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Sample records for repeated elements typically

  1. Dealing with consumer differences in liking during repeated exposure to food; typical dynamics in rating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Nanetti, Luca; Renken, Remco J; de Wijk, René A; Ter Horst, Gert J

    2014-01-01

    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in consumers; averaging will mix and hide possible subgroups of consumer behaviors, leading to a misinterpretation of the results. To deal with the variability in consumer liking, we propose to use clustering on data from consumer-product combinations to investigate the nature of the behavioral differences within the complete dataset. The resulting behavioral clusters can then be used to describe product acceptance. To test this approach we used two independent data sets in which young adults were repeatedly exposed to drinks and snacks, respectively. We found that five typical consumer behaviors existed in both datasets. These behaviors differed both in the average level of liking as well as its temporal dynamics. By investigating the distribution of a single product across typical consumer behaviors, we provide more precise insight in how consumers divide in subgroups based on their product liking (i.e. product modality). This work shows that taking into account and using interindividual differences can unveil information about product acceptance that would otherwise be ignored.

  2. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Fanglue; Mitra, Niloy J.; Huang, Xiaolei; Hu, Shimin

    2010-01-01

    variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary

  3. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  4. Dealing with consumer differences in liking during repeated exposure to food; typical dynamics in rating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, ter G.J.; Renken, R.; Nanneti, L.; Dalenberg, J.R.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in

  5. Dealing with Consumer Differences in Liking during Repeated Exposure to Food; Typical Dynamics in Rating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Nanetti, Luca; Renken, Remco J.; de Wijk, Rene A.; ter Horst, Gert J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumers show high interindividual variability in food liking during repeated exposure. To investigate consumer liking during repeated exposure, data is often interpreted on a product level by averaging results over all consumers. However, a single product may elicit inconsistent behaviors in

  6. METHODS OF THE APPROXIMATE ESTIMATIONS OF FATIGUE DURABILITY OF COMPOSITE AIRFRAME COMPONENT TYPICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Strizhius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of the approximate estimations of fatigue durability of composite airframe component typical elements which can be recommended for application at the stage of outline designing of the airplane are generated and presented.

  7. The repeated bout effect of typical lower body strength training sessions on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Sinclair, Wade H; Leicht, Anthony S; Deakin, Glen B; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of two typical strength training sessions performed 1 week apart (i.e. repeated bout effect) on sub-maximal running performance and hormonal. Fourteen resistance-untrained men (age 24.0 ± 3.9 years; height 1.83 ± 0.11 m; body mass 77.4 ± 14.0 kg; VOpeak 48.1 ± 6.1 M kg(-1) min(-1)) undertook two bouts of high-intensity strength training sessions (i.e. six-repetition maximum). Creatine kinase (CK), delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), counter-movement jump (CMJ) as well as concentrations of serum testosterone, cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C) were examined prior to and immediately post, 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h post each strength training bout. Sub-maximal running performance was also conducted at T24 and T48 of each bout. When measures were compared between bouts at T48, the degree of elevation in CK (-58.4 ± 55.6 %) and DOMS (-31.43 ± 42.9 %) and acute reduction in CMJ measures (4.1 ± 5.4 %) were attenuated (p 0.05). Sub-maximal running performance was impaired until T24, although changes were not attenuated following the second bout. The initial bout appeared to provide protection against a number of muscle damage indicators suggesting a greater need for recovery following the initial session of typical lower body resistance exercises in resistance-untrained men although sub-maximal running should be avoided following the first two sessions.

  8. Isolation and characterization of repeat elements of the oak genome and their application in population analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluch, S.; Burg, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four minisatellite sequence elements have been identified and isolated from the genome of the oak species Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. Minisatellites 1 and 2 are putative members of repeat families, while minisatellites 3 and 4 show repeat length variation among individuals of test populations. A 590 base pair (bp) long element has also been identified which reveals individual-specific autoradiographic patterns when used as probe in Southern hybridisations of genomic oak DNA. (author)

  9. Parameterized Finite Element Modeling and Buckling Analysis of Six Typical Composite Grid Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Changliang; Wang, Junbiao; Liu, Chuang

    2014-10-01

    Six typical composite grid cylindrical shells are constructed by superimposing three basic types of ribs. Then buckling behavior and structural efficiency of these shells are analyzed under axial compression, pure bending, torsion and transverse bending by finite element (FE) models. The FE models are created by a parametrical FE modeling approach that defines FE models with original natural twisted geometry and orients cross-sections of beam elements exactly. And the approach is parameterized and coded by Patran Command Language (PCL). The demonstrations of FE modeling indicate the program enables efficient generation of FE models and facilitates parametric studies and design of grid shells. Using the program, the effects of helical angles on the buckling behavior of six typical grid cylindrical shells are determined. The results of these studies indicate that the triangle grid and rotated triangle grid cylindrical shell are more efficient than others under axial compression and pure bending, whereas under torsion and transverse bending, the hexagon grid cylindrical shell is most efficient. Additionally, buckling mode shapes are compared and provide an understanding of composite grid cylindrical shells that is useful in preliminary design of such structures.

  10. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  11. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. L., II; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850°C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-SiO2 buffer, which is 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the fate of

  12. Moisture effect on thermal conductivity of some major elements of a typical Libyan house envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, Bashir M

    2006-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and the assessment of moisture effect on building materials are essential for the calculation of the thermal loads on houses. Building materials such as simple units e.g. bricks, tiles, cement plasters, mortar and ground soils are investigated in this work. In the eastern coastal province of Libya, old buildings have thick walls (more than 50 cm thick made of mixed clay and stones) and consequently have good capacitive insulation. On the other hand, the relatively new houses have thin walls and need the addition of insulating materials. Unfortunately, these new houses were constructed without having enough technical data on the thermal properties of building materials and thermal loads were not considered. This leads to uncomfortable living conditions during hot and humid summers and cold and wet winters. This article reports the thermal conductivity values of three types of locally produced building materials used in the construction of a typical Libyan house envelope and gives suggestions to improve the thermal performance of such envelopes. The transient plane source technique (TPS) is used to measure the thermal conductivity of these materials at an average room temperature of 25 deg. C. The TPS technique uses a resistive heater pattern (TPS element) that is cut from a thin sheet of metal and covered on both sides with thin layers of an insulating material. The TPS element/sensor is used both as a heat source and as a temperature sensor. This technique has the dual advantage of short measuring time and low temperature rise (around 1 K) across the sample. This will prevent a non-uniform moisture distribution that may arise when the temperature difference across the wet samples is maintained for a long time. In addition, the flat thin shape of the TPS element substantially reduces the contact resistance between the sample and the sensor. More details about the TPS technique are included

  13. Two new miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in the genome of the clam Donax trunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatović, Eva; Plohl, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    Repetitive sequences are important components of eukaryotic genomes that drive their evolution. Among them are different types of mobile elements that share the ability to spread throughout the genome and form interspersed repeats. To broaden the generally scarce knowledge on bivalves at the genome level, in the clam Donax trunculus we described two new non-autonomous DNA transposons, miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), named DTC M1 and DTC M2. Like other MITEs, they are characterized by their small size, their A + T richness, and the presence of terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). DTC M1 and DTC M2 are 261 and 286 bp long, respectively, and in addition to TIRs, both of them contain a long imperfect palindrome sequence in their central parts. These elements are present in complete and truncated versions within the genome of the clam D. trunculus. The two new MITEs share only structural similarity, but lack any nucleotide sequence similarity to each other. In a search for related elements in databases, blast search revealed within the Crassostrea gigas genome a larger element sharing sequence similarity only to DTC M1 in its TIR sequences. The lack of sequence similarity with any previously published mobile elements indicates that DTC M1 and DTC M2 elements may be unique to D. trunculus.

  14. [Active miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements transposon in plants: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Zhou, Mingbing

    2018-02-25

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements transposon is a special transposon that could transpose by "cut-paste" mechanism, which is one of characteristics of DNA transposons. Otherwise, the copy number of MITEs is very high, which is one of characteristics of RNA transposons. Many MITE families have been reported, but little about active MITEs. We summarize recent advances in studying active MITEs. Most the MITEs belong to the Tourist-like family, such as mPing, mGing, PhTourist1, Tmi1 and PhTst-3. Additionally, DTstu1 and MITE-39 belong to Stowaway-like family, and AhMITEs1 belongs to Mutator-like family. Moreover, we summarize the structure (terminal inverse repeats and target site duplications), copy number, evolution pattern and transposition characteristics of these active MITEs, to provide the foundation for the identification of other active MITEs and subsequent research on MITE transposition and amplification mechanism.

  15. Nezha, a novel active miniature inverted-repeat transposable element in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fengfeng; Tran Thao; Xu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) were first identified in plants and exerted extensive proliferations throughout eukaryotic and archaeal genomes. But very few MITEs have been characterized in bacteria. We identified a novel MITE, called Nezha, in cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Nezha, like most previously known MITEs in other organisms, is small in size, non-coding, carrying TIR and DR signals, and of potential to form a stable RNA secondary structure, and it tends to insert into A+T-rich regions. Recent transpositions of Nezha were observed in A. variabilis ATCC 29413 and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, respectively. Nezha might have proliferated recently with aid from the transposase encoded by ISNpu3-like elements. A possible horizontal transfer event of Nezha from cyanobacteria to Polaromonas JS666 is also observed

  16. Study on fracture of fuel element cladding for naval reactor during typical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Shang Xueli; Zheng Zhongliang; Yu Lei

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at defining the grade of nuclear emergency response, the best estimate model has been adopted; the simulation of large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) has been carried out by the radioactive analysis software coupled with relap5/mod 3.2 and core physics model. First, the peak clad temperature of the critical failure channel is calculated in relap5 code, and simultaneously its power factor is obtained. Second, pin power distribution of the fuel assemblies has been calculated in coarse-mesh nodal method. According to the pin power distribution in the whole core and the result gained above, the fraction of fuel element fracture is calculated. Finally, the radioactive analysis has been carried out and the reasonable source term is gotten, which can offer reference for the nuclear emergency decision making. (authors)

  17. Occurrence and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements and typical organic pollutants in contaminated rural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng; Dai, Shixiang; Meng, Ke; Wang, Yuting; Ren, Wenjie; Zhao, Ling; Christie, Peter; Teng, Ying

    2018-07-15

    The residual levels and risk assessment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural soils near different types of pollution sources in Tianjin, China, were studied. The soils were found to be polluted to different extents with PTEs, PAEs and PAHs from different pollution sources. The soil concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), acenaphthylene (Any) and acenaphthene (Ane) were higher than their corresponding regulatory reference limits. The health risk assessment model used to calculate human exposure indicates that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from selected pollutants were generally acceptable or close to acceptable. Different types of pollution sources and soil physicochemical properties substantially affected the soil residual concentrations of and risks from these pollutants. PTEs in soils collected from agricultural lands around industrial and residential areas and organic pollutants (PAEs and PAHs) in soils collected from agricultural areas around livestock breeding were higher than those from other types of pollution sources and merit long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Luo, Yao; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Zhiqi; Hao, Jiming; Duan, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exchange between forests and the atmosphere plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global emission of Hg from natural source has large uncertainty, partly due to the lack of chronical and valid field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces in China, the most important contributor to global atmospheric Hg. In this study, the micrometeorological method (MM) was used to continuously observe gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over forest canopy at a mildly polluted site (Qianyanzhou, QYZ) and a moderately polluted site (Huitong, HT, near a large Hg mine) in subtropical south China for a full year from January to December in 2014. The GEM flux measurements over forest canopy in QYZ and HT showed net emission with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively. Daily variations of GEM fluxes showed an increasing emission with the increasing air temperature and solar radiation in the daytime to a peak at 13:00, and decreasing emission thereafter, even as a GEM sink or balance at night. High temperature and low air Hg concentration resulted in the high Hg emission in summer. Low temperature in winter and Hg absorption by plant in spring resulted in low Hg emission, or even adsorption in the two seasons. GEM fluxes were positively correlated with air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation, while it is negatively correlated with air humidity and atmospheric GEM concentration. The lower emission fluxes of GEM at the moderately polluted site (HT) when compared with that in the mildly polluted site (QYZ) may result from a much higher adsorption fluxes at night in spite of a similar or higher emission fluxes during daytime. This shows that the higher atmospheric GEM concentration at HT restricted the forest GEM emission. Great attention should be paid to forests as a crucial increasing Hg emission source with the decreasing atmospheric GEM concentration in polluted areas because of Hg

  19. Typical aqueous rare earth element behavior in co-produced Brines, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, Charles; Quillinan, Scott [UNIVERSIty of Wyoming; McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Normalization of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) is important to remove the distracting effects of the Oddo–Harkins rule and provide a meaningful baseline. Normalizations for rocks are well developed and include chondritic meteorites, UCC, PM, PAAS, and NASC. However normalizations for aqueous REEs are limited to oceanic regions such as the North Pacific Deep Water or North Atlantic Surface Water. This leaves water in contact with continental lithologies without a suitable normalization. We present a preliminary continental aqueous REE normalization derived from 38 deep basin hydrocarbon brines in Wyoming. The REEs in these waters are seven orders of magnitude more dilute than NASC but with significant europium enrichment. Gromet 1984 reports NASC Eu/Eu* is 0.2179, whereas in the normalization offered here, Eu/Eu* is 3.868. These waters also are free from the distracting reduction-oxidation cerium behavior found in ocean normalizations. Because these samples exhibit both the uniform behavior of NASC and the absolute concentration of seawater, a normalization based upon them offers a unique combination of the advantages of both. We used single-peak gaussian analysis to quantify the mean values for each REE and estimate the distribution variability. Additional sample collection during the last year revealed that the Powder River Basin (PRB) is atypical relative to the other sampled basins of Wyoming. Those other basins are the Wind River Basin (WRB) Green River Basin (GRB) and Wamsutter Area (WA). A pre-normalization gadolinium anomaly (Gd/Gd*) of between 4 and 23 with a mean of 11.5, defines the PRB samples. Other basins in this study range from 1 to 7 with a mean of 2.8. Finally, we present a preliminary model for ligand-based behavior of REEs in these samples. This model identifies bicarbonate, bromide, and chloride as forming significant complexes with REEs contributing to REE solubility. The ligand model explains observed REEs in the sampled Cretaceous and

  20. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg exchange between forests and the atmosphere plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global emission of Hg from natural source has large uncertainty, partly due to the lack of chronical and valid field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces in China, the most important contributor to global atmospheric Hg. In this study, the micrometeorological method (MM was used to continuously observe gaseous elemental mercury (GEM fluxes over forest canopy at a mildly polluted site (Qianyanzhou, QYZ and a moderately polluted site (Huitong, HT, near a large Hg mine in subtropical south China for a full year from January to December in 2014. The GEM flux measurements over forest canopy in QYZ and HT showed net emission with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m−2 h−1, respectively. Daily variations of GEM fluxes showed an increasing emission with the increasing air temperature and solar radiation in the daytime to a peak at 13:00, and decreasing emission thereafter, even as a GEM sink or balance at night. High temperature and low air Hg concentration resulted in the high Hg emission in summer. Low temperature in winter and Hg absorption by plant in spring resulted in low Hg emission, or even adsorption in the two seasons. GEM fluxes were positively correlated with air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation, while it is negatively correlated with air humidity and atmospheric GEM concentration. The lower emission fluxes of GEM at the moderately polluted site (HT when compared with that in the mildly polluted site (QYZ may result from a much higher adsorption fluxes at night in spite of a similar or higher emission fluxes during daytime. This shows that the higher atmospheric GEM concentration at HT restricted the forest GEM emission. Great attention should be paid to forests as a crucial increasing Hg emission source with the decreasing atmospheric GEM concentration

  1. Discovery and analysis of an active long terminal repeat-retrotransposable element in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie Jin, Feng; Hara, Seiichi; Sato, Atsushi; Koyama, Yasuji

    2014-01-01

    Wild-type Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 contains two copies of the AO090005001597 gene. We previously constructed A. oryzae RIB40 strain, RKuAF8B, with multiple chromosomal deletions, in which the AO090005001597 copy number was found to be increased significantly. Sequence analysis indicated that AO090005001597 is part of a putative 6,000-bp retrotransposable element, flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of 669 bp, with characteristics of retroviruses and retrotransposons, and thus designated AoLTR (A. oryzae LTR-retrotransposable element). AoLTR comprised putative reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase domains. The deduced amino acid sequence alignment of AoLTR showed 94% overall identity with AFLAV, an A. flavus Tf1/sushi retrotransposon. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that AoLTR gene expression was significantly increased in the RKuAF8B, in accordance with the increased copy number. Inverse PCR indicated that the full-length retrotransposable element was randomly integrated into multiple genomic locations. However, no obvious phenotypic changes were associated with the increased AoLTR gene copy number.

  2. Simplified CFD model of coolant channels typical of a plate-type fuel element: an exhaustive verification of the simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecón, Javier González; Mattar Neto, Miguel, E-mail: javier.mantecon@ipen.br, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The use of parallel plate-type fuel assemblies is common in nuclear research reactors. One of the main problems of this fuel element configuration is the hydraulic instability of the plates caused by the high flow velocities. The current work is focused on the hydrodynamic characterization of coolant channels typical of a flat-plate fuel element, using a numerical model developed with the commercial code ANSYS CFX. Numerical results are compared to accurate analytical solutions, considering two turbulence models and three different fluid meshes. For this study, the results demonstrated that the most suitable turbulence model is the k-ε model. The discretization error is estimated using the Grid Convergence Index method. Despite its simplicity, this model generates precise flow predictions. (author)

  3. Simplified CFD model of coolant channels typical of a plate-type fuel element: an exhaustive verification of the simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantecón, Javier González; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The use of parallel plate-type fuel assemblies is common in nuclear research reactors. One of the main problems of this fuel element configuration is the hydraulic instability of the plates caused by the high flow velocities. The current work is focused on the hydrodynamic characterization of coolant channels typical of a flat-plate fuel element, using a numerical model developed with the commercial code ANSYS CFX. Numerical results are compared to accurate analytical solutions, considering two turbulence models and three different fluid meshes. For this study, the results demonstrated that the most suitable turbulence model is the k-ε model. The discretization error is estimated using the Grid Convergence Index method. Despite its simplicity, this model generates precise flow predictions. (author)

  4. The Ecological Genomics of Fungi: Repeated Elements in Filamentous Fungi with a Focus on Wood-Decay Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Payen, Thibaut [INRA, Nancy, France; Petitpierre, Denis [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the genome of several dozen filamentous fungi have been sequenced. Interestingly, vast diversity in genome size was observed (Fig. 2.1) with 14-fold differences between the 9 Mb of the human pathogenic dandruff fungus (Malassezia globosa; Xu, Saunders, et al., 2007) and the 125 Mb of the ectomycorrhizal black truffle of P rigord (Tuber melanosporum; Martin, Kohler, et al., 2010). Recently, Raffaele and Kamoun (2012) highlighted that the genomes of several lineages of filamentous plant pathogens have been shaped by repeat-driven expansion. Indeed, repeated elements are ubiquitous in all prokaryote and eukaryote genomes; however, their frequencies can vary from just a minor percentage of the genome to more that 60 percent of the genome. Repeated elements can be classified in two major types: satellites DNA and transposable elements. In this chapter, the different types of repeated elements and how these elements can impact genome and gene repertoire will be described. Also, an intriguing link between the transposable elements richness and diversity and the ecological niche will be highlighted.

  5. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers.

  6. A Gaijin-like miniature inverted repeat transposable element is mobilized in rice during cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hai-Tao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE is one type of transposable element (TE, which is largely found in eukaryotic genomes and involved in a wide variety of biological events. However, only few MITEs were proved to be currently active and their physiological function remains largely unknown. Results We found that the amplicon discrepancy of a gene locus LOC_Os01g0420 in different rice cultivar genomes was resulted from the existence of a member of Gaijin-like MITEs (mGing. This result indicated that mGing transposition was occurred at this gene locus. By using a modified transposon display (TD analysis, the active transpositions of mGing were detected in rice Jiahua No. 1 genome under three conditions: in seedlings germinated from the seeds received a high dose γ-ray irradiation, in plantlets regenerated from anther-derived calli and from scutellum-derived calli, and were confirmed by PCR validation and sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or short additional DNA sequences at transposition sites post mGing transposition. It suggested that sequence modification was possibly taken place during mGing transposition. Furthermore, cell re-differentiation experiment showed that active transpositions of both mGing and mPing (another well studied MITE were identified only in regenerated plantlets. Conclusions It is for the first time that mGing active transposition was demonstrated under γ-ray irradiation or in cell re-differentiation process in rice. This newly identified active MITE will provide a foundation for further analysis of the roles of MITEs in biological process.

  7. Mutations in Cytosine-5 tRNA Methyltransferases Impact Mobile Element Expression and Genome Stability at Specific DNA Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Genenncher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of eukaryotic genome stability is ensured by the interplay of transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional mechanisms that control recombination of repeat regions and the expression and mobility of transposable elements. We report here that mutations in two (cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 and NSun2, impact the accumulation of mobile element-derived sequences and DNA repeat integrity in Drosophila. Loss of Dnmt2 function caused moderate effects under standard conditions, while heat shock exacerbated these effects. In contrast, NSun2 function affected mobile element expression and genome integrity in a heat shock-independent fashion. Reduced tRNA stability in both RCMT mutants indicated that tRNA-dependent processes affected mobile element expression and DNA repeat stability. Importantly, further experiments indicated that complex formation with RNA could also contribute to the impact of RCMT function on gene expression control. These results thus uncover a link between tRNA modification enzymes, the expression of repeat DNA, and genomic integrity.

  8. The expansion of heterochromatin blocks in rye reflects the co-amplification of tandem repeats and adjacent transposable elements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evtushenko, E.V.; Levitsky, V.G.; Elisafenko, E.A.; Gunbin, K.V.; Belousov, A.I.; Šafář, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Vershinin, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, MAY 4 (2016), s. 337 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Tandem repeats * Transposable elements * Subtelomeric heterochromatin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  9. ACCUMULATION AND TISSUE DISPOSITION OF PARTICLE ASSOCIATED ELEMENTS IN THE RAT AFTER REPEATED INTRATRACHAEL ADMINISTRATION OF SOURCE PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to determine the fate of source particle tracer elements following repeated intratracheal instillation (IT) to rats. PM samples comprised Mt. St. Helens ash (MSH) with no water-soluble metals, and oil flyash emission PM (EPM) with water-leachable solubl...

  10. Transcriptional landscape of ncRNA and Repeat elements in somatic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosheh, Yanal

    2016-12-01

    The advancement of Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) sequencing technology has enabled many projects targeted towards the identification of genome structure and transcriptome complexity of organisms. The first conclusions of the human and mouse projects have underscored two important, yet unexpected, findings. First, while almost the entire genome is transcribed, only 5% of it encodes for proteins. Thereby, most transcripts are noncoding RNA. This includes both short RNA (<200 nucleotides (nt)) comprising piRNAs; microRNAs (miRNAs); endogenous Short Interfering RNAs (siRNAs) among others, and includes lncRNA (>200nt). Second, a significant portion of the mammalian genome (45%) is composed of Repeat Elements (REs). RE are mostly relics of ancestral viruses that during evolution have invaded the host genome by producing thousands of copies. Their roles within their host genomes have yet to be fully explored considering that they sometimes produce lncRNA, and have been shown to influence expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, because some REs can still mobilize within host genomes, host genomes have evolved mechanisms, mainly epigenetic, to maintain REs under tight control. Recent reports indicate that REs activity is regulated in somatic cells, particularily in the brain, suggesting a physiological role of RE mobilization during normal development. In this thesis, I focus on the analysis of ncRNAs, specifically REs; piRNAs; lncRNAs in human and mouse post-mitotic somatic cells. The main aspects of this analysis are: Using sRNA-Seq, I show that piRNAs, a class of ncRNAs responsible for the silencing of Transposable elements (TEs) in testes, are present also in adult mouse brain. Furthermore, their regulation shows only a subset of testes piRNAs are expressed in the brain and may be controlled by known neurogenesis factors. To investigate the dynamics of the transcriptome during cellular differentiation, I examined deep RNA-Seq and Cap

  11. A Dual Repeat Cis-Element Determines Expression of GERANYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE for Monoterpene Production in Phalaenopsis Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chuang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis bellina is a scented orchid emitting large amount of monoterpenes. GERANYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (PbGDPS is the key enzyme for monoterpene biosynthesis, and shows concomitant expression with the emission of monoterpenes during flower development in P. bellina. Here, we identified a dual repeat cis-element in the GDPS promoter that is critical for monoterpene biosynthesis in Phalaenopsis orchids. A strong correlation between the dual repeat and the monoterpene production was revealed by examination of the GDPS promoter fragments over 12 Phalaenopsis species. Serial-deletion of the 2-kb GDPS promoter fragments demonstrated that the integrity of the dual repeat was crucial for its promoter activities. By screening the Arabidopsis transcription factors (TFs cDNA library using yeast one-hybrid assay, AtbZIP18, a member of group I of bZIP TFs, was identified to be able to bind the dual repeat. We then identified PbbZIP4 in the transcriptome of P. bellina, showing 83% identity in the DNA binding region with that of AtbZIP18, and the expression level of PbbZIP4 was higher in the scented orchids. In addition, PbbZIP4 transactivated the GDPS promoter fragment containing the dual repeat in dual luciferase assay. Furthermore, transient ectopic expression of PbbZIP4 induced a 10-fold production of monoterpenoids in the scentless orchid. In conclusion, these results indicate that the dual repeat is a real TF-bound cis-element significant for GDPS gene expression, and thus subsequent monoterpene biosynthesis in the scented Phalaenopsis orchids.

  12. Repeated extragenic sequences in prokaryotic genomes: a proposal for the origin and dynamics of the RUP element in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, M R; Claverys, J P

    1999-10-01

    A survey of all Streptococcus pneumoniae GenBank/EMBL DNA sequence entries and of the public domain sequence (representing more than 90% of the genome) of an S. pneumoniae type 4 strain allowed identification of 108 copies of a 107-bp-long highly repeated intergenic element called RUP (for repeat unit of pneumococcus). Several features of the element, revealed in this study, led to the proposal that RUP is an insertion sequence (IS)-derivative that could still be mobile. Among these features are: (1) a highly significant homology between the terminal inverted repeats (IRs) of RUPs and of IS630-Spn1, a new putative IS of S. pneumoniae; and (2) insertion at a TA dinucleotide, a characteristic target of several members of the IS630 family. Trans-mobilization of RUP is therefore proposed to be mediated by the transposase of IS630-Spn1. To account for the observation that RUPs are distributed among four subtypes which exhibit different degrees of sequence homogeneity, a scenario is invoked based on successive stages of RUP mobility and non-mobility, depending on whether an active transposase is present or absent. In the latter situation, an active transposase could be reintroduced into the species through natural transformation. Examination of sequences flanking RUP revealed a preferential association with ISs. It also provided evidence that RUPs promote sequence rearrangements, thereby contributing to genome flexibility. The possibility that RUP preferentially targets transforming DNA of foreign origin and subsequently favours disruption/rearrangement of exogenous sequences is discussed.

  13. First Principles Study of Adsorption of Hydrogen on Typical Alloying Elements and Inclusions in Molten 2219 Al Alloy

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    Yu Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the effect of the components of molten 2219 Al alloy on the hydrogen content dissolved in it, the H adsorption on various positions of alloying element clusters of Cu, Mn and Al, as well as the inclusion of Al2O3, MgO and Al4C3, were investigated by means of first principles calculation, and the thermodynamic stability of H adsorbed on each possible site was also studied on the basis of formation energy. Results show that the interaction between Al, MgO, Al4C3 and H atoms is mainly repulsive and energetically unfavorable; a favorable interaction between Cu, Mn, Al2O3 and H atoms was determined, with H being more likely to be adsorbed on the top of the third atomic layer of Cu(111, the second atomic layer of Mn(111, and the O atom in the third atomic layer of Al2O3, compared with other sites. It was found that alloying elements Cu and Mn and including Al2O3 may increase the hydrogen adsorption in the molten 2219 Al alloy with Al2O3 being the most sensitive component in this regard.

  14. Exploration of the Drosophila buzzatii transposable element content suggests underestimation of repeats in Drosophila genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Nuria; Guillén, Yolanda; Delprat, Alejandra; Kapusta, Aurélie; Feschotte, Cédric; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2016-05-10

    Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution. Here we compare the TE content of three genomes: D. buzzatii st-1, j-19, and D. mojavensis. We have sequenced a new D. buzzatii genome (j-19) that complements the D. buzzatii reference genome (st-1) already published, and compared their TE contents with that of D. mojavensis. We found an underestimation of TE sequences in Drosophila genus NGS-genomes when compared to Sanger-genomes. To be able to compare genomes sequenced with different technologies, we developed a coverage-based method and applied it to the D. buzzatii st-1 and j-19 genome. Between 10.85 and 11.16 % of the D. buzzatii st-1 genome is made up of TEs, between 7 and 7,5 % of D. buzzatii j-19 genome, while TEs represent 15.35 % of the D. mojavensis genome. Helitrons are the most abundant order in the three genomes. TEs in D. buzzatii are less abundant than in D. mojavensis, as expected according to the genome size and TE content positive correlation. However, TEs alone do not explain the genome size difference. TEs accumulate in the dot chromosomes and proximal regions of D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis chromosomes. We also report a significantly higher TE density in D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis X chromosomes, which is not expected under the current models. Our easy-to-use correction method allowed us to identify recently active families in D. buzzatii st-1 belonging to the LTR-retrotransposon superfamily Gypsy.

  15. Story grammar elements and causal relations in the narratives of Russian-Hebrew bilingual children with SLI and typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichman, Sveta; Altman, Carmit; Voloskovich, Anna; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2017-09-01

    While there is general agreement regarding poor performance of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) on microstructure measures of narrative production, findings on macrostructure are inconsistent. The present study analyzed narrative abilities of Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children with and without SLI, with a particular focus on story grammar (SG) elements and causal relations, in order to identify macrostructure features which distinguish bilingual children with SLI from those with typical development. Narratives were collected from 35 typically developing bilinguals (BiTD) and 14 bilinguals with SLI (BiSLI) in both Russian/L1 and Hebrew/L2 using a retelling procedure (LITMUS-Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives) (Gagarina, Klop, Kunnari, Tantele, Välimaa, Balčiūnienė, Bohnacker, & Walters, 2012). Each story contained three episodes, and each episode introduced a different protagonist with explicitly stated Goals (G), Attempts (A) and Outcomes (O). Causal relations assessed included Enabling, Physical, Motivational, and Psychological relations, following Trabasso & Nickels (1992). Each Goal-Attempt-Outcome (GAO) episode was examined for the use of SG elements and causal relations. Group differences emerged for both aspects of macrostructure. For causal relations, narratives of BiSLI children contained fewer Enabling and Physical relations, and differed qualitatively from those of BiTD children. For SG elements, BiSLI children referred to fewer SG elements than BiTD children in the first episode, but performed like BiTD children in the second and the third episodes. Story grammar elements in specific episodes along with Enabling and Physical causal relations distinguish the narratives of children with BiSLI from those with BiTD, which stresses the importance of examining wider array of macrostructure features in narratives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A single whole-body low dose X-irradiation does not affect L1, B1 and IAP repeat element DNA methylation longitudinally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Newman

    Full Text Available The low dose radioadaptive response has been shown to be protective against high doses of radiation as well as aging-induced genomic instability. We hypothesised that a single whole-body exposure of low dose radiation would induce a radioadaptive response thereby reducing or abrogating aging-related changes in repeat element DNA methylation in mice. Following sham or 10 mGy X-irradiation, serial peripheral blood sampling was performed and differences in Long Interspersed Nucleic Element 1 (L1, B1 and Intracisternal-A-Particle (IAP repeat element methylation between samples were assessed using high resolution melt analysis of PCR amplicons. By 420 days post-irradiation, neither radiation- or aging-related changes in the methylation of peripheral blood, spleen or liver L1, B1 and IAP elements were observed. Analysis of the spleen and liver tissues of cohorts of untreated aging mice showed that the 17-19 month age group exhibited higher repeat element methylation than younger or older mice, with no overall decline in methylation detected with age. This is the first temporal analysis of the effect of low dose radiation on repeat element methylation in mouse peripheral blood and the first to examine the long term effect of this dose on repeat element methylation in a radiosensitive tissue (spleen and a tissue fundamental to the aging process (liver. Our data indicate that the methylation of murine DNA repeat elements can fluctuate with age, but unlike human studies, do not demonstrate an overall aging-related decline. Furthermore, our results indicate that a low dose of ionising radiation does not induce detectable changes to murine repeat element DNA methylation in the tissues and at the time-points examined in this study. This radiation dose is relevant to human diagnostic radiation exposures and suggests that a dose of 10 mGy X-rays, unlike high dose radiation, does not cause significant short or long term changes to repeat element or global DNA

  17. Genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 miniature inverted-repeat transposable element families in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Sampath

    Full Text Available Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs are ubiquitous, non-autonomous class II transposable elements. Here, we conducted genome-wide comparative analysis of 20 MITE families in B. rapa, B. oleracea, and Arabidopsis thaliana. A total of 5894 and 6026 MITE members belonging to the 20 families were found in the whole genome pseudo-chromosome sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. Meanwhile, only four of the 20 families, comprising 573 members, were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, indicating that most of the families were activated in the Brassica genus after divergence from Arabidopsis. Copy numbers varied from 4 to 1459 for each MITE family, and there was up to 6-fold variation between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In particular, analysis of intact members showed that whereas eleven families were present in similar copy numbers in B. rapa and B. oleracea, nine families showed copy number variation ranging from 2- to 16-fold. Four of those families (BraSto-3, BraTo-3, 4, 5 were more abundant in B. rapa, and the other five (BraSto-1, BraSto-4, BraTo-1, 7 and BraHAT-1 were more abundant in B. oleracea. Overall, 54% and 51% of the MITEs resided in or within 2 kb of a gene in the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes, respectively. Notably, 92 MITEs were found within the CDS of annotated genes, suggesting that MITEs might play roles in diversification of genes in the recently triplicated Brassica genome. MITE insertion polymorphism (MIP analysis of 289 MITE members showed that 52% and 23% were polymorphic at the inter- and intra-species levels, respectively, indicating that there has been recent MITE activity in the Brassica genome. These recently activated MITE families with abundant MIP will provide useful resources for molecular breeding and identification of novel functional genes arising from MITE insertion.

  18. Development of systematic evaluation method on nonlinear behavior of the constructions using repeated finite element method analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto

    1997-01-01

    Supposing that the nuclear reactor stops on any reason, the temperature of flown out coolant from the reactor core will decrease and the temperature of elements touched with the coolant in the nuclear plant equipments also decreases on response to this. On the other hand, temperature pursuit at non-touched portions is delayed to form a thermal stress due to their temperature difference. In particular, a stress over its yield value at discontinuous portion of structure due to stress concentration generates, which could be thought of possibility to form a creep fatigue crack if repeating such thermal stress under high temperature. The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation has developed the transient thermal stress real time simulation code for calculating thermal stress formed within a construction in accompany with temperature changes of the coolant once and at high speed since 1994 FY, and after 1995 FY the development of FEM simulation technique from macroscopic region to microscopic region which set an objective regions from construction level to material texture has been promoted. In future, development of total simulation technique connected both and optimum design technique due to its results will be planned. (G.K.)

  19. Mutations that alter a repeated ACCA element located at the 5' end of the Potato virus X genome affect RNA accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Ri; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Choi, Hong-Soo; Hemenway, Cynthia L; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2008-08-15

    The repeated ACCA or AC-rich sequence and structural (SL1) elements in the 5' non-translated region (NTR) of the Potato virus X (PVX) RNA play vital roles in the PVX life cycle by controlling translation, RNA replication, movement, and assembly. It has already been shown that the repeated ACCA or AC-rich sequence affect both gRNA and sgRNA accumulation, while not affecting minus-strand RNA accumulation, and are also required for host protein binding. The functional significance of the repeated ACCA sequence elements in the 5' NTR region was investigated by analyzing the effects of deletion and site-directed mutations on PVX replication in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and NT1 protoplasts. Substitution (ACCA into AAAA or UUUU) mutations introduced in the first (nt 10-13) element in the 5' NTR of the PVX RNA significantly affected viral replication, while mutations introduced in the second (nt 17-20) and third (nt 20-23) elements did not. The fourth (nt 29-32) ACCA element weakly affected virus replication, whereas mutations in the fifth (nt 38-41) significantly reduced virus replication due to the structure disruption of SL1 by AAAA and/or UUUU substitutions. Further characterization of the first ACCA element indicated that duplication of ACCA at nt 10-13 (nt 10-17, ACCAACCA) caused severe symptom development as compared to that of wild type, while deletion of the single element (nt 10-13), DeltaACCA) or tripling of this element caused reduced symptom development. Single- and double-nucleotide substitutions introduced into the first ACCA element revealed the importance of CC located at nt positions 11 and 12. Altogether, these results indicate that the first ACCA element is important for PVX replication.

  20. Meta-analysis of the effect of overexpression of C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding family genes on temperature stress tolerance and related responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding proteins are transcription factors that play a critical role in plant response to temperature stress. Over-expression of CBF/DREB genes has been demonstrated to enhance temperature stress tolerance. A series of physiological and biochemical modificat...

  1. Unraveling the evolutionary scenario of the hobo element in populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans in South America using the TPE repeats as markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani T. Ragagnin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposable elements (TEs are nucleotide sequences found in most studied genomes. These elements are highly diversified and have a large variation in nucleotide structure and mechanisms of transposition. hobo is a member of class II, belonging to hAT superfamily, described inDrosophila melanogaster, and it presents in its Open Reading Frame, a repetitive region encoding the amino acids threonine-proline-glutamic acid (TPE, which shows variability in the number of repeats in some regions of the world. Due to this variability some evolutionary scenarios of the hobo element are discussed, such as the scenario of the invasion of hobo element in populations ofD. melanogaster. In the present study, we investigated 22 DNA sequences of D. melanogaster and seven sequences ofD. simulans, both from South America, to check the number of repetitions of TPE, in order to clarify the evolutionary scenario of thehobo element in these populations. Our results showed a monomorphism in populations of both species in South America, with only three TPE repeats. Hence, we discuss and propose an evolutionary scenario of the invasion of the hobo element in populations of D. melanogaster and D. simulans.

  2. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  3. Low-temperature-induced expression of rice ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase is mediated by a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element that specifically interacts with rice C-repeat-binding factor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen recycling and redistribution are important for the environmental stress response of plants. In non nitrogen-fixing plants, ureide metabolism is crucial to nitrogen recycling from organic sources. Various studies have suggested that the rate-limiting components of ureide metabolism respond to environmental stresses. However, the underlying regulation mechanism is not well understood. In this report, rice ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase (OsUAH, which is a recently identified enzyme catalyzing the final step of ureide degradation, was identified as low-temperature- (LT but not abscisic acid- (ABA regulated. To elucidate the LT regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level, we isolated and characterized the promoter region of OsUAH (POsUAH. Series deletions revealed that a minimal region between -522 and -420 relative to the transcriptional start site was sufficient for the cold induction of POsUAH. Detailed analyses of this 103-bp fragment indicated that a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive (CRT/DRE element localized at position -434 was essential for LT-responsive expression. A rice C-repeat-binding factors/DRE-binding proteins 1 (CBFs/DREB1s subfamily member, OsCBF3, was screened to specifically bind to the CRT/DRE element in the minimal region both in yeast one-hybrid assays and in in vitro gel-shift analysis. Moreover, the promoter could be exclusively trans-activated by the interaction between the CRT/DRE element and OsCBF3 in vivo. These findings may help to elucidate the regulation mechanism of stress-responsive ureide metabolism genes and provide an example of the member-specific manipulation of the CBF/DREB1 subfamily.

  4. An audit of rejected repeated x-ray films as a quality assurance element in a radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, K C; Omodia, N; Okegbunam, B; Adewonyi, T; Nzotta, C C

    2008-12-01

    To find out the causes, number, percentage and sizes of rejected radiographic films with a view of adopting measures that will reduce the rate and number of rejected films. Radiology Department of a University Teaching Hospital. Over a two-year period (1st April 2002 to 31st March 2004), the total number of x-ray films utilized for radiographic examinations, rejected films and sizes of rejected films were collected retrospectively from the medical record of radiology department. All the rejected films were viewed by a radiologist and three radiographers for the causes of the rejects which was arrived at by consensus. The data was analysed. A total of 15,095 films were used in the study period and 1,338 films (8.86%) were rejected or wasted. The rate of rejected films varied from 7.69% to 13.82% with average of 8.86%. The greatest cause of film rejects was radiographers' faults 547 (40.88%), followed by equipments faults 255 (19.06%), and patients' faults 250 (18.90%). The highest reject rate (13.82%) was for films used for examination of the spine (15 x 30) cm size. This is followed by 9.92% for skull (18 x 24) cm films and 8.83% for small sized films (24 x 30) cm used for paediatric patients. Of a total of 1,338 rejected films, 1276 (95.37%) additional exposure were done to obtain the basic desired diagnostic information involving 1151 patients; 885 (76.89%) of these patients needed at least one additional hospital visit to take the repeat exposure. Rejected films are not billable; patients receive additional radiation and may even come to hospital in another day for the repeat. Radiographer's work is increased as well as that of the support staff. The waiting room may be congested and waiting time increased. The cost of processing chemical and films are increased, thus if work is quantified in monetary terms, the cost of repeats is high. Rejected-repeated film analysis is cheap, simple, practicable, easy to interpret and an effective indictor of quality assurance

  5. Structure of long terminal repeats of transcriptionally active and inactive copies of Drosophila mobile dispersed genetic elements mdg3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumagaliev, E.B.; Mazo, A.N.; Baev, A.A. Jr.; Gorelova, T.V.; Arkhipova, I.R.; Shuppe, N.G.; Il'in, Yu.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have determined the nucleotide sequences of long terminal repeats (LTRS) and adjacent regions in the transcribed and nontranscribed variants of the mobile dispersed gene mdg3. In its main characteristics the mdg3 is similar to other mdg. Its integration into chromosomal DNA brings about duplication of the 4 bp of the host DNA, no specificity of the mdg integration at the nucleotide level being detected. The mdg3 is flanked by a 5 bp inverted repeat. The variations in the length of the LTR in different mdg copies is mainly due to duplication of certain sequences in the U3 and R regions. mdg3 copies with a LTR length of 267 bp are the most abundant and are completely conservative in their primary structure. They are transcribed in the cells of the 67J25D culture, but not transcribed in the K/sub c/ line, where another mdg3 variant with a LTR length of 293 bp is transcriptionally active. The SI mapping of transcription initiation and termination sites has shown that in both mdg3 variants they are localized in the same LTR regions, and that the LTR itself has a characteristic U3-R-U5 structure-like retroviral LTRs. The possible factors involved in the regulation of mdg transcription are discussed

  6. The partition behavior and the chemical speciation of selected trace elements in a typical coal sample during pyrolysis / Tivo Bafana Hlatshwayo

    OpenAIRE

    Hlatshwayo, Tivo Bafana

    2008-01-01

    Sasol is by far the world's leading company in upgrading of low-grade coal into high value chemicals and fuels. Such plants also utilise fine particles or pulverised coal in the combustion process to generate steam and electricity for their processes. Certain trace elements released from coal during utilisation may be of environmental concern. From the literature findings it appears that the elements of interest are mercury, arsenic and selenium due to their potential health hazard and as...

  7. Fast and accurate algorithm for repeated optical trapping simulations on arbitrarily shaped particles based on boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Kai-Jiang; Pan, Xiao-Min; Li, Ren-Xian; Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2017-01-01

    In optical trapping applications, the optical force should be investigated within a wide range of parameter space in terms of beam configuration to reach the desirable performance. A simple but reliable way of conducting the related investigation is to evaluate optical forces corresponding to all possible beam configurations. Although the optical force exerted on arbitrarily shaped particles can be well predicted by boundary element method (BEM), such investigation is time costing because it involves many repetitions of expensive computation, where the forces are calculated from the equivalent surface currents. An algorithm is proposed to alleviate the difficulty by exploiting our previously developed skeletonization framework. The proposed algorithm succeeds in reducing the number of repetitions. Since the number of skeleton beams is always much less than that of beams in question, the computation can be very efficient. The proposed algorithm is accurate because the skeletonization is accuracy controllable. - Highlights: • A fast and accurate algorithm is proposed in terms of boundary element method to reduce the number of repetitions of computing the optical forces from the equivalent currents. • The algorithm is accuracy controllable because the accuracy of the associated rank-revealing process is well-controlled. • The accelerate rate can reach over one thousand because the number of skeleton beams can be very small. • The algorithm can be applied to other methods, e.g., FE-BI.

  8. GREAM: A Web Server to Short-List Potentially Important Genomic Repeat Elements Based on Over-/Under-Representation in Specific Chromosomal Locations, Such as the Gene Neighborhoods, within or across 17 Mammalian Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Shimoga Chandrashekar

    Full Text Available Genome-wide repeat sequences, such as LINEs, SINEs and LTRs share a considerable part of the mammalian nuclear genomes. These repeat elements seem to be important for multiple functions including the regulation of transcription initiation, alternative splicing and DNA methylation. But it is not possible to study all repeats and, hence, it would help to short-list before exploring their potential functional significance via experimental studies and/or detailed in silico analyses.We developed the 'Genomic Repeat Element Analyzer for Mammals' (GREAM for analysis, screening and selection of potentially important mammalian genomic repeats. This web-server offers many novel utilities. For example, this is the only tool that can reveal a categorized list of specific types of transposons, retro-transposons and other genome-wide repetitive elements that are statistically over-/under-represented in regions around a set of genes, such as those expressed differentially in a disease condition. The output displays the position and frequency of identified elements within the specified regions. In addition, GREAM offers two other types of analyses of genomic repeat sequences: a enrichment within chromosomal region(s of interest, and b comparative distribution across the neighborhood of orthologous genes. GREAM successfully short-listed a repeat element (MER20 known to contain functional motifs. In other case studies, we could use GREAM to short-list repetitive elements in the azoospermia factor a (AZFa region of the human Y chromosome and those around the genes associated with rat liver injury. GREAM could also identify five over-represented repeats around some of the human and mouse transcription factor coding genes that had conserved expression patterns across the two species.GREAM has been developed to provide an impetus to research on the role of repetitive sequences in mammalian genomes by offering easy selection of more interesting repeats in various

  9. A baculovirus (Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus) repeat element functions as a powerful constitutive enhancer in transfected insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M; Farrell, P J; Johnson, R; Iatrou, K

    1997-12-05

    It has been previously reported that baculovirus homologous regions, the regions of baculovirus genomes that contain the origins of DNA replication, can augment the expression of a small number of baculovirus genes in vitro. We are now reporting that a region of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) containing the homologous region 3 (HR3) acts as an enhancer for the promoter of a nonviral gene, the cytoplasmic actin gene of the silkmoth B. mori. Incorporation of the HR3 sequences of BmNPV into an actin promoter-based expression cassette results in an augmentation of transgene expression in transfected cells by two orders of magnitude relative to the control recombinant expression cassette. This increase is due to a corresponding increase in the rate of transcription from the actin promoter and not to replication of the expression cassette and occurs only when the HR3 element is linked to the expression cassette in cis. A comparable degree of enhancement in the activity of the silkworm actin promoter occurs also in heterologous lepidopteran cells. Concomitant supplementation of transfected cells with the BmIE1 trans-activator, which was previously shown to be capable of functioning in vitro as a transcriptional co-activator of the cytoplasmic actin gene promoter, results in more than a 1,000-fold increase in the level of expression of recombinant proteins placed under the control of the actin gene promoter. These findings provide the foundation for the development of a nonlytic insect cell expression system for continuous high-level expression of recombinant proteins. Such a system should provide levels of expression of recombinant proteins comparable to those obtained from baculovirus expression systems and should also have the additional advantage of continuous production in a cellular environment that, in contrast to that generated by a baculovirus infection, supports continuously proper posttranslational modifications of recombinant

  10. Intricate interactions between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and foreign genetic elements, revealed by diversified clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Sotaro; Yoshida, Takashi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2012-08-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids.

  11. Risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) in a typical area of the Yangtze River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Xiaoshuai; Wang Huoyan; Zhou Jianmin; Ma Chengling; Du Changwen; Chen Xiaoqin

    2009-01-01

    Soil pollution with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concerns. Selected PTEs and their accumulation and distribution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) collected from Changshu, east China, were analyzed to evaluate the potential health risk to the local population. The soils were primarily contaminated with Hg, followed by Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn. The concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cd of 46, 32, and 1 rice samples exceeded their national maximum allowable levels in foods, respectively. Spatial distributions of total Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in soils shared similar geographical trends. The risk assessment of PTEs through rice consumption suggests that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd in some rice samples exceed their reference oral dose for adults and children. In general, there was no target hazard quotient value of any individual element that was greater than 1, but hazard index values for adults and children were 1.726 and 1.523, respectively. - Industrial development has led to increased risk from potentially toxic elements in soils and rice.

  12. Short Analysis of the Essential Elements of the Typical Employment Contract and of its Importance in Maintaining it within the Current Social and Economic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina Nenu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the typical individual employment contract is the main source of individual legal labor relations, but is important to find the road of this instrument in the future. It is a result of the fact that labor market dynamics should be reflected in the new meanings of rights and obligations of the parties, which cannot be covered by legal acts, with their general and impersonal character. The purpose of the legal work relationship is a special one, connected to the personality of human beings, and, as people are different, we need individual legal acts which materialize working conditions in which each of the employees provides work. Given the ongoing flexibilization of labor relations and the emergence of new types of contracts, an essential question arises. The question is whether the classic employment contract will maintain its importance in the future, whether it will be a response to the interests of employers and employees in a world characterized by economic instability, on the one hand, and by lack of skilled labor force on the other hand. Therefore, this study aims to identify the characteristics of the typical employment contract, as they were highlighted at international and national levels and the extent to which they will be maintained in the future.

  13. Conserved loci of leaf and stem rust fungi of wheat share synteny interrupted by lineage-specific influx of repeat elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellers John P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks; Pt and stem rust fungi (P. graminis f.sp. tritici; Pgt are significant economic pathogens having similar host ranges and life cycles, but different alternate hosts. The Pt genome, currently estimated at 135 Mb, is significantly larger than Pgt, at 88 Mb, but the reason for the expansion is unknown. Three genomic loci of Pt conserved proteins were characterized to gain insight into gene content, genome complexity and expansion. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was made from P. triticina race 1, BBBD and probed with Pt homologs of genes encoding two predicted Pgt secreted effectors and a DNA marker mapping to a region of avirulence. Three BACs, 103 Kb, 112 Kb, and 166 Kb, were sequenced, assembled, and open reading frames were identified. Orthologous genes were identified in Pgt and local conservation of gene order (microsynteny was observed. Pairwise protein identities ranged from 26 to 99%. One Pt BAC, containing a RAD18 ortholog, shares syntenic regions with two Pgt scaffolds, which could represent both haplotypes of Pgt. Gene sequence is diverged between the species as well as within the two haplotypes. In all three BAC clones, gene order is locally conserved, however, gene shuffling has occurred relative to Pgt. These regions are further diverged by differing insertion loci of LTR-retrotransposon, Gypsy, Copia, Mutator, and Harbinger mobile elements. Uncharacterized Pt open reading frames were also found; these proteins are high in lysine and similar to multiple proteins in Pgt. Conclusions The three Pt loci are conserved in gene order, with a range of gene sequence divergence. Conservation of predicted haustoria expressed secreted protein genes between Pt and Pgt is extended to the more distant poplar rust, Melampsora larici-populina. The loci also reveal that genome expansion in Pt is in part due to higher occurrence of repeat-elements in this species.

  14. Association of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) elements with specific serotypes and virulence potential of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Magaly; Cao, Guojie; Ju, Wenting; Allard, Marc; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains (n = 194) representing 43 serotypes and E. coli K-12 were examined for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) arrays to study genetic relatedness among STEC serotypes. A subset of the strains (n = 81) was further analyzed for subtype I-E cas and virulence genes to determine a possible association of CRISPR elements with potential virulence. Four types of CRISPR arrays were identified. CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 were present in all strains tested; 1 strain also had both CRISPR3 and CRISPR4, whereas 193 strains displayed a short, combined array, CRISPR3-4. A total of 3,353 spacers were identified, representing 528 distinct spacers. The average length of a spacer was 32 bp. Approximately one-half of the spacers (54%) were unique and found mostly in strains of less common serotypes. Overall, CRISPR spacer contents correlated well with STEC serotypes, and identical arrays were shared between strains with the same H type (O26:H11, O103:H11, and O111:H11). There was no association identified between the presence of subtype I-E cas and virulence genes, but the total number of spacers had a negative correlation with potential pathogenicity (P CRISPR-cas system and potential virulence needs to be determined on a broader scale, and the biological link will need to be established.

  15. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the

  16. Sixty-five radiation hybrids for the short arm of human chromosome 6: their value as a mapping panel and as a source for rapid isolation of new probes using repeat element-mediated PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, H.Y.; McCall, A.E.; LeBorgne-Demarquoy, F.

    1991-01-01

    We have used an irradiation and fusion procedure to generate somatic cell hybrids that retain fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 6 (6p). To identify hybrids retaining human material, we performed repeat element-mediated PCR on crude lysates of cells from individual clones. Sixty-five hybrids were shown to contain human material and fifty of those contained one or more 6p-specific probes. Detailed characterization of these hybrids identified a subset that divides 6p into ten mapping intervals. Using repeat element-mediated PCR, we were able to isolate and map 61 new DNA fragments from specific regions of 6p. Fifteen of these fragments were used to screen for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and nine identified RFLPs with one or more enzymes. The radiation hybrids described in this study provide a valuable resource for high-resolution mapping of 6p and for the rapid isolation of region-specific markers

  17. Repeating Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christian; Monticelli, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development...... and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show...... that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today....

  18. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005 [8] used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip

  19. Identification of an osteoclast transcription factor that binds to the human T cell leukemia virus type I-long terminal repeat enhancer element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, D; Santiago, P; Horne, W C; Baron, R

    1997-10-03

    Transgenic mice expressing human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-tax under the control of HTLV-I-long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter develop skeletal abnormalities with high bone turnover and myelofibrosis. In these animals, Tax is highly expressed in bone with a pattern of expression restricted to osteoclasts and spindle-shaped cells within the endosteal myelofibrosis. To test the hypothesis that lineage-specific transcription factors promote transgene expression from the HTLV-I-LTR in osteoclasts, we first examined tax expression in transgenic bone marrow cultures. Expression was dependent on 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and coincided with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression, a marker of osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, Tax was expressed in vitronectin receptor-positive mononuclear precursors as well as in mature osteoclast-like cells (OCLs). Consistent with our hypothesis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed the presence of an OCL nuclear factor (NFOC-1) that binds to the LTR 21-base pair direct repeat, a region critical for the promoter activity. This binding is further enhanced by Tax. Since NFOC-1 is absent in macrophages and conserved in osteoclasts among species including human, such a factor may play a role in lineage determination and/or in expression of the differentiated osteoclast phenotype.

  20. Comparative Genomics of a Plant-Pathogenic Fungus, Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Reveals Transduplication and the Impact of Repeat Elements on Pathogenicity and Population Divergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Viola A.; Pandelova, Iovanna; Dhillon, Braham; Wilhelm, Larry J.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Berlin, Aaron M.; Figueroa, Melania; Freitag, Michael; Hane, James K.; Henrissat, Bernard; Holman, Wade H.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Martin, Joel; Oliver, Richard P.; Robbertse, Barbara; Schackwitz, Wendy; Schwartz, David C.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Yandava, Chandri; Young, Sarah; Zhou, Shiguo; Zeng, Qiandong; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Ma, Li-Jun; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.

    2012-08-16

    Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is a necrotrophic fungus causal to the disease tan spot of wheat, whose contribution to crop loss has increased significantly during the last few decades. Pathogenicity by this fungus is attributed to the production of host-selective toxins (HST), which are recognized by their host in a genotype-specific manner. To better understand the mechanisms that have led to the increase in disease incidence related to this pathogen, we sequenced the genomes of three P. tritici-repentis isolates. A pathogenic isolate that produces two known HSTs was used to assemble a reference nuclear genome of approximately 40 Mb composed of 11 chromosomes that encode 12,141 predicted genes. Comparison of the reference genome with those of a pathogenic isolate that produces a third HST, and a nonpathogenic isolate, showed the nonpathogen genome to be more diverged than those of the two pathogens. Examination of gene-coding regions has provided candidate pathogen-specific proteins and revealed gene families that may play a role in a necrotrophic lifestyle. Analysis of transposable elements suggests that their presence in the genome of pathogenic isolates contributes to the creation of novel genes, effector diversification, possible horizontal gene transfer events, identified copy number variation, and the first example of transduplication by DNA transposable elements in fungi. Overall, comparative analysis of these genomes provides evidence that pathogenicity in this species arose through an influx of transposable elements, which created a genetically flexible landscape that can easily respond to environmental changes.

  1. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  2. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  3. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  4. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Supplementary Files' section to the left of your screen. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  5. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  6. Imperfect DNA mirror repeats in the gag gene of HIV-1 (HXB2 identify key functional domains and coincide with protein structural elements in each of the mature proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Dorothy M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A DNA mirror repeat is a sequence segment delimited on the basis of its containing a center of symmetry on a single strand, e.g. 5'-GCATGGTACG-3'. It is most frequently described in association with a functionally significant site in a genomic sequence, and its occurrence is regarded as noteworthy, if not unusual. However, imperfect mirror repeats (IMRs having ≥ 50% symmetry are common in the protein coding DNA of monomeric proteins and their distribution has been found to coincide with protein structural elements – helices, β sheets and turns. In this study, the distribution of IMRs is evaluated in a polyprotein – to determine whether IMRs may be related to the position or order of protein cleavage or other hierarchal aspects of protein function. The gag gene of HIV-1 [GenBank:K03455] was selected for the study because its protein motifs and structural components are well documented. Results There is a highly specific relationship between IMRs and structural and functional aspects of the Gag polyprotein. The five longest IMRs in the polyprotein translate a key functional segment in each of the five cleavage products. Throughout the protein, IMRs coincide with functionally significant segments of the protein. A detailed annotation of the protein, which combines structural, functional and IMR data illustrates these associations. There is a significant statistical correlation between the ends of IMRs and the ends of PSEs in each of the mature proteins. Weakly symmetric IMRs (≥ 33% are related to cleavage positions and processes. Conclusion The frequency and distribution of IMRs in HIV-1 Gag indicates that DNA symmetry is a fundamental property of protein coding DNA and that different levels of symmetry are associated with different functional aspects of the gene and its protein. The interaction between IMRs and protein structure and function is precise and interwoven over the entire length of the polyprotein. The

  7. Salicylic-Acid-Induced Chilling- and Oxidative-Stress Tolerance in Relation to Gibberellin Homeostasis, C-Repeat/Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding Factor Pathway, and Antioxidant Enzyme Systems in Cold-Stored Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Zhao, Jinhong; Nie, Ying; Fan, Bei; Wu, Shujuan; Zhang, Yu; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin; Zhao, Ruirui; Tang, Xuanming

    2016-11-02

    Effects of salicylic acid (SA) on gibberellin (GA) homeostasis, C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) pathway, and antioxidant enzyme systems linked to chilling- and oxidative-stress tolerance in tomato fruit were investigated. Mature green tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Moneymaker) were treated with 0, 0.5, and 1 mM SA solution for 15 min before storage at 4 °C for 28 days. In comparison to 0 or 0.5 mM SA, 1 mM SA significantly decreased the chilling injury (CI) index in tomato fruit. In the SA-treated fruit, the upregulation of GA biosynthetic gene (GA3ox1) expression was followed by gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) surge and DELLA protein degradation. CBF1 participated in the SA-modulated tolerance and stimulated the expression of GA catabolic gene (GA2ox1). Furthermore, 1 mM SA enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes and, thus, reduced reactive oxygen species accumulation. Our findings suggest that SA might protect tomato fruit from CI and oxidative damage through regulating GA metabolism, CBF1 gene expression, and antioxidant enzyme activities.

  8. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  9. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  10. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  11. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Karyological characterization and identification of four repetitive element groups (the 18S – 28S rRNA gene, telomeric sequences, microsatellite repeat motifs, Rex retroelements) of the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntronpong, Aorarat; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Twilprawat, Panupon; Prakhongcheep, Ornjira; Somyong, Suthasinee; Muangmai, Narongrit; Surin Peyachoknagul; Srikulnath, Kornsorn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Among teleost fishes, Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew, 1793) possesses the lowest chromosome number, 2n = 24. To characterize the chromosome constitution and investigate the genome organization of repetitive sequences in M. albus, karyotyping and chromosome mapping were performed with the 18S – 28S rRNA gene, telomeric repeats, microsatellite repeat motifs, and Rex retroelements. The 18S – 28S rRNA genes were observed to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4 at the same position with large propidium iodide and C-positive bands, suggesting that the molecular structure of the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 4 has evolved in a concerted manner with amplification of the 18S – 28S rRNA genes. (TTAGGG)n sequences were found at the telomeric ends of all chromosomes. Eight of 19 microsatellite repeat motifs were dispersedly mapped on different chromosomes suggesting the independent amplification of microsatellite repeat motifs in M. albus. Monopterus albus Rex1 (MALRex1) was observed at interstitial sites of all chromosomes and in the pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes whereas MALRex3 was scattered and localized to all chromosomes and MALRex6 to several chromosomes. This suggests that these retroelements were independently amplified or lost in M. albus. Among MALRexs (MALRex1, MALRex3, and MALRex6), MALRex6 showed higher interspecific sequence divergences from other teleost species in comparison. This suggests that the divergence of Rex6 sequences of M. albus might have occurred a relatively long time ago. PMID:29093797

  13. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  14. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  15. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  16. A General Model for Repeated Audit Controls Using Monotone Subsampling

    OpenAIRE

    Raats, V.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.; Moors, J.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In categorical repeated audit controls, fallible auditors classify sample elements in order to estimate the population fraction of elements in certain categories.To take possible misclassifications into account, subsequent checks are performed with a decreasing number of observations.In this paper a model is presented for a general repeated audit control system, where k subsequent auditors classify elements into r categories.Two different sub-sampling procedures will be discussed, named 'stra...

  17. PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...

  18. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  19. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  20. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  1. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  2. Roles of genes and Alu repeats in nonlinear correlations of HUMHBB DNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yi; Huang Yanzhao

    2004-01-01

    DNA sequences of different species and different portion of the DNA of the same species may have completely different correlation properties, but the origin of these correlations is still not very clear and is currently being investigated, especially in different particular cases. We report here a study of the DNA sequence of human beta globin region (HUMHBB) which has strong linear and nonlinear correlations. We studied the roles of two of the typical elements of DNA sequence, genes and Alu repeats, in the nonlinear correlations of HUMHBB. We find that there exist strong nonlinear correlations between the exons or introns in different genes and between the Alu repeats. They may be one of the major sources of the nonlinear correlations in HUMBHB

  3. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  4. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  5. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  6. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  7. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  8. Evaluation of Mammalian Interspersed Repeats to investigate the goat genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the repeated sequences present in most eukaryotic genomes, SINEs (Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements are widely used to investigate evolution in the mammalian order (Buchanan et al., 1999. One family of these repetitive sequences, the MIR (Mammalian Interspersed Repeats; Jurka et al., 1995, is ubiquitous in all mammals.MIR elements are tRNA-derived SINEs and are identifiable by a conserved core region of about 70 nucleotides.

  9. Fabrication of fuel elements interplay between typical SNR Mark Ia specifications and the fuel element fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, W.K.; Heuvel, H.J.; Pilate, S.; Vanderborck, Y.; Pelckmans, E.; Vanhellemont, G.; Roepenack, H.; Stoll, W.

    1987-01-01

    The core and fuel were designed for the SNR-300 first core by Interatom GmbH and Belgonucleaire. The fuel was fabricated by Alkem/RBU and Belgonucleaire. Based on the preparation of drawings and specifications and on the results of the prerun fabrication, an extensive interplay took place between design requirements, specifications, and fabrication processes at both fuel plants. During start-up of pellet and pin fabrication, this solved such technical questions as /sup 239/Pu equivalent linear weight, pellet density, stoichiometry of the pellets, and impurity content. Close cooperation of designers and manufacturers has allowed manufacture of 205 fuel assemblies without major problems

  10. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  11. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  12. Identification, variation and transcription of pneumococcal repeat sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Small interspersed repeats are commonly found in many bacterial chromosomes. Two families of repeats (BOX and RUP) have previously been identified in the genome of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a nasopharyngeal commensal and respiratory pathogen of humans. However, little is known about the role they play in pneumococcal genetics. Results Analysis of the genome of S. pneumoniae ATCC 700669 revealed the presence of a third repeat family, which we have named SPRITE. All three repeats are present at a reduced density in the genome of the closely related species S. mitis. However, they are almost entirely absent from all other streptococci, although a set of elements related to the pneumococcal BOX repeat was identified in the zoonotic pathogen S. suis. In conjunction with information regarding their distribution within the pneumococcal chromosome, this suggests that it is unlikely that these repeats are specialised sequences performing a particular role for the host, but rather that they constitute parasitic elements. However, comparing insertion sites between pneumococcal sequences indicates that they appear to transpose at a much lower rate than IS elements. Some large BOX elements in S. pneumoniae were found to encode open reading frames on both strands of the genome, whilst another was found to form a composite RNA structure with two T box riboswitches. In multiple cases, such BOX elements were demonstrated as being expressed using directional RNA-seq and RT-PCR. Conclusions BOX, RUP and SPRITE repeats appear to have proliferated extensively throughout the pneumococcal chromosome during the species' past, but novel insertions are currently occurring at a relatively slow rate. Through their extensive secondary structures, they seem likely to affect the expression of genes with which they are co-transcribed. Software for annotation of these repeats is freely available from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/pathogens/strep_repeats/. PMID:21333003

  13. A General Model for Repeated Audit Controls Using Monotone Subsampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.; Moors, J.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In categorical repeated audit controls, fallible auditors classify sample elements in order to estimate the population fraction of elements in certain categories.To take possible misclassifications into account, subsequent checks are performed with a decreasing number of observations.In this paper a

  14. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  15. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... coordinators estimate the effect on coordination fees? Does the supposed benefit that mobile repeater stations... allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and other mobile repeaters by public... email: [email protected] or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed instructions for...

  16. Typicality and misinformation: Two sources of distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malen Migueles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with highand low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in the original video information or additions of completely new contents. In the subsequent recognition task the post-event misinformation produced memory impairment. The participants used the underlying schema of the event to extract high-typicality information which had become integrated with episodic information, thus giving rise to more hits and false alarms for these items. However, the effect of exposure to misinformation was greater on low-typicality items. There were no differences between changed or added information, but there were more false alarms when a low-typicality item was changed to a high-typicality item

  17. Repeated causal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...... to sphericity assumptions, use of F tests and the Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt adjustments to compensate for deviations from sphericity. During a recent implementation of such methods in the R language, the general structure of such transformations was reconsidered, leading to a flexible specification...

  19. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  20. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  1. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  2. Film repeats in radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwan, A. Z.; Al-Shakharah, A. I

    1997-01-01

    During a one year period, 4910 radiographs of 55780 films were repeated. The objective of our study was to analyse and to classify the causes in order to minimize the repeats, cut the expenses and to provide optimal radiographs for accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the different factors revealed that, 43.6% of film repeats in our service were due to faults in exposure factors, centering comprises 15.9% of the repeats, while too much collimation was responsible for 7.6% of these repeats. All of which can be decreased by awareness and programmed training of technicians. Film blurring caused by patient motion was also responsible for 4.9% for radiographs reexamination, which can be minimized by detailed explanation to the patient and providing the necessary privacy. Fogging of X-Ray films by improper storage or inadequate handling or processing faults were responsible for 14.5% in repeats in our study. Methods and criteria for proper storage and handling of films were discussed. Recommendation for using modern day-light and laser processor has been high lighted. Artefacts are noticeably high in our cases, due to spinal dresses and frequent usage of precious metals for c osmotic purposes in this part of the world. The repeated films comprise 8.8% of all films We conclude that, the main factor responsible for repeats of up to 81.6% of cases was the technologists, thus emphasizing the importance of adequate training of the technologists. (authors). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 table

  3. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  4. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  5. Not all predicted CRISPR-Cas systems are equal: isolated cas genes and classes of CRISPR like elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Ye, Yuzhen

    2017-02-06

    The CRISPR-Cas systems in prokaryotes are RNA-guided immune systems that target and deactivate foreign nucleic acids. A typical CRISPR-Cas system consists of a CRISPR array of repeat and spacer units, and a locus of cas genes. The CRISPR and the cas locus are often located next to each other in the genomes. However, there is no quantitative estimate of the co-location. In addition, ad-hoc studies have shown that some non-CRISPR genomic elements contain repeat-spacer-like structures and are mistaken as CRISPRs. Using available genome sequences, we observed that a significant number of genomes have isolated cas loci and/or CRISPRs. We found that 11%, 22% and 28% of the type I, II and III cas loci are isolated (without CRISPRs in the same genomes at all or with CRISPRs distant in the genomes), respectively. We identified a large number of genomic elements that superficially reassemble CRISPRs but don't contain diverse spacers and have no companion cas genes. We called these elements false-CRISPRs and further classified them into groups, including tandem repeats and Staphylococcus aureus repeat (STAR)-like elements. This is the first systematic study to collect and characterize false-CRISPR elements. We demonstrated that false-CRISPRs could be used to reduce the false annotation of CRISPRs, therefore showing them to be useful for improving the annotation of CRISPR-Cas systems.

  6. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  7. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  8. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  9. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  10. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs): the hallmark of an ingenious antiviral defense mechanism in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Attar, S.; Westra, E.R.; Oost, van der J.; Brouns, S.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Many prokaryotes contain the recently discovered defense system against mobile genetic elements. This defense system contains a unique type of repetitive DNA stretches, termed Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs). CRISPRs consist of identical repeated DNA sequences

  11. Benefits of Repeated Book Readings in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Ceurremans, Josefa; Horst, Jessica S.

    2018-01-01

    In this pilot study, we ask whether repeated storybook reading is also beneficial for word learning in children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI). We compared 3-year-old German learning children diagnosed with SLI to typically developing children matched on age and socioeconomic status (SES). One week later, children with SLI…

  12. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  13. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  14. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210

  15. Analysis of CR1 Repeats in the Zebra Finch Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bird species have smaller genomes and fewer repeats than mammals. Chicken Repeat 1 (CR1 repeat is one of the most abundant families of repeats, ranging from ~133,000 to ~187,000 copies accounting for ~50 to ~80% of the interspersed repeats in the zebra finch and chicken genomes, respectively. CR1 repeats are believed to have arisen from the retrotransposition of a small number of master elements, which gave rise to multiple CR1 subfamilies in the chicken. In this study, we performed a global assessment of the divergence distributions, phylogenies, and consensus sequences of CR1 repeats in the zebra finch genome. We identified and validated 34 CR1 subfamilies and further analyzed the correlation between these subfamilies. We also discovered 4 novel lineage-specific CR1 subfamilies in the zebra finch when compared to the chicken genome. We built various evolutionary trees of these subfamilies and concluded that CR1 repeats may play an important role in reshaping the structure of bird genomes.

  16. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  17. Transposable elements in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen H

    2017-07-01

    Transposable elements give rise to interspersed repeats, sequences that comprise most of our genomes. These mobile DNAs have been historically underappreciated - both because they have been presumed to be unimportant, and because their high copy number and variability pose unique technical challenges. Neither impediment now seems steadfast. Interest in the human mobilome has never been greater, and methods enabling its study are maturing at a fast pace. This Review describes the activity of transposable elements in human cancers, particularly long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1). LINE-1 sequences are self-propagating, protein-coding retrotransposons, and their activity results in somatically acquired insertions in cancer genomes. Altered expression of transposable elements and animation of genomic LINE-1 sequences appear to be hallmarks of cancer, and can be responsible for driving mutations in tumorigenesis.

  18. Severity of Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Poor and Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Goldston, David B.; Walsh, Adam K.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Hickman, Enith; Wood, Frank B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the severity of behavioral and emotional problems among adolescents with poor and typical single word reading ability (N = 188) recruited from public schools and followed for a median of 2.4 years. Youth and parents were repeatedly assessed to obtain information regarding the severity and course of symptoms…

  19. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  20. DISRUPTION OF CONDITIONED REWARD ASSOCIATION BY TYPICAL AND ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, C.L.; Elmer, G.I.

    2013-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are broadly classified into typical and atypical compounds; they vary in their pharmacological profile however a common component is their antagonist effects at the D2 dopamine receptors (DRD2). Unfortunately, diminished DRD2 activation is generally thought to be associated with the severity of neuroleptic-induced anhedonia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and typical antipsychotic haloperidol in a paradigm that reflects the learned transfer of incentive motivational properties to previously neutral stimuli, namely autoshaping. In order to provide a dosing comparison to a therapeutically relevant endpoint, both drugs were tested against amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition as well. In the autoshaping task, rats were exposed to repeated pairings of stimuli that were differentially predictive of reward delivery. Conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue (sign-tracking) and to the reward (goal-tracking) increased during repeated pairings in the vehicle treated rats. Haloperidol and olanzapine completely abolished this behavior at relatively low doses (100 μg/kg). This same dose was the threshold dose for each drug to antagonize the sensorimotor gating deficits produced by amphetamine. At lower doses (3–30 μg/kg) both drugs produced a dose-dependent decrease in conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. There was no difference between drugs at this dose range which indicates that olanzapine disrupts autoshaping at a significantly lower proposed DRD2 receptor occupancy. Interestingly, neither drug disrupted conditioned approach to the reward at the same dose range that disrupted conditioned approach to the reward predictive cue. Thus, haloperidol and olanzapine, at doses well below what is considered therapeutically relevant, disrupts the attribution of incentive motivational value to previously neutral cues. Drug effects on this dimension of reward

  1. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  2. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  3. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  4. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  5. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  7. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  8. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  9. The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Bos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on

  10. The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Colin, Bos,

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on

  11. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  12. Enhancing Surface Finish of Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt Chrome Elements Using Laser Based Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, Wojciech S.; Tian, Yingtao; Cabo, Aldara Pan; Ardron, Marcus; Maier, Robert R. J.; Prangnell, Philip; Weston, Nicholas J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility of creating a complex free form object as a single element, which is not possible using traditional mechanical machining. Unfortunately the typically rough surface finish of additively manufactured parts is unsuitable for many applications. As a result AM parts must be post-processed; typically mechanically machined and/or and polished using either chemical or mechanical techniques (both of which have their limitations). Laser based polishing is based on remelting of a very thin surface layer and it offers potential as a highly repeatable, higher speed process capable of selective area polishing, and without any waste problems (no abrasives or liquids). In this paper an in-depth investigation of CW laser polishing of titanium and cobalt chrome AM elements is presented. The impact of different scanning strategies, laser parameters and initial surface condition on the achieved surface finish is evaluated.

  13. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  14. [Typical atrial flutter: Diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Eckardt, Lars; Estner, Heidi L; Kuniss, Malte; Meyer, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; Voss, Frederik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    Typical, cavotricuspid-dependent atrial flutter is the most common atrial macroreentry tachycardia. The incidence of atrial flutter (typical and atypical forms) is age-dependent with 5/100,000 in patients less than 50 years and approximately 600/100,000 in subjects > 80 years of age. Concomitant heart failure or pulmonary disease further increases the risk of typical atrial flutter.Patients with atrial flutter may present with symptoms of palpitations, reduced exercise capacity, chest pain, or dyspnea. The risk of thromboembolism is probably similar to atrial fibrillation; therefore, the same antithrombotic prophylaxis is required in atrial flutter patients. Acutely symptomatic cases may be subjected to cardioversion or pharmacologic rate control to relieve symptoms. Catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus represents the primary choice in long-term therapy, associated with high procedural success (> 97 %) and low complication rates (0.5 %).This article represents the third part of a manuscript series designed to improve professional education in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Mechanistic and clinical characteristics as well as management of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter are described in detail. Electrophysiological findings and catheter ablation of the arrhythmia are highlighted.

  15. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  16. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  17. Repeated checking causes memory distrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits

  18. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in the context under consideration, than those lower down. For any given class C, we assume that all objects in the appli- cation domain that are in (the interpretation of) C are more typical of C than those not in C. This is a technical construction which... to be modular partial orders, i.e. reflexive, transitive, anti- symmetric relations such that, for all a, b, c in ∆I , if a and b are incomparable and a is strictly below c, then b is also strictly below c. Modular partial orders have the effect...

  19. Benchmark calculation programme concerning typical LMFBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, J.; Ferrari, G.; Grossetie, J.C.; Terzaghi, A.

    1982-01-01

    This programme, which is part of a comprehensive activity aimed at resolving difficulties encountered in using design procedures based on ASME Code Case N-47, should allow to get confidence in computer codes which are supposed to provide a realistic prediction of the LMFBR component behaviour. The calculations started on static analysis of typical structures made of non linear materials stressed by cyclic loads. The fluid structure interaction analysis is also being considered. Reasons and details of the different benchmark calculations are described, results obtained are commented and future computational exercise indicated

  20. Typical skeletal changes due to metastasising neuroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerath, A.; Persigehl, M.; Mertens, R.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1983-01-01

    Compared with other solid tumours in childhood, neuroblastomas show a marked tendency to metastasise to the skeleton. The differentiation of these lesions from inflammatory and other malignant bone lesions in this age group is often difficult. The radiological findings in ten patients with metastasing and histologically confirmed neuroblastomas have been reviewed and the typical appearances in the skeleton are described. The most important features in the differential diagnosies are discussed and the significance of bone changes in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma have been evaluated. (orig.) [de

  1. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  2. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) RNAs in the Porphyromonas gingivalis CRISPR-Cas I-C System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrz, Michal; Rodriguez Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Krochmal, Daniel; Staniec, Dominika; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated protein) system is unique to prokaryotes and provides the majority of bacteria and archaea with immunity against nucleic acids of foreign origin. CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are the key element of this system, since they are responsible for its selectivity and effectiveness. Typical crRNAs consist of a spacer sequence flanked with 5' and 3' handles originating from repeat sequences that are important for recognition of these small RNAs by the Cas machinery. In this investigation, we studied the type I-C CRISPR-Cas system in Porphyromonas gingivalis , a human pathogen associated with periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and aspiration pneumonia. We demonstrated the importance of the 5' handle for crRNA recognition by the effector complex and consequently activity, as well as secondary trimming of the 3' handle, which was not affected by modifications of the repeat sequence. IMPORTANCE Porphyromonas gingivalis , a clinically relevant Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is one of the major etiologic agents of periodontitis and has been linked with the development of other clinical conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and aspiration pneumonia. The presented results on the biogenesis and functions of crRNAs expand our understanding of CRISPR-Cas cellular defenses in P. gingivalis and of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Bibliography on transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selective bibliography of prominent publications on transuranium elements is compiled. Heading papers, symposia proceedings and the textbooks are included in the bibliography. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1)Books, Symposia Proceedings, Reviews etc., (2)Discovery, (3)Weighable Isolation, (4)Metal Preparation, (5)Nuclear Properties, (6)Plutonium as Reactor Fuel, (7)Fuel Reprocessing, (8)Solid State Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Spectroscopy, (9)Radiation Safety, (10)Applications, and (11)Some Typical Indian Papers. Total number of references cited are 298. The bibliography, though selective, will serve as a starting point for comprehensive literature search on transuranium elements. (author)

  4. IEEE 802.3 Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a fiber optic inter-repeater link (FOIRL), used for connecting two remote copper segments of an IEEE 802.3 local area network. The rationale for the design, the signalling used and the collision detection mechanism is discussed. The evolution of the draft international standard for the FOIRL and the concurrence amongst various manufacturers is also presented. Finally some examples of typical applications, highlighting the ease of installation, are given.

  5. Online learning in repeated auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Weed, Jonathan; Perchet, Vianney; Rigollet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by online advertising auctions, we consider repeated Vickrey auctions where goods of unknown value are sold sequentially and bidders only learn (potentially noisy) information about a good's value once it is purchased. We adopt an online learning approach with bandit feedback to model this problem and derive bidding strategies for two models: stochastic and adversarial. In the stochastic model, the observed values of the goods are random variables centered around the true value of t...

  6. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  7. A family of DNA repeats in Aspergillus nidulans has assimilated degenerated retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.L.; Hermansen, T.D.; Aleksenko, Alexei Y.

    2001-01-01

    In the course of a chromosomal walk towards the centromere of chromosome IV of Aspergillus nidulans, several cross- hybridizing genomic cosmid clones were isolated. Restriction mapping of two such clones revealed that their restriction patterns were similar in a region of at least 15 kb, indicati......) phenomenon, first described in Neurospora crassa, may have operated in A. nidulans. The data indicate that this family of repeats has assimilated mobile elements that subsequently degenerated but then underwent further duplications as a part of the host repeats....... the presence of a large repeat. The nature of the repeat was further investigated by sequencing and Southern analysis. The study revealed a family of long dispersed repeats with a high degree of sequence similarity. The number and location of the repeats vary between wild isolates. Two copies of the repeat...

  8. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  9. Typical balance exercises or exergames for balance improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Vernadakis, Nikolaos; Malliou, Paraskevi; Batzios, Stavros; Sofokleous, Polina; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kouli, Olga; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Godolias, George

    2013-01-01

    Balance training is an effective intervention to improve static postural sway and balance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus exercises for improving balance ability in healthy collegiate students in comparison with a typical balance training program. Forty students were randomly divided into two groups, a traditional (T group) and a Nintendo Wii group (W group) performed an 8 week balance program. The "W group" used the interactive games as a training method, while the "T group" used an exercise program with mini trampoline and inflatable discs (BOSU). Pre and Post-training participants completed balance assessments. Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to determine the effect of training program. Analysis of the data illustrated that both training program groups demonstrated an improvement in Total, Anterior-posterior and Medial Lateral Stability Index scores for both limbs. Only at the test performed in the balance board with anterior-posterior motion, the improvement in balance ability was greater in the "T group" than the "W group", when the assessment was performed post-training (p=0.023). Findings support the effectiveness of using the Nintendo Wii gaming console as a balance training intervention tool.

  10. The Chemistry of Superheavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Schädel, M

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of transactinide or superheavy elements has reached element 108. Preparations are under way to leap to element 112 and beyond. The current status of this atom-at-a-time chemical research and its future perspectives are reviewed from an experimental point of view together with some of the interesting results from n -rich nuclides near and at the N=162 neutron shell. Experimental techniques and important results enlightening typical chemical properties of elements 104 through 108 are presented in an exemplary way. From the results of these experiments it is justified to place these elements in the Periodic Table of the Elements in to groups 4 through 8, respectively. However, mainly due to the influence of relativistic effects, it is no longer possible to deduce detailed chemical properties of these superheavy elements simply from this position.

  11. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Kwiat, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network. (paper)

  12. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, A.; Chettri, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  13. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  14. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  15. Typical and atypical presentations of aspergilloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villajos, M.; Darnell, A.; Gallardo, X.; Castaner, E.; Mata, J. M.; Paedavila, E.

    1999-01-01

    To show the different forms of radiological presentations of aspergilloma, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the atypical forms. The explorations of 11 patients with aspergilloma were examined retrospectively between 1993 and 1997. These patients were studied using conventional X-rays and computed tomography (CT): Typical and atypical radiological findings were observed. In two patients, who presented recurrent hemoptysis, a percutaneous installation of amphotericin B was carried out with tomographic control. Out of the 11 patients, two were female and nine male. In eight of the cases the radiological findings showed an intercavity injury with different evolutionary forms, while in three of the cases there was a progressive pleural swelling. In the two patients treated pertinaciously, no significant radiological changes were observed, however, neither of them showed hemoptysis again. The pleural swelling adjacent to the cavity and/or the swelling of the cavity wall are atypical radiological presentations of the aspergilloma, that can accompany or precede the appearance of this illness. (Author) 7 refs

  16. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  17. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  18. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Malvessi Cattani

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  19. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  20. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  2. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  3. Complete chloroplast genome of Trachelium caeruleum: extensiverearrangements are associated with repeats and tRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberle, Rosemarie C.; Fourcade, Matthew L.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-09

    Chloroplast genome structure, gene order and content arehighly conserved in land plants. We sequenced the complete chloroplastgenome sequence of Trachelium caeruleum (Campanulaceae) a member of anangiosperm family known for highly rearranged chloroplast genomes. Thetotal genome size is 162,321 bp with an IR of 27,273 bp, LSC of 100,113bp and SSC of 7,661 bp. The genome encodes 115 unique genes, with 19duplicated in the IR, a tRNA (trnI-CAU) duplicated once in the LSC and aprotein coding gene (psbJ) duplicated twice, for a total of 137 genes.Four genes (ycf15, rpl23, infA and accD) are truncated and likelynonfunctional; three others (clpP, ycf1 and ycf2) are so highly divergedthat they may now be pseudogenes. The most conspicuous feature of theTrachelium genome is the presence of eighteen internally unrearrangedblocks of genes that have been inverted or relocated within the genome,relative to the typical gene order of most angiosperm chloroplastgenomes. Recombination between repeats or tRNAs has been suggested as twomeans of chloroplast genome rearrangements. We compared the relativenumber of repeats in Trachelium to eight other angiosperm chloroplastgenomes, and evaluated the location of repeats and tRNAs in relation torearrangements. Trachelium has the highest number and largest repeats,which are concentrated near inversion endpoints or other rearrangements.tRNAs occur at many but not all inversion endpoints. There is likely nosingle mechanism responsible for the remarkable number of alterations inthis genome, but both repeats and tRNAs are clearly associated with theserearrangements. Land plant chloroplast genomes are highly conserved instructure, gene order and content. The chloroplast genomes of ferns, thegymnosperm Ginkgo, and most angiosperms are nearly collinear, reflectingthe gene order in lineages that diverged from lycopsids and the ancestralchloroplast gene order over 350 million years ago (Raubeson and Jansen,1992). Although earlier mapping studies

  4. An infinitely expandable cloning strategy plus repeat-proof PCR for working with multiple shRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen John McIntyre

    Full Text Available Vector construction with restriction enzymes (REs typically involves the ligation of a digested donor fragment (insert to a reciprocally digested recipient fragment (vector backbone. Creating a suitable cloning plan becomes increasingly difficult for complex strategies requiring repeated insertions such as constructing multiple short hairpin RNA (shRNA expression vectors for RNA interference (RNAi studies. The problem lies in the reduced availability of suitable RE recognition sites with an increasing number of cloning events and or vector size. This report details a technically simple, directional cloning solution using REs with compatible cohesive ends that are repeatedly destroyed and simultaneously re-introduced with each round of cloning. Donor fragments can be made by PCR or sub-cloned from pre-existing vectors and inserted ad infinitum in any combination. The design incorporates several cloning cores in order to be compatible with as many donor sequences as possible. We show that joining sub-combinations made in parallel is more time-efficient than sequential construction (of one cassette at a time for any combination of 4 or more insertions. Screening for the successful construction of combinations using Taq polymerase based PCR became increasingly difficult with increasing number of repeated sequence elements. A Pfu polymerase based PCR was developed and successfully used to amplify combinations of up to eleven consecutive hairpin expression cassettes. The identified PCR conditions can be beneficial to others working with multiple shRNA or other repeated sequences, and the infinitely expandable cloning strategy serves as a general solution applicable to many cloning scenarios.

  5. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  6. Adolescent alcohol exposure and persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805

  7. Risperidone versus typical antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H; Joy, C B; Kennedy, E; Gilbody, S M; Song, F

    2003-01-01

    found in long-term studies (n=859, 2RCTs RR not 20% improved 0.51 CI 0.38 to 0.67 NNT 4;n=675 1RCT, RR not improved 40% 0.75 CI 0.66 to 0.84 NNT 5; n=675, 1 RCT, RR not 60% improved 0.90 CI 0.84 to 0.96, NNT 11). Risperidone was also more likely to reduce relapse at one year follow up, compared with haloperidol (n=367, 1 RCT, RR 0.64 CI 0.41 to 0.99, NNT 7). Less people allocated risperidone left studies before completion, both for short-term (n=3066, 16 RCTs, RR 0.76 CI 0.63 to 0.92, NNT 6) and long-term trials (n=1270, 4RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.42 to 0.73 NNT 4). For general movement disorders results favoured risperidone. People given risperidone had significantly fewer general movement disorders (including extrapyramidal side effects) than those receiving older typical antipsychotics (n=2702, 10 RCTs, RR 0.63 CI 0.56 to 0.71, NNT 3). Significantly fewer people given risperidone used antiparkinsonian drugs (n=2524, 11 RCTs, RR 0.66 CI 0.58 to 0.74, NNT 4). As regards body weight, however, four studies (n=1708) found people were more likely to gain weight if allocated risperidone compared to typical antipsychotics (RR 1.55 CI 1.25 to 1.93, NNH 3). Risperidone was no more or less likely than haloperidol to cause sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction (n=106, 2 RCTs, RR 1.55 CI 0.58 to 4.20). Finally, some results found risperidone was more likely to cause rhinitis than conventional antipsychotics (n=656, 3 RCTs, RR1.99 CI 1.24 to 3.19, NNH 3). Risperidone may be more acceptable to those with schizophrenia than older antipsychotics and have marginal benefits in terms of limited clinical improvement. Its adverse effect profile may be better than haloperidol. With the addition of more studies to this review, the publication bias evident in previous versions is no longer a significant issue. Any marginal benefits this drug may have have to be balanced against its greater cost and increased tendency to cause side effects such as weight gain. Recent important longer term

  8. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.; Maity, A.; Mammen, E.; Yu, K.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements

  9. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  10. Ex-plant consequence assessment for NUREG-1150: models, typical results, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of ex-plant consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms was performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). This paper briefly discusses the following elements of MACCS consequence calculations: input data, phenomena modeled, computational framework, typical results, controlling phenomena, and uncertainties. Wherever possible, NUREG-1150 results will be used to illustrate the discussion. 28 references

  11. Nuclear chemistry of transactinide elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagame, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    The current status on the nuclear chemistry studies of transactinide elements is reviewed. The production of transactinides in heavy ion reactions is briefly discussed, and nuclear properties on the stability of transactinides are presented. Chemical properties of the trans-actinide elements 104, 105 and 106, and a typical experimental technique used to study these properties on an atom-at-a-time base are introduced. (author)

  12. Repeat-aware modeling and correction of short read errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Aluru, Srinivas; Dorman, Karin S

    2011-02-15

    High-throughput short read sequencing is revolutionizing genomics and systems biology research by enabling cost-effective deep coverage sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes. Error detection and correction are crucial to many short read sequencing applications including de novo genome sequencing, genome resequencing, and digital gene expression analysis. Short read error detection is typically carried out by counting the observed frequencies of kmers in reads and validating those with frequencies exceeding a threshold. In case of genomes with high repeat content, an erroneous kmer may be frequently observed if it has few nucleotide differences with valid kmers with multiple occurrences in the genome. Error detection and correction were mostly applied to genomes with low repeat content and this remains a challenging problem for genomes with high repeat content. We develop a statistical model and a computational method for error detection and correction in the presence of genomic repeats. We propose a method to infer genomic frequencies of kmers from their observed frequencies by analyzing the misread relationships among observed kmers. We also propose a method to estimate the threshold useful for validating kmers whose estimated genomic frequency exceeds the threshold. We demonstrate that superior error detection is achieved using these methods. Furthermore, we break away from the common assumption of uniformly distributed errors within a read, and provide a framework to model position-dependent error occurrence frequencies common to many short read platforms. Lastly, we achieve better error correction in genomes with high repeat content. The software is implemented in C++ and is freely available under GNU GPL3 license and Boost Software V1.0 license at "http://aluru-sun.ece.iastate.edu/doku.php?id = redeem". We introduce a statistical framework to model sequencing errors in next-generation reads, which led to promising results in detecting and correcting errors

  13. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  14. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  15. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  16. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  17. Hybrid FRC under repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibres - polypropylene and steel, were tested under repeated loading. Mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150/150/150 mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100/100/400 (for flexural strength), short cylinders 150/60 mm (for impact strength) have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading at the age of 28 days curing time. Mix proportions were designed after DIN 1045 with max. aggregate size 8 mm and grading curve B 8. Portland Cement PC 400 in the amount of 450 kg. m -3 was applied and W/C ratio 0.55. Workability of mixes was measured by Vebe method and regulated by plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. Maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene + steel) was 1.0%. Dynamic forces generated in Schenck testing machine with frequency 16 Hz had sinusoidal wave form varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR at static four point bending test and working diagram force-deflection was carried out as well. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of falling weight test. Relationships between composition of fibre composites with different combination of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3, 0.5% by volume) and steel (0.5, 0.7, and 0.8% by volume) fibre content were obtained and technological properties of mixes as well. (author)

  18. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  19. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  20. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  1. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-09-26

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  2. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  3. Measuring Repeatability of the Focus-variable Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Řezníček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of photogrammetry, the optical system, usually represented by the glass lens, is used for metric purposes. Therefore, the aberration characteristics of such a lens, inducing deviations from projective imaging, has to be well known. However, the most important property of the metric lens is the stability of its glass and mechanical elements, ensuring long-term reliability of the measured parameters. In case of a focus-variable lens, the repeatability of the lens setup is important as well. Lenses with a fixed focal length are usually considered as “fixed” though, in fact, most of them contain one or more movable glass elements, providing the focusing function. In cases where the lens is not equipped with fixing screws, the repeatability of the calibration parameters should be known. This paper derives simple mathematical formulas that can be used for measuring the repeatability of the focus-variable lenses, and gives a demonstrative example of such measuring. The given procedure has the advantage that only demanded parameters are estimated, hence, no unwanted correlations with the additional parameters exist. The test arrangement enables us to measure each demanded magnification of the optical system, which is important in close-range photogrammetry.

  4. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  5. Transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The review is covered in sections, entitled: predicted nuclear properties - including closed shells, decay characteristics; predicted chemical properties - including electronic structure and calculated properties, X-radiation, extrapolated chemical properties, separation chemistry; methods of synthesis; the natural occurrence of superheavy elements. (U.K.)

  6. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  7. Automated detection of repeated structures in building facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Previtali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Automatic identification of high-level repeated structures in 3D point clouds of building façades is crucial for applications like digitalization and building modelling. Indeed, in many architectural styles building façades are governed by arrangements of objects into repeated patterns. In particular, façades are generally designed as the repetition of some few basic objects organized into interlaced and\\or concatenated grid structures. Starting from this key observation, this paper presents an algorithm for Repeated Structure Detection (RSD in 3D point clouds of building façades. The presented methodology consists of three main phases. First, in the point cloud segmentation stage (i the building façade is decomposed into planar patches which are classified by means of some weak prior knowledge of urban buildings formulated in a classification tree. Secondly (ii, in the element clustering phase detected patches are grouped together by means of a similarity function and pairwise transformations between patches are computed. Eventually (iii, in the structure regularity estimation step the parameters of repeated grid patterns are calculated by using a Least- Squares optimization. Workability of the presented approach is tested using some real data from urban scenes.

  8. On the crustal bias of repeat stations in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Dobrica

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic induction model has been applied to recordings obtained in 2010 during the field campaigns for geomagnetic measurements at the 26 repeat stations of the Romanian secular variation network. The model is based on the observation that a variable external magnetic field induces a response of the Earth's interior not only by electromagnetic induction, but also by magnetic induction in the magnetic rocks above the Curie temperature. The model computes coefficients of a linear relationship between recorded values of a certain geomagnetic element (X, Y, Z, or F at the repeat station and recorded X, Y, Z values at a reference station (in this case, SUA observatory. Coefficients depend on magnetic permeabilities of rocks beneath the station and stand as a proxy for the anomaly bias characterizing the site. Maps of the lateral variation of this type of information were obtained and discussed.

  9. New elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.

    1976-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed. (I.W.)

  10. Summary of typical routine maintenance activities at Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Supplement (March, 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    Typical maintenance activities, such as replacement of worn out parts and cleaning of filter elements, routinely performed during steady operation are summarized. [The Summary of Typical Routine Maintenance Activities at Tokai Reprocessing Plant] (JNC TN 8450 2001-006) was already prepared in September, 2001. The purpose of this summary is to give elementary understanding on these activities to people who are responsible for explanation them to the public. At this time, the same kind of summary is prepared as a supplement of the previous one. (author)

  11. Repeated pulsed x-ray emission equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hikaru; Iida, Satoshi

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique has been applied to determine the spatial positions of atoms which compose a material, and it is needless to say that the technique is a fundamental means regardless of the fields of research. However, the application of X-ray diffraction to the research on physical properties has been so far limited to know the spatial positions of atoms or molecules under thermal equilibrium condition. The addition of time element to the conventional technique, that is, the analysis of material structure including the time-varying processes under non-equilibrium conditions, is considered to approach the elucidation of the essence of materials. The authors call this dynamic structural analysis. The authors have planned to analyze X-ray diffraction intensity which has the resolution of about 10 -8 s in the real time which is conjugate with energy. However, present pulsed X-ray sources are not suitable for diffraction experiment because the pulse width is too long or X-ray wavelength is too short. Accordingly, the authors have made for trial a pulsed X-ray source for diffraction experiment. Its specifications are: diode voltage (X-ray tube voltage) from 200 to 300 kV, diode current from 2 to 5 kA, pulse width of about 30ns, maximum repetition frequency 10 pps, and X-ray focus size of 2 mm diameter. One of the features of this source is the repeated generation of pulsed X-ray. This is the first trial in the world, and is indispensable to the dynamic structural analysis described above. The quality of the emitted X-ray is also written. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. A review of typical thermal fatigue failure models for solder joints of electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ruifeng; Wang, Yongdong

    2017-09-01

    For electronic components, cyclic plastic strain makes it easier to accumulate fatigue damage than elastic strain. When the solder joints undertake thermal expansion or cold contraction, different thermal strain of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate is caused by the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the electronic component and its corresponding substrate, leading to the phenomenon of stress concentration. So repeatedly, cracks began to sprout and gradually extend [1]. In this paper, the typical thermal fatigue failure models of solder joints of electronic components are classified and the methods of obtaining the parameters in the model are summarized based on domestic and foreign literature research.

  13. Solution properties of the archaeal CRISPR DNA repeat-binding homeodomain protein Cbp2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenchappa, Chandra; Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri; Kragelund, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) form the basis of diverse adaptive immune systems directed primarily against invading genetic elements of archaea and bacteria. Cbp1 of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophilic order Sulfolobales, carrying three imperfect repeats, binds...... specifically to CRISPR DNA repeats and has been implicated in facilitating production of long transcripts from CRISPR loci. Here, a second related class of CRISPR DNA repeat-binding protein, denoted Cbp2, is characterized that contains two imperfect repeats and is found amongst members of the crenarchaeal...... in facilitating high affinity DNA binding of Cbp2 by tethering the two domains. Structural studies on mutant proteins provide support for Cys(7) and Cys(28) enhancing high thermal stability of Cbp2(Hb) through disulphide bridge formation. Consistent with their proposed CRISPR transcriptional regulatory role, Cbp2...

  14. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  15. Repeat-containing protein effectors of plant-associated organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl H. Mesarich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many plant-associated organisms, including microbes, nematodes, and insects, deliver effector proteins into the apoplast, vascular tissue, or cell cytoplasm of their prospective hosts. These effectors function to promote colonization, typically by altering host physiology or by modulating host immune responses. The same effectors however, can also trigger host immunity in the presence of cognate host immune receptor proteins, and thus prevent colonization. To circumvent effector-triggered immunity, or to further enhance host colonization, plant-associated organisms often rely on adaptive effector evolution. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that several effectors of plant-associated organisms are repeat-containing proteins (RCPs that carry tandem or non-tandem arrays of an amino acid sequence or structural motif. In this review, we highlight the diverse roles that these repeat domains play in RCP effector function. We also draw attention to the potential role of these repeat domains in adaptive evolution with regards to RCP effector function and the evasion of effector-triggered immunity. The aim of this review is to increase the profile of RCP effectors from plant-associated organisms.

  16. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  17. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeat ... Cluster analysis revealed a high genetic similarity among the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines which could reduce the genetic gain in ..... The multiple allele characteristic of SSR com-.

  18. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan; Manolescu, Ioana; Afanasiev, Loredana; Feng, Jieling; Gou, G.; Hadjieleftheriou, Marios; Harizopoulos, Stavros; Kalnis, Panos; Karanasos, Konstantinos; Laurent, Dominique; Lupu, M.; Onose, N.; Ré , C.; Sans, Virginie; Senellart, Pierre; Wu, T.; Shasha, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  19. Measurement of repeat effects in Chicago’s criminal social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kump

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The “near-repeat” effect is a well-known criminological phenomenon in which the occurrence of a crime incident gives rise to a temporary elevation of crime risk within close physical proximity to an initial incident. Adopting a social network perspective, we instead define a near repeat in terms of geodesic distance within a criminal social network, rather than spatial distance. Specifically, we report a statistical analysis of repeat effects in arrest data for Chicago during the years 2003–2012. We divide the arrest data into two sets (violent crimes and other crimes and, for each set, we compare the distributions of time intervals between repeat incidents to theoretical distributions in which repeat incidents occur only by chance. We first consider the case of the same arrestee participating in repeat incidents (“exact repeats” and then extend the analysis to evaluate repeat risks of those arrestees near one another in the social network. We observe repeat effects that diminish as a function of geodesic distance and time interval, and we estimate typical time scales for repeat crimes in Chicago.

  20. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  1. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  2. Differential Regulation of Strand-Specific Transcripts from Arabidopsis Centromeric Satellite Repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Centromeres interact with the spindle apparatus to enable chromosome disjunction and typically contain thousands of tandemly arranged satellite repeats interspersed with retrotransposons. While their role has been obscure, centromeric repeats are epigenetically modified and centromere specification has a strong epigenetic component. In the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, long heterochromatic repeats are transcribed and contribute to centromere function via RNA interference (RNAi. In the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as in mammalian cells, centromeric satellite repeats are short (180 base pairs, are found in thousands of tandem copies, and are methylated. We have found transcripts from both strands of canonical, bulk Arabidopsis repeats. At least one subfamily of 180-base pair repeats is transcribed from only one strand and regulated by RNAi and histone modification. A second subfamily of repeats is also silenced, but silencing is lost on both strands in mutants in the CpG DNA methyltransferase MET1, the histone deacetylase HDA6/SIL1, or the chromatin remodeling ATPase DDM1. This regulation is due to transcription from Athila2 retrotransposons, which integrate in both orientations relative to the repeats, and differs between strains of Arabidopsis. Silencing lost in met1 or hda6 is reestablished in backcrosses to wild-type, but silencing lost in RNAi mutants and ddm1 is not. Twenty-four-nucleotide small interfering RNAs from centromeric repeats are retained in met1 and hda6, but not in ddm1, and may have a role in this epigenetic inheritance. Histone H3 lysine-9 dimethylation is associated with both classes of repeats. We propose roles for transcribed repeats in the epigenetic inheritance and evolution of centromeres.

  3. The Dark Side of Testing Memory: Repeated Retrieval Can Enhance Eyewitness Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason C. K.; LaPaglia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    Eyewitnesses typically recount their experiences many times before trial. Such repeated retrieval can enhance memory retention of the witnessed event. However, recent studies (e.g., Chan, Thomas, & Bulevich, 2009) have found that initial retrieval can exacerbate eyewitness suggestibility to later misleading information--a finding termed…

  4. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Class A Repeats Are O-Glycosylated in Linker Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Wang, Shengjun; Narimatsu, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    , which in wild-type CHO cells is glycosylated with the typical sialylated core 1 structure. The glycosites in linker regions of LDLR class A repeats are conserved in LDLR from man to Xenopus and found in other homologous receptors. O-Glycosylation is controlled by a large family of polypeptide Gal...

  5. The effect of repeated melting of zircaloy-4 to the distribution of volatile constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johneri, E.; Wijaksana; Badruzzaman, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of repeated fusion on the composition and distribution of zircaloy volatile elemental constituents (especially Sn) has been investigated. The results showed that the higher the number of repeated fusion is, the more evenly distributed the constituents are, but the composition decreased until reached constant values. This phenomenon occurred due to the relatively faster diffusion movement of one element compared to the others. Further investigation needs to be done to find other proofs of the phenomenon. Moreover, continued research is in demand in order to answer technological problems regarding the zircaloy production and metal alloy production in general. (author)

  6. Foods Inducing Typical Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jung Wan; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Several specific foods are known to precipitate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and GERD patients are usually advised to avoid such foods. However, foods consumed daily are quite variable according to regions, cultures, etc. This study was done to elucidate the food items which induce typical GERD symptoms in Korean patients. Methods One hundred and twenty-six Korean patients with weekly typical GERD symptoms were asked to mark all food items that induced typic...

  7. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Thermal, cardiac and adrenergic responses to repeated local cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janský, L; Matousková, E; Vávra, V; Vybíral, S; Janský, P; Jandová, D; Knízková, I; Kunc, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether repeated local cooling induces the same or different adaptational responses as repeated whole body cooling. Repeated cooling of the legs (immersion into 12 degrees C water up to the knees for 30 min, 20 times during 4 weeks = local cold adaptation - LCA) attenuated the initial increase in heart rate and blood pressure currently observed in control subjects immersed in cold water up to the knees. After LCA the initial skin temperature decrease tended to be lower, indicating reduced vasoconstriction. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure appeared to be generally lower during rest and during the time course of cooling in LCA humans, when compared to controls. All these changes seem to indicate attenuation of the sympathetic tone. In contrast, the sustained skin temperature in different areas of the body (finger, palm, forearm, thigh, chest) appeared to be generally lower in LCA subjects than in controls (except for temperatures on the forehead). Plasma levels of catecholamines (measured 20 and 40 min after the onset of cooling) were also not influenced by local cold adaptation. Locally cold adapted subjects, when exposed to whole body cold water immersion test, showed no change in the threshold temperature for induction of cold thermogenesis. This indicates that the hypothermic type of cold adaptation, typically occurring after systemic cold adaptation, does not appear after local cold adaptation of the intensity used. It is concluded that in humans the cold adaptation due to repeated local cooling of legs induces different physiological changes than systemic cold adaptation.

  9. Alu repeats as markers for forensic DNA analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kass, D.H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 inch and 3 inch unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allow the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of the Alu repeat. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences probably inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem humans (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project. HS Alu family member insertions differ from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) in that polymorphisms due to Alu insertions arise as a result of a unique event which has occurred only one time in the human population and spread through the population from that point. Therefore, individuals that share HS Alu repeats inherited these elements from a common ancestor. Most VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times in parallel within a population.

  10. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    2018-03-01

    The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of the OFM in children with foot deformity. Intra-tester repeatability was assessed for 45 children (15 typically developing, 15 hemiplegic, 15 clubfoot). Inter-tester repeatability was assessed in the clubfoot population. The mean absolute differences between testers (clubfoot) and sessions (clubfoot and hemiplegic) were calculated for each of 15 clinically relevant, kinematic variables and compared to typically developing children. Children with clubfoot showed a mean difference between visits of 2.9° and a mean difference between raters of 3.6° Mean absolute differences were within one degree for the intra and inter-rater reliability in 12/15 variables. Hindfoot rotation, forefoot/tibia abduction and forefoot supination were the most variable between testers. Overall the clubfoot data were less variable than the typically developing population. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated slightly higher differences between sessions (mean 4.1°), with the most reliable data in the sagittal plane, and largest differences in the transverse plane. The OFM was designed to measure different types of foot deformity. The results of this study show that it provides repeatable results in children with foot deformity. To be distinguished from measurement artifact, changes in foot kinematics as a result of intervention or natural progression over time must be greater than the repeatability reported here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality assurance of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerber, J.

    1980-01-01

    The quality assurance activities for reactor fuel elements are based on a quality assurance system which implies the requirements resulting from the specifications, regulations of the authorities, national standards and international rules and regulations. The quality assurance related to production of reactor fuel will be shown for PWR fuel elements in all typical fabrication steps as conversion into UO 2 -powder, pelletizing, rodmanufacture and assembling. A wide range of destructive and nondestructive techniques is applied. Quality assurance is not only verified by testing techniques but also by process monitoring by means of parameter control in production and testing procedures. (RW)

  12. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention has an array of sockets that are welded to the intersections of the plates that form the upper and lower end fittings of a nuclear reactor fuel element. The sockets, which are generally cylindrical in shape, are oriented in directions that enable the longitudinal axes of the sockets to align with the longitudinal axes of the fuel rods that are received in the respective sockets. Detents impressed in the surfaces of the sockets engage mating grooves that are formed in the ends of the fuel rods to provide for the structural integrity of the fuel element

  13. Development of analog watch with minute repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigami, Tomio; Aoyama, Shigeru; Osa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kiyotaka; Ikegami, Tomomi

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor with large scale integration was developed for an electronic minute repeater. It is equipped with the synthetic struck sound circuit to generate natural struck sound necessary for the minute repeater. This circuit consists of an envelope curve drawing circuit, frequency mixer, polyphonic mixer, and booster circuit made by using analog circuit technology. This large scale integration is a single chip microcomputer with motor drivers and input ports in addition to the synthetic struck sound circuit, and it is possible to make an electronic system of minute repeater at a very low cost in comparison with the conventional type.

  14. Gamma knife radiosurgery for typical trigeminal neuralgia: An institutional review of 108 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaimy, Ameer L.; Lamm, Andrew F.; Demakas, John J.; Mackay, Alexander R.; Lamoreaux, Wayne T.; Fairbanks, Robert K.; Pfeffer, Robert D.; Cooke, Barton S.; Peressini, Benjamin J.; Lee, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, we present the previously unreported pain relief outcomes of 108 patients treated at Gamma Knife of Spokane for typical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) between 2002 and 2011. Methods: Pain relief outcomes were measured using the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity scale. In addition, the effects gender, age at treatment, pain laterality, previous surgical treatment, repeat Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), and maximum radiosurgery dose have on patient pain relief outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using Andersen 95% confidence intervals, approximate confidence intervals for log hazard ratios, and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Results: All 108 patients included in this study were grouped into BNI class IV or V prior to GKRS. The median clinical follow-up time was determined to be 15 months. Following the first GKRS procedure, 71% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 31%; II = 3%; IIIa = 19%; IIIb = 18%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 11.8 months. New facial numbness was reported in 19% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 7% of patients after the first GKRS procedure. A total of 19 repeat procedures were performed on the 108 patients included in this study. Following the second GKRS procedure, 73% of patients were grouped into BNI class I-IIIb (I = 44%; II = 6%; IIIa = 17%, IIIb = 6%) and the median duration of pain relief for those patients was determined to be 4.9 months. For repeat procedures, new facial numbness was reported in 22% of patients and new facial paresthesias were reported in 6% of patients. Conclusions: GKRS is a safe and effective management approach for patients diagnosed with typical TN. However, further studies and supporting research is needed on the effects previous surgical treatment, number of radiosurgery procedures, and maximum radiosurgery dose have on GKRS clinical

  15. Concept typicality responses in the semantic memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Andrea; Raposo, Ana; Frade, Sofia; Marques, J Frederico

    2016-12-01

    For decades concept typicality has been recognized as critical to structuring conceptual knowledge, but only recently has typicality been applied in better understanding the processes engaged by the neurological network underlying semantic memory. This previous work has focused on one region within the network - the Anterior Temporal Lobe (ATL). The ATL responds negatively to concept typicality (i.e., the more atypical the item, the greater the activation in the ATL). To better understand the role of typicality in the entire network, we ran an fMRI study using a category verification task in which concept typicality was manipulated parametrically. We argue that typicality is relevant to both amodal feature integration centers as well as category-specific regions. Both the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) and ATL demonstrated a negative correlation with typicality, whereas inferior parietal regions showed positive effects. We interpret this in light of functional theories of these regions. Interactions between category and typicality were not observed in regions classically recognized as category-specific, thus, providing an argument against category specific regions, at least with fMRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3...

  17. The influence of thematic congruency, typicality and divided attention on memory for radio advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of the thematic congruence between ads and the programme in which they are embedded. We also studied the typicality of the to-be-remembered information (high- and low-typicality elements), and the effect of divided attention in the memory for radio ad contents. Participants listened to four radio programmes with thematically congruent and incongruent ads embedded, and completed a true/false recognition test indicating the level of confidence in their answer. Half of the sample performed an additional task (divided attention group) while listening to the radio excerpts. In general, recognition memory was better for incongruent ads and low-typicality statements. Confidence in hits was higher in the undivided attention group, although there were no differences in performance. Our results suggest that the widespread idea of embedding ads into thematic-congruent programmes negatively affects memory for ads. In addition, low-typicality features that are usually highlighted by advertisers were better remembered than typical contents. Finally, metamemory evaluations were influenced by the inference that memory should be worse if we do several things at the same time.

  18. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.

  19. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  20. Narrative versus style: Effect of genre-typical events versus genre-typical filmic realizations on film viewers’ genre recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genre-typical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  1. Typical Vine or International Taste: Wine Consumers' Dilemma Between Beliefs and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Boncinelli, Fabio; Contini, Caterina; Romano, Caterina; Gerini, Francesca; Casini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The wine-growing sector is probably one of the agricultural areas where the ties between product quality and territory are most evident. Geographical indication is a key element in this context, and previous literature has focused on demonstrating how certification of origin influences the wine purchaser's behavior. However, less attention has been devoted to understanding how the value of a given name of origin may or may not be determined by the various elements that characterize the typicality of the wine product on that territory: vines, production techniques, etc. It thus seems interesting, in this framework, to evaluate the impacts of several characteristic attributes on the preferences of consumers. This paper will analyze, in particular, the role of the presence of autochthonous vines in consumers' choices. The connection between name of origin and autochthonous vines appears to be particularly important in achieving product "recognisability", while introducing "international" vines in considerable measure into blends might result in the loss of the peculiarity of certain characteristic and typical local productions. A standardization of taste could thus risk compromising the reputation of traditional production areas. The objective of this study is to estimate, through an experimental auction on the case study of Chianti, the differences in willingness to pay for wines produced with different shares of typical vines. The results show that consumers have a willingness to pay for wine produced with typical blends 34% greater than for wines with international blends. However, this difference is not confirmed by blind tasting, raising the issue of the relationship between exante expectations about vine typicality and real wine sensorial characteristics. Finally, some recent patents related to wine testing and wine packaging are reviewed.

  2. Generation of typical meteorological year for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of building energy performance requires precise information of the local climate. Typical weather year files like typical meteorological year (TMY) are commonly used in building simulation. They are also essential for numerical analysis of sustainable and renewable energy systems. The present paper presents the generation of typical meteorological year (TMY) for eight typical cities representing the major climate zones of China. The data set, which includes global solar radiation data and other meteorological parameters referring to dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, has been analyzed. The typical meteorological year is generated from the available meteorological data recorded during the period 1995-2004, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year is compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years are selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 typical months selected from the different years are used for the formulation of a TMY.

  3. Visual attention to repeated print advertising : A test of scanpath theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, F.G.M.; Rosbergen, E.; Wedel, M.

    The authors examine consumers' visual attention during repeated exposures to print advertisements using eye-tracking methodology. The authors propose a statistical model comprising submodels for two key measures of visual attention to elements of the advertisement: attention duration and inter- and

  4. Visual attention to repeated print advertising : A test of scanpath theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, F.G.M.; Rosbergen, E.; Wedel, M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors examine consumers' visual attention during repeated exposures to print advertisements using eye-tracking methodology. The authors propose a statistical model comprising submodels for two key measures of visual attention to elements of the advertisement: attention duration and inter- and

  5. Structural features in the HIV-1 repeat region facilitate strand transfer during reverse transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Vastenhouw, N. L.; Klasens, B. I.; Huthoff, H.

    2001-01-01

    Two obligatory DNA strand transfers take place during reverse transcription of a retroviral RNA genome. The first strand transfer is facilitated by terminal repeat (R) elements in the viral genome. This strand-transfer reaction depends on base pairing between the cDNA of the 5'R and the 3'R. There

  6. About two new efficient nonlinear shell elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, J.; Suo, X.Z.; Combescure, A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the development of two shell elements for non linear analysis. The first one is an axisymetric curved shell element and it is developed for buckling analysis. The formulation is given, as well as some typical applications. The second one is an extension of the classical DKT element to large strains taking into account all aspects of non linearities. This element is used for the simulation of four point bending of cracked pipes. The whole experiment is simulated by the calculation taking into account very large strains at the crack tip and propagation of the crack

  7. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  8. [Bioinformatics Analysis of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats in the Genomes of Shigella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Yingfang; Duan, Guangcai; Xue, Zerun; Wang, Linlin; Guo, Xiangjiao; Yang, Haiyan; Xi, Yuanlin

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the features of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) structures in Shigella by using bioinformatics. We used bioinformatics methods, including BLAST, alignment and RNA structure prediction, to analyze the CRISPR structures of Shigella genomes. The results showed that the CRISPRs existed in the four groups of Shigella, and the flanking sequences of upstream CRISPRs could be classified into the same group with those of the downstream. We also found some relatively conserved palindromic motifs in the leader sequences. Repeat sequences had the same group with corresponding flanking sequences, and could be classified into two different types by their RNA secondary structures, which contain "stem" and "ring". Some spacers were found to homologize with part sequences of plasmids or phages. The study indicated that there were correlations between repeat sequences and flanking sequences, and the repeats might act as a kind of recognition mechanism to mediate the interaction between foreign genetic elements and Cas proteins.

  9. The CRISPRdb database and tools to display CRISPRs and to generate dictionaries of spacers and repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnaud Gilles

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Archeae and Bacteria, the repeated elements called CRISPRs for "clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats" are believed to participate in the defence against viruses. Short sequences called spacers are stored in-between repeated elements. In the current model, motifs comprising spacers and repeats may target an invading DNA and lead to its degradation through a proposed mechanism similar to RNA interference. Analysis of intra-species polymorphism shows that new motifs (one spacer and one repeated element are added in a polarised fashion. Although their principal characteristics have been described, a lot remains to be discovered on the way CRISPRs are created and evolve. As new genome sequences become available it appears necessary to develop automated scanning tools to make available CRISPRs related information and to facilitate additional investigations. Description We have produced a program, CRISPRFinder, which identifies CRISPRs and extracts the repeated and unique sequences. Using this software, a database is constructed which is automatically updated monthly from newly released genome sequences. Additional tools were created to allow the alignment of flanking sequences in search for similarities between different loci and to build dictionaries of unique sequences. To date, almost six hundred CRISPRs have been identified in 475 published genomes. Two Archeae out of thirty-seven and about half of Bacteria do not possess a CRISPR. Fine analysis of repeated sequences strongly supports the current view that new motifs are added at one end of the CRISPR adjacent to the putative promoter. Conclusion It is hoped that availability of a public database, regularly updated and which can be queried on the web will help in further dissecting and understanding CRISPR structure and flanking sequences evolution. Subsequent analyses of the intra-species CRISPR polymorphism will be facilitated by CRISPRFinder and the

  10. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  11. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  12. Generic representations: typical design without the use of types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Junge, R.

    1997-01-01

    The building type is a (knowledge) structure that is both recognised as a constitutive cognitive element of human thought and as a constitutive computational element in CAAD systems. Questions that seem unresolved up to now about computational approaches to building types are the relationship

  13. Role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kraus, B.; Briegel, H.-J.; Duer, W.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory and (ii) introducing two operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e., without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication

  14. Effects of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Cupples, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to investigate the influence of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification of disyllabic English words by native and non-native speakers. Trochaic nouns and iambic gram verbs were considered to be typically stressed, whereas iambic nouns and trochaic verbs were considered to be atypically stressed. Experiments 1a and 2a showed that while native speakers classified typically stressed words individual more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during differences reading, there were no overall effects during classification of spoken stimuli. However, a subgroup of native speakers with high error rates did show a significant effect during classification of spoken stimuli. Experiments 1b and 2b showed that non-native speakers classified typically stressed words more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during reading. Typically stressed words were classified more accurately than atypically stressed words when the stimuli were spoken. Importantly, there was a significant relationship between error rates, vocabulary size and the size of the stress typicality effect in each experiment. We conclude that participants use information about lexical stress to help them distinguish between disyllabic nouns and verbs during speeded grammatical classification. This is especially so for individuals with a limited vocabulary who lack other knowledge (e.g., semantic knowledge) about the differences between these grammatical categories.

  15. Toddlers' categorization of typical and scrambled dolls and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated discrimination of scrambled from typical human body shapes at 15-18 months of age [Slaughter, V., & Heron, M. (2004). Origins and early development of human body knowledge. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69]. In the current study 18-, 24- and 30-month-old infants were presented with four typical and four scrambled dolls in a sequential touching procedure, to assess the development of explicit categorization of human body shapes. Infants were also presented with typical and scrambled cars, allowing comparison of infants' categorization of scrambled and typical exemplars in a different domain. Spontaneous comments regarding category membership were recorded. Girls categorized dolls and cars as typical or scrambled at 30 months, whereas boys only categorized the cars. Earliest categorization was for typical and scrambled cars, at 24 months, but only for boys. Language-based knowledge, coded from infants' comments, followed the same pattern. This suggests that human body knowledge does not have privileged status in infancy. Gender differences in performance are discussed.

  16. Repeated mild closed head injury impairs short-term visuospatial memory and complex learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylin, Michael J; Orsi, Sara A; Rozas, Natalia S; Hill, Julia L; Zhao, Jing; Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2013-05-01

    Concussive force can cause neurocognitive and neurobehavioral dysfunction by inducing functional, electrophysiological, and/or ultrastructural changes within the brain. Although concussion-triggered symptoms typically subside within days to weeks in most people, in 15%-20% of the cases, symptomology can continue beyond this time point. Problems with memory, attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility (e.g., problem solving, conflict resolution) are some of the prominent post-concussive cognitive symptoms. Repeated concussions (with loss or altered consciousness), which are common to many contact sports, can exacerbate these symptoms. The pathophysiology of repeated concussions is not well understood, nor is an effective treatment available. In order to facilitate drug discovery to treat post-concussive symptoms (PCSs), there is a need to determine if animal models of repeated mild closed head injury (mCHI) can mimic the neurocognitive and histopathological consequences of repeated concussions. To this end, we employed a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device to deliver a mCHI directly to the skull of mice daily for 4 days, and examined the ensuing neurological and neurocognitive functions using beam balance, foot-fault, an abbreviated Morris water maze test, context discrimination, and active place avoidance tasks. Repeated mCHI exacerbated vestibulomotor, motor, short-term memory and conflict learning impairments as compared to a single mCHI. Learning and memory impairments were still observed in repeated mCHI mice when tested 3 months post-injury. Repeated mCHI also reduced cerebral perfusion, prolonged the inflammatory response, and in some animals, caused hippocampal neuronal loss. Our results show that repeated mCHI can reproduce some of the deficits seen after repeated concussions in humans and may be suitable for drug discovery studies and translational research.

  17. Topology Optimization of a Vibrating System of Rigid and Flexible Bodies for Maximizing Repeated Eigenfrequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byungseong; Kim, Suh In; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    When a system consisting of rigid and flexible bodies is optimized to improve its dynamic characteristics, its eigenfrequencies are typically maximized. While topology optimization formulations dealing with simultaneous design of a system of rigid and flexible bodies are available, studies on eigenvalue maximization of the system are rare. In particular, no work has solved for the case when the target frequency becomes one of the repeated eigenfrequencies. The problem involving repeated eigenfrequencies is solved in this study, and a topology optimization formulation and sensitivity analysis are presented. Further, several numerical case studies are considered to demonstrate the validity of the proposed formulation

  18. Sex chromosome repeats tip the balance towards speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2018-04-06

    Because sex chromosomes, by definition, carry genes that determine sex, mutations that alter their structural and functional stability can have immediate consequences for the individual by reducing fertility, but also for a species by altering the sex ratio. Moreover, the sex-specific segregation patterns of heteromorphic sex chromosomes make them havens for selfish genetic elements that not only create sub-optimal sex ratios, but can also foster sexual antagonism. Compensatory mutations to mitigate antagonism or return sex ratios to a Fisherian optimum can create hybrid incompatibility and establish reproductive barriers leading to species divergence. The destabilizing influence of these selfish elements is often manifest within populations as copy number variants (CNVs) in satellite repeats and transposable elements (TE) or as CNVs involving sex determining genes, or genes essential to fertility and sex chromosome dosage compensation. This review catalogs several examples of well-studied sex chromosome CNVs in Drosophilids and mammals that underlie instances of meiotic drive, hybrid incompatibility and disruptions to sex differentiation and sex chromosome dosage compensation. While it is difficult to pinpoint a direct cause/effect relationship between these sex chromosome CNVs and speciation, it is easy to see how their effects in creating imbalances between the sexes, and the compensatory mutations to restore balance, can lead to lineage splitting and species formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver’s cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51–71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction

  20. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubuchon, Adam C.; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Balamucki, Christopher J.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80–90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60–90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  1. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  2. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  3. Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions. An estimation based on typical farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Ndambi, Asaah; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions. The methodology comprises three elements: (1) the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN) concept of typical farms and the related globally standardised dairy model farms representing 45 dairy regions in 38 countries; (2) a partial life cycle assessment model for estimating GHG emissions of the typical dairy farms; and (3) standard regression analysis to estimate GHG emissions from milk production in countries for which no typical farms are available in the IFCN database. Across the 117 typical farms in the 38 countries analysed, the average emission rate is 1.50 kg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)-eq.)/kg milk. The contribution of milk production to the global anthropogenic emissions is estimated at 1.3 Gt CO(2)-eq./year, accounting for 2.65% of total global anthropogenic emissions (49 Gt; IPCC, Synthesis Report for Policy Maker, Valencia, Spain, 2007). We emphasise that our estimates of the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions are subject to uncertainty. Part of the uncertainty stems from the choice of the appropriate methods for estimating emissions at the level of the individual animal.

  4. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  5. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author).

  6. Phonological awareness of children with developmental dysphasia and children with typical language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is the ability of phonological processing of words. Children with developmental dysphasia manifest interference in the development of phonological abilities vital for the development of other language skills. The aim of this study is to investigate phonological awareness in children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia at preschool age. Phonological awareness is tested in 60 preschool children by a part of the ELLA test (Emerging Literacy & Language Assessment. The results showed a statistically significant difference in the tested elements of phonological awareness among children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia. The most significant differences are deletion of phonemes (p≤0.000, replacement of phonemes, as well as segmentation at the level of whole words (p≤0.000.

  7. Some features of a typical house as perceived by native speakers of English and of Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from one of the two differently-designed surveys conducted among groups of both native speakers of English and native speakers of Serbian with a common general objective to obtain a picture of better candidates for a role of the whole (to be analyzed into its constituent elements in the contrastive study on the lexical field a house and its parts in English and Serbian. The specific objective of the survey presented here, however, was to build up the target picture with some of the features of the ideal example of the house category, such as the shape of the house, the key materials its principal structural elements (foundations, walls, a roof are made of, the number of residential units in the house and the type of the household that occupies it, the number of the house levels, the minimum of its interior spatial components and their functions, the types of systemic parts in the house, the status and position of the house relative to surround­ing buildings, etc. Also, taking into consideration that the demographic profiles of the survey participants reflected various cultural backgrounds (which significantly influence the formation of mental images of a typical sample of the category, the survey aimed to compare the similarities and differences between the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house, that is the features assigned to a typical house by most of the surveyed representa­tives of Anglo-American and by those of Serbian culture. Judging exclusively by the features observed and the results obtained, the study concludes that the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house look very similar in many aspect and that the two different cultures are not as distant as they may seem.

  8. Looking around houses: attention to a model when drawing complex shapes in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2013-09-01

    Drawings by individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) typically lack cohesion. The popular hypothesis is that this is a result of excessive focus on local-level detail at the expense of global configuration. In this study, we explored a novel hypothesis that inadequate attention might underpin drawing in WS. WS and typically developing (TD) non-verbal ability matched groups copied and traced a house figure comprised of geometric shapes. The house was presented on a computer screen for 5-s periods and participants pressed a key to re-view the model. Frequency of key-presses indexed the looks to the model. The order that elements were replicated was recorded to assess hierarchisation of elements. If a lack of attention to the model explained poor drawing performance, we expected participants with WS to look less frequently to the model than TD children when copying. If a local-processing preference underpins drawing in WS, more local than global elements would be produced. Results supported the first, but not second hypothesis. The WS group looked to the model infrequently, but global, not local, parts were drawn first, scaffolding local-level details. Both groups adopted a similar order of drawing and tracing of parts, suggesting typical, although delayed strategy-use in the WS group. Additionally both groups drew larger elements of the model before smaller elements, suggested a size-bias when drawing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  10. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  11. Generation of a typical meteorological year for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Chow, T.T.; Fong, Square K.F.; Lin, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Weather data can vary significantly from year to year. There is a need to derive typical meteorological year (TMY) data to represent the long-term typical weather condition over a year, which is one of the crucial factors for successful building energy simulation. In this paper, various types of typical weather data sets including the TMY, TMY2, WYEC, WYEC2, WYEC2W, WYEC2T and IWEC were reviewed. The Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze the hourly measured weather data of a 25-year period (1979-2003) in Hong Kong and select representative typical meteorological months (TMMs). The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year was compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period for four major weather indices including dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 TMMs selected from the different years were used for formulation of a TMY for Hong Kong

  12. Repeating and non-repeating fast radio bursts from binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Totani, Tomonori; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2018-04-01

    Most fast radio bursts (FRB) do not show evidence of repetition, and such non-repeating FRBs may be produced at the time of a merger of binary neutron stars (BNS), provided that the BNS merger rate is close to the high end of the currently possible range. However, the merger environment is polluted by dynamical ejecta, which may prohibit the radio signal from propagating. We examine this by using a general-relativistic simulation of a BNS merger, and show that the ejecta appears about 1 ms after the rotation speed of the merged star becomes the maximum. Therefore there is a time window in which an FRB signal can reach outside, and the short duration of non-repeating FRBs can be explained by screening after ejecta formation. A fraction of BNS mergers may leave a rapidly rotating and stable neutron star, and such objects may be the origin of repeating FRBs like FRB 121102. We show that a merger remnant would appear as a repeating FRB on a time scale of ˜1-10 yr, and expected properties are consistent with the observations of FRB 121102. We construct an FRB rate evolution model that includes these two populations of repeating and non-repeating FRBs from BNS mergers, and show that the detection rate of repeating FRBs relative to non-repeating ones rapidly increases with improving search sensitivity. This may explain why only the repeating FRB 121102 was discovered by the most sensitive FRB search with Arecibo. Several predictions are made, including the appearance of a repeating FRB 1-10 yr after a BNS merger that is localized by gravitational waves and subsequent electromagnetic radiation.

  13. Flow velocity calculation to avoid instability in a typical research reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Flow velocity through a research reactor core composed by MTR-type fuel elements is investigated. Core cooling capacity must be available at the same time that fuel-plate collapse must be avoided. Fuel plates do not rupture during plate collapse, but their lateral deflections can close flow channels and lead to plate over-heating. The critical flow velocity is a speed at which the plates collapse by static instability type failure. In this paper, critical velocity and coolant velocity are evaluated for a typical MTR-type flat plate fuel element. Miller's method is used for prediction of critical velocity. The coolant velocity is limited to 2/3 of the critical velocity, that is a currently used criterion. Fuel plate characteristics are based on the open pool Australian light water reactor. (author)

  14. Ecological Panel Inference from Repeated Cross Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, Ben; Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents a Markov chain model for the estimation of individual-level binary transitions from a time series of independent repeated cross-sectional (RCS) samples. Although RCS samples lack direct information on individual turnover, it is demonstrated here that it is possible with these

  15. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  16. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  17. On Solving Intransitivities in Repeated Pairwise Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Maas (Arne); Th.G.G. Bezembinder (Thom); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAn operational method is presented for deriving a linear ranking of alternatives from repeated paired comparisons of the alternatives. Intransitivities in the observed preferences are cleared away by the introduction of decision errors of varying importance. An observed preference

  18. Repeated checking induces uncertainty about future threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; Damstra, Marianne; Douma, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive (OC) -like repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study tested if checking also induces uncertainty about future threat by impairing the distinction between danger and safety cues. Participants (n = 54) engaged in a simulated

  19. FRB 121102: A Starquake-induced Repeater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyang; Luo, Rui; Yue, Han; Chen, Xuelei; Lee, Kejia; Xu, Renxin

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial discovery, the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 121102 has been found to be repeating with millisecond-duration pulses. Very recently, 14 new bursts were detected by the Green Bank Telescope during its continuous monitoring observations. In this paper, we show that the burst energy distribution has a power-law form which is very similar to the Gutenberg–Richter law of earthquakes. In addition, the distribution of burst waiting time can be described as a Poissonian or Gaussian distribution, which is consistent with earthquakes, while the aftershock sequence exhibits some local correlations. These findings suggest that the repeating FRB pulses may originate from the starquakes of a pulsar. Noting that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) also exhibit such distributions, the FRB could be powered by some starquake mechanisms associated with the SGRs, including the crustal activity of a magnetar or solidification-induced stress of a newborn strangeon star. These conjectures could be tested with more repeating samples.

  20. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  1. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  2. Analysis of repeated measurement data in the clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineeta; Rana, Rakesh Kumar; Singhal, Richa

    2013-01-01

    Statistics is an integral part of Clinical Trials. Elements of statistics span Clinical Trial design, data monitoring, analyses and reporting. A solid understanding of statistical concepts by clinicians improves the comprehension and the resulting quality of Clinical Trials. In biomedical research it has been seen that researcher frequently use t-test and ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest irrespective of the nature of the data. In Clinical Trials we record the data on the patients more than two times. In such a situation using the standard ANOVA procedures is not appropriate as it does not consider dependencies between observations within subjects in the analysis. To deal with such types of study data Repeated Measure ANOVA should be used. In this article the application of One-way Repeated Measure ANOVA has been demonstrated by using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 15.0 on the data collected at four time points 0 day, 15th day, 30th day, and 45th day of multicentre clinical trial conducted on Pandu Roga (~Iron Deficiency Anemia) with an Ayurvedic formulation Dhatrilauha. PMID:23930038

  3. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs

  4. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  5. Determination of illuminants representing typical white light emitting diodes sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost, S.; Ngo, M.; Ferrero, A.

    2017-01-01

    is to develop LED-based illuminants that describe typical white LED products based on their Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs). Some of these new illuminants will be recommended in the update of the CIE publication 15 on colorimetry with the other typical illuminants, and among them, some could be used......Solid-state lighting (SSL) products are already in use by consumers and are rapidly gaining the lighting market. Especially, white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources are replacing banned incandescent lamps and other lighting technologies in most general lighting applications. The aim of this work...... to complement the CIE standard illuminant A for calibration use in photometry....

  6. Advancing Continence in Typically Developing Children: Adapting the Procedures of Foxx and Azrin for Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzak, William J; Forcino, Stacy S; Sanberg, Sela Ann; Gross, Amy C

    2016-01-01

    To (1) identify and summarize procedures of Foxx and Azrin's classic toilet training protocol that continue to be used in training typically developing children and (2) adapt recent findings with the original Foxx and Azrin procedures to inform practical suggestions for the rapid toilet training of typically developing children in the primary care setting. Literature searches of PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases used the search terms "(toilet* OR potty* AND train*)." Selection criteria were only peer-reviewed experimental articles that evaluated intensive toilet training with typically developing children. Exclusion criteria were (1) nonpeer reviewed research, (2) studies addressing encopresis and/or enuresis, (3) studies excluding typically developing children, and (4) studies evaluating toilet training during infancy. In addition to the study of Foxx and Azrin, only 4 publications met the above criteria. Toilet training procedures from each article were reviewed to determine which toilet training methods were similar to components described by Foxx and Azrin. Common training elements include increasing the frequency of learning opportunities through fluid loading and having differential consequences for being dry versus being wet and for voiding in the toilet versus elsewhere. There is little research on intensive toilet training of typically developing children. Practice sits and positive reinforcement for voids in the toilet are commonplace, consistent with the Foxx and Azrin protocol, whereas positive practice as a corrective procedure for wetting accidents often is omitted. Fluid loading and differential consequences for being dry versus being wet and for voiding in the toilet also are suggested procedures, consistent with the Foxx and Azrin protocol.

  7. Impact of Alu repeats on the evolution of human p53 binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirotin Michael V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p53 tumor suppressor protein is involved in a complicated regulatory network, mediating expression of ~1000 human genes. Recent studies have shown that many p53 in vivo binding sites (BSs reside in transposable repeats. The relationship between these BSs and functional p53 response elements (REs remains unknown, however. We sought to understand whether the p53 REs also reside in transposable elements and particularly in the most-abundant Alu repeats. Results We have analyzed ~160 functional p53 REs identified so far and found that 24 of them occur in repeats. More than half of these repeat-associated REs reside in Alu elements. In addition, using a position weight matrix approach, we found ~400,000 potential p53 BSs in Alu elements genome-wide. Importantly, these putative BSs are located in the same regions of Alu repeats as the functional p53 REs - namely, in the vicinity of Boxes A/A' and B of the internal RNA polymerase III promoter. Earlier nucleosome-mapping experiments showed that the Boxes A/A' and B have a different chromatin environment, which is critical for the binding of p53 to DNA. Here, we compare the Alu-residing p53 sites with the corresponding Alu consensus sequences and conclude that the p53 sites likely evolved through two different mechanisms - the sites overlapping with the Boxes A/A' were generated by CG → TG mutations; the other sites apparently pre-existed in the progenitors of several Alu subfamilies, such as AluJo and AluSq. The binding affinity of p53 to the Alu-residing sites generally correlates with the age of Alu subfamilies, so that the strongest sites are embedded in the 'relatively young' Alu repeats. Conclusions The primate-specific Alu repeats play an important role in shaping the p53 regulatory network in the context of chromatin. One of the selective factors responsible for the frequent occurrence of Alu repeats in introns may be related to the p53-mediated regulation of Alu

  8. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  9. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  10. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  11. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  12. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  13. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  15. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of....12. These actions are determined by a limited environmental assessment that reasonably identifies the... 632.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES...

  16. Characteristics of typical Pierce guns for PPM focused TWTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.; Puri, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of typical moderate perveance Pierce type electron guns which are used in periodic permanent magnet focused traveling wave tubes are described with regard to adaptation for use in electron beam ion sources. The results of detailed electron trajectory computations for one particular gun design are presented

  17. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  18. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  19. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  20. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  1. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  2. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  3. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles; Croson; Murnighan

    2000-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Anonymous dyads exchanged messages and offers in a series of four ultimatum bargaining games that had prospects for relatively large monetary outcomes. Variations in each party's knowledge of the other's resources and alternatives created opportunities for deception. Revelation of prior unknowns exposed deceptions and created opportunities for retribution in subsequent interactions. Results showed that although proposers and responders chose deceptive strategies almost equally, proposers told more outright lies. Both were more deceptive when their private information was never revealed, and proposers were most deceptive when their potential profits were largest. Revelation of proposers' lies had little effect on their subsequent behavior even though responders rejected their offers more than similar offers from truthful proposers or proposers whose prior deceit was never revealed. The discussion and conclusions address the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated bargaining interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  5. Governing conditions of repeatable Barkhausen noise response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, O.; Pal'a, J.; Takagi, T.; Uchimoto, T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the establishment of experimental conditions, which ensure the repeatability of magnetic Barkhausen noise testing in practice. For this task, the measurements were performed on open flat samples using different experimental configurations, including: different magnetization frequencies, sampling rates, and filter cut-off frequencies; using a sample-wrapped coil and using attached pick-up coils of various dimensions, with different lift-offs of a single yoke magnet and of the attached coil. The sample magnetization was controlled by a vertical array of three Hall sensors; their readings were extrapolated to the sample surface to precisely define its field. After analysis of the results, a scheme for an optimized sensor with a controlled field waveform was suggested to improve the measurement repeatability. The important issues of signal processing and parameter applicability were also discussed in detail.

  6. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  7. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  8. Toxicological characteristics of petroleum products repeated exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Rubin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The ability of petroleum products to initiate cumulative effects was assessed in experimental intragastric admission to male albino rats for one month. The analysis of skin-resorptive effects was performed using "test-tube" method on the skin of rats’ tails. It has been established that petroleum products can penetrate the intact skin and, with repeated admission, cause a general toxic effect. There were reductions bodyweights, the negative effect on the function of the kidneys and liver, changes of hematological parameters, as well as activation of the antioksidatnoy system. Repeated intragastric administration does not lead to the death of the animals testifying to the lack of accumulation capacity for petroleum products at the level of functional mortal effects, the cumulation coefficient being > 5.1. Negative impact on urinary function and hepatobiliary system, changes in hematological parameters and activation of the «lipid peroxidation – antioksidant defense» were observed.

  9. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood....... It is commonly agreed that the experience in childhood of suicidal behavior among family members or other persons in the close environment is of importance in future suicidal risk. The results of this study indicate that the predictive value of this factor mainly applies to attempts with no fatal outcome...

  10. Repeated radiation injuries by fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to repeated radiation injuries during internal irradiation of theoretical and practical interest, particularly in case of the intake into organism of young products of nuclear fission (PNF). The results of experiments with dogs with repeated radioactive iodine injury the isotopes of which (131-135sub(I)) constitute a considerable part of PNF activity are discussed. The blood reaction and protein metabolism state have been studied. Observations for dogs have been continued for about 4 years. The doses for thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and liver subjected to the most intensive irradiation consituted in the first series of experiments after the first intake about 3;0.3;0.05 Gy, after the second - 5;0.5;0.08 Gy and in the second series of experiments - 3;0.3;0.05 Gy and 0.6;0.06;0.01 Gy, respectively. Hematologic factors,thyroid function, changes in exchange and immunologic reactivity have been studied. The dogs have been under observation for 5 years. It is shown in case of repeated intake of Isup(131) PNF into animals organism in quantity which does not cause during the acute period a clinically outlined sickness, substantial differences in the organism reaction as compared with the first intake of radionuclides have not been found. The presence of residual radiation injuries did not cause charging action during the acute period during PNF and repeated intake which in the author's opinion testifies to perfection of compensator mechanisms in case of intake of such quantities of radioactive products. At the remote periods blastomogenic action manifested which is estimated as a result of general biological action of radionuclides administered to the organism. The necessity in subsequent investigations for obtaining the data on organism reactivity, clinic and pathogenesis with the aim of prophylaxis and treatment of such injuries is indicated

  11. Electrochemical detection of DNA triplet repeat expansion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Havran, Luděk; Vojtíšková, Marie; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 21 (2004), s. 6532-6533 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004402; GA AV ČR IBS5004355; GA AV ČR KJB4004302; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : DNA triplet repeat expansion * PCR amplification * neurodegenerative diseases Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.903, year: 2004

  12. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  13. In-cloud oxidation of SO2 as deduced from trace elements in aerosol and precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, R.; Rahn, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year, the authors have developed and begun to apply a sampling and analytical technique for precipitation which can measure nearly as many elements (30-40) as in the parent aerosol. Rain is collected in a polyethylene bag mounted directly under a simple polyethylene funnel. Typically, up to 500 ml are accumulated; sampling begins only after the rain has started. Snow is scooped into the same kind of bag during or shortly after the event; up to 500 ml are accumulated by repeated sampling and melting in the laboratory. The bags are sealed, frozen overnight, then opened and freeze-dried until all the ice has disappeared. The bag and its contents are then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation at the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center. Sulfate is determined from a small aliquot of the precipitation removed before it is frozen. For comparison, aerosol samples taken before, during, and after the event are analyzed similarly. The principal goal of this research is to develop procedures for applying the University of Rhode Island's regional elemental tracer system, originally to use the patter of trace elements in precipitation to determine the fraction of the sulfate which has been produced by in-cloud oxidation of SO 2 , as opposed to direct scavenging of sulfate from aerosol

  14. Narrative versus Style : Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  15. Repeatability and Reproducibility in Proteomic Identifications by Liquid Chromatography—Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, David L.; Vega-Montoto, Lorenzo; Rudnick, Paul A.; Variyath, Asokan Mulayath; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Bunk, David M.; Kilpatrick, Lisa E.; Billheimer, Dean D.; Blackman, Ronald K.; Cardasis, Helene L.; Carr, Steven A.; Clauser, Karl R.; Jaffe, Jacob D.; Kowalski, Kevin A.; Neubert, Thomas A.; Regnier, Fred E.; Schilling, Birgit; Tegeler, Tony J.; Wang, Mu; Wang, Pei; Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Fisher, Susan J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Stein, Steven E.; Tempst, Paul; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Spiegelman, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of proteomic instrumentation for LC-MS/MS introduces many possible sources of variability. Data-dependent sampling of peptides constitutes a stochastic element at the heart of discovery proteomics. Although this variation impacts the identification of peptides, proteomic identifications are far from completely random. In this study, we analyzed interlaboratory data sets from the NCI Clinical Proteomic Technology Assessment for Cancer to examine repeatability and reproducibility in peptide and protein identifications. Included data spanned 144 LC-MS/MS experiments on four Thermo LTQ and four Orbitrap instruments. Samples included yeast lysate, the NCI-20 defined dynamic range protein mix, and the Sigma UPS 1 defined equimolar protein mix. Some of our findings reinforced conventional wisdom, such as repeatability and reproducibility being higher for proteins than for peptides. Most lessons from the data, however, were more subtle. Orbitraps proved capable of higher repeatability and reproducibility, but aberrant performance occasionally erased these gains. Even the simplest protein digestions yielded more peptide ions than LC-MS/MS could identify during a single experiment. We observed that peptide lists from pairs of technical replicates overlapped by 35–60%, giving a range for peptide-level repeatability in these experiments. Sample complexity did not appear to affect peptide identification repeatability, even as numbers of identified spectra changed by an order of magnitude. Statistical analysis of protein spectral counts revealed greater stability across technical replicates for Orbitraps, making them superior to LTQ instruments for biomarker candidate discovery. The most repeatable peptides were those corresponding to conventional tryptic cleavage sites, those that produced intense MS signals, and those that resulted from proteins generating many distinct peptides. Reproducibility among different instruments of the same type lagged behind

  16. Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay M.Ch.; Flannery, Thomas J.; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for acoustic neuromas, we assessed tumor control, clinical outcomes, and the risk of adverse radiation effects in patients whose tumors progressed after initial management. Methods and Materials: During a 21-year experience at our center, 1,352 patients underwent SRS as management for their acoustic neuromas. We retrospectively identified 6 patients who underwent SRS twice for the same tumor. The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-71 years). All patients had imaging evidence of tumor progression despite initial SRS. One patient also had incomplete surgical resection after initial SRS. All patients were deaf at the time of the second SRS. The median radiosurgery target volume at the time of the initial SRS was 0.5 cc and was 2.1 cc at the time of the second SRS. The median margin dose at the time of the initial SRS was 13 Gy and was 11 Gy at the time of the second SRS. The median interval between initial SRS and repeat SRS was 63 months (range, 25-169 months). Results: At a median follow-up of 29 months after the second SRS (range, 13-71 months), tumor control or regression was achieved in all 6 patients. No patient developed symptomatic adverse radiation effects or new neurological symptoms after the second SRS. Conclusions: With this limited experience, we found that repeat SRS for a persistently enlarging acoustic neuroma can be performed safely and effectively.

  17. Noncoding Elements: Evolution and Epigenetic Regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2016-03-09

    When the human genome project was completed, it revealed a surprising result. 98% of the genome did not code for protein of which more than 50% are repeats— later known as ”Junk DNA”. However, comparative genomics unveiled that many noncoding elements are evolutionarily constrained; thus luckily to have a role in genome stability and regulation. Though, their exact functions remained largely unknown. Several large international consortia such as the Functional Annotation of Mammalian Genomes (FANTOM) and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) were set to understand the structure and the regulation of the genome. Specifically, these endeavors aim to measure and reveal the transcribed components and functional elements of the genome. One of the most the striking findings of these efforts is that most of the genome is transcribed, including non-conserved noncoding elements and repeat elements. Specifically, we investigated the evolution and epigenetic properties of noncoding elements. 1. We compared genomes of evolutionarily distant species and showed the ubiquity of constrained noncoding elements in metazoa. 2. By integrating multi-omic data (such as transcriptome, nucleosome profiling, histone modifications), I conducted a comprehensive analysis of epigenetic properties (chromatin states) of conserved noncoding elements in insects. We showed that those elements have distinct and protective sequence features, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. 3. I focused on the relationship between enhancers and repetitive elements. Using Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and RNASeq, I compiled a full catalog of active enhancers (a class of noncoding elements) during myogenesis of human primary cells of healthy donors and donors affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Comparing the two time-courses, a significant change in the epigenetic

  18. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-01-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  19. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Manjari, E-mail: manjari@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc-HBNI), 4th Cross Road, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  20. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Schewe, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic response of a typical shear structure in a commercial nuclear power plant was investigated for a series of site and foundation conditions using best estimate and design procedures. The structure selected is a part of the Zion AFT complex which is a connected group of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings, typical of nuclear power plant structures. Comparisons between best estimate responses quantified the effects of placing the structure on different sites and founding it in different manners. Calibration factors were developed by comparing simplified SSI design procedure responses to responses calculated by best estimate procedures. Nineteen basic cases were analyzed - each case was analyzed for ten earthquakes targeted to the NRC R.G. 1.60 design response spectra. The structure is a part of the Zion auxiliary-fuel handling turbine building (AFT) complex to the Zion nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  1. Analysis of typical meteorological years in different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu, Jiaping

    2007-01-01

    Typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 60 cities in the five major climatic zones (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, hot summer and warm winter, mild) in China were investigated. Long term (1971-2000) measured weather data such as dry bulb and dew point temperatures, wind speed and global solar radiation were gathered and analysed. A total of seven climatic indices were used to select the 12 typical meteorological months (TMMs) that made up the TMY for each city. In general, the cumulative distribution functions of the TMMs selected tended to follow their long term counterparts quite well. There was no persistent trend in any particular years being more representative than the others, though 1978 and 1982 tended to be picked most often. This paper presents the work and its findings. Future work on the assessment of TMYs in building energy simulation is also discussed

  2. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  3. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents the radiation shielding model of a typical PWR (CNPP-II) at Chashma, Pakistan. The model was developed using Monte Carlo N Particle code [2], equipped with ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross section libraries. This model was applied to calculate the neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in the radial direction at core mid plane. The simulated results were compared with the reference results of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI).

  4. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A. [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  5. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  6. Lipoma arborescens: Comparison of typical and atypical disease presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.M.; Wenger, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the aetiology differed between typical cases of lipoma arborescens with unilateral knee involvement and atypical cases involving joints other than the knee, polyarticular disease, and disease outside of the knee joint. Materials and methods: Cases of lipoma arborescens involving the knee joint were evaluated for the distribution of the disease and severity of degenerative arthritis. Joints other than the knee were evaluated for the presence and severity of degenerative arthritis, and the distribution was classified as either intra-articular, extra-articular, or both. Clinical history was reviewed for patient age at presentation, a history of inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and known steroid use. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Results: Lipoma arborescens was identified in 45 joints in 39 patients. Twenty-eight patients were classified as “typical” and 11 patients had “atypical” disease. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Conclusion: Twenty-eight percent of patients in the present study had atypical presentation of lipoma arborescens with multifocal lipoma arborescens or disease in joints other than the knee. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Of the 39 patients, only three had no evidence of degenerative arthritis, which suggests that many cases of lipoma arborescens are secondary to chronic reactive change in association with degenerative arthritis

  7. Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2013-09-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....

  9. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  10. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  11. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  12. Automated rapid chemistry in heavy element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    1994-01-01

    With the increasingly short half-lives of the heavy element isotopes in the transition region from the heaviest actinides to the transactinide elements the demand for automated rapid chemistry techniques is also increasing. Separation times of significantly less than one minute, high chemical yields, high repetition rates, and an adequate detection system are prerequisites for many successful experiments in this field. The development of techniques for separations in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase for applications of chemical or nuclear studies of the heaviest elements are briefly outlined. Typical examples of results obtained with automated techniques are presented for studies up to element 105, especially those obtained with the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus, ARCA. The prospects to investigate the properties of even heavier elements with chemical techniques are discussed

  13. Modulation of CRISPR locus transcription by the repeat-binding protein Cbp1 in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Peng, Xu

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR loci are essential components of the adaptive immune system of archaea and bacteria. They consist of long arrays of repeats separated by DNA spacers encoding guide RNAs (crRNA), which target foreign genetic elements. Cbp1 (CRISPR DNA repeat binding protein) binds specifically to the multiple...... direct repeats of CRISPR loci of members of the acidothermophilic, crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales. cbp1 gene deletion from Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A produced a strong reduction in pre-crRNA yields from CRISPR loci but did not inhibit the foreign DNA targeting capacity of the CRISPR/Cas system....... Conversely, overexpression of Cbp1 in S. islandicus generated an increase in pre-crRNA yields while the level of reverse strand transcripts from CRISPR loci remained unchanged. It is proposed that Cbp1 modulates production of longer pre-crRNA transcripts from CRISPR loci. A possible mechanism...

  14. A versatile palindromic amphipathic repeat coding sequence horizontally distributed among diverse bacterial and eucaryotic microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass John I

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intragenic tandem repeats occur throughout all domains of life and impart functional and structural variability to diverse translation products. Repeat proteins confer distinctive surface phenotypes to many unicellular organisms, including those with minimal genomes such as the wall-less bacterial monoderms, Mollicutes. One such repeat pattern in this clade is distributed in a manner suggesting its exchange by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Expanding genome sequence databases reveal the pattern in a widening range of bacteria, and recently among eucaryotic microbes. We examined the genomic flux and consequences of the motif by determining its distribution, predicted structural features and association with membrane-targeted proteins. Results Using a refined hidden Markov model, we document a 25-residue protein sequence motif tandemly arrayed in variable-number repeats in ORFs lacking assigned functions. It appears sporadically in unicellular microbes from disparate bacterial and eucaryotic clades, representing diverse lifestyles and ecological niches that include host parasitic, marine and extreme environments. Tracts of the repeats predict a malleable configuration of recurring domains, with conserved hydrophobic residues forming an amphipathic secondary structure in which hydrophilic residues endow extensive sequence variation. Many ORFs with these domains also have membrane-targeting sequences that predict assorted topologies; others may comprise reservoirs of sequence variants. We demonstrate expressed variants among surface lipoproteins that distinguish closely related animal pathogens belonging to a subgroup of the Mollicutes. DNA sequences encoding the tandem domains display dyad symmetry. Moreover, in some taxa the domains occur in ORFs selectively associated with mobile elements. These features, a punctate phylogenetic distribution, and different patterns of dispersal in genomes of related taxa, suggest that the

  15. Transcriptional landscape of ncRNA and Repeat elements in somatic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosheh, Yanal

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) sequencing technology has enabled many projects targeted towards the identification of genome structure and transcriptome complexity of organisms. The first conclusions of the human and mouse projects

  16. The occurrence of potentially hazardous trace elements in five Highveld coals, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Nicola J.; Hlatshwayo, Bafana [Sasol Technology Research and Development, P.O. Box 1, Sasolburg, 1947 (South Africa)

    2005-08-19

    Permian coals of the southern hemisphere are generally considered to contain lower concentrations of sulfides, halogens, and trace elements when compared to northern hemisphere Carboniferous coals. Few studies have considered the trace element content in South African coals, and little or no work has been published for Highveld coals. Of the nineteen coal fields in South Africa, the Highveld coal field is one of the nine currently producing, and is second largest in terms of production. Five run of mine samples and a high ash middlings product from the Number 4 Lower seam were analyzed, totaling six sample sets. Fourteen trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, and Zn) were selected for this study based on the global perception that these elements may be hazardous to human health and/or the environment when they are released during coal utilization. Several sample preparation techniques were tested using certified reference materials (SARMs 18, 19 and 20) to determine the most repeatable technique for these coals. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES and CVAA (Hg only). Microwave digestion proved to be generally unreliable despite the utilization of several different methods. A slurry direct injection method into the ICP-AES provided good correlations with the reference material, but requires further development to enhance the confidence level in this relatively unexplored technique. Samples prepared based on three ASTM standards for the determination of trace elements in coal provided repeatable results in most instances, and were the preparation methods utilized for the Highveld coals. The trace element values determined for the Highveld coals are generally in good agreement with values available in literature for South African coals, with the exception of Hg, Mn and Cr. Hg values reported here are lower, Cr and Mn higher. Results generally agree well with analyses on the same samples conducted by the United States Geological Survey

  17. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  18. Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

    2004-12-01

    Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments).

  19. Chemistry of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook presents an account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic;, bio-inorganic and other areas of chemistry which apply. The following elements of special nuclear interest are included: Rb, Cs, Fr, Sr, Ba, Ra, Po, At, Rn, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Ru, the Lanthanide Elements, the Actinide Elements. (U.K.)

  20. Repeat Sequence Proteins as Matrices for Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummy, L.; Koerner, H; Phillips, D; McAuliffe, J; Kumar, M; Farmer, B; Vaia, R; Naik, R

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant protein-inorganic nanocomposites comprised of exfoliated Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) in a recombinant protein matrix based on silk-like and elastin-like amino acid motifs (silk elastin-like protein (SELP)) were formed via a solution blending process. Charged residues along the protein backbone are shown to dominate long-range interactions, whereas the SELP repeat sequence leads to local protein/MMT compatibility. Up to a 50% increase in room temperature modulus and a comparable decrease in high temperature coefficient of thermal expansion occur for cast films containing 2-10 wt.% MMT.

  1. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s{sup -1}, chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s{sup -1}, as planned. (author).

  2. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T.

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s -1 , chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s -1 , as planned. (author)

  3. A specific family of interspersed repeats (SINEs facilitates meiotic synapsis in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Matthew E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Errors during meiosis that affect synapsis and recombination between homologous chromosomes contribute to aneuploidy and infertility in humans. Despite the clinical relevance of these defects, we know very little about the mechanisms by which homologous chromosomes interact with one another during mammalian meiotic prophase. Further, we remain ignorant of the way in which chromosomal DNA complexes with the meiosis-specific structure that tethers homologs, the synaptonemal complex (SC, and whether specific DNA elements are necessary for this interaction. Results In the present study we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and DNA sequencing to demonstrate that the axial elements of the mammalian SC are markedly enriched for a specific family of interspersed repeats, short interspersed elements (SINEs. Further, we refine the role of the repeats to specific sub-families of SINEs, B1 in mouse and AluY in old world monkey (Macaca mulatta. Conclusions Because B1 and AluY elements are the most actively retrotransposing SINEs in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, our observations imply that they may serve a dual function in axial element binding; i.e., as the anchoring point for the SC but possibly also as a suppressor/regulator of retrotransposition.

  4. [Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats: structure, function and application--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yujun; Li, Yanjun; Yan, Yanfeng; Yang, Ruifu

    2008-11-01

    CRISPRs (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), the basis of spoligotyping technology, can provide prokaryotes with heritable adaptive immunity against phages' invasion. Studies on CRISPR loci and their associated elements, including various CAS (CRISPR-associated) proteins and leader sequences, are still in its infant period. We introduce the brief history', structure, function, bioinformatics research and application of this amazing immunity system in prokaryotic organism for inspiring more scientists to find their interest in this developing topic.

  5. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  7. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  8. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  9. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  10. The Compositions: Biodegradable Material - Typical Resin, as Moulding Sands’ Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.

  11. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  12. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E.; Dyck, P. James B.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Spinner, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  13. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  14. Typical IAEA operations at a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA operations performed at a typical Fuel Fabrication Plant are explained. To make the analysis less general the case of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Fabrication Plants is considered. Many of the conclusions drawn from this analysis could be extended to other types of fabrication plants. The safeguards objectives and goals at LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants are defined followed by a brief description of the fabrication process. The basic philosophy behind nuclear material stratification and the concept of Material Balance Areas (MBA's) and Key Measurement Points (KMP's) is explained. The Agency operations and verification methods used during physical inventory verifications are illustrated

  15. Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Buschkuehl, Martin; Perrig, Walter J; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether a brief cognitive training intervention results in a specific performance increase in the trained task, and whether there are transfer effects to other nontrained measures. A computerized, adaptive working memory intervention was conducted with 9- to 11-year-old typically developing children. The children considerably improved their performance in the trained working memory task. Additionally, compared to a matched control group, the experimental group significantly enhanced their reading performance after training, providing further evidence for shared processes between working memory and reading.

  16. Assessment of the quality seen in a restaurant typical theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the satisfaction of external customers it is necessary to know their needs. In this perspective, these work objectives assess the perception of quality by the customer outside of a restaurant located in the a restaurant typical theme located in the square of food “Bodódromo” the city of Petrolina/Pe. For both this was a case study, using the model servqual, Parasuraman et al (1985, for removal of information. The results indicated a need for improvement in the services provided by the restaurant.

  17. Typing Method for the QUB11a Locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: IS6110 Insertions and Tandem Repeat Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Maeda-Mitani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available QUB11a is used as a locus for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage. However, amplification of QUB11a occasionally produces large fragments (>1,400 bp that are not easily measured by capillary electrophoresis because of a lack of the typical stutter peak patterns that are used for counting repeat numbers. IS6110 insertion may complicate VNTR analysis of large QUB11a fragments in M. tuberculosis. We established a method for determining both tandem repeat numbers and IS6110 insertion in the QUB11a locus of M. tuberculosis using capillary electrophoresis analysis and BsmBI digestion. All 29 large QUB11a fragments (>1,200 bp investigated contained IS6110 insertions and varied in the number of repeats (18 patterns and location of IS6110 insertions. This method allows VNTR analysis with high discrimination.

  18. Constructs for the expression of repeating triple-helical protein domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yong Y; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Vaughan, Paul R; Ramshaw, John A M, E-mail: jerome.werkmeister@csiro.a [CSIRO Molecular and Health Technologies, Bag 10, Clayton South, VIC 3169 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    The development of novel scaffolds will be an important aspect in future success of tissue engineering. Scaffolds will preferably contain information that directs the cellular content of constructs so that the new tissue that is formed is closely aligned in structure, composition and function to the target natural tissue. One way of approaching this will be the development of novel protein-based constructs that contain one or more repeats of functional elements derived from various proteins. In the present case, we describe a strategy to make synthetic, recombinant triple-helical constructs that contain repeat segments of biologically relevant domains. Copies of a DNA fragment prepared by PCR from human type III collagen have been inserted in a co-linear contiguous fashion into the yeast expression vector YEpFlag-1, using sequential addition between selected restriction sites. Constructs containing 1, 2 and 3 repeats were designed to maintain the (Gly-X-Y) repeat, which is essential for the formation of an extended triple helix. All constructs gave expressed protein, with the best being the 3-repeat construct which was readily secreted. This material had the expected composition and N-terminal sequence. Incubation of the product at low temperature led to triple-helix formation, shown by reaction with a conformation dependent monoclonal antibody.

  19. Constructs for the expression of repeating triple-helical protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yong Y; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Vaughan, Paul R; Ramshaw, John A M

    2009-01-01

    The development of novel scaffolds will be an important aspect in future success of tissue engineering. Scaffolds will preferably contain information that directs the cellular content of constructs so that the new tissue that is formed is closely aligned in structure, composition and function to the target natural tissue. One way of approaching this will be the development of novel protein-based constructs that contain one or more repeats of functional elements derived from various proteins. In the present case, we describe a strategy to make synthetic, recombinant triple-helical constructs that contain repeat segments of biologically relevant domains. Copies of a DNA fragment prepared by PCR from human type III collagen have been inserted in a co-linear contiguous fashion into the yeast expression vector YEpFlag-1, using sequential addition between selected restriction sites. Constructs containing 1, 2 and 3 repeats were designed to maintain the (Gly-X-Y) repeat, which is essential for the formation of an extended triple helix. All constructs gave expressed protein, with the best being the 3-repeat construct which was readily secreted. This material had the expected composition and N-terminal sequence. Incubation of the product at low temperature led to triple-helix formation, shown by reaction with a conformation dependent monoclonal antibody.

  20. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  1. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tokuuye, Koichi; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Hata, Masaharu; Kagei, Kenji; Sugahara, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  2. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  3. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  4. Hydrogen deflagration simulations under typical containment conditions for nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, J., E-mail: jorge.yanez@kit.edu [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kotchourko, A.; Lelyakin, A. [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lean H{sub 2}-air combustion experiments highly relevant to typical NPP simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed effect of temperature, concentration of H{sub 2}, and steam concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar conditions and H{sub 2} concentration yielded different combustion regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flame instabilities (FIs) were the effect driving divergences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model developed for acoustic FI in simulations. Agreement experiments obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of low-concentration hydrogen deflagrations performed with the recently developed KYLCOM model specially created to perform calculations in large scale domains. Three experiments carried out in THAI facility (performed in the frames of international OECD THAI experimental program) were selected to be analyzed. The tests allow studying lean mixture hydrogen combustion at normal ambient, elevated temperature and superheated and saturated conditions. The experimental conditions considered together with the facility size and shape grant a high relevance degree to the typical NPP containment conditions. The results of the simulations were thoroughly compared with the experimental data, and the comparison was supplemented by the analysis of the combustion regimes taking place in the considered tests. Results of the analysis demonstrated that despite the comparatively small difference in mixture properties, three different combustion regimes can be definitely identified. The simulations of one of the cases required of the modeling of the acoustic-parametric instability which was carefully undertaken.

  5. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  6. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  7. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  8. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  9. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  10. Scattering Matrix for Typical Urban Anthropogenic Origin Cement Dust and Discrimination of Representative Atmospheric Particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Yongming; Zhang, Qixing; Wang, Jinjun

    2018-03-01

    The complete scattering matrix for cement dust was measured as a function of scattering angle from 5° to 160° at a wavelength of 532 nm, as a representative of mineral dust of anthropogenic origin in urban areas. Other related characteristics of cement dust, such as particle size distribution, chemical composition, refractive index, and micromorphology, were also analyzed. For this objective, a newly improved apparatus was built and calibrated using water droplets. Measurements of water droplets were in good agreement with Lorenz-Mie calculations. To facilitate the direct applicability of measurements for cement dust in radiative transfer calculation, the synthetic scattering matrix was computed and defined over the full scattering angle range from 0° to 180°. The scattering matrices for cement dust and typical natural mineral dusts were found to be similar in trends and angular behaviors. Angular distributions of all matrix elements were confined to rather limited domains. To promote the application of light-scattering matrix in atmospheric observation and remote sensing, discrimination methods for various atmospheric particulates (cement dust, soot, smolder smoke, and water droplets) based on the angular distributions of their scattering matrix elements are discussed. The ratio -F12/F11 proved to be the most effective discrimination method when a single matrix element is employed; aerosol identification can be achieved based on -F12/F11 values at 90° and 160°. Meanwhile, the combinations of -F12/F11 with F22/F11 (or (F11 - F22)/(F11 + F22)) or -F12/F11 with F44/F11 at 160° can be used when multiple matrix elements at the same scattering angle are selected.

  11. Characterization of Transposable Elements in Laccaria bicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TE-specific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copies elements distributed within 172 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs are ancient except some terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TEs expansion in L. bicolor; the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 500,000 years ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, contributes to genome assembly and to a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution, and provides a valuable resource for the ongoing Laccaria Pan-Genome project supported by the U.S.-DOE Joint Genome Institute.

  12. Performance Comparisons of Improved Regular Repeat Accumulate (RA and Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA Turbo Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.

  13. A comparative study on pathological features of transgenic rat lines expressing either three or four repeat misfolded tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachova, Bernadeta; Brezovakova, Veronika; Bugos, Ondrej; Jadhav, Santosh; Smolek, Tomas; Novak, Petr; Zilka, Norbert

    2018-08-01

    Human tauopathies represent a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by distinct clinical features, typical histopathological structures, and defined ratio(s) of three-repeat and four-repeat tau isoforms within pathological aggregates. How the optional microtubule-binding repeat of tau influences this differentiation of pathologies is understudied. We have previously generated and characterized transgenic rodent models expressing human truncated tau aa151-391 with either three (SHR24) or four microtubule-binding repeats (SHR72). Here, we compare the behavioral and neuropathological hallmarks of these two transgenic lines using a battery of tests for sensorimotor, cognitive, and neurological functions over the age range of 3.5-15 months. Progression of sensorimotor and neurological deficits was similar in both transgenic lines; however, the lifespan of transgenic line SHR72 expressing truncated four-repeat tau was markedly shorter than SHR24. Moreover, the expression of three or four-repeat tau induced distinct neurofibrillary pathology in these lines. Transgenic lines displayed different distribution of tau pathology and different type of neurofibrillary tangles. Our results suggest that three- and four-repeat isoforms of tau may display different modes of action in the diseased brain. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Computer Simulation of Hydraulic Systems with Typical Nonlinear Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Popov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The task was to synthesise an adjustable hydraulic system structure, the mathematical model of which takes into account its inherent nonlinearity. Its solution suggests using a successive computer simulations starting with a structure of the linearized stable hydraulic system, which is then complicated by including the essentially non-linear elements. The hydraulic system thus obtained may be unable to meet the Lyapunov stability criterion and be unstable. This can be eliminated through correcting elements. Control of correction results is provided according to the form of transition processes due to stepwise variation of the control signal.Computer simulation of a throttle-controlled electrohydraulic servo drive with the rotary output element illustrates the proposed method application. A constant pressure power source provides fluid feed for the drive under pressure.For drive simulation the following models were involved: the linear model, the model taking into consideration a non-linearity of the flow-dynamic characteristics of a spool-type valve, and the non-linear models that take into account the dry friction in the spool-type valve, the backlash in the steering angle sensor of the motor shaft.The paper shows possibility of damping oscillation caused by variable hydrodynamic forces through introducing a correction device.The list of references attached contains 16 sources, which were used to justify and explain certain factors of the automatic control theory and the fluid mechanics of unsteady flows.The article presents 6 block-diagrams of the electrohydraulic servo drive and their appropriate transition processes, which have been studied.

  15. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives ... findings, the level of repeat abortions in Europe, .... and contraceptive history, and post-abortion ..... working women.

  16. Methods for analysing cardiovascular studies with repeated measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, T. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Ouwerkerk, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Repeated measurements in a single subject are generally more similar than unrepeated measurements in different subjects. Unrepeated analyses of repeated data cause underestimation of the treatment effects. Objective. To review methods adequate for the analysis of cardiovascular studies

  17. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  18. The absolute number of repeat operations for complex intra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal sepsis, questions about futility of treatment frequently arise. This study focuses specifically on patients who required two or more repeat laparotomies and describes the spectrum of disease necessitating multiple repeat laparotomies ...

  19. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  20. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  1. Research on typical topologies of a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yiheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic levitation vibration isolators have attracted more and more attention in the field of high-precision measuring and machining equipment. In this paper, we describe a tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. Four typical topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are proposed. The analytical expression of magnetic force is derived. The relationship between levitation force, force density, force ripple and major structural parameters are analysed by finite element method, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator. The force characteristics of different topologies of the tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator are compared and evaluated from the aspect of force density, force ripple and manufacturability. In comparison with conventional passive magnetic levitation vibration isolators, the proposed tubular horizontal-gap passive magnetic levitation vibration isolator shows advantage in higher force density.

  2. Acoustical conditions of typical classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Ming; Lam, Coriolanus C. L.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of the acoustical environments of local schools in Hong Kong. In the measurements, several acoustical aspects that affect verbal communication in classrooms have been studied. These conditions include outdoor and indoor ambient noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, reverberation time and the speech transmission index. Typical classrooms in many different schools and other higher-education institutions have been selected in the present study. Experimental results are compared with such national standards as USA (ANSI S 12.60 V 2002), Australian/New Zealand (AS/NZS 2107:2000), China (GB/T 15508 V 1995) and other national and industrial standards. This study will form the basis of devising acceptable standards for use in Hong Kong. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council of the SAR Government, the Research Committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Architectural Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  3. Failure mode and effects analysis on typical reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisawy, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    An updated failure mode and effects analysis, FMEA , has been performed on a typical reactor trip system. This upgrade helps to avoid system damage and ,as a result, extends the system service life. It also provides for simplified maintenance and surveillance testing. The operating conditions under which the system is to carry out its function and the operational profile expected for the system have been determined. The results of the FMEA have been given in terms of operating states of the subsystem.The results are given in form of table which is set up such that for a given failure one can read across it and determine which items remain operating in the system. From this data one can identify the number of components operating in the system for monitors pressure exceeds the setpoint pressure.

  4. Typical and atypical radiological manifestations of renal oncocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaldez, P.; Iriborreu, M. A.; Rodriguez, M. L.; Martinez-Moya, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Navarro, S.

    2001-01-01

    Asses the Radiologic findings [ conventional X-ray, intravenous urography (IU), ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) ] of the renal oncocytomas and determine if there are characteristics that allow us to differentiate them from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We performed a retrospective study of eight patients diagnosed of renal oncocytoma, analyzing the characteristics found in the plain radiography and IVU, ultrasonography and CT without and with i. v. contrast. The masses were well defined in seven cases and poorly defined in one, and were homogeneous on four occasions and heterogeneous on two. The remaining two were homogeneous, except for the presence of a central scar. Two lesions showed and aggressive biological behavior, coinciding with signs suggestive of malignancy from the radiological point of view. The fibrous scar is a typical but infrequent findings in renal oncocytoma that we can only detect by CT. It is not possible to differentiate it from aggressive lesions with imaging techniques, although orientative findings exist. (Author) 17 refs

  5. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  6. Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent

    2017-12-01

    We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.

  7. [Injury patterns and typical stress situations in paragliding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnsack, M; Schröter, E

    2005-05-01

    Paragliding is known as a high risk sport with a substantial rate of severe and fatal injuries. Analysis of typical injury mechanisms and statistics showed that the total rate of paragliding injuries has decreased in recent years for an increasing number of pilots. In 2003, the rate of severe and fatal injuries in paragliding was less than that of other air sports and motorcycling. Through the introduction of a spine protector system in Germany and Austria, the number of vertebral fractures decreased significantly between 2000 and 2003. Most other injuries, especially of the lower extremities, could be avoided by adequate and farsighted flight behavior. Qualified instruction with regular training, standardized development of safety equipment and consequent analysis of paragliding injuries will help to improve the safety status in paragliding.

  8. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP 1 and WAP 2 . We show that WAP 2 , the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP 1 , however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP 1 is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning

  9. Anthropic reasoning and typicality in multiverse cosmology and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Steven [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2006-06-21

    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle is fundamentally ambiguous. It can be formulated in one of two ways, which we refer to as WAP{sub 1} and WAP{sub 2}. We show that WAP{sub 2}, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of 'typicality', and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. WAP{sub 1}, however, requires no such supplementation; it directly implies that any theory that assigns a non-zero probability to our universe predicts that we will observe our universe with probability one. We argue, therefore, that WAP{sub 1} is preferable, and note that it has the benefit of avoiding the inductive overreach characteristic of much anthropic reasoning.

  10. Numerical Simulations for a Typical Train Fire in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway is the key transport means in China including the Mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Consequent to so many big arson and accidental fires in the public transport systems including trains and buses, fire safety in passenger trains is a concern. Numerical simulations with Computational Fluid Dynamics on identified fire scenarios with typical train compartments in China will be reported in this paper. The heat release rate of the first ignited item was taken as the input parameter. The mass lost rate of fuel vapor of other combustibles was estimated to predict the resultant heat release rates by the combustion models in the software. Results on air flow, velocity vectors, temperature distribution, smoke layer height, and smoke spread patterns inside the train compartment were analyzed. The results are useful for working out appropriate fire safety measures for train vehicles and determining the design fire for subway stations and railway tunnels.

  11. Aeroelastic Calculations Using CFD for a Typical Business Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Two time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were used to compute several flutter points for a typical business jet model. The model consisted of a rigid fuselage with a flexible semispan wing and was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center where experimental flutter data were obtained from M(sub infinity) = 0.628 to M(sub infinity) = 0.888. The computational results were computed using CFD codes based on the inviscid TSD equation (CAP-TSD) and the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations (CFL3D-AE). Comparisons are made between analytical results and with experiment where appropriate. The results presented here show that the Navier-Stokes method is required near the transonic dip due to the strong viscous effects while the TSD and Euler methods used here provide good results at the lower Mach numbers.

  12. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  13. Transposable Elements: No More 'Junk DNA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ji Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of whole-genome sequencing, transposable elements (TEs, just thought to be 'junk' DNA, have been noticed because of their numerous copies in various eukaryotic genomes. Many studies about TEs have been conducted to discover their functions in their host genomes. Based on the results of those studies, it has been generally accepted that they have a function to cause genomic and genetic variations. However, their infinite functions are not fully elucidated. Through various mechanisms, including de novo TE insertions, TE insertion-mediated deletions, and recombination events, they manipulate their host genomes. In this review, we focus on Alu, L1, human endogenous retrovirus, and short interspersed element/variable number of tandem repeats/Alu (SVA elements and discuss how they have affected primate genomes, especially the human and chimpanzee genomes, since their divergence.

  14. Creep strain accumulation in a typical LMFBR piperun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis described allows the strain concentrations in typical LMFBR two anchor point uniplanar piperuns to be calculated. Account is taken of the effect of pipe elbows in attracting creep strain to themselves as well as possible movements of the thrust line due to strain redistribution. The influence of the initial load conditions is also examined. The stress relaxation analysis is facilitated by making the assumption that a cross-sectional stress distribution determined by the asymptotic fully developed state of creep exists at all times. Use is then made of Hoff(s) analogy between materials with a creep law of the Norton type and those with a corresponding non-linear elastic stress strain law, to determine complementary strain energy rates for straight pipes and bends. Ovalisation of the latter produces an increased strain energy rate which can be simply calculated by comparison with an equal length of straight pipe through employing a creep flexibility factor due to Spence. Deflection rates at any location in the pipework can then be evaluated in terms of the thermal restraint forces at that location by an application of Castigliano's principle. In particular for an anchor point the deflection rates are identically zero and this leads to the generation of 3 simultaneous differential equations determining the relaxation of the anchor reactions. Indicative results are presented for the continuous relaxation at 570 deg C of the thermally induced stress in a planar approximation to a typical LMFBR pipe run chosen to have peak elbow stresses close to the code maximum. The results indicate a ratio, after 10 5 hours, of 3 for creep strain concentration relative to initial peak strain (calculated on the assumption of fully elastic behavior) in the most severely affected elbow, when either austenitic 316 or 321 creep properties are employed

  15. Far-infrared irradiation drying behavior of typical biomass briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.N.; Chen, M.Q.; Fu, B.A.; Song, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared radiation drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes (populus tomentosa leaves, cotton stalk, spent coffee grounds and eucalyptus bark) were investigated based on a lab-scale setup. The effect of radiation source temperatures (100–200 °C) on the far-infrared drying kinetics and heat transfer of the samples was addressed. As the temperature went up from 100 °C to 200 °C, the time required for the four biomass briquettes drying decreased by about 59–66%, and the average values of temperature for the four biomass briquettes increased by about 33–39 °C, while the average radiation heat transfer fluxes increased by about 3.3 times (3.7 times only for the leaves). The specific energy consumptions were 0.622–0.849 kW h kg"−"1. The Modified Midilli model had the better representing for the moisture ratio change of the briquettes. The values of the activation energy for the briquettes in the first falling rate stage were between 20.35 and 24.83 kJ mol"−"1, while those in the second falling rate stage were between 17.89 and 21.93 kJ mol"−"1. The activation energy for the eucalyptus bark briquette in two falling rate stages was the least one, and that for the cotton stalk briquette was less than that for the rest two briquettes. - Highlights: • Far infrared drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes were addressed. • The effect of radiation source temperatures on IR drying kinetics was stated. • Radiation heat transfer flux between the sample and heater was evaluated. • Midilli model had the better representing for the drying process of the samples.

  16. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  18. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  19. Novel expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using different bioinformatic criteria, the SUCEST database was used to mine for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among 42,189 clusters, 1,425 expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in silico. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. Of 212 primer pairs ...

  20. Erroneous Memories Arising from Repeated Attempts to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of repeated and prolonged attempts at remembering on false memory rates was assessed in three experiments. Participants saw and imagined pictures and then made repeated recall attempts before taking a source memory test. Although the number of items recalled increased with repeated tests, the net gains were associated with more source…

  1. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly...... select an inference from a probability distribution with full support the set of steady states is a subset of the set of Nash equilibria in which only stage game Nash equilibria are played. When players make ‘cautious' inferences the set of steady states is the subset of self-confirming equilibria...... with Nash outcome paths. When players use different inference rules, the set of steady states can lie between the previous two cases...

  2. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  3. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  4. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  5. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  6. Developing expressed sequence tag libraries and the discovery of simple sequence repeat markers for two species of raspberry (Rubus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. Expressed S...

  7. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  8. Cassava C-repeat binding factor 1 gene responds to low temperature and enhances cold tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Ma, Qiuxiang; Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Wenzhi; Zhang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    Cassava MeCBF1 is a typical CBF transcription factor mediating cold responses but its low expression in apical buds along with a retarded response cause inefficient upregulation of downstream cold-related genes, rendering cassava chilling-sensitive. Low temperature is a major abiotic stress factor affecting survival, productivity and geographic distribution of important crops worldwide. The C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB) are important regulators of abiotic stress response in plants. In this study, MeCBF1, a CBF-like gene, was identified in the tropical root crop cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). The MeCBF1 encodes a protein that shares strong homology with DREB1As/CBFs from Arabidopsis as well as other species. The MeCBF1 was localized to the nucleus and is mainly expressed in stem and mature leaves, but not in apical buds or stem cambium. MeCBF1 expression was not only highly responsive to cold, but also significantly induced by salt, PEG and ABA treatment. Several stress-associated cis-elements were found in its promoter region, e.g., ABRE-related, MYC recognition sites, and MYB responsive element. Compared with AtCBF1, the MeCBF1 expression induced by cold in cassava was retarded and upregulated only after 4 h, which was also confirmed by its promoter activity. Overexpression of MeCBF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis and cassava plants conferred enhanced crytolerance. The CBF regulon was smaller and not entirely co-regulated with MeCBF1 expression in overexpressed cassava. The retarded MeCBF1 expression in response to cold and attenuated CBF-regulon might lead cassava to chilling sensitivity.

  9. PASTEC: an automatic transposable element classification tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hoede

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: The classification of transposable elements (TEs is key step towards deciphering their potential impact on the genome. However, this process is often based on manual sequence inspection by TE experts. With the wealth of genomic sequences now available, this task requires automation, making it accessible to most scientists. We propose a new tool, PASTEC, which classifies TEs by searching for structural features and similarities. This tool outperforms currently available software for TE classification. The main innovation of PASTEC is the search for HMM profiles, which is useful for inferring the classification of unknown TE on the basis of conserved functional domains of the proteins. In addition, PASTEC is the only tool providing an exhaustive spectrum of possible classifications to the order level of the Wicker hierarchical TE classification system. It can also automatically classify other repeated elements, such as SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats, rDNA or potential repeated host genes. Finally, the output of this new tool is designed to facilitate manual curation by providing to biologists with all the evidence accumulated for each TE consensus. AVAILABILITY: PASTEC is available as a REPET module or standalone software (http://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/download/repet/REPET_linux-x64-2.2.tar.gz. It requires a Unix-like system. There are two standalone versions: one of which is parallelized (requiring Sun grid Engine or Torque, and the other of which is not.

  10. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  11. Thoracic Radio necrosis Following Repeated Cardiac Catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banic, B.; Banic, A.; Weinand, Ch.; Meier, B.

    2011-01-01

    Radiodermatitis is a known complication in patients having undergone radiotherapy. It usually appears 2 to 5 years after irradiation. We are reporting on a case of radiodermatitis that occurred within months after coronary dilatation and stenting. It started with painful swelling, followed by a typical appearance on the skin surface. Histological finding confirmed the diagnosis. However, magnetic resonance imaging showed changes in the subcutaneous tissue extending into the ribs. A radical debridement was performed including removal of a partially necrotic 4th rib. The defect was closed with a latissimus dorsi transposition flap. Our findings are compared with the literature reports

  12. Thoracic Radionecrosis Following Repeated Cardiac Catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banic, Borut; Meier, Bernhard; Banic, Andrej; Weinand, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Radiodermatitis is a known complication in patients having undergone radiotherapy. It usually appears 2 to 5 years after irradiation. We are reporting on a case of radiodermatitis that occurred within months after coronary dilatation and stenting. It started with painful swelling, followed by a typical appearance on the skin surface. Histological finding confirmed the diagnosis. However, magnetic resonance imaging showed changes in the subcutaneous tissue extending into the ribs. A radical debridement was performed including removal of a partially necrotic 4th rib. The defect was closed with a latissimus dorsi transposition flap. Our findings are compared with the literature reports

  13. Attrition from Web-Based Cognitive Testing: A Repeated Measures Comparison of Gamification Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Jim; Skinner, Andy; Coyle, David; Lawrence, Natalia; Munafo, Marcus

    2017-11-22

    The prospect of assessing cognition longitudinally and remotely is attractive to researchers, health practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies alike. However, such repeated testing regimes place a considerable burden on participants, and with cognitive tasks typically being regarded as effortful and unengaging, these studies may experience high levels of participant attrition. One potential solution is to gamify these tasks to make them more engaging: increasing participant willingness to take part and reducing attrition. However, such an approach must balance task validity with the introduction of entertaining gamelike elements. This study aims to investigate the effects of gamelike features on participant attrition using a between-subjects, longitudinal Web-based testing study. We used three variants of a common cognitive task, the Stop Signal Task (SST), with a single gamelike feature in each: one variant where points were rewarded for performing optimally; another where the task was given a graphical theme; and a third variant, which was a standard SST and served as a control condition. Participants completed four compulsory test sessions over 4 consecutive days before entering a 6-day voluntary testing period where they faced a daily decision to either drop out or continue taking part. Participants were paid for each session they completed. A total of 482 participants signed up to take part in the study, with 265 completing the requisite four consecutive test sessions. No evidence of an effect of gamification on attrition was observed. A log-rank test showed no evidence of a difference in dropout rates between task variants (χ 2 2 =3.0, P=.22), and a one-way analysis of variance of the mean number of sessions completed per participant in each variant also showed no evidence of a difference (F 2,262 =1.534, P=.21, partial η 2 =0.012). Our findings raise doubts about the ability of gamification to reduce attrition from longitudinal cognitive testing studies

  14. REPEATING FAST RADIO BURSTS FROM HIGHLY MAGNETIZED PULSARS TRAVELING THROUGH ASTEROID BELTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Z. G.; Wang, J. S.; Huang, Y. F.; Wu, X. F.

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, Spitler et al. and Scholz et al. reported their detections of 16 additional bright bursts in the direction of the fast radio burst (FRB) 121102. This repeating FRB is inconsistent with all of the catastrophic event models put forward previously for hypothetically non-repeating FRBs. Here, we propose a different model, in which highly magnetized pulsars travel through the asteroid belts of other stars. We show that a repeating FRB could originate from such a pulsar encountering a large number of asteroids in the belt. During each pulsar-asteroid impact, an electric field induced outside of the asteroid has such a large component parallel to the stellar magnetic field that electrons are torn off the asteroidal surface and accelerated to ultra-relativistic energies instantaneously. The subsequent movement of these electrons along magnetic field lines will cause coherent curvature radiation, which can account for all of the properties of an FRB. In addition, this model can self-consistently explain the typical duration, luminosity, and repetitive rate of the 17 bursts of FRB 121102. The predicted occurrence rate of repeating FRB sources may imply that our model would be testable in the next few years.

  15. Quantitative analysis and prediction of curvature in leucine-rich repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, K Lauren; Bella, Jordi; Lovell, Simon C

    2009-11-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins form a large and diverse family. They have a wide range of functions most of which involve the formation of protein-protein interactions. All known LRR structures form curved solenoids, although there is large variation in their curvature. It is this curvature that determines the shape and dimensions of the inner space available for ligand binding. Unfortunately, large-scale parameters such as the overall curvature of a protein domain are extremely difficult to predict. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of determinants of curvature of this family. Individual repeats typically range in length between 20 and 30 residues and have a variety of secondary structures on their convex side. The observed curvature of the LRR domains correlates poorly with the lengths of their individual repeats. We have, therefore, developed a scoring function based on the secondary structure of the convex side of the protein that allows prediction of the overall curvature with a high degree of accuracy. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in selecting a suitable template for comparative modeling. We have developed an automated, quantitative protocol that can be used to predict accurately the curvature of leucine-rich repeat proteins of unknown structure from sequence alone. This protocol is available as an online resource at http://www.bioinf.manchester.ac.uk/curlrr/.

  16. Nonparametric modeling and analysis of association between Huntington's disease onset and CAG repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    2014-04-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a dominant genetic mode of inheritance caused by an expansion of CAG repeats on chromosome 4. Typically, a longer sequence of CAG repeat length is associated with increased risk of experiencing earlier onset of HD. Previous studies of the association between HD onset age and CAG length have favored a logistic model, where the CAG repeat length enters the mean and variance components of the logistic model in a complex exponential-linear form. To relax the parametric assumption of the exponential-linear association to the true HD onset distribution, we propose to leave both mean and variance functions of the CAG repeat length unspecified and perform semiparametric estimation in this context through a local kernel and backfitting procedure. Motivated by including family history of HD information available in the family members of participants in the Cooperative Huntington's Observational Research Trial (COHORT), we develop the methodology in the context of mixture data, where some subjects have a positive probability of being risk free. We also allow censoring on the age at onset of disease and accommodate covariates other than the CAG length. We study the theoretical properties of the proposed estimator and derive its asymptotic distribution. Finally, we apply the proposed methods to the COHORT data to estimate the HD onset distribution using a group of study participants and the disease family history information available on their family members. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Immune responses of eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) to repeated acute elevation of corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Gail L; Langkilde, Tracy

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged elevations of glucocorticoids due to long-duration (chronic) stress can suppress immune function. It is unclear, however, how natural stressors that result in repeated short-duration (acute) stress, such as frequent agonistic social encounters or predator attacks, fit into our current understanding of the immune consequences of stress. Since these types of stressors may activate the immune system due to increased risk of injury, immune suppression may be reduced at sites where individuals are repeatedly exposed to potentially damaging stressors. We tested whether repeated acute elevation of corticosterone (CORT, a glucocorticoid) suppresses immune function in eastern fence lizards (Sceloporus undulatus), and whether this effect varies between lizards from high-stress (high baseline CORT, invaded by predatory fire ants) and low-stress (low baseline CORT, uninvaded) sites. Lizards treated daily with exogenous CORT showed higher hemagglutination of novel proteins by their plasma (a test of constitutive humoral immunity) than control lizards, a pattern that was consistent across sites. There was no significant effect of CORT treatment on bacterial killing ability of plasma. These results suggest that repeated elevations of CORT, which are common in nature, produce immune effects more typical of those expected at the acute end of the acute-chronic spectrum and provide no evidence of modulated consequences of elevated CORT in animals from high-stress sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. REPEATING FAST RADIO BURSTS FROM HIGHLY MAGNETIZED PULSARS TRAVELING THROUGH ASTEROID BELTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Z. G.; Wang, J. S.; Huang, Y. F. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F., E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-09-20

    Very recently, Spitler et al. and Scholz et al. reported their detections of 16 additional bright bursts in the direction of the fast radio burst (FRB) 121102. This repeating FRB is inconsistent with all of the catastrophic event models put forward previously for hypothetically non-repeating FRBs. Here, we propose a different model, in which highly magnetized pulsars travel through the asteroid belts of other stars. We show that a repeating FRB could originate from such a pulsar encountering a large number of asteroids in the belt. During each pulsar-asteroid impact, an electric field induced outside of the asteroid has such a large component parallel to the stellar magnetic field that electrons are torn off the asteroidal surface and accelerated to ultra-relativistic energies instantaneously. The subsequent movement of these electrons along magnetic field lines will cause coherent curvature radiation, which can account for all of the properties of an FRB. In addition, this model can self-consistently explain the typical duration, luminosity, and repetitive rate of the 17 bursts of FRB 121102. The predicted occurrence rate of repeating FRB sources may imply that our model would be testable in the next few years.

  19. Typical corrosion of alumina refractory in aluminum reflow oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, Jaoa B.

    2014-01-01

    The refractory linings of furnaces for secondary melting of aluminum, are exposed to intense attack by the molten metal. This occurs, because molten aluminum has a strong reducing power over the refractory oxide components, particularly Fe 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and TiO 2 . In this work, based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, it is presented a post mortem study of the mechanisms that lead to a premature wear of a 80% Al2O3 chemically bonded refractory bricks, used in the metal line of an aluminum re-melting furnace. The SEM analysis demonstrated that the oxides SiO 2 and TiO 2 contained in the refractory were reduced and transformed into their metallic elements causing an intense structural spalling. (author)

  20. D20S16 is a complex interspersed repeated sequence: Genetic and physical analysis of the locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, D.W.; Krawchuk, M.D.; Howard, T.D. [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    The genomic structure of the D20S16 locus has been evaluated using genetic and physical methods. D20S16, originally detected with the probe CRI-L1214, is a highly informative, complex restriction fragment length polymorphism consisting of two separate allelic systems. The allelic systems have the characteristics of conventional VNTR polymorphisms and are separated by recombination ({theta} = 0.02, Z{sub max} = 74.82), as demonstrated in family studies. Most of these recombination events are meiotic crossovers and are maternal in origin, but two, including deletion of the locus in a cell line from a CEPH family member, occur without evidence for exchange of flanking markers. DNA sequence analysis suggests that the basis of the polymorphism is variable numbers of a 98-bp sequence tandemly repeated with 87 to 90% sequence similarity between repeats. The 98-bp repeat is a dimer of 49 bp sequence with 45 to 98% identity between the elements. In addition, nonpolymorphic genomic sequences adjacent to the polymorphic 98-bp repeat tracts are also repeated but are not polymorphic, i.e., show no individual to individual variation. Restriction enzyme mapping of cosmids containing the CRI-L1214 sequence suggests that there are multiple interspersed repeats of the CRI-L1214 sequence on chromosome 20. The results of dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments with interphase nuclei are also consistent with multiple repeats of an interspersed sequence on chromosome 20. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  1. In situ detection of tandem DNA repeat length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.; Smith, C.L. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    A simple method for scoring short tandem DNA repeats is presented. An oligonucleotide target, containing tandem repeats embedded in a unique sequence, was hybridized to a set of complementary probes, containing tandem repeats of known lengths. Single-stranded loop structures formed on duplexes containing a mismatched (different) number of tandem repeats. No loop structure formed on duplexes containing a matched (identical) number of tandem repeats. The matched and mismatched loop structures were enzymatically distinguished and differentially labeled by treatment with S1 nuclease and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Inconsistency of speech in children with childhood apraxia of speech, phonological disorders, and typical speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini, Jenya

    There is a lack of agreement on the features used to differentiate Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) from Phonological Disorders (PD). One criterion which has gained consensus is lexical inconsistency of speech (ASHA, 2007); however, no accepted measure of this feature has been defined. Although lexical assessment provides information about consistency of an item across repeated trials, it may not capture the magnitude of inconsistency within an item. In contrast, segmental analysis provides more extensive information about consistency of phoneme usage across multiple contexts and word-positions. The current research compared segmental and lexical inconsistency metrics in preschool-aged children with PD, CAS, and typical development (TD) to determine how inconsistency varies with age in typical and disordered speakers, and whether CAS and PD were differentiated equally well by both assessment levels. Whereas lexical and segmental analyses may be influenced by listener characteristics or speaker intelligibility, the acoustic signal is less vulnerable to these factors. In addition, the acoustic signal may reveal information which is not evident in the perceptual signal. A second focus of the current research was motivated by Blumstein et al.'s (1980) classic study on voice onset time (VOT) in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) which demonstrated a motor impairment underlying AOS. In the current study, VOT analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between age and group with the voicing distribution for bilabial and alveolar plosives. Findings revealed that 3-year-olds evidenced significantly higher inconsistency than 5-year-olds; segmental inconsistency approached 0% in 5-year-olds with TD, whereas it persisted in children with PD and CAS suggesting that for child in this age-range, inconsistency is a feature of speech disorder rather than typical development (Holm et al., 2007). Likewise, whereas segmental and lexical inconsistency were

  3. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3-36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4-39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  4. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  5. Generalized finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachspress, E.

    2009-01-01

    Triangles and rectangles are the ubiquitous elements in finite element studies. Only these elements admit polynomial basis functions. Rational functions provide a basis for elements having any number of straight and curved sides. Numerical complexities initially associated with rational bases precluded extensive use. Recent analysis has reduced these difficulties and programs have been written to illustrate effectiveness. Although incorporation in major finite element software requires considerable effort, there are advantages in some applications which warrant implementation. An outline of the basic theory and of recent innovations is presented here. (authors)

  6. [Ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals of the typical dredged mud in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing-Li; Cheng, Jin-Ping; Gao, Hao-Min; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Zhen-Yi; Wu, Yang; Xie, Cui-Song; Liang, Hai; Wang, He; Pi, Shuai-Shuai; Yu, Zhao-Yi

    2013-04-01

    In order to discuss the potential ecological risk of heavy metals of the typical dredged mud in Shanghai, the Hakanson potential ecological risks method was used to analyse and assess the potential ecological risks of heavy metals, including Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, As,Cr and Zn in dredged mud from the following three areas-the dock apron of Huangpu River, the mouth of the Yangtze River and inland waterways. The results showed that the mean values of ecological risk index (Er(i)) of the seven heavy metals are 20.05, 17.49, 8.82, 5.71, 4.68, 1.74 and 1.13, respectively, all of which belonged to the low ecological risk; Cd (one location in inland waterways) and Hg (three locations in the mouth of the Yangtze River and one location in inland waterways) are the most hazardous elements, with the Er(i) > 40, which belonged to the medium ecological risk or the high ecological risk, and other elements belonged to the low ecological risk. From the results of ecological risk indices(ERI) of the heavy metals in Shanghai dredged mud, the risk of the heavy metals belonged to the low ecological risk. The ERI of inland waterways, the mouth of the Yangtze River and the dock apron of the Huangpu River were 81.4, 57.7 and 52.5, respectively, which all belong to the low ecological risk.

  7. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  8. A Repeating Sulfated Galactan Motif Resuscitates Dormant Micrococcus luteus Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Thomas; Szamosvári, Dávid; Clardy, Jon

    2018-07-01

    Only a small fraction of bacteria can autonomously initiate growth on agar plates. Nongrowing bacteria typically enter a metabolically inactive dormant state and require specific chemical trigger factors or signals to exit this state and to resume growth. Micrococcus luteus has become a model organism for this important yet poorly understood phenomenon. Only a few resuscitation signals have been described to date, and all of them are produced endogenously by bacterial species. We report the discovery of a novel type of resuscitation signal that allows M. luteus to grow on agar but not agarose plates. Fractionation of the agar polysaccharide complex and sulfation of agarose allowed us to identify the signal as highly sulfated saccharides found in agar or carrageenans. Purification of hydrolyzed κ-carrageenan ultimately led to the identification of the signal as a small fragment of a large linear polysaccharide, i.e., an oligosaccharide of five or more sugars with a repeating disaccharide motif containing d-galactose-4-sulfate (G4S) 1,4-linked to 3,6-anhydro-α-d-galactose (DA), G4S-(DA-G4S) n ≥2 IMPORTANCE Most environmental bacteria cannot initiate growth on agar plates, but they can flourish on the same plates once growth is initiated. While there are a number of names for and manifestations of this phenomenon, the underlying cause appears to be the requirement for a molecular signal indicating safe growing conditions. Micrococcus luteus has become a model organism for studying this growth initiation process, often called resuscitation, because of its apparent connection with the persistent or dormant form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , an important human pathogen. In this report, we identify a highly sulfated saccharide from agar or carrageenans that robustly resuscitates dormant M. luteus on agarose plates. We identified and characterized the signal as a small repeating disaccharide motif. Our results indicate that signals inherent in or absent from the

  9. Solution structure of the twelfth cysteine-rich ligand-binding repeat in rat megalin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Christian A.; Dancea, Felician; Shi Meichen; Bade-Noskova, Veronika; Rueterjans, Heinz; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Luecke, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Megalin, an approx. 600 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein that acts as multi-ligand transporter, is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family. Several cysteine-rich repeats, each consisting of about 40 residues, are responsible for the multispecific binding of ligands. The solution structure of the twelfth cysteine-rich ligand-binding repeat with class A motif found in megalin features two short β-strands and two helical turns, yielding the typical fold with a I-III, II-V and IV-VI disulfide bridge connectivity pattern and a calcium coordination site at the C-terminal end. The resulting differences in electrostatic surface potential compared to other ligand-binding modules of this gene family, however, may be responsible for the functional divergence

  10. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkhana Kanhayuwa

    Full Text Available Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  11. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H A

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  12. Elements beyond uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Loveland, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the 12th volume in a series on transuranium elements. Varied techniques for production of these elements, the methods used in the identification, and the exquisitely refined microchemical techniques required to deal wth samples sometimes involving only a few atoms are described in detail. The chapter on synthesis of the new elements is liberally laced with reminiscences of the proud progenitors as well as the criteria for the discovery of a new chemical element. The authors lament that the superheavy elements (elements in the region of atomic number 114) still elude detection even though their creation should be possible, and some, at least, should survive long enough to be detected. One chapter in the book is devoted to practical applictions of uranium, and the transuranic elements

  13. Experimental Research on Boundary Shear Stress in Typical Meandering Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-hua; Xia, Yun-feng; Zhang, Shi-zhao; Wen, Yun-cheng; Xu, Hua

    2018-06-01

    A novel instrument named Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) flexible hot-film shear stress sensor was used to study the boundary shear stress distribution in the generalized natural meandering open channel, and the mean sidewall shear stress distribution along the meandering channel, and the lateral boundary shear stress distribution in the typical cross-section of the meandering channel was analysed. Based on the measurement of the boundary shear stress, a semi-empirical semi-theoretical computing approach of the boundary shear stress was derived including the effects of the secondary flow, sidewall roughness factor, eddy viscosity and the additional Reynolds stress, and more importantly, for the first time, it combined the effects of the cross-section central angle and the Reynolds number into the expressions. Afterwards, a comparison between the previous research and this study was developed. Following the result, we found that the semi-empirical semi-theoretical boundary shear stress distribution algorithm can predict the boundary shear stress distribution precisely. Finally, a single factor analysis was conducted on the relationship between the average sidewall shear stress on the convex and concave bank and the flow rate, water depth, slope ratio, or the cross-section central angle of the open channel bend. The functional relationship with each of the above factors was established, and then the distance from the location of the extreme sidewall shear stress to the bottom of the open channel was deduced based on the statistical theory.

  14. Musical Mnemonics Enhance Verbal Memory in Typically Developing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Knott

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of musical mnemonics vs. spoken word in training verbal memory in children. A randomized control trial of typically-developing 9–11 year old children was conducted using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, a test measuring a participant's ability to recall a list of 15 words over multiple exposures. Members of the group who listened to words sung to them recalled an average of 20% more words after listening to and recalling an interference list than members of the control group who listened to the same words spoken. This difference persisted, though slightly smaller (17% when participants recalled words after a 15-min waiting period. Additionally, group participants who listened to words sung demonstrated a higher incidence of words recalled in correct serial order. Key findings were all statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Enhanced serial order recall points to the musical pitch/rhythm structure enhancing sequence memory as a potential mnemonic mechanism. No significant differences were found in serial position effects between groups. The findings suggest that musical mnemonic training may be more effective than rehearsal with spoken words in verbal memory learning tasks in 9–11 year olds.

  15. Physical characteristics and resistance parameters of typical urban cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengattini, Simone; Bigazzi, Alexander York

    2018-03-30

    This study investigates the rolling and drag resistance parameters and bicycle and cargo masses of typical urban cyclists. These factors are important for modelling of cyclist speed, power and energy expenditure, with applications including exercise performance, health and safety assessments and transportation network analysis. However, representative values for diverse urban travellers have not been established. Resistance parameters were measured utilizing a field coast-down test for 557 intercepted cyclists in Vancouver, Canada. Masses were also measured, along with other bicycle attributes such as tire pressure and size. The average (standard deviation) of coefficient of rolling resistance, effective frontal area, bicycle plus cargo mass, and bicycle-only mass were 0.0077 (0.0036), 0.559 (0.170) m 2 , 18.3 (4.1) kg, and 13.7 (3.3) kg, respectively. The range of measured values is wider and higher than suggested in existing literature, which focusses on sport cyclists. Significant correlations are identified between resistance parameters and rider and bicycle attributes, indicating higher resistance parameters for less sport-oriented cyclists. The findings of this study are important for appropriately characterising the full range of urban cyclists, including commuters and casual riders.

  16. Typical and atypical clinical presentation of uterine myomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiang Su

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoma is the most common benign neoplasm that can occur in the female reproductive system, most frequently seen in women in their 50s. Although the majority of myomas are asymptomatic, some patients have symptoms and/or signs of varying degrees. Typical myoma-related symptoms or signs include: (1 menstrual disturbances like menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual bleeding, (2 pelvic pain unrelated to menstruation, (3 compression symptoms, similar to a sensation of bloatedness, urinary frequency and constipation, (4 subfertility status such as recurrent abortion, preterm labor, dystocia with an increased incidence of Cesarean section, and postpartum hemorrhage, and (5 cosmetic problems due to increased abdominal girth However, there are undoubtedly some clinical presentations secondary to uterine myomas are not so specific, such as: (1 uncommon compression-related symptoms, (2 cardiac symptom and atypical symptoms secondary to vascular involvement or dissemination, (3 abdominal symptoms mimicking pelvic carcinomatosis, (4 dyspnea, (5 pruritus, (6 hiccup or internal bleeding, and (7 vaginal protruding mass or uterine inversion. Familiarization with these symptoms and awareness of other unusual or atypical presentations of uterine myomas will remind clinical practitioners of their significance, and of the necessity of follow-up examinations and individualized management to fit the needs and childbirth desires of the patients.

  17. Facilitating complex shape drawing in Williams syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kerry D; Farran, Emily K

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) produce drawings that are disorganised, likely due to an inability to replicate numerous spatial relations between parts. This study attempted to circumvent these drawing deficits in WS when copying complex combinations of one, two and three shapes. Drawing decisions were reduced by introducing a number of facilitators, for example, by using distinct colours and including facilitatory cues on the response sheet. Overall, facilitation improved drawing in the WS group to a comparable level of accuracy as typically developing participants (matched for non-verbal ability). Drawing accuracy was greatest in both groups when planning demands (e.g. starting location, line lengths and changes in direction) were reduced by use of coloured figures and providing easily distinguished and clearly grouped facilitatory cues to form each shape. This study provides the first encouraging evidence to suggest that drawing of complex shapes in WS can be facilitated; individuals with WS might be receptive to remediation programmes for drawing and handwriting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Typically Diverse: The Nature of Urban Agriculture in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Pollard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In our visions of the future, urban agriculture has long been considered an integral part of the ‘sustainable city’. Yet urban agriculture is an incredibly diverse and variable field of study, and many practical aspects remain overlooked and understudied. This paper explores the economic sustainability of urban agriculture by focusing on the physical, practical, and economic aspects of home food gardens in South Australia. New data from the Edible Gardens project online survey is presented on a broad range of current garden setups, including a figure illustrating the statistically typical South Australian food garden. The differences between the survey data and a recent optimized garden model further highlight the gap in knowledge regarding existing home food gardens. With regard to the financial accessibility and economic sustainability of home food gardens, there is also still much more work to be done. Although saving money is a top motivation, with many survey respondents believing that they do succeed in saving money, it remains to be seen whether their current gardening practices support this aspiration. Measurement of the full costs of different gardens would allow for better predictions of whether growing food can save household’s money and under what circumstances.

  19. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  20. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  1. A quantitative evaluation of seismic margin of typical sodium piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki

    1999-05-01

    It is widely recognized that the current seismic design methods for piping involve a large amount of safety margin. From this viewpoint, a series of seismic analyses and evaluations with various design codes were made on typical LMFBR main sodium piping systems. Actual capability against seismic loads were also estimated on the piping systems. Margins contained in the current codes were quantified based on these results, and potential benefits and impacts to the piping seismic design were assessed on possible mitigation of the current code allowables. From the study, the following points were clarified; 1) A combination of inelastic time history analysis and true (without margin)strength capability allows several to twenty times as large seismic load compared with the allowable load with the current methods. 2) The new rule of the ASME is relatively compatible with the results of inelastic analysis evaluation. Hence, this new rule might be a goal for the mitigation of seismic design rule. 3) With this mitigation, seismic design accommodation such as equipping with a large number of seismic supports may become unnecessary. (author)

  2. Comparative analysis on flexibility requirements of typical Cryogenic Transfer lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Mohit; Kumar, Uday; Choukekar, Ketan; Shah, Nitin; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The cryogenic systems and their applications; primarily in large Fusion devices, utilize multiple cryogen transfer lines of various sizes and complexities to transfer cryogenic fluids from plant to the various user/ applications. These transfer lines are composed of various critical sections i.e. tee section, elbows, flexible components etc. The mechanical sustainability (under failure circumstances) of these transfer lines are primary requirement for safe operation of the system and applications. The transfer lines need to be designed for multiple design constraints conditions like line layout, support locations and space restrictions. The transfer lines are subjected to single load and multiple load combinations, such as operational loads, seismic loads, leak in insulation vacuum loads etc. [1]. The analytical calculations and flexibility analysis using professional software are performed for the typical transfer lines without any flexible component, the results were analysed for functional and mechanical load conditions. The failure modes were identified along the critical sections. The same transfer line was then refurbished with the flexible components and analysed for failure modes. The flexible components provide additional flexibility to the transfer line system and make it safe. The results obtained from the analytical calculations were compared with those obtained from the flexibility analysis software calculations. The optimization of the flexible component’s size and selection was performed and components were selected to meet the design requirements as per code.

  3. Aqueous-chlorine leaching of typical Canadian uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale aqueous-chlorine leaches were conducted on quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatite and vein-type ores. Optimum leach temperatures, pulp density and retention times were determined. Uranium extraction of 98 per cent was obtained from the Elliot Lake, Madawaska Mines of Bancroft and Rabbit Lake ores, 96 per cent from the Key Lake ore and 86 per cent from the Agnew Lake ore. However, tailings containing 15-20 pCi g -1 of radium-226 were obtained only from the Elliot Lake and Agnew lake quartz-pebble conglomerates and Bancroft pegmatite-type ores by second-stage leaches with HCl. The second-stage leach results indicate that multistage (3 or 4) acid-chloride or salt-chloride leaches might be effective to obtain tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the high-grade vein-type ores. Comparative reagent-cost estimates show that the sulphuric-acid leach process is far less expensive than aqueous chlorine leaching. Nevertheless, only the aqueous chlorine and acid-chloride leaches in stages are effective in producing tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the typical Canadian uranium ores. (Auth.)

  4. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellenbach, Myriam; Zimprich, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) comprises the preference to engage in cognitively demanding activities and has been proposed as a potential explanatory variable of individual differences in cognitive abilities. Little is known, however, about the factorial structure of TIE, its relations to socio-demographic variables, and its influence on intellectual functioning in old age. In the present study, data of 364 adults (65-81 years) from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging (ZULU) were used to investigate the factorial structure of TIE and to examine the hypothesis that TIE is associated more strongly with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence in old age. A measurement model of a second order factor based on a structure of four correlated first order factors (Reading, Problem Solving, Abstract Thinking, and Intellectual Curiosity) evinced an excellent fit. After controlling for age, sex, and formal education, TIE was more strongly associated with crystallized intelligence than with fluid intelligence, comparable to results in younger persons. More detailed analyses showed that this association is mostly defined via Reading and Intellectual Curiosity.

  5. The use of conjunctions by children with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glória, Yasmin Alves Leão; Hanauer, Letícia Pessota; Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Nóro, Letícia Arruda; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2016-07-04

    To investigate the use of conjunctions in the spontaneous speech of three years old children with typical language development, who live in Santa Maria - RS. 45 children, aged 3:0;0 - 3:11;29 (years:months;days) from the database of the Center for the Study of Language and Speech (CELF) participated of this study. The spontaneous speech of each child was transcribed and followed by analysis of the samples to identify the types of conjunctions for each age group. The samples were statistically analyzed using the R software that allowed the evaluation of the number and type of conjunctions used in each age group by comparing them with each other. The data indicated that the higher the age of the child, the greater the number of types of conjunctions used by them. The comparison between age groups showed significant differences when comparing the average number of conjunctions per age group, as well as for additive conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. At age of three the children begin to develop the grammatical use of conjunctions, early appearing additive, adversative and explanatory coordinating conjunctions, and at 3:6 they are able to use the most complex conjunctions, as subordinating conjunctions.

  6. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mariner like elements (MLEs) are widely distributed type II transposons with an open reading frame (ORF) for transposase. We studied comparative phylogenetic evolution and inverted terminal repeat (ITR) conservation of MLEs from Indian saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta with other full length MLEs submitted in the ...

  7. Molecular genetics and epigenetics of CACTA elements

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2013-08-21

    The CACTA transposons, so named for a highly conserved motif at element ends, comprise one of the most abundant superfamilies of Class 2 (cut-and-paste) plant transposons. CACTA transposons characteristically include subterminal sequences of several hundred nucleotides containing closely spaced direct and inverted repeats of a short, conserved sequence of 14-15 bp. The Supressor-mutator (Spm) transposon, identified and subjected to detailed genetic analysis by Barbara McClintock, remains the paradigmatic element of the CACTA family. The Spm transposon encodes two proteins required for transposition, the transposase (TnpD) and a regulatory protein (TnpA) that binds to the subterminal repeats. Spm expression is subject to both genetic and epigenetic regulation. The Spm-encoded TnpA serves as an activator of the epigenetically inactivated, methylated Spm, stimulating both transient and heritable activation of the transposon. TnpA also serves as a negative regulator of the demethylated active element promoter and is required, in addition to the TnpD, for transposition. © Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013.

  8. Studies on Section XI ultrasonic repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, T.D.; McDearman, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    A block representative of a nuclear component has been welded containing intentional defects. Acoustic emission data taken during the welding correlate well with ultrasonic data. Repetitive ultrasonic examinations have been performed by skilled operators using a procedure based on that desribed in ASME Section XI. These examinations were performed by different examination teams using different ultrasonic equipment in such a manner that the effects on the repeatability of the ultrasonic test method caused by the operator and by the use of different equipment could be estimated. It was tentatively concluded that when considering a large number of inspections: (1) there is no significant difference in indication sizing between operators, and (2) there is a significant difference in amplitude and defect sizing when instruments having different, Code acceptable operating characteristics are used. It was determined that the Section XI sizing parameters follow a bivariate normal distribution. Data derived from ultrasonically and physically sizing indications in nuclear components during farication show that the Section XI technique tends to overestimate the size of the reflectors

  9. Short tandem repeat analysis in Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiyada, M

    2000-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs), known as microsatellites, are one of the most informative genetic markers for characterizing biological materials. Because of the relatively small size of STR alleles (generally 100-350 nucleotides), amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is relatively easy, affording a high sensitivity of detection. In addition, STR loci can be amplified simultaneously in a multiplex PCR. Thus, substantial information can be obtained in a single analysis with the benefits of using less template DNA, reducing labor, and reducing the contamination. We investigated 14 STR loci in a Japanese population living in Sendai by three multiplex PCR kits, GenePrint PowerPlex 1.1 and 2.2. Fluorescent STR System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and AmpF/STR Profiler (Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, CT, USA). Genomic DNA was extracted using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) proteinase K or Chelex 100 treatment followed by the phenol/chloroform extraction. PCR was performed according to the manufacturer's protocols. Electrophoresis was carried out on an ABI 377 sequencer and the alleles were determined by GeneScan 2.0.2 software (Perkin-Elmer). In 14 STRs loci, statistical parameters indicated a relatively high rate, and no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected. We apply this STR system to paternity testing and forensic casework, e.g., personal identification in rape cases. This system is an effective tool in the forensic sciences to obtain information on individual identification.

  10. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  11. Repeated intravenous doxapram induces phrenic motor facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, M S; Lee, K Z; Gonzalez-Rothi, E J; Fuller, D D

    2013-12-01

    Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant used to treat hypoventilation. Here we investigated whether doxapram could also trigger respiratory neuroplasticity. Specifically, we hypothesized that intermittent delivery of doxapram at low doses would lead to long-lasting increases (i.e., facilitation) of phrenic motor output in anesthetized, vagotomized, and mechanically-ventilated rats. Doxapram was delivered intravenously in a single bolus (2 or 6mg/kg) or as a series of 3 injections (2mg/kg) at 5min intervals. Control groups received pH-matched saline injections (vehicle) or no treatment (anesthesia time control). Doxapram evoked an immediate increase in phrenic output in all groups, but a persistent increase in burst amplitude only occurred after repeated dosing with 2mg/kg. At 60min following the last injection, phrenic burst amplitude was 168±24% of baseline (%BL) in the group receiving 3 injections (Pphrenic response to doxapram (2mg/kg) was reduced by 68% suggesting that at low doses the drug was acting primarily via the carotid chemoreceptors. We conclude that intermittent application of doxapram can trigger phrenic neuroplasticity, and this approach might be of use in the context of respiratory rehabilitation following neurologic injury. © 2013.

  12. Superfamily of ankyrin repeat proteins in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Qing, Xiaohe; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Shiyang; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-10

    The ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein family plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) due to the limited information on whole genome sequences. In this study, we identified a total of 130 ANK genes in tomato genome (SlANK), and these genes were distributed across all 12 chromosomes at various densities. And chromosomal localizations of SlANK genes indicated 25 SlANK genes were involved in tandem duplications. Based on their domain composition, all of the SlANK proteins were grouped into 13 subgroups. A combined phylogenetic tree was constructed with the aligned SlANK protein sequences. This tree revealed that the SlANK proteins comprise five major groups. An analysis of the expression profiles of SlANK genes in tomato in different tissues and in response to stresses showed that the SlANK proteins play roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the tomato ANK gene family. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and putative functions of SlANK genes in tomato. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki eMatsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.

  14. The effect of repeated testing vs repeated practice on skills learning in undergraduate dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn-Kirchner, S; Goerlich, Y; Kirchner, B; Notbohm, M; Schiekirka, S; Simmenroth, A; Raupach, T

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies in undergraduate medical education have demonstrated the advantage of repeated testing over repeated practice with regard to knowledge and skills retention. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this "testing effect" also applies to skills retention in undergraduate dental education. In this prospective, randomised controlled trial, fourth-year dental students at Göttingen University Medical Centre participated in a training session on surgical suturing in winter term 2014/2015. Following this, they were either assigned to two sessions of additional skills training (group A) or two sessions of skills assessment with feedback (group B). These sessions were spaced over a period of 4 weeks. Skills retention was assessed in a summative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the end of term, that is 6 months after the initial teaching session. A total of 32 students completed the study. With regard to suturing, OSCE performance was significantly better in group B than group A (81.9±13.1% vs 63.0±15.4%; P=0.001; Cohen's d=1.33). There was no significant OSCE performance difference in the two groups with regard to other learning objectives that were addressed in the end-of-term examination. Thus, the group difference was specific to suturing skills. This is the first study to demonstrate that in dental education, repeated testing produces more favourable skills retention than repeated practice. Test-enhanced learning might be a viable concept for skills retention in undergraduate dentistry education. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  16. Aging Management Plan for a Typical Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mahsa; Nazififard, Mohammad; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Development of an aging management plan (AMP) is a crucial contributor to maintaining the reactor safety and controlling the risk of degradation of the concrete reactor building of a nuclear power plant. The design, operation and utilization of a research reactor (RR) fundamentally differ from those of power reactors. The AMP should nonetheless be present on account of radioactive materials and radiation risks involved. This is mainly because the RR is deemed to be used as an experiment itself or to conduct separate experiments during its operation. The AMP aims to determine the requisites for specific structural concrete components of the reactor building that entail regular inspections and maintenance to ensure safe and reliable operation of the plant. The safety of a RR necessitates the provision which is made in its design to facilitate aging management. Aging management of RR's structures is one of the vital factors to safety, to ensure continued adequacy of the safety level, reliable operation of the reactor, and compliance with the operational limits and conditions.Moreover, engineering systems should be qualified to meet the functional requirements for which they were designed with aging and environmental conditions for all situations and at all times taken into account. This study aims to present an integrated methodology for the application of an AMP for the concrete of the reactor building of a typical RR. For the purpose of safety analysis, geometry and ambient conditions were taken from a 5 MW pool-type, light-water moderated, heterogeneous, solid fuel RR in which the water is also used for cooling and shielding (Fig. 1). The reactor core is immersed in either section of a two-section concrete pool filled with water. This paper makes available background information regarding the document and the strategy developed to manage potential degradation of the reactor building concrete as well as specific programs and preventive and corrective

  17. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  18. Thermal properties of typical chernozems in Kursk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Velichenko, M. V.; Tikhonravova, P. I.

    2016-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of virgin and plowed heavy loamy typical chernozems of Kursk oblast were studied. Thermal diffusivity was determined in the course of step-by-step drying of the initially capillary-saturated samples to the air-dry state. Specific heat capacity was determined for absolutely dry samples. Volumetric heat capacity was calculated according to the de Vries equation. Thermal diffusivity varied within the ranges of (1.15-3.46) × 10-7 m2/s in the Ap horizon, (1.14-3.35) × 10-7 m2/s in the A1 horizon, (1.49-3.70) × 10-7 m2/s in the AB horizon, (1.49-3.91) × 10-7 m2/s in the B1 horizon, and (1.60-3.80) × 10-7 m2/s in the Bca horizon. The thermal diffusivity vs. water content dependencies had distinct maximums and were flattened in the range of low water contents. The maximums were most pronounced for the mineral B1 and Bca horizons; for the A1 and Ap horizons, the curves were rather S-shaped. Volumetric heat capacity of the air-dry soils varied from 0.96 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 1.31 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon; in the state of capillary saturation, it varied from 2.79 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 3.28 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon. Thermal properties of topsoil horizons were higher in the plowed chernozem compared with the virgin chernozem, which is explained by an increase in the bulk density and a decrease in the organic matter content in the plowed soil.

  19. Integrated SNG Production in a Typical Nordic Sawmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennai Mesfun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced biomass-based motor fuels and chemicals are becoming increasingly important to replace fossil energy sources within the coming decades. It is likely that the new biorefineries will evolve mainly from existing forest industry sites, as they already have the required biomass handling infrastructure in place. The main objective of this work is to assess the potential for increasing the profit margin from sawmill byproducts by integrating innovative downstream processes. The focus is on the techno-economic evaluation of an integrated site for biomass-based synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG production. The option of using the syngas in a biomass-integrated gasification combined cycle (b-IGCC for the production of electricity (instead of SNG is also considered for comparison. The process flowsheets that are used to analyze the energy and material balances are modelled in MATLAB and Simulink. A mathematical process integration model of a typical Nordic sawmill is used to analyze the effects on the energy flows in the overall site, as well as to evaluate the site economics. Different plant sizes have been considered in order to assess the economy-of-scale effect. The technical data required as input are collected from the literature and, in some cases, from experiments. The investment cost is evaluated on the basis of conducted studies, third party supplier budget quotations and in-house database information. This paper presents complete material and energy balances of the considered processes and the resulting process economics. Results show that in order for the integrated SNG production to be favored, depending on the sawmill size, a biofuel subsidy in the order of 28–52 €/MWh SNG is required.

  20. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  1. Describing Speech Usage in Daily Activities in Typical Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laine; Baylor, Carolyn R; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    "Speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to meet communication demands in life roles. The purpose of this study was to contribute to validation of the Levels of Speech Usage scale by providing descriptive data from a sample of adults without communication disorders, comparing this scale to a published Occupational Voice Demands scale and examining predictors of speech usage levels. This is a survey design. Adults aged ≥25 years without reported communication disorders were recruited nationally to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Levels of Speech Usage scale, questions about relevant occupational and nonoccupational activities (eg, socializing, hobbies, childcare, and so forth), and demographic information. Participants were also categorized according to Koufman and Isaacson occupational voice demands scale. A total of 276 participants completed the questionnaires. People who worked for pay tended to report higher levels of speech usage than those who do not work for pay. Regression analyses showed employment to be the major contributor to speech usage; however, considerable variance left unaccounted for suggests that determinants of speech usage and the relationship between speech usage, employment, and other life activities are not yet fully defined. The Levels of Speech Usage may be a viable instrument to systematically rate speech usage because it captures both occupational and nonoccupational speech demands. These data from a sample of typical adults may provide a reference to help in interpreting the impact of communication disorders on speech usage patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  3. Two-Hierarchy Entanglement Swapping for a Linear Optical Quantum Repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Liu, Chang; Xiang, Tong; Yao, Xing-Can; Lu, He; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-10-27

    Quantum repeaters play a significant role in achieving long-distance quantum communication. In the past decades, tremendous effort has been devoted towards constructing a quantum repeater. As one of the crucial elements, entanglement has been created in different memory systems via entanglement swapping. The realization of j-hierarchy entanglement swapping, i.e., connecting quantum memory and further extending the communication distance, is important for implementing a practical quantum repeater. Here, we report the first demonstration of a fault-tolerant two-hierarchy entanglement swapping with linear optics using parametric down-conversion sources. In the experiment, the dominant or most probable noise terms in the one-hierarchy entanglement swapping, which is on the same order of magnitude as the desired state and prevents further entanglement connections, are automatically washed out by a proper design of the detection setting, and the communication distance can be extended. Given suitable quantum memory, our techniques can be directly applied to implementing an atomic ensemble based quantum repeater, and are of significant importance in the scalable quantum information processing.

  4. Two-Hierarchy Entanglement Swapping for a Linear Optical Quantum Repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Liu, Chang; Xiang, Tong; Yao, Xing-Can; Lu, He; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-10-01

    Quantum repeaters play a significant role in achieving long-distance quantum communication. In the past decades, tremendous effort has been devoted towards constructing a quantum repeater. As one of the crucial elements, entanglement has been created in different memory systems via entanglement swapping. The realization of j -hierarchy entanglement swapping, i.e., connecting quantum memory and further extending the communication distance, is important for implementing a practical quantum repeater. Here, we report the first demonstration of a fault-tolerant two-hierarchy entanglement swapping with linear optics using parametric down-conversion sources. In the experiment, the dominant or most probable noise terms in the one-hierarchy entanglement swapping, which is on the same order of magnitude as the desired state and prevents further entanglement connections, are automatically washed out by a proper design of the detection setting, and the communication distance can be extended. Given suitable quantum memory, our techniques can be directly applied to implementing an atomic ensemble based quantum repeater, and are of significant importance in the scalable quantum information processing.

  5. Identification and characterization of short tandem repeats in the Tibetan macaque genome based on resequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, San-Xu; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Peng, Chang-Jun; Yue, Bi-Song; Fan, Zhen-Xin; Li, Jing

    2018-07-18

    The Tibetan macaque, which is endemic to China, is currently listed as a Near Endangered primate species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Short tandem repeats (STRs) refer to repetitive elements of genome sequence that range in length from 1-6 bp. They are found in many organisms and are widely applied in population genetic studies. To clarify the distribution characteristics of genome-wide STRs and understand their variation among Tibetan macaques, we conducted a genome-wide survey of STRs with next-generation sequencing of five macaque samples. A total of 1 077 790 perfect STRs were mined from our assembly, with an N50 of 4 966 bp. Mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant, followed by tetra- and di-nucleotide repeats. Analysis of GC content and repeats showed consistent results with other macaques. Furthermore, using STR analysis software (lobSTR), we found that the proportion of base pair deletions in the STRs was greater than that of insertions in the five Tibetan macaque individuals (Pgenome showed good amplification efficiency and could be used to study population genetics in Tibetan macaques. The neighbor-joining tree classified the five macaques into two different branches according to their geographical origin, indicating high genetic differentiation between the Huangshan and Sichuan populations. We elucidated the distribution characteristics of STRs in the Tibetan macaque genome and provided an effective method for screening polymorphic STRs. Our results also lay a foundation for future genetic variation studies of macaques.

  6. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-03-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we systematically searched PubMed for case-control studies published after 1 August 2010 that investigated the association between ATXN2 intermediate repeats and ALS. We conducted a meta-analysis of the new and existing studies for the relative risks of ATXN2 intermediate repeat alleles of between 24 and 34 CAG trinucleotide repeats and ALS. There was an overall increased risk of ALS for those carrying intermediate sized trinucleotide repeat alleles (odds ratio 3.06 [95% confidence interval 2.37-3.94]; p = 6 × 10 -18 ), with an exponential relationship between repeat length and ALS risk for alleles of 29-32 repeats (R 2  = 0.91, p = 0.0002). No relationship was seen for repeat length and age of onset or survival. In contrast to trinucleotide repeat diseases, intermediate ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat expansion in ALS does not predict age of onset but does predict disease risk. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  8. The synthetic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  9. The synthetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered

  10. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  11. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14 C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  12. Phosphorus content in three physical fractions of typical Chernozem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, Anna; Egorova, Zoya; Sushkov, Nikolai; Matveeva, Natalia; Fastovets, Ilya; Rogova, Olga; Volkov, Dmitriy

    2017-04-01

    The widespread use of fertilizers makes it necessary to study not only the content but also the forms of occurrence of nutrients in soil, as well as the phase in which nutrients are transferred. These characteristics determine the availability of chemical elements for plants, but remain insufficiently studied. In this work we attempted to gain insight into the distribution of organo-mineral fractions in agriculturally used Chernozem from Voronezh (Russia) and the distribution of phosphorus - one of the most important nutrient elements - in this type of soil. We compared the distributions of phosphorus in physical fractions of the soil in 3 experimental groups: the control group (without fertilizers), the group fertilized with 1 dose of NPK, and the group fertilized with 2 doses of NPK. The soil was sampled during the period of treatment with fertilizers and during the period of aftereffect (4 years after the last application of fertilizers). In order to analyze organo-mineral fractions, we used size-density fractionation to separate the soil samples into three physical fractions: clay-associated fraction with particle size 2.0 g cm-3 (RF). Total phosphorus content (TPC) in the fractions was determined with Agilent 5100 ICP-AES spectrometer. To compare groups, simultaneous confidence intervals were computed from pooled variance estimators in ANOVA, and Fisher's LSD test was used. We showed that during the period of treatment with fertilizers LF increased proportionally to the dose of fertilizers, and a simultaneous reduction in RF was observed. During the period of aftereffect, the content of these fractions tended to the control value. The increase of LF may indicate increasing availability of nutrients, since this fraction is likely to participate in biological cycles. The analysis of TPC in fractions suggested that during the period of treatment with fertilizers most of phosphorus accumulates in CF. In the group with double dose of fertilizers TPC in CF was more

  13. Response of Maize Plant to Phosphorus Fertilization on Typic Distrudepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the acid soil, phosphorus nutrients become critical for agricultural crops growth. At the present, price of fertilizers significantly increase and fertilizers are not available. These conditions can affect on soil productivity and crop production. The objective of these research were to study the response of maize (Zea mays L. to phosphate fertilizers on Inceptisol. The research was conducted in Cicadas Village on Typic Dystrudept. Experiment was conducted in a randomized completely block design, with 8 treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of 6 dosages of P fertilizers, which were P source is SP-36 WIKA Agro 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 kg ha-1. SP-36 and Tunisia rock phosphate (40 kg P ha-1 were used for standard. Pioneer 12 variety of maized was used as an indicator. Plot size was 5 m x 6 m and the maize was planting with distance of 75 cm x 20 cm with one seed per hole. The results showed that organic C and N, P (extracted by Bray 1, K and CEC on the soil were low. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased which was P extracted by HCl 25% from 24 to 67 mg P 100 g-1 soil and which were extracted by Bray 1 increased from 0,87 to 63.31 mg P kg-1 soil. Phosphate fertilizers significantly increased plant height from 175.2 cm become to 221.1 cm. Plant height of maize using SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer (210.6 cm was similar to plant heigh using SP-36 fertilizer (213.4 cm but less height from Tunisia rock phosphate. The yield of maize on SP-36 WIKA Agro (4.94 t ha-1 were linely higher than SP-36 (4.69 t ha-1, significantly was higher than that of Tunisia rock phosphate. Maximum dosage of SP-36 fertilizer was 66.67 kg P ha-1, and optimum dosage was 42 kg P ha-1. Value of Relative Agronomic Effectiveness SP-36 WIKA Agro fertilizer was heigher than SP-36.

  14. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and

  15. Repeated speech errors: evidence for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Karin R; Menzies, Heather; Lake, Johanna K

    2010-11-01

    Three experiments elicited phonological speech errors using the SLIP procedure to investigate whether there is a tendency for speech errors on specific words to reoccur, and whether this effect can be attributed to implicit learning of an incorrect mapping from lemma to phonology for that word. In Experiment 1, when speakers made a phonological speech error in the study phase of the experiment (e.g. saying "beg pet" in place of "peg bet") they were over four times as likely to make an error on that same item several minutes later at test. A pseudo-error condition demonstrated that the effect is not simply due to a propensity for speakers to repeat phonological forms, regardless of whether or not they have been made in error. That is, saying "beg pet" correctly at study did not induce speakers to say "beg pet" in error instead of "peg bet" at test. Instead, the effect appeared to be due to learning of the error pathway. Experiment 2 replicated this finding, but also showed that after 48 h, errors made at study were no longer more likely to reoccur. As well as providing constraints on the longevity of the effect, this provides strong evidence that the error reoccurrences observed are not due to item-specific difficulty that leads individual speakers to make habitual mistakes on certain items. Experiment 3 showed that the diminishment of the effect 48 h later is not due to specific extra practice at the task. We discuss how these results fit in with a larger view of language as a dynamic system that is constantly adapting in response to experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analogs for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is being used to estimate the long-term environmental and biogeochemical behaviors of selected transuranic elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the effect that long-term (hundreds of years) environmental weathering has on the behavior of the transuranic elements americium and curium. This is achieved by investigating the actual behavior of naturally occurring rare earth elements, especially neodymium, that serve as transuranic analogs. Determination of the analog element behavior provides data that can be used to estimate the ultimate availability to man of transuranic materials released into the environment

  17. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  18. Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Neumann, R; Gobert, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated short tandem repeat arrays from the human genome, using a rapid method involving filter hybridization to enrich for tri- or tetranucleotide tandem repeats. About 30% of clones from the enriched library cross-hybridize with probes containing trimeric or tetrameric tandem arrays, facilitating the rapid isolation of large numbers of clones. In an initial analysis of 54 clones, 46 different tandem arrays were identified. Analysis of these tandem repeat loci by PCR showed that 24 were polymorphic in length; substantially higher levels of polymorphism were displayed by the tetrameric repeat loci isolated than by the trimeric repeats. Primary mapping of these loci by linkage analysis showed that they derive from 17 chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We anticipate the use of this strategy for the efficient isolation of tandem repeats from other sources of genomic DNA, including DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes, and from other species.

  19. Repeatability and reproducibility of intracellular molar concentration assessed by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merolle, L., E-mail: lucia.merolle@elettra.eu; Gianoncelli, A. [Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Malucelli, E., E-mail: emil.malucelli@unibo.it; Cappadone, C.; Farruggia, G.; Sargenti, A.; Procopio, A. [Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Fratini, M. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, 00184 Roma Italy (Italy); Department of Science, Roma Tre University, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Notargiacomo, A. [Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, 00156 Rome (Italy); Lombardo, M. [Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126 (Italy); Lagomarsino, S. [Institute of Chemical-Physical Processes, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, 00136 Rome (Italy); Iotti, S. [Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna 40127 (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, 00136 Rome (Italy)

    2016-01-28

    Elemental analysis of biological sample can give information about content and distribution of elements essential for human life or trace elements whose absence is the cause of abnormal biological function or development. However, biological systems contain an ensemble of cells with heterogeneous chemistry and elemental content; therefore, accurate characterization of samples with high cellular heterogeneity may only be achieved by analyzing single cells. Powerful methods in molecular biology are abundant, among them X-Ray microscopy based on synchrotron light source has gaining increasing attention thanks to its extremely sensitivity. However, reproducibility and repeatability of these measurements is one of the major obstacles in achieving a statistical significance in single cells population analysis. In this study, we compared the elemental content of human colon adenocarcinoma cells obtained by three distinct accesses to synchrotron radiation light.

  20. Characterization of Genomic Deletion Efficiency Mediated by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 Nuclease System in Mammalian Cells*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canver, Matthew C.; Bauer, Daniel E.; Dass, Abhishek; Yien, Yvette Y.; Chung, Jacky; Masuda, Takeshi; Maeda, Takahiro; Paw, Barry H.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2014-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 nuclease system has provided a powerful tool for genome engineering. Double strand breaks may trigger nonhomologous end joining repair, leading to frameshift mutations, or homology-directed repair using an extrachromosomal template. Alternatively, genomic deletions may be produced by a pair of double strand breaks. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a methodology for the production of deletions in mammalian cells, ranging from 1.3 kb to greater than 1 Mb. We observed a high frequency of intended genomic deletions. Nondeleted alleles are nonetheless often edited with inversions or small insertion/deletions produced at CRISPR recognition sites. Deleted alleles also typically include small insertion/deletions at predicted deletion junctions. We retrieved cells with biallelic deletion at a frequency exceeding that of probabilistic expectation. We demonstrate an inverse relationship between deletion frequency and deletion size. This work suggests that CRISPR/Cas9 is a robust system to produce a spectrum of genomic deletions to allow investigation of genes and genetic elements. PMID:24907273

  1. Characterization of genomic deletion efficiency mediated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 nuclease system in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canver, Matthew C; Bauer, Daniel E; Dass, Abhishek; Yien, Yvette Y; Chung, Jacky; Masuda, Takeshi; Maeda, Takahiro; Paw, Barry H; Orkin, Stuart H

    2014-08-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short [corrected] palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 nuclease system has provided a powerful tool for genome engineering. Double strand breaks may trigger nonhomologous end joining repair, leading to frameshift mutations, or homology-directed repair using an extrachromosomal template. Alternatively, genomic deletions may be produced by a pair of double strand breaks. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a methodology for the production of deletions in mammalian cells, ranging from 1.3 kb to greater than 1 Mb. We observed a high frequency of intended genomic deletions. Nondeleted alleles are nonetheless often edited with inversions or small insertion/deletions produced at CRISPR recognition sites. Deleted alleles also typically include small insertion/deletions at predicted deletion junctions. We retrieved cells with biallelic deletion at a frequency exceeding that of probabilistic expectation. We demonstrate an inverse relationship between deletion frequency and deletion size. This work suggests that CRISPR/Cas9 is a robust system to produce a spectrum of genomic deletions to allow investigation of genes and genetic elements. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. RTEL1 Inhibits Trinucleotide Repeat Expansions and Fragility

    OpenAIRE

    Aisling Frizzell; Jennifer H.G. Nguyen; Mark I.R. Petalcorin; Katherine D. Turner; Simon J. Boulton; Catherine H. Freudenreich; Robert S. Lahue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human RTEL1 is an essential, multifunctional helicase that maintains telomeres, regulates homologous recombination, and helps prevent bone marrow failure. Here, we show that RTEL1 also blocks trinucleotide repeat expansions, the causal mutation for 17 neurological diseases. Increased expansion frequencies of (CTG·CAG) repeats occurred in human cells following knockdown of RTEL1, but not the alternative helicase Fbh1, and purified RTEL1 efficiently unwound triplet repeat hairpins in vi...

  3. Some anemonefish lack personality: a comparative assessment of behavioral variation and repeatability in relation to environmental and social factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marian Y. L.; Beasley, Amanda L.; Douglass, Tasman; Whalan, Steve; Scott, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Determining the extent of repeatable differences in the behavior of animals and the factors that influence behavioral expression is important for understanding individual fitness and population processes, thereby aiding in species conservation. However, little is known about the causes of variation in the repeatability of behavioral differences among species because rarely have comparative studies been undertaken to examine the repeatability of behavioral differences among individuals within their natural ecological settings. Using two species of endemic subtropical anemonefishes, Amphiprion mccullochi and A. latezonatus at Lord Howe and North Solitary Islands, Australia, we conducted an in situ comparative analysis of personality traits, examining the repeatability of boldness, sociability and aggression as well as the potential role of environmental and social factors on behavioral expression. For A. mccullochi, only boldness and aggression were highly repeatable and these behaviors formed a behavioral syndrome. For A. latezonatus, none of the three behaviors were repeatable due to low-inter-individual variation in behavior. We suggest that the harsher and more variable environmental and social conditions experienced by A. latezonatus have resulted in reduced repeatability in behavior, in contrast to A. mccullochi which typically inhabits a more stable lagoonal reef environment. Additionally, group size and size rank, rather than nearest-neighbor distance and anemone size, influenced the expression of these behaviors in both species, suggesting that behavioral variation was more sensitive to social than environmental factors. Overall, differences in repeatability between these closely related species likely reflect adaptations to contrasting environmental and social conditions, although alternative explanations must be considered. The differences in behavioral consistency between these two endemic anemonefishes could lead to disparity in their resilience to

  4. Loss and recovery of Arabidopsis-type telomere repeat sequences 5'-(TTTAGGG)(n)-3' in the evolution of a major radiation of flowering plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, S. P.; Hartman, T. P.; Lim, K. Y.; Chase, M. W.; Bennett, M. D.; Leitch, I. J.; Leitch, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization and Southern blotting were used for showing the predominant absence of the Arabidopsis-type telomere repeat sequence (TRS) 5'-(TTTAGGG)(n)-3' (the 'typical' telomere) in a monocot clade which comprises up to 6300 species within Asparagales. Initially, two apparently disparate genera that lacked the typical telomere were identified. Here, we used the new angiosperm phylogenetic classification for predicting in which other related families such telomeres might ...

  5. Misleading Children: Causal Attributions of Inconsistency under Repeated Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four studies investigated whether inconsistency of children aged four to six on developmental tasks may reflect a misinterpretation of the experimenter's intent in communication under repeated questioning. (SKC)

  6. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  7. R-loops: targets for nuclease cleavage and repeat instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2018-01-11

    R-loops form when transcribed RNA remains bound to its DNA template to form a stable RNA:DNA hybrid. Stable R-loops form when the RNA is purine-rich, and are further stabilized by DNA secondary structures on the non-template strand. Interestingly, many expandable and disease-causing repeat sequences form stable R-loops, and R-loops can contribute to repeat instability. Repeat expansions are responsible for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, and several types of ataxias. Recently, it was found that R-loops at an expanded CAG/CTG repeat tract cause DNA breaks as well as repeat instability (Su and Freudenreich, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114, E8392-E8401, 2017). Two factors were identified as causing R-loop-dependent breaks at CAG/CTG tracts: deamination of cytosines and the MutLγ (Mlh1-Mlh3) endonuclease, defining two new mechanisms for how R-loops can generate DNA breaks (Su and Freudenreich, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114, E8392-E8401, 2017). Following R-loop-dependent nicking, base excision repair resulted in repeat instability. These results have implications for human repeat expansion diseases and provide a paradigm for how RNA:DNA hybrids can cause genome instability at structure-forming DNA sequences. This perspective summarizes mechanisms of R-loop-induced fragility at G-rich repeats and new links between DNA breaks and repeat instability.

  8. Bovine proteins containing poly-glutamine repeats are often polymorphic and enriched for components of transcriptional regulatory complexes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whan, Vicki

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background About forty human diseases are caused by repeat instability mutations. A distinct subset of these diseases is the result of extreme expansions of polymorphic trinucleotide repeats; typically CAG repeats encoding poly-glutamine (poly-Q) tracts in proteins. Polymorphic repeat length variation is also apparent in human poly-Q encoding genes from normal individuals. As these coding sequence repeats are subject to selection in mammals, it has been suggested that normal variations in some of these typically highly conserved genes are implicated in morphological differences between species and phenotypic variations within species. At present, poly-Q encoding genes in non-human mammalian species are poorly documented, as are their functions and propensities for polymorphic variation. Results The current investigation identified 178 bovine poly-Q encoding genes (Q ≥ 5) and within this group, 26 genes with orthologs in both human and mouse that did not contain poly-Q repeats. The bovine poly-Q encoding genes typically had ubiquitous expression patterns although there was bias towards expression in epithelia, brain and testes. They were also characterised by unusually large sizes. Analysis of gene ontology terms revealed that the encoded proteins were strongly enriched for functions associated with transcriptional regulation and many contributed to physical interaction networks in the nucleus where they presumably act cooperatively in transcriptional regulatory complexes. In addition, the coding sequence CAG repeats in some bovine genes impacted mRNA splicing thereby generating unusual transcriptional diversity, which in at least one instance was tissue-specific. The poly-Q encoding genes were prioritised using multiple criteria for their likelihood of being polymorphic and then the highest ranking group was experimentally tested for polymorphic variation within a cattle diversity panel. Extensive and meiotically stable variation was identified

  9. Diffractive optical elements written by photodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baal-Zedaka, I.; Hava, S.; Mirchin, N.; Margolin, R.; Zagon, M.; Lapsker, I.; Azoulay, J.; Peled, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this work direct laser writing of diffractive optical elements (DOE) by photodeposition (PD) of amorphous selenium (a-Se) from colloid solutions has been investigated. We used a computer controlled laser scanner for patterning thin film micro-profiles creating thus planar optical elements by direct beam writing on surfaces immersed in a liquid phase PD cell. The laser employed was an argon ion laser at 488 nm wavelength, with powers up to 55 mW, for writing typically 25-250 μm wide lines of 200 nm thickness at rates of about 150 μm/s. Various elements made of photodeposited thin films on polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) substrates were produced for prototyping microlenses, linear grating arrays, cylindrical and circular profiled DOE patterns

  10. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  11. Berkeley new element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiorso, A.

    1975-09-01

    The work done with element 106 is reviewed, and a new experiment which bears on the properties of the isotope of mass 260 with atomic number 104 is discussed. It is noted that in the case of element 106 a link is demonstrated to the granddaughter as well as the daughter

  12. Elemental Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  13. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

  14. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium

  15. The repeatability of an intraoral dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Francis F; Goldstein, Gary R; Jang, Sungkoo; Hittelman, Eugene

    2002-12-01

    Characterizing and reproducing color remain one of the most challenging aspects of dentistry. A relatively new intraoral colorimeter measures the color of natural teeth and metal-ceramic restorations and prints out a color recipe for the Vintage Halo Porcelain System. The reliability of the colorimeter is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a contact dental colorimeter and to correlate the shade registered by the colorimeter with the shade selected by experienced clinicians. In part I of the study, 2 examiners (A and B) took 2 colorimeter measurements from the maxillary right central incisors of 11 subjects. The examiners were blinded to their own data and those of other investigators. The readings were repeated 3 weeks later with the same protocol. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was used to analyze the collected data. In part II of the study, 2 experienced clinicians (examiners D and E) selected a shade from the classic Vita Lumin Vacuum shade guide for the maxillary right central incisors of the same 11 subjects. The clinicians were blinded to each other's selections and the colorimeter readings. It should be noted that the manufacturer of the colorimeter uses the terms shade, value, and hue to represent chroma, value, and hue, respectively, as defined in the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms (J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:39-110). The reliability analysis results for each of the combined trials for shade, value, and hue were all >.94. The interexaminer reliability alpha values were >.9 for shade and value and.64 to.74 for hue. The interexaminer alpha represented the value range of each of 4 measurements. The intraexaminer reliability alpha values for shade, value, and hue were.99,.95, and.96 for examiner A and.99,.93, and.97 for examiner B, respectively. In part II of the study, the colorimeter agreed with itself 82% of the time, whereas clinicians agreed with each other on the selected shade 73% of the time. Selections made

  16. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  17. Trace element characterization of Indian vegetarian diet and its constituents by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.N.; Garg, A.N.; Burte, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Nutritive trace elements have been determined in a typical vegetarian diet and its various components. A hospital diet, pulses and vegetables have been characterised for 18 elements. Daily intake of elements have been compared with the International diet standards. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  18. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  19. Contaminant distributions at typical U.S. uranium milling facilities and their effect on remedial action decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamp, S.; Dotson, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Past operations at uranium processing sites throughout the US have resulted in local contamination of soils and ground water by radionuclides, toxic metals, or both. Understanding the origin of contamination and how the constituents are distributed is a basic element for planning remedial action decisions. This report describes the radiological and nonradiological species found in ground water at a typical US uranium milling facility. The report will provide the audience with an understanding of the vast spectrum of contaminants that must be controlled in planning solutions to the long-term management of these waste materials

  20. A repetitive elements perspective in Polycomb epigenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCasa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive elements comprise over two-thirds of the human genome. For a long time, these elements have received little attention since they were considered non functional. On the contrary, recent evidence indicates that they play central roles in genome integrity, gene expression and disease. Indeed, repeats display meiotic instability associated with disease and are located within common fragile sites, which are hotspots of chromosome rearrangements in tumors. Moreover, a variety of diseases have been associated with aberrant transcription of repetitive elements. Overall this indicates that appropriate regulation of repetitive elements’ activity is fundamental.Polycomb group (PcG proteins are epigenetic regulators that are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. Mammalian PcG proteins are involved in fundamental processes, such as cellular memory, cell proliferation, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, and cancer development. PcG proteins can convey their activity through long-distance interactions also on different chromosomes. This indicates that the 3D organization of PcG proteins contributes significantly to their function. However, it is still unclear how these complex mechanisms are orchestrated and which role PcG proteins play in the multi-level organization of gene regulation. Intriguingly, the greatest proportion of Polycomb-mediated chromatin modifications is located in genomic repeats and it has been suggested that they could provide a binding platform for Polycomb proteins.Here, these lines of evidence are woven together to discuss how repetitive elements could contribute to chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space.

  1. Methodology for repeated load analysis of composite structures with embedded magnetic microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Semrád

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article processes issue of strength of cyclically loaded composite structures with the possibility of contactless stress measuring inside a material. For this purpose a contactless tensile stress sensor using improved induction principle based on the magnetic microwires embedded in the composite structure has been developed. The methodology based on the E-N approach was applied for the analysis of the repeated load of the wing hinge connection, including finite element method (FEM fatigue strength analysis. The results proved that composites in comparison with the metal structures offer significant weight reduction of the small aircraft construction, whereas the required strength, stability and lifetime of the components are remained.

  2. Experimental and modelling buckling of wood-based columns under repeated loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafa Z.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Collapse of timber constructions can appear under the effect of load that exceeds the resistance of a carrying element or under the effect of a geometrical instability like buckling. In addition, loading can be constant or varying for example loads due to wind or earthquakes. The aim of this paper is to study the behaviour and the lifetime of columns in wood or based-wood material such as glulam (GL or laminated veneer lumber (LVL under repeated loading leading to buckling.

  3. Typical Periods for Two-Stage Synthesis by Time-Series Aggregation with Bounded Error in Objective Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, Björn; Söhler, Theo; Hennen, Maike; Bardow, André, E-mail: andre.bardow@ltt.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2018-01-08

    Two-stage synthesis problems simultaneously consider here-and-now decisions (e.g., optimal investment) and wait-and-see decisions (e.g., optimal operation). The optimal synthesis of energy systems reveals such a two-stage character. The synthesis of energy systems involves multiple large time series such as energy demands and energy prices. Since problem size increases with the size of the time series, synthesis of energy systems leads to complex optimization problems. To reduce the problem size without loosing solution quality, we propose a method for time-series aggregation to identify typical periods. Typical periods retain the chronology of time steps, which enables modeling of energy systems, e.g., with storage units or start-up cost. The aim of the proposed method is to obtain few typical periods with few time steps per period, while accurately representing the objective function of the full time series, e.g., cost. Thus, we determine the error of time-series aggregation as the cost difference between operating the optimal design for the aggregated time series and for the full time series. Thereby, we rigorously bound the maximum performance loss of the optimal energy system design. In an initial step, the proposed method identifies the best length of typical periods by autocorrelation analysis. Subsequently, an adaptive procedure determines aggregated typical periods employing the clustering algorithm k-medoids, which groups similar periods into clusters and selects one representative period per cluster. Moreover, the number of time steps per period is aggregated by a novel clustering algorithm maintaining chronology of the time steps in the periods. The method is iteratively repeated until the error falls below a threshold value. A case study based on a real-world synthesis problem of an energy system shows that time-series aggregation from 8,760 time steps to 2 typical periods with each 2 time steps results in an error smaller than the optimality gap of

  4. Pentapeptide-repeat proteins that act as topoisomerase poison resistance factors have a common dimer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Zhang, Yong; Blanchard, John S.

    2011-01-01

    The pentapeptide repeat protein AlbG, provides self-resistance to the nonribosomally encoded hybrid polyketide-peptide termed albicidin. Analysis of the AlbG three-dimensional structure and the sequences of other pentapeptide repeat proteins that confer resistance to topiosomerase poisons suggests they have a similar dimer interface which may be critical to their interaction with topoisomerases. The protein AlbG is a self-resistance factor against albicidin, a nonribosomally encoded hybrid polyketide-peptide with antibiotic and phytotoxic properties produced by Xanthomonas albilineans. Primary-sequence analysis indicates that AlbG is a member of the pentapeptide-repeat family of proteins (PRP). The structure of AlbG from X. albilineans was determined at 2.0 Å resolution by SAD phasing using data collected from a single trimethyllead acetate derivative on a home source. AlbG folds into a right-handed quadrilateral β-helix composed of approximately eight semi-regular coils. The regularity of the β-helix is blemished by a large loop/deviation in the β-helix between coils 4 and 5. The C-terminus of the β-helix is capped by a dimerization module, yielding a dimer with a 110 Å semi-collinear β-helical axis. This method of dimer formation appears to be common to all PRP proteins that confer resistance to topoisomerase poisons and contrasts with most PRP proteins, which are typically monomeric

  5. The polymorphic integumentary mucin B.1 from Xenopus laevis contains the short consensus repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, J C; Hauser, F; Joba, W; Hoffmann, W

    1992-03-25

    The frog integumentary mucin B.1 (FIM-B.1), discovered by molecular cloning, contains a cysteine-rich C-terminal domain which is homologous with von Willebrand factor. With the help of the polymerase chain reaction, we now characterize a contiguous region 5' to the von Willebrand factor domain containing the short consensus repeat typical of many proteins from the complement system. Multiple transcripts have been cloned, which originate from a single animal and differ by a variable number of tandem repeats (rep-33 sequences). These different transcripts probably originate solely from two genes and are generated presumably by alternative splicing of an huge array of functional cassettes. This model is supported by analysis of genomic FIM-B.1 sequences from Xenopus laevis. Here, rep-33 sequences are arranged in an interrupted array of individual units. Additionally, results of Southern analysis revealed genetic polymorphism between different animals which is predicted to be within the tandem repeats. A first investigation of the predicted mucins with the help of a specific antibody against a synthetic peptide determined the molecular mass of FIM-B.1 to greater than 200 kDa. Here again, genetic polymorphism between different animals is detected.

  6. Baseline and annual repeat rounds of screening. Implications for optimal regimens of screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henschke, Claudia I.; Salvatore, Mary; Cham, Matthew; Eber, Corey; Yip, Rowena; Yankelevitz, David F. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Powell, Charles A.; DiFabrizio, Larry [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Flores, Raja; Kaufman, Andrew [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Thoracic Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Collaboration: International Early Lung Cancer Action Program Investigators

    2018-03-15

    Differences in results of baseline and subsequent annual repeat rounds provide important information for optimising the regimen of screening. A prospective cohort study of 65,374 was reviewed to examine the frequency/percentages of the largest noncalcified nodule (NCN), lung cancer cell types and Kaplan-Meier (K-M) survival rates, separately for baseline and annual rounds. Of 65,374 baseline screenings, NCNs were identified in 28,279 (43.3%); lung cancer in 737 (1.1%). Of 74,482 annual repeat screenings, new NCNs were identified in 4959 (7%); lung cancer in 179 (0.24%). Only adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in subsolid NCNs. Percentages of lung cancers by cell type were significantly different (p < 0.0001) in the baseline round compared with annual rounds, reflecting length bias, as were the ratios, reflecting lead times. Long-term K-M survival rate was 100% for typical carcinoids and for adenocarcinomas manifesting as subsolid NCNs; 85% (95% CI 81-89%) for adenocarcinoma, 74% (95% CI 63-85%) for squamous cell, 48% (95% CI 34-62%) for small cell. The rank ordering by lead time was the same as the rank ordering by survival rates. The significant differences in the frequency of NCNs and frequency and aggressiveness of diagnosed cancers in baseline and annual repeat need to be recognised for an optimal regimen of screening. (orig.)

  7. Photodeposited diffractive optical elements of computer generated masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchin, N.; Peled, A.; Baal-Zedaka, I.; Margolin, R.; Zagon, M.; Lapsker, I.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.

    2005-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) were synthesized on plastic substrates using the photodeposition (PD) technique by depositing amorphous selenium (a-Se) films with argon lasers and UV spectra light. The thin films were deposited typically onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates at room temperature. Scanned beam and contact mask modes were employed using computer-designed DOE lenses. Optical and electron micrographs characterize the surface details. The films were typically 200 nm thick

  8. Comparison of the carboxy-terminal DP-repeat region in the co-chaperones Hop and Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory M; Huffman, Holly; Smith, David F

    2003-01-01

    Functional steroid receptor complexes are assembled and maintained by an ordered pathway of interactions involving multiple components of the cellular chaperone machinery. Two of these components, Hop and Hip, serve as co-chaperones to the major heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, and participate in intermediate stages of receptor assembly. In an effort to better understand the functions of Hop and Hip in the assembly process, we focused on a region of similarity located near the C-terminus of each co-chaperone. Contained within this region is a repeated sequence motif we have termed the DP repeat. Earlier mutagenesis studies implicated the DP repeat of either Hop or Hip in Hsp70 binding and in normal assembly of the co-chaperones with progesterone receptor (PR) complexes. We report here that the DP repeat lies within a protease-resistant domain that extends to or is near the C-terminus of both co-chaperones. Point mutations in the DP repeats render the C-terminal regions hypersensitive to proteolysis. In addition, a Hop DP mutant displays altered proteolytic digestion patterns, which suggest that the DP-repeat region influences the folding of other Hop domains. Although the respective DP regions of Hop and Hip share sequence and structural similarities, they are not functionally interchangeable. Moreover, a double-point mutation within the second DP-repeat unit of Hop that converts this to the sequence found in Hip disrupts Hop function; however, the corresponding mutation in Hip does not alter its function. We conclude that the DP repeats are important structural elements within a C-terminal domain, which is important for Hop and Hip function.

  9. Joint modelling of repeated measurement and time-to-event data: an introductory tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asar, Özgür; Ritchie, James; Kalra, Philip A; Diggle, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    The term 'joint modelling' is used in the statistical literature to refer to methods for simultaneously analysing longitudinal measurement outcomes, also called repeated measurement data, and time-to-event outcomes, also called survival data. A typical example from nephrology is a study in which the data from each participant consist of repeated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements and time to initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Joint models typically combine linear mixed effects models for repeated measurements and Cox models for censored survival outcomes. Our aim in this paper is to present an introductory tutorial on joint modelling methods, with a case study in nephrology. We describe the development of the joint modelling framework and compare the results with those obtained by the more widely used approaches of conducting separate analyses of the repeated measurements and survival times based on a linear mixed effects model and a Cox model, respectively. Our case study concerns a data set from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Standards Implementation Study (CRISIS). We also provide details of our open-source software implementation to allow others to replicate and/or modify our analysis. The results for the conventional linear mixed effects model and the longitudinal component of the joint models were found to be similar. However, there were considerable differences between the results for the Cox model with time-varying covariate and the time-to-event component of the joint model. For example, the relationship between kidney function as measured by eGFR and the hazard for initiation of RRT was significantly underestimated by the Cox model that treats eGFR as a time-varying covariate, because the Cox model does not take measurement error in eGFR into account. Joint models should be preferred for simultaneous analyses of repeated measurement and survival data, especially when the former is measured with error and the association

  10. Repeat photography as a tool for detecting and monitoring historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repeat photography was used to illustrate long-term changes occurring in coastal habitats in the Western Cape, South Africa. Hi storic images were sourced from books and theses, the public and subject specialists, and repeat photographs were then taken from the same perspectives. Visible changes could be categorised ...

  11. Towards accurate de novo assembly for genomes with repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucur, Doina

    2017-01-01

    De novo genome assemblers designed for short k-mer length or using short raw reads are unlikely to recover complex features of the underlying genome, such as repeats hundreds of bases long. We implement a stochastic machine-learning method which obtains accurate assemblies with repeats and

  12. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  13. Impact of Inclusion or Exclusion of Repeaters on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including or excluding repeaters on the equating process and results. New forms of two tests were equated to their respective old forms using either all examinees or only the first timer examinees in the new form sample. Results showed that for both tests used in this study, including or excluding repeaters in the…

  14. Characteristics of persons with repeat syphilis - Idaho, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ahmed M; Bartschi, Jared; Carter, Kris K

    2018-03-14

    During 2011-2015 in Idaho, 14 (7%) of 193 persons with early syphilis had repeat syphilis. Persons with repeat infections were more likely to have had secondary or early latent syphilis (P = 0.037) and be infected with HIV (P < 0.001) compared with those having one infection.

  15. Trinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers for Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.

    2001-01-01

    Using an enrichment procedure, we have cloned microsatellite repeats from black poplar (Populus nigra L.) and developed primers for microsatellite marker analysis. Ten primer pairs, mostly for trinucleotide repeats, produced polymorphic fragments in P. nigra. Some of them also showed amplification

  16. Simple sequence repeat marker development and genetic mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polymorphic SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers from libraries enriched for GA, CAA and AAT repeats, as well as 6 ... ers for quinoa was the development of a genetic linkage map ...... Weber J. L. 1990 Informativeness of human (dC-dA)n.

  17. Ocular surface sensitivity repeatability with Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cecilia; Stapleton, Fiona; Badarudin, Ezailina; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2015-02-01

    To determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer on the same day and 3 months apart. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements made on the same day (n = 20 subjects) and 3 months apart (n = 29 subjects). The Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was used to measure corneal and inferior conjunctival thresholds using the ascending method of limits. The pressure exerted by the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was determined using an analytical balance, for both the 0.08- and 0.12-mm-diameter filaments. This calibration was then used to convert filament length measurements to pressure. Repeatability was determined using a Bland and Altman analysis. The pressure exerted at each filament length differed between the two filament diameters. The measured pressure also differed from values provided by the manufacturer. Repeatability of threshold measurements at the central cornea was shown to be good, with better repeatability for same-day measurements (coefficient of repeatability [CoR] = ±0.23 g/mm²) than for those 3 months apart (CoR = ±0.52 g/mm²). Threshold measurements at the inferior conjunctiva, in contrast, were poorly repeatable (CoR = ±12.78 g/mm²). Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry is repeatable when performed on the central cornea on the same day and 3 months apart, but this instrument is not recommended for conjunctival threshold measurements.

  18. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  19. Large Polyglutamine Repeats Cause Muscle Degeneration in SCA17 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In polyglutamine (polyQ diseases, large polyQ repeats cause juvenile cases with different symptoms than those of adult-onset patients, who carry smaller expanded polyQ repeats. The mechanisms behind the differential pathology mediated by different polyQ repeat lengths remain unknown. By studying knockin mouse models of spinal cerebellar ataxia-17 (SCA17, we found that a large polyQ (105 glutamines in the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP preferentially causes muscle degeneration and reduces the expression of muscle-specific genes. Direct expression of TBP with different polyQ repeats in mouse muscle revealed that muscle degeneration is mediated only by the large polyQ repeats. Different polyQ repeats differentially alter TBP’s interaction with neuronal and muscle-specific transcription factors. As a result, the large polyQ repeat decreases the association of MyoD with TBP and DNA promoters. Our findings suggest that specific alterations in protein interactions by large polyQ repeats may account for the unique pathology in juvenile polyQ diseases.

  20. Large Polyglutamine Repeats Cause Muscle Degeneration in SCA17 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Yang, Su; Guo, Jifeng; Yan, Sen; Gaertig, Marta A.; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, large polyQ repeats cause juvenile cases with different symptoms than adult-onset patients, who carry smaller expanded polyQ repeats. The mechanisms behind the differential pathology mediated by different polyQ repeat lengths remain unknown. By studying knock-in mouse models of spinal cerebellar ataxia-17 (SCA17), we found that a large polyQ (105 glutamines) in the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) preferentially causes muscle degeneration and reduces the expression of muscle-specific genes. Direct expression of TBP with different polyQ repeats in mouse muscle revealed that muscle degeneration is mediated only by the large polyQ repeats. Different polyQ repeats differentially alter TBP’s interaction with neuronal and muscle-specific transcription factors. As a result, the large polyQ repeat decreases the association of MyoD with TBP and DNA promoters. Our findings suggest that specific alterations in protein interactions by large polyQ repeats may account for the unique pathology in juvenile polyQ diseases. PMID:26387956