine, a treatment strategy combining sleep and sedation was initiated and progression onto psychosis was almost completely avoided in both father and son. Genetic...

  20. Episodic ataxia : a case report and review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhvi J

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the clinical features of a 29 year female presenting with a 3 years history of episodes of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and nystagmus lasting 3-5 days, recurring almost every month. Sleep disturbance and buzzing in ears were noted 3-4 days before each episode. No other precipitant factor was present. Family history was negative. She was diagnosed as a case of episodic ataxia type-2 and was successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. She was asymptomatic at 2 year followup.

  1. Inferring Neuronal Network Connectivity using Time-constrained Episodes

    CERN Document Server

    Patnaik, Debprakash; Unnikrishnan, K P

    2007-01-01

    Discovering frequent episodes in event sequences is an interesting data mining task. In this paper, we argue that this framework is very effective for analyzing multi-neuronal spike train data. Analyzing spike train data is an important problem in neuroscience though there are no data mining approaches reported for this. Motivated by this application, we introduce different temporal constraints on the occurrences of episodes. We present algorithms for discovering frequent episodes under temporal constraints. Through simulations, we show that our method is very effective for analyzing spike train data for unearthing underlying connectivity patterns.

  2. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  3. Pycnogenol treatment of acute hemorrhoidal episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Errichi, Bruno; Di Renzo, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Ricci, Andrea; Dugall, Mark; Cornelli, Umberto; Cacchio, Marisa; Rohdewald, Peter

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the efficacy of orally and topically applied Pycnogenol for the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks in a controlled, randomized study with 84 subjects. Within less than 48 h of onset of an acute attack, patients were enrolled and signs and symptoms were scored. This evaluation was repeated after seven days' treatment and again seven days following treatment cessation. The decrease in scores was significantly more pronounced in the Pycnogenol-treated groups than in the control group given placebo (p Pycnogenol for relieving signs and symptoms of acute external hemorrhoids. In a group of patients given topical (0.5%) Pycnogenol in addition to oral Pycnogenol the improvement in symptoms set in significantly faster and was more pronounced. The most prominent symptom, hemorrhoidal bleeding, was completely absent in all patients treated with Pycnogenol for seven days and also at the 14 days follow-up. In contrast, bleedings were still observed in the control group during the two weeks follow-up. This study indicates that Pycnogenol, both in oral and in topical form, is effective for controlling this common, disabling health problem. The application of Pycnogenol eases the management of acute hemorrhoidal attacks and help avoid bleedings.

  4. Inherited focal, episodic neuropathies: hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Phillip F

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP; also called tomaculous neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder that produces a painless episodic, recurrent, focal demyelinating neuropathy. HNPP generally develops during adolescence, and may cause attacks of numbness, muscular weakness, and atrophy. Peroneal palsies, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other entrapment neuropathies may be frequent manifestations of HNPP. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities may be reduced in clinically affected patients, as well as in asymptomatic gene carriers. The histopathological changes observed in peripheral nerves of HNPP patients include segmental demyelination and tomaculous or "sausage-like" formations. Mild overlap of clinical features with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1 (CMT1) may lead patients with HNPP to be misdiagnosed as having CMT1. HNPP and CMT1 are both demyelinating neuropathies, however, their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological features are quite distinct. HNPP is most frequently associated with a 1.4-Mb pair deletion on chromosome 17p12. A duplication of the identical region leads to CMT1A. Both HNPP and CMT1A result from a dosage effect of the PMP22 gene, which is contained within the deleted/duplicated region. This is reflected in reduced mRNA and protein levels in sural nerve biopsy samples from HNPP patients. Treatment for HNPP consists of preventative and symptom-easing measures. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA; also called familial brachial plexus neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder causing episodes of paralysis and muscle weakness initiated by severe pain. Individuals with HNA may suffer repeated episodes of intense pain, paralysis, and sensory disturbances in an affected limb. The onset of HNA is at birth or later in childhood with prognosis for recovery usually favorable; however, persons with HNA may have permanent residual neurological dysfunction following attack(s). Episodes are often

  5. On the role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, L; Dür, W; Kraus, B

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory, and (ii) introducing two new operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e. without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an o...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  7. Frequency, duration and predictors of bronchiolitis episodes of care among infants ≥32 weeks gestation in a large integrated healthcare system: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bronchiolitis is common in the first two years of life and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in this age group. No previous studies have used an episode-of-care analysis to describe the frequency, duration, and predictors of bronchiolitis episodes of care during the first two years. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 123,264 infants ≥32 weeks gestation born at 6 Northern California Kaiser Permanente hospitals between 1996 and 2002. We used electronic medical records to concatenate hospital, emergency department and outpatient health care encounters for bronchiolitis into discrete episodes of care. We used descriptive statistics to report frequency and duration of bronchiolitis episodes and used logistic regression to assess the effect of gestational age and other clinical and demographic predictors on the outcome of bronchiolitis episodes. Results Among all infants, the rate of bronchiolitis episodes was 162 per 1000 children during the first 2 years of life; approximately 40% required >1 day of medical attention with a mean duration of 7.0 ± 5.9 days. Prematurity was associated with increased risk of bronchiolitis episodes and longer duration. Bronchiolitis episodes rates per 1000 infants were 246 for 32–33 weeks gestational age, 204 for 34–36 weeks, and 148–178 for >36 weeks. Male gender, African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and parental history of asthma were associated with an increased risk of having a bronchiolitis episode and/or longer duration. Conclusions Bronchiolitis episodes of care are frequent during the first two years of life and the duration ranges from 1 to 27 days. Prematurity was associated with more frequent and longer duration of bronchiolitis episodes of care, which may reflect illness severity and/or perceived vulnerability. PMID:22682080

  8. Chemical tracers of episodic accretion in low-mass protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Ruud; Jorgensen, Jes K

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Accretion rates in low-mass protostars can be highly variable in time. Each accretion burst is accompanied by a temporary increase in luminosity, heating up the circumstellar envelope and altering the chemical composition of the gas and dust. This paper aims to study such chemical effects and discusses the feasibility of using molecular spectroscopy as a tracer of episodic accretion rates and timescales. Methods: We simulate a strong accretion burst in a diverse sample of 25 spherical envelope models by increasing the luminosity to 100 times the observed value. Using a comprehensive gas-grain network, we follow the chemical evolution during the burst and for up to 10^5 yr after the system returns to quiescence. The resulting abundance profiles are fed into a line radiative transfer code to simulate rotational spectra of C18O, HCO+, H13CO+, and N2H+ at a series of time steps. We compare these spectra to observations taken from the literature and to previously unpublished data of HCO+ and N2H+ 6-5 from th...

  9. Episodic hypoglycemia with psi-hydroxy fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, E; Mamer, O A; Montgomery, J A; Miller, J D

    1983-02-01

    We present case histories of two young children with episodes of hypoglycemia, elevation of SGOT, low insulin levels, increased urinary excretion of psi-hydroxy fatty acids (5-hydroxyhexanoic, 7-hydroxyoctanoic and 9-hydroxydecanoic), traces of the corresponding psi-ketoacids and elevations of urinary adipic, suberic, and sebacic acids. The ratio of psi-hydroxy fatty acids to 3-hydroxybutyric in the urine of these patients is higher than in patients of similar ages with similar illnesses. These acids persisted while the patients were well. Increased urinary psi-hydroxy fatty acids could be reproduced by a load of medium chain triglycerides without precipitating other clinical symptoms. Three children with hypoglycemia were found not to excrete measurable amounts of these unusual acids while ill. A medium chain triglyceride load in one of these children after recovery failed to elicit psi-hydroxy acid excretion. Small amounts of urinary 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid only were found in two patients with acute Reye's syndrome and in three of five severely ill children with starvation ketonuria. In this last group, no urinary psi-hydroxyacids could be detected after recovery. Normal children do not excrete measurable amounts (less than 1 mg/g creatinine) of these psi-hydroxyacids.

  10. Diaphragmatic rupture causing repeated vomiting in a combined abdominal and head injury patient: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symeonidis Dimitrios

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diaphragmatic rupture after blunt abdominal injury is a rare trauma condition. Delayed diagnosis is not uncommon especially in the emergency room setting. Associated injuries often shift diagnosis and treatment priorities towards other more life-threatening conditions. Case presentation We present a challenging case of a young male with combined abdominal and head trauma. Repeated episodes of vomiting dominated on clinical presentation that in the presence of a deep scalp laceration and facial bruising shifted differential diagnosis towards a traumatic brain injury. However, a computed tomography scan of the brain ruled out any intracranial pathology. Finally, a more meticulous investigation with additional imaging studies confirmed the presence of diaphragmatic rupture that justified the clinical symptoms. Conclusions The combination of diaphragmatic rupture with head injury creates a challenging trauma scenario. Increased level of suspicion is essential in order to diagnose timely diaphragmatic rupture in multiple trauma patients.

  11. Episode-specific risk factors for progression of acute diarrhoea to persistent diarrhoea in west African children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study, carried out in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, was to identify episode-specific risk factors for persistent diarrhoea (PD) related to clinical observations and management efforts. We followed 319 episodes of childhood diarrhoea by repeated household interviews until...... prior (OR = 6.52 (95% CI 1.69-25.1)), mother had to force breast feeding (OR = 8.01 (2.99-21.5)) and current infection with Cryptosporidium (OR = 5.53 (2.10-14.6)) were the most important independent risk factors for the development of PD. Late consultation (> 48 h) was associated with PD, reflecting....... We were unable to identify management factors with a significant influence on the risk of developing PD....

  12. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  13. Characteristics and formation mechanism of a winter haze-fog episode in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-qin; Wu, Jian-hui; Zhang, Yu-fen; Cai, Zi-ying; Feng, Yin-chang; Yao, Qing; Li, Xiang-jin; Liu, Yi-wei; Zhang, Min

    2014-12-01

    Several heavy haze and fog episodes occurred in northern China in January of 2013. Data were collected and used to analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of formation of the haze-fog (HF) episode that occurred from January 10 to 12. The minimum hourly visibility was 112 m, as recorded on 12 January. The concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants increased continuously during this HF period. The concentration of PM2.5 increased faster than that of SO2 and NOx, and the rate of accumulation was greater at the beginning of the HF process than at other times. The average concentration of PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and SO2 on the HF days was 3.9, 3.6, 2.5, and 2.1 times higher than the values in the non-haze days. The scattering and absorption coefficients σsp and σap on the HF days were 4.0 and 4.3 times higher than the values in the non-HF days. The highest black carbon (BC) concentration was about 10 times higher than on the non-HF days. The concentrations of total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) all increased, and the speed of the increase in OC was quicker than that of the EC. An increase in secondary inorganic pollutants (SO42-, NO3-) in PM2.5 was also observed. The concentrations of SO42- and NO3- on the HF days were 4 and 2 times those of the non-HF days. The increase in relative humidity on the HF days favored the formation of sulfate and nitrate during HF episode. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were the external cause of this HF episode. The southwest wind transported the pollutants from areas to the south of the study regions at the beginning of the HF episode. After the HF took shape, a strong descending air mass located in the high layer severely limited pollutant diffusion in the vertical direction. The strong temperature inversion and the weak horizontal wind limited the horizontal and vertical dispersion of pollutants. The high layer transport of the pollutants during the early period and the late accumulation of

  14. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder presenting with repeated hypersomnia due to involvement of the hypothalamus and hypothalamus-amygdala linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Kodai; Deguchi, Kazushi; Ikeda, Kazuyo; Takata, Tadayuki; Kokudo, Yohei; Kamada, Masaki; Touge, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    We report the case of a 46-year-old Japanese woman with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder presenting with repeated hypersomnia accompanied by decreased CSF orexin level. First episode associated with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction showed bilateral hypothalamic lesions that can cause secondary damage to the orexin neurons. The second episode associated with impaired memory showed a left temporal lesion involving the amygdala. The mechanism remains unknown, but the reduced blood flow in the hypothalamus ipsilateral to the amygdala lesion suggested trans-synaptic hypothalamic dysfunction secondary to the impaired amygdala. A temporal lesion involving the amygdala and hypothalamus could be responsible for hypersomnia due to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

  15. [A case of postcardiac injury syndrome with repeated pleuritis after blunt chest trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Nawa, Takeshi; Endo, Katuyuki

    2009-12-01

    A 59-year-old man suffered blunt injury to the left chest during a fall in August 2004. He had 5 repeated episodes of back and left chest pain in three years since August 2005. Since these symptoms were accompanied by left pleural effusion and serum inflammatory reaction, the tentative diagnosis was pleuritis. Although examinations of pleural effusion showed exudation with marked augmentation of inflammatory cells, there were no findings that suggested the cause of repetitive pleuritis. All symptoms were relieved within one or two weeks following administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgical thoracoscopy was carried out to investigate the cause of repeated pleuritis, and an acquired deficit of the left pericardium was noted. We considered this case to be postcardiac injury syndrome causing repeated pleuritis following blunt chest injury.

  16. Episodic memory, perceptual memory, and their interaction: foundations for a theory of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    A number of autobiographical memory theories and clinical theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) make claims that are different from standard views of memory and have been the subject of controversy. These claims include the existence of a long-term perceptual memory system supporting conscious experience separate to episodic memory; greater involvement of perceptual memory in the response to emotion-laden and personally meaningful events; increased perceptual memory intrusions accompanied by impaired episodic memory for the traumatic event among PTSD patients; and a lack of association, or inverse association, between indices of voluntary recall and involuntary images relating to the same traumatic materials. In this article I review current research on perceptual memory, which supports the presence of long-term representations that are selective or incomplete reflections of sensory input. The functional independence of perceptual and episodic memory is illustrated by research on verbal overshadowing but is most clearly exemplified by the strong evidence in favor of enhanced perceptual memory and impaired episodic memory in PTSD. Theoretical predictions concerning the relation between perceptual priming and the development of intrusive images, the effect of verbal versus visuospatial secondary tasks on intrusive trauma images, and the independence of voluntary and involuntary memory for the same materials have garnered widespread support. Reasons for the continuing controversy over traumatic memory are discussed, and some implications of the review for general theories of recall and recognition, clinical theories of PTSD, and "special mechanism" views of memory are set out.

  17. Effects of chronic alternating cadmium exposure on the episodic secretion of prolactin in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Medicina Complutense; Marquez, N.; Alvarez-Demanuel, E.; Lafuente, A. [Vigo Univ., Orense (Spain). Lab. de Toxicologia

    1998-07-01

    Cadmium increases or decreases prolactin secretion depending on the dose and duration of the exposure to the metal. However, whether there are cadmium effects on the episodic prolactin secretion is less well known. This study was undertaken to address whether chronic alternating exposure to two different doses of cadmium affects the episodic pattern of prolactin and to what extent the effects of cadmium are age-dependent. Male rats were treated s.c. with cadmium chloride (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg) from day 30 to 60, or from day 60 to 90 of age, with alteration of the doses every 4 days, starting with the smaller dose. Controls received vehicle every 4 days. The last dose of cadmium was given 48 h prior to the pulsatility study. Prolactin secretion in the 4 experimental groups studied was episodic and changed significantly after cadmium exposure. Cadmium administration from day 30 to 60 of life significantly decreased the mean half-life of prolactin. On the other hand, when administered from day 60 to 90 cadmium significantly decreased the mean as well as serum prolactin levels and the absolute amplitude of the prolactin pulses, their duration, the relative amplitude or the mean half-life of the hormone. The frequency of prolactin peaks was not changed by cadmium administration. The results indicate that low intermittent doses of cadmium chronically administered change the episodic secretion pattern of prolactin in rats. The effects of cadmium on prolactin secretion were age dependent. (orig.)

  18. Right lateralized white matter abnormalities in first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Liu, Zhening; Gao, Keming; Xiao, Changqing; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2012-11-30

    Numerous studies in first-episode schizophrenia suggest the involvement of white matter (WM) abnormalities in multiple regions underlying the pathogenesis of this condition. However, there has never been a neuroimaging study in patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia by using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with TBSS method to investigate the brain WM integrity in patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia. Twenty patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia and 26 healthy subjects matched with age, gender, and education level were scanned with DTI. An automated TBSS approach was employed to analyze the data. Voxel-wise statistics revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia had decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II, the right fornix, the right internal capsule, and the right external capsule compared to healthy subjects. Patients did not have increased FA values in any brain regions compared to healthy subjects. There was no correlation between the FA values in any brain regions and patient demographics and the severity of illness. Our findings suggest right-sided alterations of WM integrity in the WM tracts of cortical and subcortical regions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia.

  19. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  20. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  1. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  2. Nerve excitability studies characterize Kv1.1 fast potassium channel dysfunction in patients with episodic ataxia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Susan E; Tan, S Veronica; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Griggs, Robert C; Burke, David; Hanna, Michael G; Bostock, Hugh

    2010-12-01

    Episodic ataxia type 1 is a neuronal channelopathy caused by mutations in the KCNA1 gene encoding the fast K(+) channel subunit K(v)1.1. Episodic ataxia type 1 presents with brief episodes of cerebellar dysfunction and persistent neuromyotonia and is associated with an increased incidence of epilepsy. In myelinated peripheral nerve, K(v)1.1 is highly expressed in the juxtaparanodal axon, where potassium channels limit the depolarizing afterpotential and the effects of depolarizing currents. Axonal excitability studies were performed on patients with genetically confirmed episodic ataxia type 1 to characterize the effects of K(v)1.1 dysfunction on motor axons in vivo. The median nerve was stimulated at the wrist and compound muscle action potentials were recorded from abductor pollicis brevis. Threshold tracking techniques were used to record strength-duration time constant, threshold electrotonus, current/threshold relationship and the recovery cycle. Recordings from 20 patients from eight kindreds with different KCNA1 point mutations were compared with those from 30 normal controls. All 20 patients had a history of episodic ataxia and 19 had neuromyotonia. All patients had similar, distinctive abnormalities: superexcitability was on average 100% higher in the patients than in controls (P episodic ataxia type 1 and controls could be clearly separated into two non-overlapping groups. Differences between the different KCNA1 mutations were not statistically significant. Studies of nerve excitability can identify K(v)1.1 dysfunction in patients with episodic ataxia type 1. The simple 15 min test may be useful in diagnosis, since it can differentiate patients with episodic ataxia type 1 from normal controls with high sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Detecting individual sites subject to episodic diversifying selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Murrell

    Full Text Available The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated.

  4. Detecting Individual Sites Subject to Episodic Diversifying Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ben; Wertheim, Joel O.; Moola, Sasha; Weighill, Thomas; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2012-01-01

    The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME) that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated. PMID:22807683

  5. Differences between Depression Episodes of Bipolar Disorder I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Inanc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 Fieve and Dunner made the distinction between hypomania and mania as hypomania does not usually cause social and occupational impair-ment and hospitalization is not needed, moreover patients do not experience psychosis. Bipolar disorder type I is defined by the presence of manic and depressive episodes and differs from Bipolar disorder type II characterized with hipomanic and depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder type I and II do not differ in their depressive episodes. It is still point of contention whether bipolar type II is a variant of bipolar disorder type I or is positioned on the spectrum between bipolar type I and unipolar disorder. Even there are some similarities in characteristics of depressive episodes and outcome features of different bipolar disorder subtypes, there are differences that can be useful in differential diagnosis and treatment. This paper aims to focus on those differences between bipolar disorder type I and II.

  6. The development of episodic foresight: emerging concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Judith A; Mayhew, Estelle M Y; Prabhakar, Janani

    2011-01-01

    Episodic foresight is here defined as the ability to project oneself into the future and mentally simulate situations and outcomes. Tasks used to study the development of episodic foresight in young children are reviewed and compared to tasks used to study other future-oriented abilities (planning, delay of gratification, and prospective memory) in the same age-group. We argue for the importance of accounting for and minimizing the role of other cognitive demands in research tasks. Because episodic foresight is an emerging ability in young children, more research needs to be directed at the contexts in which it emerges and the extent to which episodic foresight is part of a growing ability for mental representation.

  7. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  8. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  9. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  10. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  11. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  12. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  13. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  14. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  15. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  16. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  17. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  18. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  19. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  20. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...