WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeated cross-sectional samples

  1. Ecological Panel Inference from Repeated Cross Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, Ben; Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents a Markov chain model for the estimation of individual-level binary transitions from a time series of independent repeated cross-sectional (RCS) samples. Although RCS samples lack direct information on individual turnover, it is demonstrated here that it is possible with these

  2. Adaptive geostatistical sampling enables efficient identification of malaria hotspots in repeated cross-sectional surveys in rural Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinune N Kabaghe

    Full Text Available In the context of malaria elimination, interventions will need to target high burden areas to further reduce transmission. Current tools to monitor and report disease burden lack the capacity to continuously detect fine-scale spatial and temporal variations of disease distribution exhibited by malaria. These tools use random sampling techniques that are inefficient for capturing underlying heterogeneity while health facility data in resource-limited settings are inaccurate. Continuous community surveys of malaria burden provide real-time results of local spatio-temporal variation. Adaptive geostatistical design (AGD improves prediction of outcome of interest compared to current random sampling techniques. We present findings of continuous malaria prevalence surveys using an adaptive sampling design.We conducted repeated cross sectional surveys guided by an adaptive sampling design to monitor the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in children below five years old in the communities living around Majete Wildlife Reserve in Chikwawa district, Southern Malawi. AGD sampling uses previously collected data to sample new locations of high prediction variance or, where prediction exceeds a set threshold. We fitted a geostatistical model to predict malaria prevalence in the area.We conducted five rounds of sampling, and tested 876 children aged 6-59 months from 1377 households over a 12-month period. Malaria prevalence prediction maps showed spatial heterogeneity and presence of hotspots-where predicted malaria prevalence was above 30%; predictors of malaria included age, socio-economic status and ownership of insecticide-treated mosquito nets.Continuous malaria prevalence surveys using adaptive sampling increased malaria prevalence prediction accuracy. Results from the surveys were readily available after data collection. The tool can assist local managers to target malaria control interventions in areas with the greatest health impact and is

  3. Advantages and disadvantages : longitudinal vs. repeated cross-section surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The benefits of a longitudinal analysis over a repeated cross-sectional study include increased statistical power and the capability to estimate a greater range of conditional probabilities. With the Puget Sound Transportation Panel (PSTP), and any s...

  4. (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement of gaseous sample using gridded ionization chamber. Cross section determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We are developing a method of (n,{alpha}) cross section measurement using gaseous samples in a gridded ionization chamber (GIC). This method enables cross section measurements in large solid angle without the distortion by the energy loss in a sample, but requires a method to estimate the detection efficiency. We solve this problem by using GIC signals and a tight neutron collimation. The validity of this method was confirmed through the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be measurement. We applied this method to the {sup 16}O(n,{alpha}){sup 13}C cross section around 14.1 MeV. (author)

  5. Preparation of higher-actinide burnup and cross section samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Thomas, D.K.; Dailey, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was instigated about four years ago for the purpose of studying burnup of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the burnup and cross section samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the burnup study were 241 Am and 244 Cm in the forms of Am 2 O 3 , Cm 2 O 3 , and Am 6 Cm(RE) 7 O 21 , where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanide sesquioxides. It is the purpose of this paper to describe technology development and its application in the preparation of the fuel specimens and the cross section specimens that are being used in this cooperative program

  6. Thermal neutron absorption cross section of small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghiep, T.D.; Vinh, T.T.; Son, N.N.; Vuong, T.V.; Hung, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    A modified steady method for determining the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of small samples 500 cm 3 in volume is described. The method uses a moderating block of paraffin, Pu-Be neutron source emitting 1.1x10 6 n.s. -1 , SNM-14 counter and ordinary counting equipment. The interval of cross section from 2.6 to 1.3x10 4 (10 -3 cm 2 g -1 ) was measured. The experimental data are described by calculation formulae. 7 refs.; 4 figs

  7. Neutron cross-section determination in geological samples (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.M.; McDaniel, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGAA) technique yields elemental composition data which can be used to calculate the macroscopic cross section for any sample. The Small Sample Reactivity Measurements (SSRM) technique yields the macroscopic thermal absorption directly. Experimentally, PGAA is somewhat more difficult because of the calibration and data handling than is SSRM. However, SSRM requires a mathematical model of the reactor which means a rather complicated analysis. Once the model and calibration are completed, data analysis is routine. The SSRM technique is production oriented. 9 figures

  8. Multivariate survivorship analysis using two cross-sectional samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M E

    1999-11-01

    As an alternative to survival analysis with longitudinal data, I introduce a method that can be applied when one observes the same cohort in two cross-sectional samples collected at different points in time. The method allows for the estimation of log-probability survivorship models that estimate the influence of multiple time-invariant factors on survival over a time interval separating two samples. This approach can be used whenever the survival process can be adequately conceptualized as an irreversible single-decrement process (e.g., mortality, the transition to first marriage among a cohort of never-married individuals). Using data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (Ruggles and Sobek 1997), I illustrate the multivariate method through an investigation of the effects of race, parity, and educational attainment on the survival of older women in the United States.

  9. Repeat participation in annual cross-sectional surveys of drug users and its implications for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, P A; Aitken, C K; Breen, C; Dietze, P M

    2018-06-04

    We sought to establish the extent of repeat participation in a large annual cross-sectional survey of people who inject drugs and assess its implications for analysis. We used "porn star names" (the name of each participant's first pet followed by the name of the first street in which they lived) to identify repeat participation in three Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System surveys. Over 2013-2015, 2468 porn star names (96.2%) appeared only once, 88 (3.4%) twice, and nine (0.4%) in all 3 years. We measured design effects, based on the between-cluster variability for selected estimates, of 1.01-1.07 for seven key variables. These values indicate that the complex sample is (e.g.) 7% less efficient in estimating prevalence of heroin use (ever) than a simple random sample, and 1% less efficient in estimating number of heroin overdoses (ever). Porn star names are a useful means of tracking research participants longitudinally while maintaining their anonymity. Repeat participation in the Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System is low (less than 5% per annum), meaning point-prevalence and effect estimation without correction for the lack of independence in observations is unlikely to seriously affect population inference.

  10. Intra-Generational Mobility and Repeated Cross-Sections: A Three Country Validation Exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruces, G.; Lanjouw, P.F.; Lucchetti, L.; Perova, E.; Vakis, R.; Viollaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper validates a recently proposed method to estimate intra-generational poverty transitions through repeated cross-sectional surveys. The technique allows the creation of a “synthetic panel” – done by predicting future or past household income or consumption using a set of simple modeling and

  11. Transportation assimilation revisited: New evidence from repeated cross-sectional survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Based on single cross-sectional data, prior research finds evidence of “transportation assimilation” among U.S. immigrants: the length of stay in the U.S. is negatively correlated with public transit use. This paper revisits this question by using repeated cross-sectional data, and examines the trend of transportation assimilation over time. Methods and results Using 1980, 1990, 2000 1% census and 2010 (1%) American Community Survey, I examine the relationship between the length of stay in the U.S. and public transit ridership among immigrants. I first run regressions separately in four data sets: I regress public transit ridership on the length of stay, controlling for other individual and geographic variables. I then compare the magnitudes of the relationship in four regressions. To study how the rate of transportation assimilation changes over time, I pool the data set and regress public transit ridership on the length of stay and its interactions with year dummies to compare the coefficients across surveys. Results confirm the conclusion of transportation assimilation: as the length of stay in the U.S. increases, an immigrant’s public transit use decreases. However, the repeated cross-section analysis suggests the assimilation rate has been decreasing in the past few decades. Conclusions This paper finds evidence of transportation assimilation: immigrants become less likely to ride public transit as the length of stay in the U.S. increases. The assimilation rate, however, has been decreasing over time. This paper finds that the rate of public transit ridership among new immigrants upon arrival, the geographic distribution of immigrants, and the changing demographics of the U.S. immigrants play roles in affecting the trend of transportation assimilation. PMID:29668676

  12. The method of purging applied to repeated cross-sectional data: Practical applications using logistic and linear regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Eisinga, R.N.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2004-01-01

    In cross-sectional survey research, it is quite common to estimate the(standardized) effect of independent variable(s) on a dependent variable. However, if repeated cross-sectional data are available, much is to be gained if the consequences of these effects on longitudinal social change are

  13. Correction of sampling bias in a cross-sectional study of post-surgical complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluss, Ronen; Mandel, Micha; Freedman, Laurence S; Weiss, Inbal Salz; Zohar, Anat Ekka; Haklai, Ziona; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry; Simchen, Elisheva

    2013-06-30

    Cross-sectional designs are often used to monitor the proportion of infections and other post-surgical complications acquired in hospitals. However, conventional methods for estimating incidence proportions when applied to cross-sectional data may provide estimators that are highly biased, as cross-sectional designs tend to include a high proportion of patients with prolonged hospitalization. One common solution is to use sampling weights in the analysis, which adjust for the sampling bias inherent in a cross-sectional design. The current paper describes in detail a method to build weights for a national survey of post-surgical complications conducted in Israel. We use the weights to estimate the probability of surgical site infections following colon resection, and validate the results of the weighted analysis by comparing them with those obtained from a parallel study with a historically prospective design. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Optimal cross-sectional sampling for river modelling with bridges: An information theory-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfi, E.; Napolitano, F., E-mail: francesco.napolitano@uniroma1.it [Sapienza Università di Roma, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale (Italy); Alfonso, L. [Hydroinformatics Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE, Delft (Netherlands); Di Baldassarre, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Program for Air, Water and Landscape Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2016-06-08

    The description of river topography has a crucial role in accurate one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling. Specifically, cross-sectional data define the riverbed elevation, the flood-prone area, and thus, the hydraulic behavior of the river. Here, the problem of the optimal cross-sectional spacing is solved through an information theory-based concept. The optimal subset of locations is the one with the maximum information content and the minimum amount of redundancy. The original contribution is the introduction of a methodology to sample river cross sections in the presence of bridges. The approach is tested on the Grosseto River (IT) and is compared to existing guidelines. The results show that the information theory-based approach can support traditional methods to estimate rivers’ cross-sectional spacing.

  15. Optimal cross-sectional sampling for river modelling with bridges: An information theory-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, E.; Napolitano, F.; Alfonso, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2016-01-01

    The description of river topography has a crucial role in accurate one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling. Specifically, cross-sectional data define the riverbed elevation, the flood-prone area, and thus, the hydraulic behavior of the river. Here, the problem of the optimal cross-sectional spacing is solved through an information theory-based concept. The optimal subset of locations is the one with the maximum information content and the minimum amount of redundancy. The original contribution is the introduction of a methodology to sample river cross sections in the presence of bridges. The approach is tested on the Grosseto River (IT) and is compared to existing guidelines. The results show that the information theory-based approach can support traditional methods to estimate rivers’ cross-sectional spacing.

  16. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Michael N; Maynard, Sharon; Porter, Ivan; Kincaid, Hope; Jain, Deepika; Aslam, Nabeel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents. This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1) and 3 years after (Group 2) the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology. 131 (80.9%) of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8%) residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3%) indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2) and residents who were not (Group 1). The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed), practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed), and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed). More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04), whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02). The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several negative

  17. Fitted temperature-corrected Compton cross sections for Monte Carlo applications and a sampling distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienke, B.R.; Devaney, J.J.; Lathrop, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    Simple temperature-corrected cross sections, which replace the static Klein-Nishina set in a one-to-one manner, are developed for Monte Carlo applications. The reduced set is obtained from a nonlinear least-squares fit to the exact photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections by using a Klein-Nishina-like formula as the fitting equation. Two parameters are sufficient, and accurate to two decimal places, to explicitly fit the exact cross sections over a range of 0 to 100 keV in electron temperature and 0 to 1 MeV in incident photon energy. Since the fit equations are Klein-Nishina-like, existing Monte Carlo code algorithms using the Klein-Nishina formula can be trivially modified to accommodate corrections for a moving Maxwellian electron background. The simple two parameter scheme and other fits are presented and discussed and comparisons with exact predictions are exhibited. The fits are made to the total photon-Maxwellian electron cross section and the fitting parameters can be consistently used in both the energy conservation equation for photon-electron scattering and the differential cross section, as they are presently sampled in Monte Carlo photonics applications. The fit equations are motivated in a very natural manner by the asymptotic expansion of the exact photon-Maxwellian effective cross-section kernel. A probability distribution is also obtained for the corrected set of equations

  18. Preparation of rock samples for measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.; Burda, J.; Drozdowicz, K.; Igielski, A.; Kowalik, W.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.; Woznicka, U.

    1986-03-01

    Preparation of rock samples for the measurement of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section in small cylindrical two-region systems by a pulsed technique is presented. Requirements which should be fulfilled during the preparation of the samples due to physical assumptions of the method are given. A cylindrical vessel is filled with crushed rock and saturated with a medium strongly absorbing thermal neutrons. Water solutions of boric acid of well-known macroscopic absorption cross-section are used. Mass contributions of the components in the sample are specified. This is necessary for the calculation of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-section of the rock matrix. The conditions necessary for assuring the required accuracy of the measurement are given and the detailed procedure of preparation of the rock sample is described. (author)

  19. Career interest and perceptions of nephrology: A repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Daniels

    Full Text Available Interest in nephrology careers among internal medicine residents in the United States is declining. Our objective was to assess the impact of the presence of a nephrology fellowship training program on perceptions and career interest in nephrology among internal medicine residents. A secondary objective was to identify commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology among internal medicine residents.This was a repeated cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents before (Group 1 and 3 years after (Group 2 the establishment of nephrology fellowship programs at two institutions. The primary outcome was the percentage of residents indicating nephrology as a career interest in Group 1 vs. Group 2. Secondary outcomes included the frequency that residents agreed with negative statements about nephrology.131 (80.9% of 162 residents completed the survey. 19 (14.8% residents indicated interest in a nephrology career, with 8 (6.3% indicating nephrology as their first choice. There was no difference in career interest in nephrology between residents who were exposed to nephrology fellows during residency training (Group 2 and residents who were not (Group 1. The most commonly endorsed negative perceptions of nephrology were: nephrology fellows have long hours/burdensome call (36 [28.1%] of residents agreed or strongly agreed, practicing nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (35 [27.6%] agreed or strongly agreed, and nephrology has few opportunities for procedures (35 [27.3%] agreed or strongly agreed. More residents in Group 2 agreed that nephrology is poorly paid (8.9% in Group 1 vs. 20.8% in Group 2, P = 0.04, whereas more residents in Group 1 agreed that nephrologists must take frequent/difficult call (40.0% in Group 1 vs. 18.1% in Group 2, P = 0.02.The initiation of a nephrology fellowship program was not associated with an increase in internal medicine residents' interest in nephrology careers. Residents endorsed several

  20. Challenges of sample preparation for cross sectional EBSD analysis of electrodeposited nickel films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; Pantleon, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Thorough microstructure and crystallographic orientation analysis of thin films by means of electron backscatter diffraction requires cross section preparation of the film-substrate compound. During careful preparation, changes of the rather non-stable as-deposited microstructure must be avoided....... Different procedures for sample preparation including mechanical grinding and polishing, electropolishing and focused ion beam milling have been applied to a nickel film electrodeposited on top of an amorphous Ni-P layer on a Cu-substrate. Reliable EBSD analysis of the whole cross section can be obtained...

  1. (n, {alpha}) cross section measurement of light nuclei using gridded ionization chamber and gaseous sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Yamazaki, Tetsuro; Sato, Jun; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a measuring method of (n, {alpha}) cross section by using gaseous sample in a gridded ionization chamber. In this study, we measured the {sup 12}C(n, {alpha}{sub 0}) and the {sup 16}O(n, {alpha}{sub 0}), (n, {alpha}{sub 123}) cross sections for En=11.5 and 12.8 MeV neutrons. We also deduced the {sup 12}C(n, x{alpha}) spectrum and analyzed the data by a kinematic calculation combined with the reaction data of the {sup 12}C(n, n`3{alpha}). (author)

  2. Estimating time to pregnancy from current durations in a cross-sectional sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Kvist, Kajsa; Hartvig, Helle

    2002-01-01

    A new design for estimating the distribution of time to pregnancy is proposed and investigated. The design is based on recording current durations in a cross-sectional sample of women, leading to statistical problems similar to estimating renewal time distributions from backward recurrence times....

  3. Thermal neutron absorption cross-section for small samples (experiments in cylindrical geometry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.; Drozdowicz, K.; Igielski, A.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.; Woznicka, U.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement results for thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross-sections Σsub(a)1 when applying the cylindrical sample-moderator system are presented. Experiments for liquid (water solutions of H 3 BO 3 ) and solid (crushed basalts) samples are reported. Solid samples have been saturated with the H 3 BO 3 ''poisoning'' solution. The accuracy obtained for the determination of the absorption cross-section of the solid material was σ(Σsub(ma))=(1.2+2.2) c.u. in the case when porosity was measured with the accuracy of σ(phi)=0.001+0.002. The dispersion of the Σsub(ma) data obtained for basalts (taken from different quarries) was higher than the accuracy of the measurement. All experimental data for the fundamental decay constants lambda 0 together with the whole information about the samples are given. (author)

  4. Sample size methods for estimating HIV incidence from cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikoff, Jacob; Brookmeyer, Ron

    2015-12-01

    Understanding HIV incidence, the rate at which new infections occur in populations, is critical for tracking and surveillance of the epidemic. In this article, we derive methods for determining sample sizes for cross-sectional surveys to estimate incidence with sufficient precision. We further show how to specify sample sizes for two successive cross-sectional surveys to detect changes in incidence with adequate power. In these surveys biomarkers such as CD4 cell count, viral load, and recently developed serological assays are used to determine which individuals are in an early disease stage of infection. The total number of individuals in this stage, divided by the number of people who are uninfected, is used to approximate the incidence rate. Our methods account for uncertainty in the durations of time spent in the biomarker defined early disease stage. We find that failure to account for this uncertainty when designing surveys can lead to imprecise estimates of incidence and underpowered studies. We evaluated our sample size methods in simulations and found that they performed well in a variety of underlying epidemics. Code for implementing our methods in R is available with this article at the Biometrics website on Wiley Online Library. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  5. A Preliminary Study on Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis with Statistic Method: Uncertainty Analysis with Cross Section Sampling from Lognormal Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Sub; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The uncertainty evaluation with statistical method is performed by repetition of transport calculation with sampling the directly perturbed nuclear data. Hence, the reliable uncertainty result can be obtained by analyzing the results of the numerous transport calculations. One of the problems in the uncertainty analysis with the statistical approach is known as that the cross section sampling from the normal (Gaussian) distribution with relatively large standard deviation leads to the sampling error of the cross sections such as the sampling of the negative cross section. Some collection methods are noted; however, the methods can distort the distribution of the sampled cross sections. In this study, a sampling method of the nuclear data is proposed by using lognormal distribution. After that, the criticality calculations with sampled nuclear data are performed and the results are compared with that from the normal distribution which is conventionally used in the previous studies. In this study, the statistical sampling method of the cross section with the lognormal distribution was proposed to increase the sampling accuracy without negative sampling error. Also, a stochastic cross section sampling and writing program was developed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, the cross section sampling was pursued with the normal and lognormal distribution. The uncertainties, which are caused by covariance of (n,.) cross sections, were evaluated by solving GODIVA problem. The results show that the sampling method with lognormal distribution can efficiently solve the negative sampling problem referred in the previous studies. It is expected that this study will contribute to increase the accuracy of the sampling-based uncertainty analysis.

  6. A Preliminary Study on Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis with Statistic Method: Uncertainty Analysis with Cross Section Sampling from Lognormal Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myung Sub; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung; Noh, Jae Man

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty evaluation with statistical method is performed by repetition of transport calculation with sampling the directly perturbed nuclear data. Hence, the reliable uncertainty result can be obtained by analyzing the results of the numerous transport calculations. One of the problems in the uncertainty analysis with the statistical approach is known as that the cross section sampling from the normal (Gaussian) distribution with relatively large standard deviation leads to the sampling error of the cross sections such as the sampling of the negative cross section. Some collection methods are noted; however, the methods can distort the distribution of the sampled cross sections. In this study, a sampling method of the nuclear data is proposed by using lognormal distribution. After that, the criticality calculations with sampled nuclear data are performed and the results are compared with that from the normal distribution which is conventionally used in the previous studies. In this study, the statistical sampling method of the cross section with the lognormal distribution was proposed to increase the sampling accuracy without negative sampling error. Also, a stochastic cross section sampling and writing program was developed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, the cross section sampling was pursued with the normal and lognormal distribution. The uncertainties, which are caused by covariance of (n,.) cross sections, were evaluated by solving GODIVA problem. The results show that the sampling method with lognormal distribution can efficiently solve the negative sampling problem referred in the previous studies. It is expected that this study will contribute to increase the accuracy of the sampling-based uncertainty analysis

  7. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study - Evaluation of a sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2017-09-15

    A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However, it is difficult to sample a large number of farms from an exact predefined list, due to the logistics and workflow of an abattoir. Therefore, it is necessary to have a systematic sampling procedure and to evaluate the obtained sample with respect to the study objective. We propose a method for 1) planning, 2) conducting, and 3) evaluating the representativeness and reproducibility of a cross-sectional study when simple random sampling is not possible. We used an example of a cross-sectional study with the aim of quantifying the association of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2) conducting: sampling was carried out at five abattoirs; 3) evaluation: representativeness was evaluated by comparing sampled and non-sampled farms, and the reproducibility of the study was assessed through simulated sampling based on meat inspection data from the period where the actual data collection was carried out. In the cross-sectional study samples were taken from 681 Danish pig farms, during five weeks from February to March 2015. The evaluation showed that the sampling

  8. Monte Carlo Calculation of Thermal Neutron Inelastic Scattering Cross Section Uncertainties by Sampling Perturbed Phonon Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jesse Curtis

    established that depends on uncertainties in the physics models and methodology employed to produce the DOS. Through Monte Carlo sampling of perturbations from the reference phonon spectrum, an S(alpha, beta) covariance matrix may be generated. In this work, density functional theory and lattice dynamics in the harmonic approximation are used to calculate the phonon DOS for hexagonal crystalline graphite. This form of graphite is used as an example material for the purpose of demonstrating procedures for analyzing, calculating and processing thermal neutron inelastic scattering uncertainty information. Several sources of uncertainty in thermal neutron inelastic scattering calculations are examined, including sources which cannot be directly characterized through a description of the phonon DOS uncertainty, and their impacts are evaluated. Covariances for hexagonal crystalline graphite S(alpha, beta) data are quantified by coupling the standard methodology of LEAPR with a Monte Carlo sampling process. The mechanics of efficiently representing and processing this covariance information is also examined. Finally, with appropriate sensitivity information, it is shown that an S(alpha, beta) covariance matrix can be propagated to generate covariance data for integrated cross sections, secondary energy distributions, and coupled energy-angle distributions. This approach enables a complete description of thermal neutron inelastic scattering cross section uncertainties which may be employed to improve the simulation of nuclear systems.

  9. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period. PMID:22834485

  10. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002-2009: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Rivett, Ulrike; Gundry, Stephen W

    2012-07-27

    In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002-2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002-2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000-02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

  11. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Jim A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

  12. Testing an ionization chamber with gaseous samples and measurements of the (n, alpha) reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Gledenov, Yu M; Salatskii, V I; Sedyshev, P V; Andrzejewski, J; Szalanski, P

    1999-01-01

    A new ionization chamber with gaseous samples (GIC) has been designed and tested on the thermal and resonance neutron beams of FLNP's neutron sources. The exposed gas volume serves as a target for neutrons. The obtained thermal cross sections for the sup 1 sup 7 O(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 4 C, sup 2 sup 1 Ne(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 8 O and sup 3 sup 6 Ar(n, alpha) sup 3 sup 3 S reactions are (233+-12) mb, (0.18+-0.09) mb and (5.43+-0.27) mb, respectively. These measurements have been performed on a pure beam of thermal neutrons from the high flux reactor IBR-2; and they demonstrated high efficiency and reliability of the method. Compared to samples on substrates, the application of gaseous samples makes the beam background essentially lower, and what is more important, the background component is totally absent due to the absence of Li and B microimpurities in gaseous samples while they do present in the samples on substrates. The method is also applicable to measurements with resonance neutrons. The recovery capabili...

  13. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Yoffe, Paula; Hills, Nancy; Lustig, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    While experimental and observational studies suggest that sugar intake is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, independent of its role in obesity, it is unclear whether alterations in sugar intake can account for differences in diabetes prevalence among overall populations. Using econometric models of repeated cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries, we found that every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) was associated with increased diabetes prevalence by 1.1% (p <0.001) after testing for potential selection biases and controlling for other food types (including fibers, meats, fruits, oils, cereals), total calories, overweight and obesity, period-effects, and several socioeconomic variables such as aging, urbanization and income. No other food types yielded significant individual associations with diabetes prevalence after controlling for obesity and other confounders. The impact of sugar on diabetes was independent of sedentary behavior and alcohol use, and the effect was modified but not confounded by obesity or overweight. Duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner, while declines in sugar exposure correlated with significant subsequent declines in diabetes rates independently of other socioeconomic, dietary and obesity prevalence changes. Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity.

  14. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study − Evaluation of a sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2017-01-01

    slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2......A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list...... of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However...

  15. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs.

  16. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993–2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. METHODS: In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. RESULTS: We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06–3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. INTERPRETATION: Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. PMID:28923795

  17. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993-2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A

    2017-09-18

    We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06-3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  18. Strengthening leadership as a catalyst for enhanced patient safety culture: a repeated cross-sectional experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Christensen, Karl Bang; Jaquet, Annette; Møller Beck, Carsten; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul; Mainz, Jan

    2016-05-13

    Current literature emphasises that clinical leaders are in a position to enable a culture of safety, and that the safety culture is a performance mediator with the potential to influence patient outcomes. This paper aims to investigate staff's perceptions of patient safety culture in a Danish psychiatric department before and after a leadership intervention. A repeated cross-sectional experimental study by design was applied. In 2 surveys, healthcare staff were asked about their perceptions of the patient safety culture using the 7 patient safety culture dimensions in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. To broaden knowledge and strengthen leadership skills, a multicomponent programme consisting of academic input, exercises, reflections and discussions, networking, and action learning was implemented among the clinical area level leaders. In total, 358 and 325 staff members participated before and after the intervention, respectively. 19 of the staff members were clinical area level leaders. In both surveys, the response rate was >75%. The proportion of frontline staff with positive attitudes improved by ≥5% for 5 of the 7 patient safety culture dimensions over time. 6 patient safety culture dimensions became more positive (increase in mean) (pculture are remarkable, and imply that strengthening the leadership can act as a significant catalyst for patient safety culture improvement. Further studies using a longitudinal study design are recommended to investigate the mechanism behind leadership's influence on patient safety culture, sustainability of improvements over time, and the association of change in the patient safety culture measures with change in psychiatric patient safety outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. E. coli O157 on Scottish cattle farms: Evidence of local spread and persistence using repeat cross-sectional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 is a virulent zoonotic strain of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. In Scotland (1998-2008) the annual reported rate of human infection is 4.4 per 100,000 population which is consistently higher than other regions of the UK and abroad. Cattle are the primary reservoir. Thus understanding infection dynamics in cattle is paramount to reducing human infections. A large database was created for farms sampled in two cross-sectional surveys carried out in Scotland (1998 - 2004). A statistical model was generated to identify risk factors for the presence of E. coli O157 on farms. Specific hypotheses were tested regarding the presence of E. coli O157 on local farms and the farms previous status. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles were further examined to ascertain whether local spread or persistence of strains could be inferred. Results The presence of an E. coli O157 positive local farm (average distance: 5.96km) in the Highlands, North East and South West, farm size and the number of cattle moved onto the farm 8 weeks prior to sampling were significant risk factors for the presence of E. coli O157 on farms. Previous status of a farm was not a significant predictor of current status (p = 0.398). Farms within the same sampling cluster were significantly more likely to be the same PFGE type (p Scottish E. coli O157 paves the way for future research into the mechanisms of transmission which should help with the design of control measures to reduce E. coli O157 from livestock-related sources. PMID:24766709

  20. The business cycle and drug use in Australia: evidence from repeated cross-sections of individual level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Ritter, Alison

    2011-09-01

    This paper examined the implications of the business cycle for cannabis and alcohol use. What little we know about cannabis use suggests that young Americans (teenagers and adults in their early 20s) seem more inclined to use illicit drugs and to use them more frequently with rises in the unemployment rate. In contrast, a more fulsome alcohol literature suggests that participation in drinking is unaffected by the business cycle. Heavy drinkers drink less during economic downturns and their reduced use counteracts the fact that light drinkers might drink a little more. Using individual level data from repeated cross-sections of Australia's National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS), spanning 1991-2007, this study examined the relationship between cannabis and alcohol use of Australians aged 14-49 years and the unemployment rate and real income per capita, two indicators of the business cycle. Australians in their late 20s, 30s and 40s drink less frequently during economic downturns. If unemployment rate rises are accompanied by falls in income per capita, younger Australians will also drink less frequently. Recent participation in cannabis use (within the last year) increases with falls in income per capita regardless of age, although the increase is less marked for young people (14-24 years). Whereas the participation rate of people aged 25-49 years also falls with rising unemployment rates, the participation of younger people increases. Cannabis users younger than 35 will use more frequently as the unemployment rate rises. In contrast, older Australians will use less frequently. Australia's recent economic slowdown has been characterised by rising unemployment rates without accompanying falls in income per capita. Based on our findings this slowdown should have encouraged young Australians aged 14-24 years to both drink and use cannabis more frequently. The slowdown would have had little impact on the frequency of drinking of older Australians. However it

  1. Impact on smoking of England's 2012 partial tobacco point of sale display ban: a repeated cross-sectional national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E; McNeill, Ann; West, Robert

    2017-03-01

    A partial tobacco point of sale (PoS) display ban was introduced in large shops (>280 m 2 floor area) in England on 6 April 2012. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term effects of the partial tobacco PoS display ban on smoking in England. Data were used from 129 957 respondents participating in monthly, cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of the English adult population aged 18+ years from January 2009 to February 2015. Interrupted-time series regression models assessed step changes in the level of current smoking and cigarette consumption in smokers and changes in the trends postban compared with preban. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables and e-cigarette use, seasonality and autocorrelation. Potential confounding by cigarette price was accounted for by time, as price was almost perfectly correlated with time. Following the display ban, there was no immediate step level change in smoking (-3.69% change, 95% CI -7.94 to 0.75, p=0.102) or in cigarette consumption (β -0.183, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.236). There was a significantly steeper decline in smoking post display ban (-0.46% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001). This effect was demonstrated by respondents in manual occupations (-0.62% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001), but not for those in non-manual occupations (-0.42, 95% CI -0.90 to 0.06, p=0.084). Cigarette consumption declined preban period (β -0.486, 95% CI -0.633 to -0.339, p<0.001), but no significant change in cigarette consumption trend was observed (β 0.019, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.042, p=0.131). The partial tobacco PoS display ban introduced in England in April 2012 did not lead to an immediate decline in smoking, but was followed by a decline in the trend of smoking prevalence that could not be accounted for by seasonal factors, e-cigarette use or price changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Use of an oscillation technique to measure effective cross-sections of fissionable samples in critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretiakoff, O.; Vidal, R.; Carre, J.C.; Robin, M.

    1964-01-01

    The authors describe the technique used to measure the effective absorption and neutron-yield cross-sections of a fissionable sample. These two values are determined by analysing the signals due to the variation in reactivity (over-all signal) and the local perturbation in the flux (local signal) produced by the oscillating sample. These signals are standardized by means of a set of samples containing quantities of fissionable material ( 235 U) and an absorber, boron, which are well known. The measurements are made for different neutron spectra characterized by lattice parameters which constitute the central zone within which the sample moves. This technique is used to study the effective cross-sections of uranium-plutonium alloys for different heavy-water and graphite lattices in the MINERVE and MARIUS critical assemblies. The same experiments are carried out on fuel samples of different irradiations in order to determine the evolution of effective cross-sections as a function of the spectrum and the irradiations. (authors) [fr

  3. Short-Term Changes in Anemia and Malaria Parasite Prevalence in Children under 5 Years during One Year of Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys in Rural Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaghe, Alinune N.; Chipeta, Michael G.; Terlouw, Dianne J.; McCann, Robert S.; van Vugt, Michèle; Grobusch, Martin P.; Takken, Willem; Phiri, Kamija S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In stable transmission areas, malaria is the leading cause of anemia in children. Anemia in children is proposed as an added sensitive indicator for community changes in malaria prevalence. We report short-term temporal variations of malaria and anemia prevalence in rural Malawian children. Data from five repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted over 1 year in rural communities in Chikwawa District, Malawi, were analyzed. Different households were sampled per survey; all children, 6–59 months, in sampled household were tested for malaria parasitemia and hemoglobin levels using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDT) and Hemocue 301, respectively. Malaria symptoms, recent treatment (2 weeks) for malaria, anthropometric measurements, and sociodemographic details were recorded. In total, 894 children were included from 1,377 households. The prevalences of mRDT positive and anemia (Hb anemia and parasite prevalence varied differently. Overall, unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of anemia in mRDT-positive children were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.09–1.57) and 1.36 (1.13–1.63), respectively. Changes in anemia prevalence differed with short-term changes in malaria prevalence, although malaria is an important factor in anemia. PMID:28820717

  4. [Repeated cross-sectional studies on urinary iodine and iodine content of salt among school-aged children from 2012 to 2014 in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meifang; Wang, Congyun; Li, Songtao; Ying, Xuhua; Zhao, Qi; Fu, Chaowei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the iodine status and its change among school-aged children in their morning urine and eating salt from 2012 to 2014 in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province, China. Three repeated cross-sectional studies were carried out at a same primary school in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. Three classes were randomly selected from each of 3 to 5 grade by the cluster-stratified sampling every year. Totally, 1343 out of 1350 eligible children aged 8 to 10 years old were involved into this study. Their morning urine and salt eating at home were collected and tested. The overall median of urine iodine was 116.0 μg/L, and no significant change was found over year. The overall proportions of subjects with urine iodine iodine from 1343 salt samples was 0.0 mg/kg and no year difference was statistically observed. The proportions of subjects consumed iodized salt significantly decreased from 25.1% in 2012 to 21.8% in 2013 and to 14.2% in 2014. There was a significant difference in urine iodine between subjects taken iodized salt or not and also a weak positive correlation between salt iodine and urine iodine. The nutritional status of iodine is overall stable, proper and safety in recent 3 years among school children in Yuhuan County. The coverage rate of iodized salt is very low.

  5. Measurement of fission cross section with pure Am-243 sample using lead slowing-down spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kai, T.; Fujita, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kimura, Itsuro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Shinohara, Nobuo

    1997-03-01

    By making use of back-to-back type double fission chambers and a lead slowing-down spectrometer coupled to an electron linear accelerator, the fission cross section for the {sup 243}Am(n,f) reaction has been measured relative to that for the {sup 235}U(n,f) reaction in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 10 keV. The measured result was compared with the evaluated nuclear data appeared in ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.2, whose evaluated data were broadened by the energy resolution function of the spectrometer. General agreement was seen between the evaluated data and the measurement except that the ENDF/B-VI data were lower in the range from 15 to 60 eV and that the JENDL-3.2 data seemed to be lower above 100 eV. (author)

  6. On the influence of sample and target properties on the results of energy-dependent cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, G.

    1988-01-01

    The impact of sample and target properties on the accuracy of experimental nuclear cross section data is discussed in the context of the basic requirements in order to obtain reliable results from the respective measurements from the user's point of view. Special emphasis is put on activation measurements with fast neutrons. Some examples are given and suggestions are made based on experiences and recent investigations by the author and his coworkers. (author). Abstract only

  7. Study of sample preparation in the measurement of 36Ar(n, p)36Cl reaction cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Songsheng; Hemick, T.K.

    1992-01-01

    The preparation of enriched 36 Ar gas samples and 36 Cl samples for the use in the AMS measurement of 36 Ar(n, p) 36 Cl reaction cross section was described. The 36 Ar samples prepared had the volumes of about 0.4 ml and the weights of about 0.5 mg. The uncertainty in atomic numbers of 36 Ar was (0.3∼0.4)%. The reaction product, 36 Cl, in the 36 Ar was collected and the AgCl samples were prepared

  8. Sodium intake in a cross-sectional, representative sample of New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Sonia Y; Yi, Stella; Eisenhower, Donna; Kerker, Bonnie D; Curtis, Christine J; Bartley, Katherine; Silver, Lynn D; Farley, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    We estimated sodium intake, which is associated with elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and assessed its association with related variables among New York City adults. In 2010 we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 1656 adults, the Heart Follow-Up Study, that collected self-reported health information, measured blood pressure, and obtained sodium, potassium, and creatinine values from 24-hour urine collections. Mean daily sodium intake was 3239 milligrams per day; 81% of participants exceeded their recommended limit. Sodium intake was higher in non-Hispanic Blacks (3477 mg/d) and Hispanics (3395 mg/d) than in non-Hispanic Whites (3066 mg/d; both P < .05). Higher sodium intake was associated with higher blood pressure in adjusted models, and this association varied by race/ethnicity. Higher sodium intake among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics than among Whites was not previously documented in population surveys relying on self-report. These results demonstrate the feasibility of 24-hour urine collection for the purposes of research, surveillance, and program evaluation.

  9. Girl in the Cellar: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Investigation of Belief in Conspiracy Theories about the Kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eStieger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study utilized a repeated cross-sectional survey design to examine belief in conspiracy theories about the abduction of Natascha Kampusch. At two time points (October 2009 and October 2011, participants drawn from independent cross-sections of the Austrian population (Time Point 1, N = 281; Time Point 2, N = 277 completed a novel measure of belief in conspiracy theories concerning the abduction of Kampusch, as well as measures of general conspiracist ideation, self-esteem, paranormal and superstitious beliefs, cognitive ability, and media exposure to the Kampusch case. Results indicated that although belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory declined between testing periods, the effect size of the difference was small. In addition, belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory was significantly predicted by general conspiracist ideation at both time points. The need to conduct further longitudinal tests of conspiracist ideation is emphasized in conclusion.

  10. Girl in the cellar: a repeated cross-sectional investigation of belief in conspiracy theories about the kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Gumhalter, Nora; Tran, Ulrich S.; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized a repeated cross-sectional survey design to examine belief in conspiracy theories about the abduction of Natascha Kampusch. At two time points (October 2009 and October 2011), participants drawn from independent cross-sections of the Austrian population (Time Point 1, N = 281; Time Point 2, N = 277) completed a novel measure of belief in conspiracy theories concerning the abduction of Kampusch, as well as measures of general conspiracist ideation, self-esteem, paranormal and superstitious beliefs, cognitive ability, and media exposure to the Kampusch case. Results indicated that although belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory declined between testing periods, the effect size of the difference was small. In addition, belief in the Kampusch conspiracy theory was significantly predicted by general conspiracist ideation at both time points. The need to conduct further longitudinal tests of conspiracist ideation is emphasized in conclusion. PMID:23745118

  11. Multiple double cross-section transmission electron microscope sample preparation of specific sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Lynne M; Mittal, Surbhi; Bangsaruntip, Sarunya; Cohen, Guy M; Sleight, Jeffrey W

    2011-12-01

    The ability to prepare multiple cross-section transmission electron microscope (XTEM) samples from one XTEM sample of specific sub-10 nm features was demonstrated. Sub-10 nm diameter Si nanowire (NW) devices were initially cross-sectioned using a dual-beam focused ion beam system in a direction running parallel to the device channel. From this XTEM sample, both low- and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were obtained from six separate, specific site Si NW devices. The XTEM sample was then re-sectioned in four separate locations in a direction perpendicular to the device channel: 90° from the original XTEM sample direction. Three of the four XTEM samples were successfully sectioned in the gate region of the device. From these three samples, low- and high-resolution TEM images of the Si NW were taken and measurements of the NW diameters were obtained. This technique demonstrated the ability to obtain high-resolution TEM images in directions 90° from one another of multiple, specific sub-10 nm features that were spaced 1.1 μm apart.

  12. Thermal neutron absorption cross-section measured on rock samples and brines in the Institute of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.; Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.; Igielski, A.; Woznicka, U.

    1983-01-01

    In consecutive measurements the rock sample (having a fixed and well known shape -in our case it is a sphere or a cylinder and the sample is powdered or liquid) is enveloped in shells of a plexiglass moderator (the neutron parameters of which are known) of variable thickness and irradiated with the pulsed beam of fast neutrons. The die-away rate of thermal neutrons escaping from the whole system is measured. The absorption cross-section of the sample is found as the intersection of the experimental curve (i.e. die -away rate vs thickness of the moderator) with the theoretical one. The theoretical curve is calculated for a given moderator under the assumption of a constant value of the neutron flux inside the sample. This method is independent of the value of the transport cross-section of the sample. It has been checked on artificial materials with a well known elemental composition (liquid or solid) and on the natural brines and rock samples (basalts and dolomite). A special method of calculation of the variance of the measurement has been established. It is based on the multiple computer simulations of all experimental data used in the computation. The one standard deviation of our methods is of the order of 1 up to 3 capture units (1 c.u. = 10 -3 cm -1 ). The volume of the sample needed is of the order of 500ccm. (author)

  13. Determination of the thermal neutron absorption cross section for rock samples by a single measurement of the time decay constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krynicka, E.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for the determination of the thermal neutron macroscopic mass absorption cross section for rock samples is presented. The standard deviation of the final results is discussed in detail. A big advantage of the presented method is that the calibration curves have been found using the results obtained for a variety of natural rock samples of different stratigraphies and lithologies measured by Czubek's methods. An important part of the paper is a through analysis of the standard deviation of the final result. (author). 13 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs

  14. Repeat Colonoscopy within 6 Months after Initial Outpatient Colonoscopy in Ontario: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this study is to examine utilization of early repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure. Methods. We identified persons having repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months following outpatient colonoscopy without prior colonoscopy ≤ 5 years or prior diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC. We modeled repeat colonoscopy using a generalized estimating equation with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for clustering of patients by endoscopist. Results. The population included 334,663 persons, 7,892 (2.36% of whom had an early repeat colonoscopy within 6 months. Overall, endoscopist prior year colonoscopy volume was inversely related to repeat ≤ 6 months. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months varied by the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy (adjusted OR = 1.41 (95% CI 1.29–1.55 at nonhospital facilities compared to teaching or community hospitals. Among those who had polypectomy or biopsy, the adjusted OR for early repeat ≤ 6 months was elevated among those whose index colonoscopy was at a nonhospital facility (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.30–1.60, compared to those at a teaching hospital or community hospital. Conclusions. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure is associated with the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy.

  15. The correlations between natural elements (K, U, Th) concentrations and thermal neutron absorption cross-section value (Σa) for rock samples of Carpatia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swakon, J.; Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Drozdowicz, E.; Gabanska, B.; Loskiewicz, J.; Woznicka, U.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a study of correlations between concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and thermal neutron absorption cross section in rock samples. This knowledge of correlation should help in recognizing the expansion ways and accumulation places of the elements responsible of high thermal neutron absorption cross section in some geological environments. The correlations show the existence of connections between the thermal neutron absorption cross section value and natural radioactivity elements concentration in rocks. The results confirm the existence of correlations between natural radioactive elements concentrations (particularly thorium) and thermal neutron absorption cross - section value in some rocks. (author). 12 refs, 23 figs, 6 tabs

  16. DYNAMICS OF HUMIDITY DISTRIBUTION IN CROSS-SECTION OF FLAT MOULDING MASS SAMPLES IN INITIAL DRYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Оsipov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use an exponential dependence for description of humidity distribution in cross-section of flat clay mass samples of plastic formation in an initial drying stage. Dependences of exponential curve indices on time from drying start-up and size of an «active» zone of clay mass dehydration have been determined. Analytical-experimental methodology for calculation of maximum permissible humidity differential of moulding mass under crack formation conditions has been developed on the basis of thermo-elasticity model. Some regularities for an estimation of thinning agent usage while making-up mixture.

  17. Changes in prevalence of workplace violence against doctors in all medical specialties in Norway between 1993 and 2014: a repeated cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Ingrid Hjulstad; Baste, Valborg; Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G; Morken, Tone

    2017-08-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether reported prevalence of experienced threats, real acts of violence and debilitating fear of violence among Norwegian doctors have increased over the last two decades. Repeated cross-sectional survey. All healthcare levels and medical specialties in Norway. Representative samples of Norwegian doctors in 1993 (n=2628) and 2014 (n=1158). Relative risk (RR) of self-reported prevalence of work-time experiences of threats and real acts of violence, and of being physically or psychologically unfit during the last 12 months due to fear of violence, in 2014 compared with 1993, adjusted by age, gender and medical specialty. There were no differences in self-reported threats (adjusted RR=1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.08) or real acts (adjusted RR=0.90, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.03) of violence when comparing 2014 with 1993. The proportion of doctors who had felt unfit due to fear of violence decreased from 1993 to 2014 (adjusted RR=0.53, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.73). Although still above average, the proportion of doctors in psychiatry who reported real acts of violence decreased substantially from 1993 to 2014 (adjusted RR=0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.95). A substantial proportion of doctors experience threats and real acts of violence during their work-time career, but there was no evidence that workplace violence has increased over the last two decades. Still, the issue needs to be addressed as part of the doctors' education and within work settings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form) for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support) model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors. PMID:22551645

  19. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnavita Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors.

  20. Use of Medicines Among a Brazilian Elderly Sample: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva Marchini

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: In this Brazilian elderly sample, the most widely used medicines were antihypertensives, diuretics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and institutionalized used more medications than community-dwelling elderly.

  1. Reversing the established order: Should adrenal venous sampling precede cross-sectional imaging in the evaluation of primary aldosteronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Melissa; Wachtel, Heather; Yan, Yan; Fraker, Douglas L; Cohen, Debbie; Trerotola, Scott O

    2015-08-01

    Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the definitive evaluation for primary aldosteronism (PA). Pre-AVS cross-sectional imaging does not reduce the need for AVS. The goal of this study was to examine whether performing AVS prior to imaging could decrease the use of imaging in the evaluation of PA at a high volume, experienced center. We performed a retrospective analysis of all AVS procedures (n = 337) done for PA from 2001-2013. Patients whose cross-sectional imaging reports were unavailable (n = 90) or AVS was non-diagnostic (n = 12) were excluded. AVS was performed using modified Mayo technique. Univariate analysis utilized the χ² test and fisher's exact test. Of the 235 patients analyzed, 63% (n = 148) were male. The mean age was 55 ± 11 years. AVS was non-lateralizing in 43% (n = 101); these patients might have avoided imaging with an AVS-first approach. Imaging and AVS were concordant in 52% (n = 123). In patients ≤40yo (n = 23), 35% (n = 8) had no lateralization on AVS, and might have avoided imaging in an AVS-first approach. Imaging and AVS were concordant in 52% (n = 12) of patients ≤ 40yo, versus 52% (n = 111) of patients > 40 yo (P = 0.987). An AVS-first, imaging-second approach could have avoided CT/MRI in 43% of patients. At a high volume, experienced center, performing AVS first on patients with PA may reduce unnecessary cross-sectional imaging studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings from a Life Span Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Florian; Li, Shu-Chen; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Using a population-based sample of 263 individuals ranging from 6 to 89 years of age, we investigated the gains and losses in the abilities to (a) use exogenous cues to shift attention covertly and (b) ignore conflicting information across the life span. The participants' ability to shift visual attention was tested by a typical Posner-type…

  3. A retrospective cross-sectional quantitative molecular approach in biological samples from patients with syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Miguel; Antelo, Minia; Ferreira, Rita; Azevedo, Jacinta; Santo, Irene; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Syphilis is the sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, a pathogen highly adapted to the human host. As a multistage disease, syphilis presents distinct clinical manifestations that pose different implications for diagnosis. Nevertheless, the inherent factors leading to diverse disease progressions are still unknown. We aimed to assess the association between treponemal loads and dissimilar disease outcomes, to better understand syphilis. We retrospectively analyzed 309 DNA samples distinct anatomic sites associated with particular syphilis manifestations. All samples had previously tested positive by a PCR-based diagnostic kit. An absolute quantitative real-time PCR procedure was used to precisely quantify the number of treponemal and human cells to determine T. pallidum loads in each sample. In general, lesion exudates presented the highest T. pallidum loads in contrast with blood-derived samples. Within the latter, a higher dispersion of T. pallidum quantities was observed for secondary syphilis. T. pallidum was detected in substantial amounts in 37 samples of seronegative individuals and in 13 cases considered as syphilis-treated. No association was found between treponemal loads and serological results or HIV status. This study suggests a scenario where syphilis may be characterized by: i) heterogeneous and high treponemal loads in primary syphilis, regardless of the anatomic site, reflecting dissimilar duration of chancres development and resolution; ii) high dispersion of bacterial concentrations in secondary syphilis, potentially suggesting replication capability of T. pallidum while in the bloodstream; and iii) bacterial evasiveness, either to the host immune system or antibiotic treatment, while remaining hidden in privileged niches. This work highlights the importance of using molecular approaches to study uncultivable human pathogens, such as T. pallidum, in the infection process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Mini-Cog and Mini-Mental State Examination: agreement in a cross-sectional study with an elderly sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Diogo; Severo, Milton; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to compare the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with the Mini-Cog, measuring agreement in participants' classification, using a general population sample. Cross-sectional evaluation of 609 community dwellers aged ≥60 years was performed by trained interviewers. Cohen's kappa and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess overall agreement, and Cronbach alphas computed to assess reliability. Two-parameter Item Response Theory models (difficulty and discrimination parameters) were used to assess discrimination. Considering MMSE cut-point for scores Mini-Cog's cut-point score Mini-Cog Mini-Cog Mini-Cog's alpha was 0.2776. Co-calibration according to inherent ability is graphically presented. Agreement between scales seems fragile in our sample. The discriminative and reliability analysis suggests a better performance for subsets of the MMSE compared with the Mini-Cog. Usefulness of calibrated scores is discussed. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Measurement of the integrated Luminosities of cross-section scan data samples around the {\\rm{\\psi }}(3770) mass region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Albrecht, M.; Alekseev, M.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, Y.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Begzsuren, K.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chang, W. L.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, P. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. G.; Gao, Z.; Garillon, B.; Garzia, I.; Gilman, A.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, L. M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Guskov, A.; Haddadi, Z.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Irshad, M.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jin, Y.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Khan, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Koch, L.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuessner, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kurth, M.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Leiber, S.; Leithoff, H.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, J. W.; Li, K. J.; Li, Kang; Li, Ke; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, L. Z.; Libby, J.; Lin, C. X.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, D. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. L.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Huihui; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Ke; Liu, L. D.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, X. L.; Lusso, S.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mangoni, A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Meng, Z. X.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Morello, G.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Muramatsu, H.; Mustafa, A.; Nakhoul, S.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Papenbrock, M.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrino, J.; Peng, H. P.; Peng, Z. Y.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Pitka, A.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qi, T. Y.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Richter, M.; Ripka, M.; Rolo, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shan, X. Y.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, X.; Song, J. J.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Sowa, C.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, L.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. K.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tan, Y. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, G. Y.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Tiemens, M.; Tsednee, B.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, C. W.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, Meng; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zongyuan; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, X.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Y. J.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, F.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, S. L.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, Y. X.; Yang, Yifan; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. F.; Zhang, T. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Q.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, A. N.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the nature of the {{\\psi }}(3770) resonance and to measure the cross section for {{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}, a cross-section scan data sample, distributed among 41 center-of-mass energy points from 3.73 to 3.89 GeV, was taken with the BESIII detector operated at the BEPCII collider in the year 2010. By analyzing the large angle Bhabha scattering events, we measure the integrated luminosity of the data sample at each center-of-mass energy point. The total integrated luminosity of the data sample is 76.16+/- 0.04+/- 0.61 {pb}}-1, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11235011, 11335008, 11425524, 11625523, 11635010), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS (U1332201, U1532257, U1532258), CAS Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences (QYZDJ-SSW-SLH003, QYZDJ-SSW-SLH040), 100 Talents Program of CAS, National 1000 Talents Program of China, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG under Contracts Nos. Collaborative Research Center CRC 1044, FOR 2359, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (KNAW) (530-4CDP03), Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), National Science and Technology fund, The Swedish Research Council, U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-SC-0010118, DE-SC-0010504, DE-SC-0012069), University of Groningen (RuG) and the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0)

  6. Oppositional Behavior and Anxiety in Boys and Girls: A Cross-Sectional Study in Two Community Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireault, Gina; Rooney, Siri; Kouwenhoven, Kristen; Hannan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Studies have repeatedly shown that oppositional behavior is linked to anxiety in clinical samples of children. This study explored whether these variables were similarly related in nonclinical samples of elementary and middle school students (N = 302). Despite greater self-reported oppositional behavior among boys in these samples, anxiety…

  7. Improvement in Trainees' Attitude and Resuscitation Quality With Repeated Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training: Cross-Sectional Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hun; Lee, Kyeong Ryong; Hong, Dae Young; Baek, Kwang Je; Park, Sang O

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of increasing numbers of training sessions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for hospital employees was held every year from 2006 to 2010. Participants were recruited among the trainees in 2010. The trainees' attitudes toward CPR were surveyed by questionnaire, and the quality of their CPR was measured using 5-cycle 30:2 CPR on a manikin. Participants were categorized according to the number of consecutive CPR training sessions as T1 (only 2010), T2 (2009 and 2010), T3 (from 2008 to 2010) and T4-5 (from 2006 or 2007 to 2010). The trainee attitude and CPR quality were compared among the 4 groups. Of 923 CPR trainees, 267 were enrolled in the study. There was significant increase in willingness to start CPR and confidence in chest compression and mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MTMV) with increasing number of CPR training sessions attended (especially for ≥ 3 sessions). There was a significant increase in mean compression depth and decrease in percentage of chest compressions with depth of less than 38 mm in the T3 and T4-5 compared with the T1 and T2. No-flow time decreased significantly, and the percentage of MTMV with visible chest rise increased, as the number of training sessions increased. Repeated CPR training improved trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Because the number of training sessions increased (≥3), the willingness to start CPR and the confidence in skills increased significantly, and chest compression depth, no-flow time, and MTMV improved.

  8. Incomplete quality of life data in lung transplant research : comparing cross sectional, repeated measures ANOVA, and multi-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, KM; Post, WJ; Span, MM; van der Bij, W; Koeter, GH; ten Vergert, EM

    2005-01-01

    Background: In longitudinal studies on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) it frequently occurs that patients have one or more missing forms, which may cause bias, and reduce the sample size. Aims of the present study were to address the problem of missing data in the field of lung transplantation

  9. HIV Futures 8: Protocol for a Repeated Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Survey of People Living with HIV in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jennifer; Brown, Graham; Lyons, Anthony; Thorpe, Rachel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction More than 27,000 Australians currently live with HIV. Most of these people have access to quality clinical care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can expect good general health. However, HIV-related stigma is a problem and many people living with HIV experience poorer than average mental health. Issues of aging are also of increasing concern. This paper describes the methods and sample for the HIV Futures 8 study, a national survey of people living with HIV in Australia that...

  10. The impact of a new McDonald's restaurant on eating behaviours and perceptions of local residents: A natural experiment using repeated cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen E; McCann, Jennifer; Parker, Kate; Crawford, David A

    2016-05-01

    Neighbourhood food environments are posited as an important determinant of eating behaviours; however causality is difficult to establish based on existing studies. Using a natural experiment study design (incorporating repeated cross-sectional data), we tested whether the development of a new McDonald's restaurant increased the frequency of consumption of McDonald's products amongst local residents in the suburbs of Tecoma (site of a new McDonald's restaurant development) and Monbulk (control site) in Victoria, Australia. Across both sites, the reported frequency of McDonald's consumption did not change during the follow-up surveys. In the context explored, the development of a new McDonald's restaurant has not resulted in an increased consumption of McDonald's products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Marginal bone level in two Danish cross-sectional population samples in 1997-1998 and 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Golnosh; Vaeth, Michael; Wenzel, Ann; Isidor, Flemming

    2018-04-12

    The aim of this study was to compare the marginal bone level of two randomly selected population samples from 1997/1998 and 2007/2008, with special emphasis on the role of smoking habits and gender. Two cross-sectional randomly selected population samples [1997/1998 (N = 616) and 2007/2008 (N = 396)] were analysed with respect to the marginal bone level. The marginal bone level was measured in full-mouth intraoral radiographs. Information on smoking was gathered using questionnaires. Multiple regression analysis was used in order to adjust for correlating factors (gender, age, smoking habits and number of teeth). After adjusting for confounding factors, the population sample from 2007/2008 had on average a slightly, but statistically significantly, more reduced average marginal bone level (0.15 mm) than the population sample from 1997/1998. Men had more reduced marginal bone level than women (0.12 mm). Smokers in both population samples had more reduced marginal bone level than non-smokers (0.39 mm and 0.12 mm for 1997/1998; 0.65 mm and 0.16 mm for 2007/2008). In these populations, sampled 10 years apart, the 2007/2008 population sample had a slightly more reduced marginal bone level than the 1997/1998 population sample. Men had more reduced marginal bone level than women, and smoking is considered a major risk factor for a reduced marginal bone level.

  12. Taking account of sample finite dimensions in processing measurements of double differential cross sections of slow neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisichkin, Yu.V.; Dovbenko, A.G.; Efimenko, B.A.; Novikov, A.G.; Smirenkina, L.D.; Tikhonova, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a method of taking account of finite sample dimensions in processing measurement results of double differential cross sections (DDCS) of slow neutron scattering. A necessity of corrective approach to the account taken of the effect of sample finite dimensions is shown, and, in particular, the necessity to conduct preliminary processing of DDCS, the account being taken of attenuation coefficients of single scattered neutrons (SSN) for measurements on the sample with a container, and on the container. Correction for multiple scattering (MS) calculated on the base of the dynamic model should be obtained, the account being taken of resolution effects. To minimize the effect of the dynamic model used in calculations it is preferred to make absolute measurements of DDCS and to use the subraction method. The above method was realized in the set of programs for the BESM-5 computer. The FISC program computes the coefficients of SSN attenuation and correction for MS. The DDS program serves to compute a model DDCS averaged as per the resolution function of an instrument. The SCATL program is intended to prepare initial information necessary for the FISC program, and permits to compute the scattering law for all materials. Presented are the results of using the above method while processing experimental data on measuring DDCS of water by the DIN-1M spectrometer

  13. Vaccination and blood sampling acceptability during Ramadan fasting month: A cross-sectional study in Conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer-Smadja, Nathan; Ouedraogo, Ramatou; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Cissé, Papa Ndiaga; Zeggani, Zahra; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Faye, Sylvain Landry; Le Marcis, Frédéric; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2017-05-02

    There are few data on the acceptability of vaccination or blood sampling during Ramadan fasting month in Muslim countries. This could impact vaccination campaigns, clinical trials or healthcare during Ramadan. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 201 practising Muslims and 10 religious leaders in Conakry, Guinea in the wake of the recent epidemic Ebola epidemic. Acceptability of vaccination and blood sampling during Ramadan were investigated as well as reasons for refusal. Vaccination was judged acceptable during Ramadan by 46% (93/201, 95% CI 0.40-0.53) of practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) of religious leaders (p=0.11). Blood sampling was judged acceptable during Ramadan by 54% (108/201, 95% CI 0.47-0.60) of practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) of religious leaders (p=0.19). The percentage of participants that judged both blood sampling and vaccination acceptable during Ramadan was 40% (81/201, 95% CI 0.34-0.47) for practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) for religious leaders (p=0.048). The most common reasons for refusal of vaccination or blood sampling were that nothing should enter or leave the body during Ramadan (43%), that adverse events could lead to breaking the fast (32%), that blood should not be seen during Ramadan (9%) and that the Quran explicitly forbids it (9%). Although most Muslims leaders and scientists consider that injections including immunization and blood sampling should be authorized during Ramadan, many Muslims in our study judged vaccination or blood sampling unacceptable when fasting. Widely available recommendations on healthcare during Ramadan would be useful to inform Muslims. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Prevalence of xenobiotic substances in first-trimester blood samples from Danish pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Sissel Kramer; Larsen, Agnete; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lesnikova, Iana; Telving, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Louise; Tørring, Niels; Uldbjerg, Niels; Bor, Pinar

    2018-03-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xenobiotic substances, such as caffeine, nicotine and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis and cocaine), in blood samples from first-trimester Danish pregnant women unaware of the screening. A cross - sectional study examined 436 anonymised residual blood samples obtained during 2014 as part of the nationwide prenatal first-trimester screening programme. The samples were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An antenatal clinic in a Danish city with 62 000 inhabitants, where >95% of pregnant women joined the screening programme. The prevalence and patterns of caffeine, nicotine, medication and illicit drug intake during the first trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of prescription and over-the-counter drug detection was 17.9%, including acetaminophen (8.9%) and antidepressants (3.0%), of which citalopram (0.9%) was the most frequent. The prevalence of illegal drugs, indicators of smoking (nicotine/cotinine) and caffeine was 0.9%, 9.9%, and 76.4%, respectively. Only 17.4% of women had no substance identified in their sample. This study emphasises the need for further translational studies investigating lifestyle habits during pregnancy, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms through which xenobiotic substances may affect placental function and fetal development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Oral health status of a sample of Venezuelan patients with spina bifida. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Morales-Chávez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spina bifida (SB is a congenital malformation of the spinal cord associated with several vertebral abnormalities caused by incomplete neural tube closure. The aim of this study is to report on the oral health status of a sample of Venezuelan patients with SB. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was performed in 30 patients with SB to determine their oral health status and other variables of interest. Results: A 46.7% of the patients had a history of caries: 22% in the 1-4 year group, 71.4% in the 5-7 year group, and 100% in the 8-16 year group. The dmft and DMFT indices were 1.55 and 3.50, respectively. A 46.7% of the patients had gingivitis, 30% had dental calculus, with an OHI-S of 2. The 83% had Angle Class II and 17%, Angle Class I. A 40% had parafunctional habits such as digital suction, use of pacifiers and onicophagia. The 70% had deep palate. Conclusion: Patients with SB have specific oral characteristics and risk factors that must be taken into account in dental treatments to provide adequate care and improve their quality of life

  16. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  17. Social and health outcomes following upgrades to a national housing standard: a multilevel analysis of a five-wave repeated cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Jones, Nikki; Lannon, Simon; Jenkins, Huw

    2017-12-02

    While existing research indicates that housing improvements are associated with health improvements, less is known about the wider social and health benefits of meeting national housing standards, as well as those of their specific constituent measures. This study evaluates the impacts of a managed housing upgrade programme through a repeated cross-sectional survey design. A five-wave repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted over a seven-year period from 2009 to 2016 (n = 2075; n = 2219; n = 2015; n = 1991; and n = 1709, respectively). The study followed a managed upgrade programme designed to meet a national social housing standard over an extended period. The data were analysed from a multilevel perspective to take account of the time-dependent nature of the observations and differences in socio-demographic composition. The installation of the majority of individual housing measures (new windows and doors; boilers; kitchens; bathrooms; electrics; loft insulation; and cavity/external wall insulation) were associated with improvements in several social (housing suitability, satisfaction, and quality; thermal comfort and household finances) and health (mental, respiratory and general health) outcomes; and analyses showed relationships between the number of measures installed and the total amount invested on the one hand and the social and health outcomes on the other. There were however a few exceptions. Most notably, the installation of cavity wall insulation was associated with poorer health outcomes, and did not lead to better social outcomes. Also, no association was found between the number of measures installed and respiratory health. The study suggests that substantial housing investments through a managed upgrade programme may result in better social and health outcomes, and that the size of the improvements are proportionate to the number of measures installed and amount invested. However, there may be risks associated with specific

  18. Spectrum of dizziness visits to US emergency departments: cross-sectional analysis from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Toker, David E; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Camargo, Carlos A; Pelletier, Andrea J; Butchy, Gregary T; Edlow, Jonathan A

    2008-07-01

    To describe the spectrum of visits to US emergency departments (EDs) for acute dizziness and determine whether ED patients with dizziness are diagnosed as having a range of benign and dangerous medical disorders, rather than predominantly vestibular ones. A cross-sectional study of ED visits from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) used a weighted sample of US ED visits (1993-2005) to measure patient and hospital demographics, ED diagnoses, and resource use in cases vs controls without dizziness. Dizziness in patients 16 years or older was defined as an NHAMCS reason-for-visit code of dizziness/vertigo (1225.0) or a final International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis of dizziness/vertigo (780.4) or of a vestibular disorder (386.x). A total of 9472 dizziness cases (3.3% of visits) were sampled over 13 years (weighted 33.6 million). Top diagnostic groups were otologic/vestibular (32.9%), cardiovascular (21.1%), respiratory (11.5%), neurologic (11.2%, including 4% cerebrovascular), metabolic (11.0%), injury/poisoning (10.6%), psychiatric (7.2%), digestive (7.0%), genitourinary (5.1%), and infectious (2.9%). Nearly half of the cases (49.2%) were given a medical diagnosis, and 22.1% were given only a symptom diagnosis. Predefined dangerous disorders were diagnosed in 15%, especially among those older than 50 years (20.9% vs 9.3%; Pdisorder in most ED cases and often is associated with cardiovascular or other medical causes, including dangerous ones. Resource use is substantial, yet many patients remain undiagnosed.

  19. Are Changes in Neighbourhood Perceptions Associated with Changes in Self-Rated Mental Health in Adults? A 13-Year Repeat Cross-Sectional Study, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Olsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine changes in neighbourhood perceptions on self-rated mental health problems over time, and to explore demographic, geographic and socio-economic factors as determinants of increased or decreased anxiety and depression symptoms. We conducted a repeat cross-sectional study of individuals (N: 4480 living in the same areas of west central Scotland in 1997 and 2010. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire at both time-points, containing 14 questions relating to neighbourhood perceptions and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A three-level linear regression model was fitted to HADS scores and changes in neighbourhood perceptions over time; controlling for a number of individual and area-level variables. Overall, area-level mean HADS scores decreased from 1997 to 2010. When adjusted for individual and area-level variables, this decrease did not remain for HADS anxiety. Applying an overall 14-scale neighbourhood perception measure, worsening neighbourhood perceptions were associated with small increases in depression (0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.01 to 0.07 and anxiety (0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.08 scores over time. This highlights a need for local and national policy to target areas where neighbourhood characteristics are substantially deteriorating in order to ensure the mental health of individuals does not worsen.

  20. Cross-National Comparisons of Time Trends in Overweight Inequality by Socioeconomic Status Among Women Using Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys From 37 Developing Countries, 1989–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using overweight status as a health indicator, the authors studied repeated cross-sectional data from women aged 18–49 years in 37 developing countries to assess within-country trends in overweight inequalities by SES between 1989 and 2007 (n = 405,550). Meta-regression was used to examine the associations between gross domestic product and disproportionate increases in overweight prevalence by SES, with additional testing for modification by country-level income inequality. In 27 of 37 countries, higher SES (vs. lower) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence; in the remaining 10 countries, lower SES (vs. higher) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence. Gross domestic product was positively related to faster increase in overweight prevalence among the lower wealth groups. Among countries with a higher gross domestic product, lower income inequality was associated with faster overweight growth among the poor. PMID:21300855

  1. Cross-national comparisons of time trends in overweight inequality by socioeconomic status among women using repeated cross-sectional surveys from 37 developing countries, 1989-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M

    2011-03-15

    Chronic diseases are now among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in lower income countries. Although traditionally related to higher individual socioeconomic status (SES) in these contexts, the associations between SES and chronic disease may be actively changing. Furthermore, country-level contextual factors, such as economic development and income inequality, may influence the distribution of chronic disease by SES as well as how this distribution has changed over time. Using overweight status as a health indicator, the authors studied repeated cross-sectional data from women aged 18-49 years in 37 developing countries to assess within-country trends in overweight inequalities by SES between 1989 and 2007 (n=405,550). Meta-regression was used to examine the associations between gross domestic product and disproportionate increases in overweight prevalence by SES, with additional testing for modification by country-level income inequality. In 27 of 37 countries, higher SES (vs. lower) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence; in the remaining 10 countries, lower SES (vs. higher) was associated with higher gains in overweight prevalence. Gross domestic product was positively related to faster increase in overweight prevalence among the lower wealth groups. Among countries with a higher gross domestic product, lower income inequality was associated with faster overweight growth among the poor. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  2. Waterpipe tobacco and electronic cigarette use in a southeast London adult sample: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Power, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    Waterpipe tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) share several features: rising popularity, use of product flavourings and concerns about marketing to youth. We sought to compare prevalence and predictors of waterpipe tobacco and e-cigarette use, and explore knowledge of waterpipe tobacco and support for interventions. We used convenience sampling methods to conduct a cross-sectional survey among adults in the ethnically diverse southeast London area. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of waterpipe and e-cigarette use. Predictor variables were age, gender, ethnicity and current (past 30-day) cigarette use. Of 1176 respondents (23.0% aged 25-34 years, 56.0% male, 57.4% white ethnicity and 30.4% current cigarette smokers), 31.0% had tried waterpipe tobacco and 7.4% had tried e-cigarettes. Both products were significantly associated with younger age groups, non-white ethnicities and use of each other. Waterpipe tobacco was independently associated with consumption of cigarettes while e-cigarettes were not. Among those aware of waterpipe, a third answered incorrectly to knowledge questions. Among those self-identified as coming from a traditional waterpipe-using community, two-thirds supported further legislative and health promotion waterpipe interventions. Waterpipe tobacco was common and more prevalent than e-cigarettes in this population. Interventions to prevent and control waterpipe are unlikely to marginalize traditional waterpipe-using communities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Breaking bad news to a prospective cross-sectional sample of patients’ relatives in a Nigerian neurosurgical service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olufemi Adeleye

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Breaking of medical bad news is anecdotally deemed culturally unacceptable, even intolerable, to native Africans. We explored this hypothesis among a cohort of relatives of patients who had difficult neurosurgical diagnoses in an indigenous practice. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among a consecutive cohort of surrogates / relatives of concerned patients. Their opinion and preferences regarding the full disclosure of the grave neurosurgical diagnoses, and prognoses, of their wards were analysed. Results: A total of 114 patients’ relatives, 83 (72.8% females, were sampled. They were mainly young adults, mean age 40.2(SD 14.2 years; 57% had only basic literacy education; but the majority, 97%, declared themselves to have serious religious commitments. Ninety nine percent of the study participants deemed it desirable that either they or the patients concerned be told the bad news; 80.7% felt that this is best done with both patients and relations in attendance; 3.5% felt only the patients need be told. These preferences are similar to those expressed by the patients themselves in an earlier study. But a nearly significant greater proportion of patients’ relatives (15 vs 5%, p=0.06 would rather be the only ones to be told the patients’ bad news. Conclusions: This data-driven study showed that contrary to anecdotal belief about them, a cohort of native Nigerian-African surrogates of neurosurgical patients was well disposed to receiving, and appeared able to handle well, the full disclosure of difficult medical diagnostic / prognostic information.

  4. Factors associated with syphilis seroreactivity among polydrug users in Northeast Brazil: A cross-sectional study using Respondent Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Cremildo João; Dourado, Ines; Brignol, Sandra; Andrade, Tarcísio de Matos; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2017-01-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population. To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 Brazilian cities between September and November 2009 using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Participants answered an Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) and were rapid tested for HIV and syphilis. We performed multivariable regression models for correlates of syphilis on Stata 10.0. Estimates were weighted by the inverse size of the individual social network size and homophily. Mean age was 29.3 years (range: 18-62), 74.0% were males, and 89.8% were non-white. Syphilis prevalence was 16.6%. Females (adjwOR:2.14; 95%CI:1.09-4.20), individuals over 29 years old (adjwOR:4.44; 95%CI:2.41-8.19), those who exchanged sex for money or drugs (adjwOR:3.51; 95%CI:1.84-6.71), "No/low" self-perceived risk of HIV infection (adjwOR:5.13; 95%CI:1.36-19.37), and having nine or less years of education (adjwOR:2.92; 95%CI:1.08-7.88) were associated with syphilis. One of the most pressing needs for syphilis prevention/control is the availability of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests and treatment. Interventions should be tailored to PDU needs and their multiple burdens as shown in the present study, that may contribute to future studies aiming to better understand the relationships between drug use and syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Veerle; van de Straat, Vera; Bracke, Piet

    2015-03-11

    Framed within the recent economic crisis, in this study we investigate the medical mental health care use of the unemployed compared with that of the employed in Europe, and whether the relationship between employment status and mental health care use varies across macro-economic conditions. We examine whether the macro-economic context and changes therein are related to mental health care use, via their impact on mental health, or more directly, irrespective of mental health. We use data from three waves of the Eurobarometer (2002, 2005/2006, and 2010), which has a repeated cross-sectional and cross-national design. Linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses are performed with mental health, contacting a general practitioner, and contacting a psychiatrist for mental health problems as dependent variables. The multilevel design has three levels (the individual, the period-country, and the country), which allows us to estimate both longitudinal and cross-sectional macro-effects. The macro-economic context and changes therein are assessed using national unemployment rates and growth rates in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The mean unemployment rate is negatively related to mental health, although for women, this effect only applies to the employed. Among women, no relationship is found between changes in the macro-economic context and mental health. The unemployment rate, and changes in both the unemployment rate and the real GDP growth rate, are associated with men's care use, regardless of their mental health, whereas this does not hold for women. In countries with an increase in the unemployment rate, both unemployed and employed men tend to medicalize their problems more by contacting a general practitioner, irrespective of their mental health, while the likelihood of contacting a psychiatrist is lower among employed men. Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health

  6. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  7. Measurement of the cross section for prompt isolated diphoton production using the full CDF run II data sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; De Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez, M; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Ranjan, N; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Sorin, V; Song, H; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2013-03-08

    This Letter reports a measurement of the cross section for producing pairs of central prompt isolated photons in proton-antiproton collisions at a total energy sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV using data corresponding to 9.5 fb(-1) integrated luminosity collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The measured differential cross section is compared to three calculations derived from the theory of strong interactions. These include a prediction based on a leading order matrix element calculation merged with a parton shower model, a next-to-leading order calculation, and a next-to-next-to-leading order calculation. The first and last calculations reproduce most aspects of the data, thus showing the importance of higher-order contributions for understanding the theory of strong interaction and improving measurements of the Higgs boson and searches for new phenomena in diphoton final states.

  8. Objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity in a sample of Finnish adults: a cross-sectional study

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    Pauliina Husu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity (PA confers many positive effects on health and well-being. Sedentary behavior (SB, in turn, is a risk factor for health, regardless of the level of moderate to vigorous PA. The present study describes the levels of objectively measured SB, breaks in SB, standing still and PA among Finnish adults. Methods This cross-sectional analysis is based on the sub-sample of the population-based Health 2011 Study of Finnish adults. The study population consisted of 18-to-85-year old men and women who wore a waist-worn triaxial accelerometer (Hookie AM 20 for at least 4 days, for at least 10 h per day (n = 1587 during a week. PA and SB were objectively assessed from the raw accelerometric data using novel processing and analysis algorithms with mean amplitude deviation as the processing method. The data was statistically analyzed using cross-tabulations, analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. Results The participants were on average 52 years old, 57 % being women. Participants were sedentary 59 % of their waking wear time, mainly sitting. They spent 17 % of the time standing still, 15 % in light intensity PA, 9 % in moderate PA and less than 1 % in vigorous PA. Participants aged 30–39 years had the highest number of breaks in SB per day. Younger participants (<30 years of age had more moderate and vigorous PA than older ones (≥60 years of age, and 30–60-year-olds had the greatest amount of light PA. Conclusions Participants spent nearly 60 % of their waking time sedentary, and the majority of their daily PA was light. From a public health perspective it is important to find effective ways to decrease SB as well as to increase the level of PA. Our analysis method of raw accelerometer data may allow more precise assessment of dose-response relationships between objectively measured PA and SB and various indicators of health and well-being.

  9. Changes over time in population level transport satisfaction and mode of travel: A 13 year repeat cross-sectional study, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine changes over time in satisfaction with usual transport mode, explore individual and area level characteristics as mediators in the likelihood of transport satisfaction, and whether any changes in transport satisfaction varied by these factors over time. Adults from West Central Scotland, United Kingdom, who participated at both waves of the repeat cross-sectional 'Transport, Health and Well-being Study' conducted in 1997 (n=2735) and 2010 (n=2024) were assessed. Individuals completed a detailed postal questionnaire at both time points including self-rated satisfaction with usual transport mode (using a seven point scale subsequently dichotomised to a binary outcome of satisfied (1-2) and other (3-7)). Participants reported usual transport mode for travel to various destinations. A multilevel logistic regression model was used and individuals were nested within areas (c. 4000 population). At the 2010 sweep, two thirds (n=1345) of individuals were satisfied with their transport choice. Those with fair/poor health were less satisfied with their usual transport compared to those in better health (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.49, ptravelled by public transport (OR 2.39, p=0.005) and using multiple modes (OR 2.19, ptravelled by car. The proportion of those who travelled using public transport, active modes or by multiple mode increased journey satisfaction over time at a greater rate than those who travelled by car, highlighting that continued efforts should be made to promote these more active transport modes which have potential to impact on health.

  10. Trends in non-help-seeking for mental disorders in Germany between 1997-1999 and 2009-2012: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Dodoo-Schittko, Frank; Speerforck, Sven; Apfelbacher, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert; Schomerus, Georg; Baumeister, Sebastian E

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to examine trends in non-help-seeking for mental disorders among persons with a prevalent mental disorder (12-month prevalence) in Germany between 1997-1999 and 2009-2012. We examined data from 1909 persons aged 18-65 years who participated in two independent, repeated cross-sectional surveys (German National Interview and Examination Study 1997-1999, German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2009-2012) conducted 12 years apart. Prevalent mental disorders (12-month prevalence) were determined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which included information on lifetime help-seeking for mental health problems. Correlates of self-reported help-seeking were analyzed according to Andersen's Behavioral Model. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to assess time trends in the directly standardized and model-adjusted prevalence of non-help-seeking across strata of socio-economic and clinical variables. The proportion of people with a prevalent mental disorder who have never sought help in their lifetime decreased significantly from 62% (95% CI 58.7-64.7) to 57% (95% CI 52.2-60.9) between 1997-1999 and 2009-2012 in adults aged 18-65 years in Germany. Downward trends in non-help-seeking occurred in all investigated strata and reached statistical significance in women, in people who were living alone, people with medium educational level, people living in middle-sized communities, people with non-statutory health insurance, smokers, and people with co-existing somatic conditions. Despite a downward trend over the course of 12 years, a large proportion of people suffering from mental disorders are still not seeking treatment in Germany. Further efforts to increase uptake of help-seeking for mental disorders in hard-to-reach groups are warranted to continue this trend.

  11. Impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on the health of Canadians: repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Sabrina; Labonté, Ronald; Bancej, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Despite a clear impact on the Canadian economy, little is known about the subsequent health impacts of the 2008 global financial crisis (GFC) in this country. This study fills this gap in knowledge by conducting a repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Data from 7 cycles (2007-2013) of the CCHS were combined to form a large data set representative of the Canadian working-age population (15-64 years) residing in 1 of 10 provinces. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether exposure to various periods of the GFC resulted in increased odds of reporting poor mental health. Exposure was categorised into 4 periods based on political and economic indicators, as follows: precrisis period (baseline), initial crisis period, stimulus period and austerity period. Other outcomes investigated included: anxiety disorders (AD), mood disorders (MD), poor physical health and health-related behaviours (heavy alcohol drinking (HAD) and decreased fruit/vegetable consumption (FVC)). A significant increased odds of reporting poor mental health was observed during the austerity period compared with the precrisis period (OR=1.26 (1.16 to 1.32)); findings remain significant when adjusted for sex, marital status and education. Exposure to the austerity period was also significantly associated with increased odds of reporting AD, MD, HAD and decreased odds of FVC. No significant associations were observed for the poor self-perceived physical health variable. Statistically significant associations were observed between several negative health outcomes and the austerity period when compared with the precrisis period. Austerity has been linked to worsening health in other studies and represents an example of how the policy response can have greater detrimental impact on health than the financial crisis itself. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  12. Association between secondhand smoke exposure at home and cigarette gifting and sharing in Zhejiang, China: a repeat cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Xu, ShuiYang; Wu, QingQing; Guo, YuJie

    2016-03-03

    The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of household cigarette gifting and sharing, and to evaluate the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and cigarette gifting and sharing, in Zhejiang, China. A repeat cross-sectional design. 10 sites in 5 cities in Zhejiang, China. Two surveys were conducted with adults in Zhejiang, China, in 2010 (N=2112) and 2012 (N=2279), respectively. At both waves, the same questionnaire was used; respondents were asked questions on residence, number of family smokers, indoor smoking rules, household income and cigarette gifting and sharing. The findings revealed that more than half of respondents' families (54.50% in 2010, 52.79% in 2012) reported exposure to SHS. Many families (54.73% in 2010, 47.04% in 2012) shared cigarettes with others, and a minority (14.91% in 2010, 14.17% in 2012) reported their family giving cigarettes as a gift. There was a significant decrease in cigarette sharing from 2010 to 2012, irrespective of household with SHS exposure status; and the cigarette gifting was significantly decreased in household without SHS exposure. Compared to households without SHS exposure, the prevalence of cigarette gifting and sharing in households with SHS exposure was more obvious. Encouraging and promoting a smoke-free household environment is necessary to change public smoking customs in Zhejiang, China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Estimation of thermal neutron cross sections from K, U, Th concentrations for rock samples using neural network algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskiewicz, J.; Swakon, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the paper present the results of the use of the neural network algorithms to find a function Σ a =f(K, U, Th,...). The easily measurable parameters (K, U, Th concentrations, lithology) were used to estimate the thermal neutron absorption cross-section Σ a , which is difficult to measure in the borehole conditions. This paper is suggesting a possible solution to the problem. This method may have an important application in the well-logging data treatment. (author). 6 refs, 9 tabs

  14. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among 15-year-old Danish adolescents during 1995-2013: A nationwide, register-based, repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-10-01

    Scandinavian welfare states, despite having better population oral health than less egalitarian societies, are characterized by ubiquitous social gradients and large relative socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. However, trends in these inequalities among Scandinavian children and adolescents have not been studied in detail. To describe the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and oral health in adolescents and to investigate the trends in these associations between 1995 and 2013. Nationwide repeated cross-sectional studies (using individual-level data) were conducted on 15-year-olds in Denmark from 1995, 2003, and 2013 (N=154,750). Dental data were obtained from the national dental register of the Danish Health Authority (Sundhedsstyrelsens Centrale Odontologiske Register [SCOR]) and data on social variables from administrative registers at Statistics Denmark. SEP measures included previous year's parental education (highest attained educational level by either of the parents), income (equivalized household disposable income), and occupational social class (highest recorded occupational class between the parents). Covariates were immigration status, country of origin, number of children and persons in the family, and household type. The outcome was dental caries experience, represented by the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS) index. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between DMFS count and each of the explanatory variables separately while accounting for cluster-correlated family data. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple regressions of DMFS on SEP indicators-using the zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution as the outcome distribution-were estimated while successively adjusting for the potential effects of the included covariates. Caries prevalence declined from 71% in 1995 to 63% in 2003 and 45% in 2013. Separate assessment of each covariate showed statistically significant graded

  15. Socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress in Finland from 1979 to 2002: a population-based repeated cross-sectional survey

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    Talala Kirsi M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the decades, global public health efforts have sought to reduce socio-economic health differences, including differences in mental health. Only a few studies have examined changes in socio-economic differences in psychological symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to assess trends in socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress over a 24-year time period in Finland. Methods The data source is a repeated cross-sectional survey “Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population” (AVTK, from the years 1979 to 2002, divided into five study periods. Indicators for socio-economic status included employment status from the survey, and educational level and household income from the Statistics Finland register data. We studied the age group of 25–64 years (N = 70115; average annual response rate 75%. Outcome measures were single questions of self-reported insomnia and stress. Results The overall prevalence of insomnia was 18-19% and that of stress 16-19%. Compared to the first study period, 1979–1982, the prevalence of stress increased until study period 1993–1997. The prevalence of insomnia increased during the last study period, 1998–2002. Respondents who were unemployed or had retired early reported more insomnia and stress over time among both men and women. Lower education was associated with more insomnia especially among men; and conversely, with less stress among both sexes. Compared to the highest household income level, those in the intermediate levels of income had less stress whereas those in the lowest income levels had more stress among both sexes. Income level differences in insomnia were less consistent. In general, socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress fluctuated some, but did not change substantially over the study period 1979–2002. Conclusions Self-reported insomnia and stress were more common during later study periods. The

  16. Evaluated cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqurno, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    The dosimetry tape (ENDF/B-IV tape 412) was issued in a general CSEWG distribution, August 1974. The pointwise cross section data file was tested with specified reference spectra. A group averaged cross section data file (620 groups based on tape 412) was tested with the above spectra and the results are presented in this report

  17. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  18. Effect of a mass radio campaign on family behaviours and child survival in Burkina Faso: a repeated cross-sectional, cluster-randomised trial

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    Sophie Sarrassat, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Media campaigns can potentially reach a large audience at relatively low cost but, to our knowledge, no randomised controlled trials have assessed their effect on a health outcome in a low-income country. We aimed to assess the effect of a radio campaign addressing family behaviours on all-cause post-neonatal under-5 child mortality in rural Burkina Faso. Methods: In this repeated cross-sectional, cluster randomised trial, clusters (distinct geographical areas in rural Burkina Faso with at least 40 000 inhabitants were selected by Development Media International based on their high radio listenership (>60% of women listening to the radio in the past week and minimum distances between radio stations to exclude population-level contamination. Clusters were randomly allocated to receive the intervention (a comprehensive radio campaign or control group (no radio media campaign. Household surveys were performed at baseline (from December, 2011, to February, 2012, midline (in November, 2013, and after 20 months of campaigning, and endline (from November, 2014, to March, 2015, after 32 months of campaigning. Primary analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis, based on cluster-level summaries and adjusted for imbalances between groups at baseline. The primary outcome was all-cause post-neonatal under-5 child mortality. The trial was designed to detect a 20% reduction in the primary outcome with a power of 80%. Routine data from health facilities were also analysed for evidence of changes in use and these data had high statistical power. The indicators measured were new antenatal care attendances, facility deliveries, and under-5 consultations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT01517230. Findings: The intervention ran from March, 2012, to January, 2015. 14 clusters were selected and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=7 or the control group (n=7. The average number of villages included per

  19. Relationships between coping strategies, individual characteristics and job satisfaction in a sample of hospital nurses: cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Kelleci, Meral; Dogan, Selma

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to describe and compare the job satisfaction, coping strategies, personal and organizational characteristics among nurses working in a hospital in Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey design study, 186 nurses from Cumhuriyet University Hospital completed Personal Data Form, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and Ways of Coping Inventory. Response rate was 74.4%. In this study, it was found that job satisfaction score of nurses showed moderate (mean: 3.46+/-0.56) was found. While nurses mostly used to employ self-confident and optimistic approaches that had already being considered as positive coping strategies with stress, yielding and helpless approaches were employed less than that. While a statistically significant positive relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of Ways of Coping Inventory "self-confident approach" and "optimistic approach", negative relation (pjob satisfaction and dimensions of the "helpless approach". Organizational and individual nurse characteristics were not found to be associated with job satisfaction. But, job satisfaction of the nurses who is bounded by a contract was found higher than that of permanent staff nurses (pjob satisfaction of Turkish hospital nurses was at a moderate and that of the nurses who succeeded to coping with the stress was heightened. Higher levels of job satisfaction were associated with positive coping strategies. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of coping strategies to nurses' job satisfaction.

  20. Is emotional functioning related to academic achievement among university students? Results from a cross-sectional Iranian sample

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    Dena Sadeghi Bahmani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Whereas several studies have predicted academic achievement (AA as a function of favorable cognitive factors and low negative emotional functioning (such as depression and anxiety, little is known about its associations with cognitive-emotional states of positive emotional functioning, such as social satisfaction. The present study sought to evaluate associations of AA with dimensions of negative and positive emotional functioning. Method: This cross-sectional study enrolled 275 students (mean age, 21.24 years; 66.1% females, who completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic parameters and AA scores, as well as measures of loneliness and depression (representing negative emotional functioning and social satisfaction (representing positive emotional functioning. Results: Lower scores for negative and higher scores for positive emotional functioning were associated with higher AA scores. Multiple regression analysis showed that AA was predicted independently by both low negative and high positive emotional functioning. No gender differences were observed. Conclusions: The pattern of results observed in this study suggests that opposing dimensions of emotional functioning are independently related to AA. Students, educators, and health professionals dealing with students should focus both on increasing social satisfaction and on decreasing feelings of loneliness and depression.

  1. Changes in child exposure to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Wales: a repeated cross-sectional study

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    Holliday Jo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoke-free legislation was introduced in Wales in April 2007. In response to concerns regarding potential displacement of smoking into the home following legislation, this study assessed changes in secondhand smoke (SHS exposure amongst non-smoking children. Methods Approximately 1,750 year 6 (aged 10-11 children from 75 Welsh primary schools were included in cross-sectional surveys immediately pre-legislation and one year later. Participants completed self-report questionnaires and provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Regression analyses assessed the impact of legislation on children's SHS exposure at the population level, and amongst subgroups defined by parental figures who smoke within the home. Results Geometric mean salivary cotinine concentrations were 0.17 ng/ml (95% CI 0.15,0.20 pre-legislation and 0.15 ng/ml (95% CI 0.13,0.17, post-legislation, although this change was not statistically significant. Significant movement was however observed from the middle (0.10-0.50 ng/ml to lower tertile, though not from the higher end (>0.51 ng/ml to the middle. Reported exposure to SHS was greatest within the home. Home-based exposure did not change significantly post-legislation. Reported exposure in cafés or restaurants, buses and trains, and indoor leisure facilities fell significantly. The proportion of children reporting that parent figures smoked in the home declined (P = 0.03, with children with no parent figures who smoke in the home significantly more likely to provide saliva with cotinine concentrations of <0.10 ng/ml post-legislation. Amongst children with no parent figures who smoke in the home, the likelihood of 'not knowing' or 'never' being in a place where people were smoking increased post-legislation. Conclusion Smoke-free legislation in Wales did not increase SHS exposure in homes of children aged 10-11. Reported SHS exposure in public places fell significantly. The home remained the main source of

  2. Cross-sectional properties of the lower limb long bones in the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos sample (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Laura; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2018-04-01

    The recovery to date of three complete and five partial femora, seven complete tibiae, and four complete fibulae from the Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos site provides an opportunity to analyze the biomechanical cross-sectional properties in this Middle Pleistocene population and to compare them with those of other fossil hominins and recent modern humans. We have performed direct comparisons of the cross-sectional geometric parameters and reduced major axis (RMA) regression lines among different samples. We have determined that Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH) fossils have significantly thicker cortices than those of recent modern humans for the three leg bones at all diaphyseal levels, except that of the femur at 35% of biomechanical length. The SH bones are similar to those of Neandertals and Middle Pleistocene humans and different from Homo sapiens in their diaphyseal cross-sectional shape and strength parameters. When standardized by estimated body size, both the SH and Neandertal leg bones have in general greater strength than those of H. sapiens from the early modern (EMH), Upper Paleolithic (UP), and recent populations (RH). The Sima de los Huesos human leg bones have, in general terms, an ancestral pattern similar to that of Pleistocene humans and differing from H. sapiens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Job strain and resting heart rate: a cross-sectional study in a Swedish random working sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Eriksson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have reported an association between stressing work conditions and cardiovascular disease. However, more evidence is needed, and the etiological mechanisms are unknown. Elevated resting heart rate has emerged as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relation to work-related stress. This study therefore investigated the association between job strain, job control, and job demands and resting heart rate. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected men and women in Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden (West county of Sweden (n = 1552. Information about job strain, job demands, job control, heart rate and covariates was collected during the period 2001–2004 as part of the INTERGENE/ADONIX research project. Six different linear regression models were used with adjustments for gender, age, BMI, smoking, education, and physical activity in the fully adjusted model. Job strain was operationalized as the log-transformed ratio of job demands over job control in the statistical analyses. Results No associations were seen between resting heart rate and job demands. Job strain was associated with elevated resting heart rate in the unadjusted model (linear regression coefficient 1.26, 95 % CI 0.14 to 2.38, but not in any of the extended models. Low job control was associated with elevated resting heart rate after adjustments for gender, age, BMI, and smoking (linear regression coefficient −0.18, 95 % CI −0.30 to −0.02. However, there were no significant associations in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Low job control and job strain, but not job demands, were associated with elevated resting heart rate. However, the observed associations were modest and may be explained by confounding effects.

  4. Food security in a sample of clients attending HIV clinics in New South Wales: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Angela; Moxham, Rosalind; Hirst, Sarah; Houtzager, Louise; Coutelas, Julie; Rider, Amanda; Yusuf, Christine

    2018-06-08

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, demographics and location of food insecurity (FI) among people living with HIV at six health sites in Sydney, Australia and to identify the factors relating to FI. This was a cross-sectional study recruiting people living with HIV receiving HIV care from six sites across the Sydney metropolitan area. The United States Department of Agriculture abbreviated six-item Subset Food Insecurity Tool was used to assess FI and a demographic questionnaire was completed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to investigate differences between variables. Descriptive and frequency statistics were used to collate the demographic questionnaire and determine the prevalence of FI. All tests performed were two sided with a P-value of less than 0.05, or 95% confidence interval not overlapping, indicating a statistically significant association. Of the 162 participants 47% (n = 76) reported FI. The percentage of FI was found to be higher among the females (61%, n = 8 out of 13), unemployed (65%), receiving a government pension (63%), with a lower perceived health status (68%), a lower CD4 T cell count (60%), a detectable or unknown viral load (67%), and missed taking their antiretroviral therapy either in the last week or month (64%). All of the six participants who were Australian Aboriginal were food insecure. The study finds evidence of associations between FI, employment, lower immune function and poorer health outcomes for people living with HIV in Sydney. © 2018 State of New South Wales. Nutrition and Dietetics © 2018 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  5. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  6. Multitrajectory eikonal cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    With the use of reference and distorted transition operators, a time-correlation-function representation of the inelastic differential cross section has recently been used to obtain distorted eikonal cross sections. These cross sections involve straight-line and reference classical translational trajectories that are unaffected by any internal-state changes which have occurred during the collision. This distorted eikonal theory is now extended to include effects of internal-state changes on the translational motion. In particular, a different classical trajectory is associated with each pair of internal states. Expressions for these inelastic cross sections are obtained in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions using the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method. Explicit formulas are obtained in the time-disordered perturbation approximation

  7. Self-Reported Poor Work Ability--An Indicator of Need for Rehabilitation? A Cross-Sectional Study of a Sample of German Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethge, Matthias; Spanier, Katja; Neugebauer, Tjark; Mohnberg, Inka; Radoschewski, Friedrich Michael

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess associations of self-reported work ability as measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI) with modifiable behavioral and occupational health risks, health service utilization, and intended rehabilitation and pension requests. This is a cross-sectional study of a random sample of German employees aged 40-54 yrs on sickness benefits in 2012 (trial registration: DRKS00004824). In total, 1312 male and 1502 female employees were included in the analyses. Low WAI scores (i.e., work strategies, which include the opportunity to access multiprofessional rehabilitation.

  8. The study of 90 deg. gamma ray production cross sections for interactions of 14.9 Mev neutrons with C, Al, V, Fe, Co, Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lin; Yan Yiming; Zhou Hongyu; Wen Shenlin; Wang Qi; Sun Shuxu; Ding Xiaoji; Wang Wanhong

    1987-04-01

    The (n,xr) reactions have been studied for incident neutron energy 14.9 Mev and for the samples C, Al, V, Fe, Co and Nb. The pulsed beam Time-of-Flight technique was adopted to discriminate neutrons and de-excitation r-rays and to improve the background conditions of the experiment. 90 deg. differential gamma production cross sections as the results of experiments are presented. Due to very low background many new r-rays peaks have been obtained. (author). 14 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  9. Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP......Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages...... years later. Socioeconomic data of the parents (education, income, social class and long-term illness, all for both mother and father) were collected in 1994. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between each parameter of parental SES in adolescence and LBP at baseline...

  10. Preparation and characterization of 33S samples for 33S(n, α)30Si cross-section measurements at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praena, J.; Ferrer, F. J.; Vollenberg, W.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Fernández, B.; García-López, J.; Porras, I.; Quesada, J. M.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Barbagallo, M.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Dietz, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Durán, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Heftrich, T.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Katabuchi, T.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.; n TOF Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    Thin 33S samples for the study of the 33S(n, α)30Si cross-section at the n_TOF facility at CERN were made by thermal evaporation of 33S powder onto a dedicated substrate made of kapton covered with thin layers of copper, chromium and titanium. This method has provided for the first time bare sulfur samples a few centimeters in diameter. The samples have shown an excellent adherence with no mass loss after few years and no sublimation in vacuum at room temperature. The determination of the mass thickness of 33S has been performed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The samples have been successfully tested under neutron irradiation.

  11. Fast-food consumption, diet quality and body weight: cross-sectional and prospective associations in a community sample of working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Timothy L; French, Simone A; Mitchell, Nathan R; Wolfson, Julian

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between fast-food consumption, diet quality and body weight in a community sample of working adults. Cross-sectional and prospective analysis of anthropometric, survey and dietary data from adults recruited to participate in a worksite nutrition intervention. Participants self-reported frequency of fast-food consumption per week. Nutrient intakes and diet quality, using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), were computed from dietary recalls collected at baseline and 6 months. Metropolitan medical complex, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Two hundred adults, aged 18-60 years. Cross-sectionally, fast-food consumption was significantly associated with higher daily total energy intake (β=72·5, P=0·005), empty calories (β=0·40, P=0·006) and BMI (β=0·73, P=0·011), and lower HEI-2010 score (β=-1·23, P=0·012), total vegetables (β=-0·14, P=0·004), whole grains (β=-0·39, P=0·005), fibre (β=-0·83, P=0·002), Mg (β=-6·99, P=0·019) and K (β=-57·5, P=0·016). Over 6 months, change in fast-food consumption was not significantly associated with changes in energy intake or BMI, but was significantly inversely associated with total intake of vegetables (β=-0·14, P=0·034). Frequency of fast-food consumption was significantly associated with higher energy intake and poorer diet quality cross-sectionally. Six-month change in fast-food intake was small, and not significantly associated with overall diet quality or BMI.

  12. Population-wide weight loss and regain in relation to diabetes burden and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba 1980-2010: repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Manuel; Bilal, Usama; Orduñez, Pedro; Benet, Mikhail; Morejón, Alain; Caballero, Benjamín; Kennelly, Joan F; Cooper, Richard S

    2013-04-09

    To evaluate the associations between population-wide loss and gain in weight with diabetes prevalence, incidence, and mortality, as well as cardiovascular and cancer mortality trends, in Cuba over a 30 year interval. Repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends. Cuba and the province of Cienfuegos, from 1980 to 2010. Measurements in Cienfuegos included a representative sample of 1657, 1351, 1667, and 1492 adults in 1991, 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. National surveys included a representative sample of 14 304, 22 851, and 8031 participants in 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. Changes in smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, and body weight were tracked from 1980 to 2010 using national and regional surveys. Data for diabetes prevalence and incidence were obtained from national population based registries. Mortality trends were modelled using national vital statistics. Rapid declines in diabetes and heart disease accompanied an average population-wide loss of 5.5 kg in weight, driven by an economic crisis in the mid-1990s. A rebound in population weight followed in 1995 (33.5% prevalence of overweight and obesity) and exceeded pre-crisis levels by 2010 (52.9% prevalence). The population-wide increase in weight was immediately followed by a 116% increase in diabetes prevalence and 140% increase in diabetes incidence. Six years into the weight rebound phase, diabetes mortality increased by 49% (from 9.3 deaths per 10 000 people in 2002 to 13.9 deaths per 10 000 people in 2010). A deceleration in the rate of decline in mortality from coronary heart disease was also observed. In relation to the Cuban experience in 1980-2010, there is an association at the population level between weight reduction and death from diabetes and cardiovascular disease; the opposite effect on the diabetes and cardiovascular burden was seen on population-wide weight gain.

  13. BACTERIAL PROFILES FOR CHRONIC AND AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS IN A SAMPLE POPULATION GROUP. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cornelia TEODORESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study aims at determining some possible significant differences in the subgingival microbial profiles of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, as a tool in helping with differential diagnostic. Materials and methods. 20 subgingival fluid samples (10 from GAP and 10 from GCP patients were subjected to a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction technique in order to determine the prevalence and the counts of 9 periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Peptostreptococcus micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eubacterium nodatum and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. Results and discussion. Fusobacterium nucleatum was singnificantly correlated with the aggressive periodontitis group, but no significant differences were found for the other 8 periodontal bacteria. Conclusions. The prevalence or count of some periodontal pathogens could help clinicians make an easier differential diagnostic between GCP and GAP, however further studies, conducted on larger population samples, are still needed.

  14. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers and Stress Responses in a Large Cross-Sectional Sample of Elephant Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    of the hypothalamic- pituitary -adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic- pituitary -thyroid (HPT) axes across multiple matrices. APPROACH Task 1 – Natural...performance. Hair samples will be collected from the anterior back region of seals for determination of cortisol as a measure of chronic stress...and 5 juveniles. Task 3 – TSH challenges Thyroid hormones (thyroxin, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3) are released from the thyroid gland and are

  15. Determinants of women's likelihood of vaginal self-sampling for human papillomavirus to screen for cervical cancer in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Pao-Chun; Chou, Chia-Hui; Tzeng, Ya-Ling

    2014-11-25

    Many Taiwanese women (43.8%) did not participate in regular cervical screening in 2011. An alternative to cervical screening, self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV), has been available at no cost under Taiwan's National Health Insurance since 2010, but the extent and likelihood of HPV self-sampling were unknown. A cross-sectional study was performed to explore determinants of women's likelihood of HPV self-sampling. Data were collected by questionnaire from a convenience sample of 500 women attending hospital gynecologic clinics in central Taiwan from June to October 2012. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and logistic regression. Of 500 respondents, 297 (59.4%) had heard of HPV; of these 297 women, 69 (23%) had self-sampled for HPV. Among the 297 women who had heard of HPV, 234 (78.8%) considered cost a priority for HPV self-sampling. Likelihood of HPV self-sampling was determined by previous Pap testing, high perceived risk of cervical cancer, willingness to self-sample for HPV, high HPV knowledge, and cost as a priority consideration. Outreach efforts to increase the acceptability of self-sampling for HPV testing rates should target women who have had a Pap test, perceive themselves at high risk for cervical cancer, are willing to self-sample for HPV, have a high level of HPV knowledge, and for whom the cost of self-sampling covered by health insurance is a priority.

  16. Improvement of the Work Environment and Work-Related Stress: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study of a Nationally Representative Sample of Japanese Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional multilevel study aimed to investigate the relationship between improvement of the work environment and work-related stress in a nationally representative sample in Japan. The study was based on a national survey that randomly sampled 1745 worksites and 17,500 nested employees. The survey asked the worksites whether improvements of the work environment were conducted; and it asked the employees to report the number of work-related stresses they experienced. Multilevel multinominal logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted. Improvement of the work environment was not significantly associated with any level of work-related stress. Among men, it was significantly and negatively associated with the severe level of work-related stress. The association was not significant among women. Improvements to work environments may be associated with reduced work-related stress among men nationwide in Japan.

  17. The impact of a tobacco point-of-sale display ban on youth in the United Kingdom: findings from a repeat cross-sectional survey pre-, mid- and post-implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Ford

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The display of tobacco products at the point-of-sale (POS allows tobacco companies to showcase their products and communicate with consumers. Evidence suggests that exposure to POS tobacco displays is associated with impulse tobacco purchasing among adult smokers and smoking susceptibility among never smoking youth. In the United Kingdom (UK a ban on the open display of tobacco products was phased in between 2012 and 2015. Three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Survey were used to examine the impact of the ban on youth pre-, mid- and post-implementation. Methods A repeat cross-sectional survey was conducted with 11-16 year olds across the UK. Data was collected via an in-home face-to-face interview and self-completion questionnaire at three time points: pre- (2011, n=1373, mid- (2014, n=1205, and post-display ban (2016, n=1213. We examined whether the salience of displays was associated with smoking susceptibility among never smokers. Measures also explored cigarette brand awareness, attractiveness of displays and support for a display ban. Results In 2011, pre-ban, susceptibility to smoke was positively associated with noticing cigarettes displayed at POS and higher brand awareness. Susceptibility to smoke decreased from 28% in 2011 (pre-ban to 18% in 2016 (post-ban, with the mean number of brands recalled falling from 1.56 (SD=1.88 in 2011 to 1.01 (SD=1.42 in 2016. With respect to support for the ban, in 2016 the vast majority of our sample (87% indicated that shops should have to keep cigarettes behind closed shutters. They also felt that having them behind closed shutters made them seem unappealing (73% and made them think that it's not ok to smoke (83%. Conclusions That smoking susceptibility was lower following the ban suggests that placing tobacco out of sight helps safeguard young people and justifies this policy approach in the UK and elsewhere.

  18. Drug-related problems in a sample of outpatients with chronic diseases: a cross-sectional study from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Azzam SI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sayer I Al-Azzam,1 Karem H Alzoubi,1 Salah AbuRuz,2 Qais Alefan1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 2Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan Abstract: Optimization of drug therapy and preventing drug-related problems (DRPs are major factors to improve health care, reduce expenditure, and potentially save lives. This study aimed at describing the types, numbers, and frequencies of DRPs in the outpatient settings of a group of hospitals in Jordan. The study was set in the cardiology, endocrine, and respiratory outpatient clinics of five major hospitals in Jordan. Patients who visited the above clinics during the period from September 2012 to December 2013, were candidates for this study. Each included subject was fully assessed for DRPs by clinical pharmacists according to a specially designed and validated pharmaceutical care manual. The main outcome measures were the number and types of DRPs. Data were collected from 2,898 patients (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.59±13.5 years. The total number of identified DRPs was 32,348, with an average of 11.2 DRPs per patient. The most common DRPs were a need for additional or more frequent monitoring, a problem in patients’ adherence to self-care activities or nonpharmacological therapy, and that the patient was not given instruction in or did not understand nonpharmacological therapy or self-care advice. The numbers of DRPs per patient in our sample were associated with older age (>57 years, being unmarried, having an education level of high school or less, not having health insurance, and the presence of certain clinical conditions, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, cardiac catheterization, heart failure, and gout. In conclusion, implementation of clinical pharmacy services is a strategy to limit DRPs

  19. Characteristics of autism spectrum disorders in a sample of egyptian and saudi patients: transcultural cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hanan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a biological disorder with clearly defined phenomenology. Studies from the Middle East on this topic have been particularly rare. Little is known about the influence of culture on clinical features, presentations and management of autism. The current study was done to compare characteristics of autism in two groups of Egyptian as well as Saudi children. Methods The sample included 48 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. They were recruited from the Okasha Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were grouped into an Egyptian group (n = 20 and a Saudi group (n = 28. They were assessed both clinically and psychometrically using the GARS, the Vineland adaptive behavioral scale, and the Stanford Binnet IQ test. Results Typical autism was more prevalent than atypical autism in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical variables like regression, hyperactivity, epilepsy or mental retardation. Delayed language development was significantly higher in the Egyptian group while delay in all developmental milestones was more significant in the Saudi group. The Vineland communication subscale showed more significant severe and profound communication defects in the Saudi group while the Gilliam developmental subscale showed significantly more average scores in the Egyptian group. Both groups differed significantly such that the age of noticing abnormality was younger in the Saudi group. The age at diagnosis and at the commencement of intervention was lower in the Egyptian group. The Saudi group showed a higher percentage of missing examinations, older birth order and significantly higher preference to drug treatment, while the Egyptian group showed a high preference to behavioral and phoniatric therapies, higher paternal and maternal education, higher employment among parents and higher family

  20. Effect of restrictions on television food advertising to children on exposure to advertisements for 'less healthy' foods: repeat cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Adams

    Full Text Available In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions.We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods--the first (week 1 six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2 six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs that were for HFSS foods.1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57. Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12. There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions.Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods.

  1. Effect of restrictions on television food advertising to children on exposure to advertisements for 'less healthy' foods: repeat cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; Adamson, Ashley J; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods--the first (week 1) six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2) six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs) that were for HFSS foods. 1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57)). Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12)). There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions. Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods.

  2. Effect of Restrictions on Television Food Advertising to Children on Exposure to Advertisements for ‘Less Healthy’ Foods: Repeat Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; Adamson, Ashley J.; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to “reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) advertising”. We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods – the first (week 1) six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2) six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs) that were for HFSS foods. Results 1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57)). Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12)). There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions. Conclusions Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods. PMID:22355376

  3. Frequency of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Majounie (Elisa); A. Renton (Alan); K. Mok (Kin); E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); A. Waite (Adrian); S. Rollinson (Sara); A. Chiò (Adriano); G. Restagno (Gabriella); N. Nicolaou (Nayia); J. Simón-Sánchez (Javier); J.C. van Swieten (John); Y. Abramzon (Yevgeniya); J. Johnson (Janel); M. Sendtner (Michael); R. Pamphlett (Roger); R. Orrell (Richard); S. Mead (Simon); K.C. Sidle (Katie); H. Houlden (Henry); J.D. Rohrer (Jonathan Daniel); K.E. Morrison (Karen); H. Pall (Hardev); D. Talbot; O. Ansorge (Olaf); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Sabatelli (Mario); G. Mora (Gabriele); J.C. Corbo (Joseph); F. Giannini (Fabio); A. Calvo (Andrea); E. Englund (Elisabet); G. Borghero (Giuseppe); O.A.M. Floris; A. Remes (Anne); H. Laaksovirta (Hannu); L. McCluskey (Leo); J.Q. Trojanowski (John); V.M. Deerlin (Vivianna); G.D. Schellenberg (Gerard); M.A. Nalls (Michael); V.E. Drory (Vivian E); C.S. Lu (Chin-Song); T.-H. Yeh (Tu-Hsueh); H. Ishiura (Hiroyuki); Y. Takahashi (Yukari); S. Tsuji (Shoji); I. Le Ber (Isabelle); A. Brice; C. Drepper (Carsten); N. Williams (Nigel); J. Kirby (Janine); P.J. Shaw (Pamela); J. Hardy (John); P.J. Tienari (Pentti); P. Heutink (Peter); H. Morris (Huw); S. Pickering-Brown (Stuart); B.J. Traynor (Bryan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We aimed to accurately estimate the frequency of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 that has been associated with a large proportion of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: We screened 4448 patients diagnosed with

  4. Frequency of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majounie, E.; Renton, A.E.; Mok, K.; Dopper, E.G.P.; Waite, A.; Rollinson, S.; Chio, A.; Restagno, G.; Nicolaou, N.; Simon-Sanchez, J.; van Swieten, J.C.; Abramzon, Y.; Johnson, J.O.; Sendtner, M.; Pamphlett, R.; Orrell, R.W.; Mead, S.; Sidle, K.C.; Houlden, H.; Rohrer, J.D.; Morrison, K.E.; Pall, H.; Talbot, K.; Ansorge, O.; Hernandez, D.G.; Arepalli, S.; Sabatelli, M.; Mora, G.; Corbo, M.; Giannini, F.; Calvo, A.; Englund, E.; Borghero, G.; Foris, G.L.; Remes, A.M.; Laaksovirta, H.; McCluskey, L.; Trojanowski, J.Q.; Van Deerlin, V.M.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Nalls, M.A.; Drory, V.E.; Lu, C.S.; Yeh, T.H.; Ishiura, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Tsuji, S.; Le Ber, I.; Brice, A.; Drepper, C.; Williams, N.; Kirby, J.; Shaw, P.; Hardy, J.; Tienari, P.J.; Heutink, P.; Morris, H.R.; Pickering-Brown, S.; Traynor, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We aimed to accurately estimate the frequency of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 that has been associated with a large proportion of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: We screened 4448 patients diagnosed with ALS (El

  5. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Lindell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Odd Lindell, Sven-Erik Johansson, Lars-Erik Strender1Center for Family and Community Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SwedenBackground: Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing>3 weeks.Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P <0.05. The results are shown as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6. Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2; Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3; Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4; Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2; and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8.Conclusions: As most of the living conditions have previously been

  6. Sampling procedures using optical-data and partial wave cross sections in a Monte Carlo code for simulating kilovolt electron and positron transport in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Varea, J.M.; Salvat, F.; Liljequist, D.

    1994-09-01

    The details of a Monte Carlo code for computing the penetration and energy loss of electrons and positrons in solids are described. The code, intended for electrons and positrons with energies from ∼ 100 eV to ∼ 100 keV, is based on the simulation of individual elastic and inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are simulated using differential cross sections computed by the relativistic partial wave method applied to a muffin-tin Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater potential. Inelastic collisions are simulated by means of a model based on optical and photoelectric data, which are extended to the non-zero momentum transfer region by means of somewhat different algorithms for valence electron excitations and inner-shell excitations. This report focuses on the description of detailed formulae and sampling methods. 10 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Sampling Key Populations for HIV Surveillance: Results From Eight Cross-Sectional Studies Using Respondent-Driven Sampling and Venue-Based Snowball Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James; Weir, Sharon; Edwards, Jessie; Rice, Brian; Kochelani, Duncan; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-20

    In using regularly collected or existing surveillance data to characterize engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services among marginalized populations, differences in sampling methods may produce different pictures of the target population and may therefore result in different priorities for response. The objective of this study was to use existing data to evaluate the sample distribution of eight studies of female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), who were recruited using different sampling approaches in two locations within Sub-Saharan Africa: Manzini, Swaziland and Yaoundé, Cameroon. MSM and FSW participants were recruited using either respondent-driven sampling (RDS) or venue-based snowball sampling. Recruitment took place between 2011 and 2016. Participants at each study site were administered a face-to-face survey to assess sociodemographics, along with the prevalence of self-reported HIV status, frequency of HIV testing, stigma, and other HIV-related characteristics. Crude and RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated. Crude prevalence estimates from the venue-based snowball samples were compared with the overlap of the RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates, between both FSW and MSM in Cameroon and Swaziland. RDS samples tended to be younger (MSM aged 18-21 years in Swaziland: 47.6% [139/310] in RDS vs 24.3% [42/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon: 47.9% [99/306] in RDS vs 20.1% [52/259] in Snowball; FSW aged 18-21 years in Swaziland 42.5% [82/325] in RDS vs 8.0% [20/249] in Snowball; in Cameroon 15.6% [75/576] in RDS vs 8.1% [25/306] in Snowball). They were less educated (MSM: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 42.6% [109/310] in RDS vs 4.0% [7/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon 46.2% [138/306] in RDS vs 14.3% [37/259] in Snowball; FSW: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 86.6% [281/325] in RDS vs 23.9% [59/247] in Snowball, in Cameroon 87.4% [520/576] in RDS vs 77.5% [238/307] in Snowball) than the snowball

  8. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  9. Genetic association study with metabolic syndrome and metabolic-related traits in a cross-sectional sample and a 10-year longitudinal sample of chinese elderly population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome (MetS has been known as partly heritable, while the number of genetic studies on MetS and metabolic-related traits among Chinese elderly was limited. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 2 014 aged participants from September 2009 to June 2010 in Beijing, China. An additional longitudinal study was carried out among the same study population from 2001 to 2010. Biochemical profile and anthropometric parameters of all the participants were measured. The associations of 23 SNPs located within 17 candidate genes (MTHFR, PPARγ, LPL, INSIG, TCF7L2, FTO, KCNJ11, JAZF1, CDKN2A/B, ADIPOQ, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, IRS1, ACE with overweight and obesity, diabetes, metabolic phenotypes, and MetS were examined in both studies. RESULTS: In this Chinese elderly population, prevalence of overweight, central obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and MetS were 48.3%, 71.0%, 32.4%, 75.7%, 68.3% and 54.5%, respectively. In the cross-sectional analyses, no SNP was found to be associated with MetS. Genotype TT of SNP rs4402960 within the gene IGF2BP2 was associated with overweight (odds ratio (OR  = 0.479, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.316-0.724, p = 0.001 and genotype CA of SNP rs1801131 within the gene MTHFR was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.560, 95% CI: 1.194-2.240, p = 0.001. However, these associations were not observed in the longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of SNP rs4402960 with overweight as well as the association of SNP rs1801131 with hypertension were found to be statistically significant. No SNP was identified to be associated with MetS in our study with statistical significance.

  10. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  11. Municipal investment in off-road trails and changes in bicycle commuting in Minneapolis, Minnesota over 10 years: a longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Meyer, Katie A; Peterson, Marc; Zhang, Le; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-02-13

    We studied the effect of key development and expansion of an off-road multipurpose trail system in Minneapolis, Minnesota between 2000 and 2007 to understand whether infrastructure investments are associated with increases in commuting by bicycle. We used repeated measures regression on tract-level (N = 116 tracts) data to examine changes in bicycle commuting between 2000 and 2008-2012. We investigated: 1) trail proximity measured as distance from the trail system and 2) trail potential use measured as the proportion of commuting trips to destinations that might traverse the trail system. All analyses (performed 2015-2016) adjusted for tract-level sociodemographic covariates and contemporaneous cycling infrastructure changes (e.g., bicycle lanes). Tracts that were both closer to the new trail system and had a higher proportion of trips to destinations across the trail system experienced greater 10-year increases in commuting by bicycle. Proximity to off-road infrastructure and travel patterns are relevant to increased bicycle commuting, an important contributor to overall physical activity. Municipal investment in bicycle facilities, especially off-road trails that connect a city's population and its employment centers, is likely to lead to increases in commuting by bicycle.

  12. Prevalence of chronic spinal pain and identification of associated factors in a sample of the population of São Paulo, Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depintor, Jidiene Dylese Presecatan; Bracher, Eduardo Sawaya Botelho; Cabral, Dayane Maia Costa; Eluf-Neto, José

    2016-01-01

    Chronic spinal pain, especially low-back pain and neck pain, is a leading cause of years of life with disability. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic spinal pain among individuals aged 15 years or older and to identify the factors associated with it. Cross-sectional epidemiological study on a sample of the population of the city of São Paulo. Participants were selected using random probabilistic sampling and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), EuroQol-5D, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and Brazilian economic classification criteria were used. A total of 826 participants were interviewed. The estimated prevalence of chronic spinal pain was 22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.3-25.0%). The factors independently associated with chronic spinal pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, schooling level of four years or less, symptoms compatible with anxiety and high physical exertion during the main occupation. Quality of life and self-rated health scores were significantly worse among individuals with chronic spinal pain. The prevalence of chronic spinal pain in this segment of the population of São Paulo was 22.0%. The factors independently associated with chronic pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, low education, symptoms compatible with anxiety and physical exertion during the main occupation.

  13. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  14. Standard cross-section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of neutron cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross-section and the errors associated with using it. Any improvement in the standard immediately improves all cross-section measurements which have been made relative to that standard. Light element, capture and fission standards are discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Age differences in personality traits from 10 to 65: Big Five domains and facets in a large cross-sectional sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Christopher J; John, Oliver P; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff

    2011-02-01

    Hypotheses about mean-level age differences in the Big Five personality domains, as well as 10 more specific facet traits within those domains, were tested in a very large cross-sectional sample (N = 1,267,218) of children, adolescents, and adults (ages 10-65) assessed over the World Wide Web. The results supported several conclusions. First, late childhood and adolescence were key periods. Across these years, age trends for some traits (a) were especially pronounced, (b) were in a direction different from the corresponding adult trends, or (c) first indicated the presence of gender differences. Second, there were some negative trends in psychosocial maturity from late childhood into adolescence, whereas adult trends were overwhelmingly in the direction of greater maturity and adjustment. Third, the related but distinguishable facet traits within each broad Big Five domain often showed distinct age trends, highlighting the importance of facet-level research for understanding life span age differences in personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.

  17. Who are the children and adolescent patients of a national referral service of eating disorders in Brazil?: a cross-sectional study of a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Vanessa Dentzien; Turkiewicz, Gizela; Monteiro, Denise Oliveira; Koritar, Priscila; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED) in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onset was 13.5±0.19 years. Mean disease duration was 21.06 ±1.67 months. Of the total sample, 82% of the patients were female, 84% were Caucasian, 64% came from A and B economic tiers. Moreover, in 60% ED started at 14 years of age or less, and 74% had psychiatric comorbidities. Anorexia nervosa was the most prevalent diagnosis (43%). Hospitalized patients had lower body mass index, longer ED duration, and more severe scores on the Children's Global Assessment Scale than outpatients (p studies and indicate greater ED severity.

  18. The creation of a healthy eating motivation score and its association with food choice and physical activity in a cross sectional sample of Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Paul; McCarthy, Sinéad N; McCarthy, Mary B

    2015-06-06

    This study aimed to develop a healthy eating motivation score and to determine if dietary, lifestyle and activity behaviours vary across levels of motivation to eat a healthy diet with a view to informing health promotion interventions. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity, lifestyles and food choice attitudes was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 1262 adults in the Republic of Ireland aged 18 years and over. Increasing score for health motivation was significantly and positively related to healthy eating and exercise. Women, increasing age, normal BMI, regular exercise and increasing intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) for having a high healthy eating motivation score. However, despite a high motivation score only 31% of consumers in the strong motivation group achieved the recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable consumption, while 57% achieved the fat recommendation. A higher intake of calorie dense foods from the top shelf of the food pyramid and increased time spent watching T.V. was associated with a decreased OR for positive motivation towards healthy eating. Healthy eating promotions directed at women and older adults should focus on supporting people's motivations to attain a healthy diet by addressing issues such as dietary self-control and self-regulation. For men and younger adults, healthy eating promotions will need to address the issues underlying their weak attitudes towards healthy eating.

  19. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Ware, Robert S; Vecchio, Nerina; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2011-05-31

    The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC) study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.

  20. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in Filipino vs Caucasian Americans: a retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáles, Christopher S; Lee, Roland Y; Agadzi, Anthony K; Hee, Michael R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2012-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Filipino and Caucasian Americans in two clinic populations. Retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples. Five hundred twelve Filipino and 600 Caucasian patients aged 40 years or older examined by two community-based comprehensive ophthalmology clinics during a one-year period. The prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes mellitus among Filipino (F) and Caucasian Americans (C) was 40.6% and 24.8%, respectively (PFilipino; 149 Caucasian), there was a statistically insignificant higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among Filipino diabetics compared to Caucasians (F vs C: all forms of diabetic retinopathy, 24.5% vs 16.8%, P=.08; non-proliferative retinopathy, 17.3% vs 12.8%, P=.24; proliferative retinopathy, 7.2% vs. 4.0%, P=.21). In multivariate analyses of the diabetic subpopulation, Filipino ethnicity was not a significant predictor of diabetic retinopathy. Filipino Americans may have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans. Among those with type 2 diabetes, however, Filipino Americans were not found to be more likely to show manifestations of diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans.

  1. The inequity of inpatient services in rural areas and the New-Type Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in China: repeated cross sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bingbing; Towne, Samuel D; Chen, Yuxing; Yuan, ZhaoKang

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of the New-type Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) put into effect in 2003 was to reduce financial barriers in accessing health care services among vulnerable populations. The aim of this study was to assess the association between NRCMS and income related inequality in hospital utilization among rural inhabitants in Jiangxi Province, China. A multistage stratified random cluster sampling method was adopted to select 1838, 1879, and 1890 households as participants in 2003/2004, 2008 and 2014, respectively. The Erreygers Concentration index (EI) of two measures of hospital inpatient care including admission to hospital and hospital avoidance, were calculated to measure income-related inequality. The decomposition of the EI was performed to characterize the contributions of socioeconomic and need factors to the measured inequality. An affluent-focused (pro-rich) inequity was observed for hospital admission adjusting for need factors over time. The level of inequity for hospital admission decreased dramatically, while hospital avoidance decreased marginally, and with a high value (EI, -0.0176) in 2008. The implementation of the NRCMS was associated with decreased inequity in 2008 and in 2014, but the associations were limited. Income contributed the most to the inequality of hospital utilization each year. The coverage of the NRCMS expanded to cover nearly all rural inhabitants in Jiangxi province by 2014 and was associated with a very small reduction in inequalities in admission to hospital. In order to increase equitable access to health care, additional financial protections for vulnerable populations are needed. Improving the relatively low level of medical services in township hospitals, and low rate of reimbursement and financial assistance with the NRCMS is recommended. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  2. Dental anomalies: prevalence and associations between them in a large sample of non-orthodontic subjects, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, G; Venza, N; Borzabadi-Farahani, A; Fabi, F; Danesi, C; Cozza, P

    2017-03-11

    To analyze the prevalence and associations between dental anomalies detectable on panoramic radiographs in a sample of non-orthodontic growing subjects. For this cross-sectional study, digital panoramic radiographs of 5005 subjects were initially screened from a single radiographic center in Rome. Inclusion criteria were: subjects who were aged 8-12 years, Caucasian, and had good diagnostic quality radiographs. Syndromic subjects, those with craniofacial malformation, or orthodontic patients were excluded and this led to a sample of 4706 subjects [mean (SD) age = 9.6 (1.2) years, 2366 males and 2340 females]. Sample was subsequently divided into four subgroups (8, 9, 10, and 11-12 year-old groups). Two operators examined panoramic radiographs to observe the presence of common dental anomalies. The prevalence and associations between dental anomalies were also investigated. The overall prevalence of dental anomalies was 20.9%. Approximately, 17.9% showed only one anomaly, 2.7% two anomalies, while only 0.3% had more than two anomalies. The most frequent anomalies were the displacement of maxillary canine (7.5%), hypodontia (7.1%), impacted teeth (3.9%), tooth ankylosis (2.8%), and tooth transposition (1.4%). The lower right second premolar was the most frequent missing teeth; 3.7% had only one tooth agenesis, and 0.08% had six or more missing tooth (Oligodontia). Mesiodens was the most common type of supernumerary tooth (0.66%). Two subjects had taurodontic tooth (0.04%). Tooth transpositions and displacement of maxillary canine were seen in 1.4 and 7.5%, retrospectively (approximately 69 and 58% were in the 8 and 9 year-old groups, retrospectively). Significant associations were detected between the different dental anomalies (P dental anomalies and provide further evidences to support common etiological factors.

  3. Effects of new motorway infrastructure on active travel in the local population: a retrospective repeat cross-sectional study in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Mitchell, Richard; Ogilvie, David

    2016-07-07

    Promoting active travel is an important part of increasing population physical activity, which has both physical and mental health benefits. A key benefit described by the then Scottish Government of the five-mile M74 motorway extension, which opened during June 2011 in the south of Glasgow, was that the forecast reduction in motor traffic on local streets would make these streets safer for walking and cycling, thus increasing active travel by the local population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of new motorway infrastructure on the proportion of journey stages made actively (cycling or on foot) by individuals travelling in and out of the local area. Data for the periods 2009-10 and 2012-13 were extracted from the Scottish Household Survey (SHS) travel diaries, which record each journey stage made during the previous day by a representative sample of the Scottish population aged 16 and over. Each individual journey stage was assigned to one of the following study areas surrounding existing and new transport infrastructure: (1) an area surrounding the new M74 motorway extension (n = 435 (2009-10), 543 (2012-13)), (2) a comparator area surrounding an existing motorway (n = 477 (2009-10), 560 (2012-13)), and (3) a control area containing no comparable motorway infrastructure (n = 541 (2009-10), 593 (2012-13)). Multivariable, multi-level regression analysis was performed to determine any between-area differences in change in active travel over time, which might indicate an intervention effect. Reference populations were defined using two alternative definitions, (1) Glasgow City and (2) Glasgow and surrounding local authorities. The results showed an increase in the proportion of journey stages using active travel in all study areas compared to both reference populations. However, there were no significant between-area differences to suggest an effect attributable the M74 motorway extension. There was no clear evidence that the M74 motorway

  4. Prevalence of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS in three regions of England: a repeated cross-sectional study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has been used to name a range of chronic conditions characterized by extreme fatigue and other disabling symptoms. Attempts to estimate the burden of disease have been limited by selection bias, and by lack of diagnostic biomarkers and of agreed reproducible case definitions. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS in three regions in England, and discussed the implications of frequency statistics and the use of different case definitions for health and social care planning and for research. Methods We compared the clinical presentation, prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS based on a sample of 143,000 individuals aged 18 to 64 years, covered by primary care services in three regions of England. Case ascertainment involved: 1 electronic search for chronic fatigue cases; 2 direct questioning of general practitioners (GPs on cases not previously identified by the search; and 3 clinical review of identified cases according to CDC-1994, Canadian and Epidemiological Case (ECD Definitions. This enabled the identification of cases with high validity. Results The estimated minimum prevalence rate of ME/CFS was 0.2% for cases meeting any of the study case definitions, 0.19% for the CDC-1994 definition, 0.11% for the Canadian definition and 0.03% for the ECD. The overall estimated minimal yearly incidence was 0.015%. The highest rates were found in London and the lowest in East Yorkshire. All but one of the cases conforming to the Canadian criteria also met the CDC-1994 criteria, however presented higher prevalence and severity of symptoms. Conclusions ME/CFS is not uncommon in England and represents a significant burden to patients and society. The number of people with chronic fatigue who do not meet specific criteria for ME/CFS is higher still. Both groups have high levels of need for service provision, including health and social

  5. Cross sections for atmospheric corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.P.; Casse, M.; Westergaard, N.

    1975-01-01

    A set of cross sections for spallation of relativistic nuclei is proposed based on (i) the best available proton cross sections, (ii) an extrapolation to heavier nuclei of the dependence on the number of nucleons lost of the 'target factor' observed for C 12 and O 16 by Lindstrom et al. (1975), in analogy with Rudstam's formalism, and (iii) on a normalization of all cross sections to the total cross sections for production of fragments with Asub(f) >= 6. The obtained cross sections for peripheral interactions are not inconsistent with simple geometrical considerations. (orig.) [de

  6. Clinical and cytogenetic features of a Brazilian sample of patients with phenotype of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pawelec da Silva

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS is considered to be a defect of embryogenesis involving structures originating from the first branchial arches. Our objective was to describe the clinical and cytogenetic findings from a sample of patients with the phenotype of OAVS.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a referral hospital in southern Brazil.METHODS: The sample consisted of 23 patients who presented clinical findings in at least two of these four areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular and vertebral. The patients underwent a clinical protocol and cytogenetic evaluation through high-resolution karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization for 5p and 22q11 microdeletions and investigation of chromosomal instability for Fanconi anemia.RESULTS: Cytogenetic abnormalities were observed in three cases (13% and consisted of: 47,XX,+mar; mos 47,XX,+mar/46,XX; and 46,XX,t(6;10(q13; q24. We observed cases of OAVS with histories of gestational exposition to fluoxetine, retinoic acid and crack. One of our patients was a discordant monozygotic twin who had shown asymmetrical growth restriction during pregnancy. Our patients with OAVS were characterized by a broad clinical spectrum and some presented atypical findings such as lower-limb reduction defect and a tumor in the right arm, suggestive of hemangioma/lymphangioma.CONCLUSIONS: We found a wide range of clinical characteristics among the patients with OAVS. Different chromosomal abnormalities and gestational expositions were also observed. Thus, our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the etiology of OAVS and the importance of these factors in the clinical and cytogenetic evaluation of these patients.

  7. Prevalence of chronic spinal pain and identification of associated factors in a sample of the population of São Paulo, Brazil: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidiene Dylese Presecatan Depintor

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic spinal pain, especially low-back pain and neck pain, is a leading cause of years of life with disability. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic spinal pain among individuals aged 15 years or older and to identify the factors associated with it. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional epidemiological study on a sample of the population of the city of São Paulo. METHOD: Participants were selected using random probabilistic sampling and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, EuroQol-5D, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and Brazilian economic classification criteria were used. RESULTS: A total of 826 participants were interviewed. The estimated prevalence of chronic spinal pain was 22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.3-25.0%. The factors independently associated with chronic spinal pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, schooling level of four years or less, symptoms compatible with anxiety and high physical exertion during the main occupation. Quality of life and self-rated health scores were significantly worse among individuals with chronic spinal pain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chronic spinal pain in this segment of the population of São Paulo was 22.0%. The factors independently associated with chronic pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, low education, symptoms compatible with anxiety and physical exertion during the main occupation.

  8. Cosmogenic radionuclides in the environment: 32Si in precipitation samples from the Jungfraujoch, production cross sections of 36Cl in Argon and modeling of the atmospheric 36Cl production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrat, Y.

    1997-06-01

    The concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclide 32 Si were measured in four fresh snow samples from the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps (3450 m asl.) to study the feasibility of measuring this potential dating nuclide with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. This technique could reduce drastically the amount of material needed for measurements of 32 Si concentrations in environmental samples in contrast to conventional radiometric detection. The measured 32 Si concentrations in the snow samples were between 1.84 and 6.28 μBql -1 . These values agree with other measurements of precipitation samples. The measured 32 Si/Si tot ratios ranged from 2.5.10 -17 to 2.3.10 -15 and were thus below the present detection limit of about 10 -14 , showing that at present it is not possible to carry out AMS measurements of 32 Si in precipitation samples. For the first time, experimental cross sections of the reaction 40 Ar(p,X) 36 Cl have been determined for the proton energy range 16-590 MeV. These cross sections were measured using a gas target, a novel method which was tested successfully by irradiating nitrogen targets to confirm literature values of the N(p,X) 7 Be and N(p,X) 10 Be cross sections. In fact, good agreement was found between the obtained cross sections with those using solid targets. Production of several radionuclides in the reaction of proton with nickel were also measured. Comparison of these cross sections with literature data proved that the proton flux measurements carried out with ionization chambers were very accurate. The excitation function of the reaction 40 Ar(p,X) 36 Cl exhibits two maxima at proton energies of 20 MeV for the (p,αn)reaction and 95 MeV for the (p,2p3n) reaction, with maximum cross sections of 105 mb and 53 mb, respectively. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  9. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2010-11-19

    People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA), while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI). Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI), lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%). Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02), had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p lifestyle factors and confounders. Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  10. Paid employment and common mental disorders in 50-64-year olds: analysis of three cross-sectional nationally representative survey samples in 1993, 2000 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, G; Di Gessa, G; Corna, L M; Glaser, K; Stewart, R

    2017-08-24

    Associations between employment status and mental health are well recognised, but evidence is sparse on the relationship between paid employment and mental health in the years running up to statutory retirement ages using robust mental health measures. In addition, there has been no investigation into the stability over time in this relationship: an important consideration if survey findings are used to inform future policy. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between employment status and common mental disorder (CMD) in 50-64-year old residents in England and its stability over time, taking advantage of three national mental health surveys carried out over a 14-year period. Data were analysed from the British National Surveys of Psychiatric Morbidity of 1993, 2000 and 2007. Paid employment status was the primary exposure of interest and CMD the primary outcome - both ascertained identically in all three surveys (CMD from the revised Clinical Interview Schedule). Multivariable logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment across all survey years; however, this association was only present for non-employment related to poor health as an outcome and was not apparent in those citing other reasons for non-employment. Odds ratios for the association between non-employment due to ill health and CMD were 3.05 in 1993, 3.56 in 2000, and 2.80 in 2007, after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, education, social class, housing tenure, financial difficulties, smoking status, recent physical health consultation and activities of daily living impairment. The prevalence of CMD was higher in people not in paid employment for health reasons, but was not associated with non-employment for other reasons. Associations had been relatively stable in strength from 1993 to 2007 in those three cross-sectional nationally representative samples.

  11. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denollet Johan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA, while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI. Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. Methods In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI, lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Results Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%. Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02, had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p p = .01. Type D personality was related to a twofold increased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.2-4.0, p = .011, independent of lifestyle factors and confounders. Conclusions Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  12. Mental health and patterns of work-related coping behaviour in a German sample of student teachers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Linda; Unterbrink, Thomas; Pfeifer, Ruth; Wirsching, Michael; Rose, Uwe; Stößel, Ulrich; Nübling, Matthias; Buhl-Grießhaber, Veronika; Frommhold, Markus; Schaarschmidt, Uwe; Bauer, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the mental health of student teachers, to analyse the extent to which they feel prepared for their profession by the university curriculum and to investigate patterns of coping with occupational stress. A sample of 481 German student teachers was investigated using two standardised instruments: GHQ-12 (General Health Questionnaire) and AVEM (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster), an occupational stress and coping questionnaire describing four patterns of work-related coping behaviour. In addition, we asked how well the student teachers felt that the curriculum prepared them for their profession. Forty-four per cent of the student teachers report impaired mental health in the second teacher training period, indicated by a GHQ value equal to or over the cut-off of four. The AVEM responses revealed more than 40% showing risk patterns (A or B) compared to only 26.3% displaying a healthy coping style (G), while 32.8% demonstrate an unambitious style (S). These GHQ values are inversely correlated with the extent to which student teachers feel prepared for their work by the university curriculum. Our data indicate a problematic stress level for student teachers in the second training phase (high exposure to health risks and unfavourable coping styles). Since teaching is clearly an extremely demanding job, it is vital that teacher training systems contribute towards protecting the health of teachers by focusing on fostering healthy personal attitudes and equipping young teachers with coping styles and skills that will better prepare them for the challenges facing them in their daily work. Self-care health management should also be part of the teacher training curriculum.

  13. Who are the children and adolescent patients of a national referral service of eating disorders in Brazil?: a cross-sectional study of a clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dentzien Pinzon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. Results: A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onset was 13.5±0.19 years. Mean disease duration was 21.06 ±1.67 months. Of the total sample, 82% of the patients were female, 84% were Caucasian, 64% came from A and B economic tiers. Moreover, in 60% ED started at 14 years of age or less, and 74% had psychiatric comorbidities. Anorexia nervosa was the most prevalent diagnosis (43%. Hospitalized patients had lower body mass index, longer ED duration, and more severe scores on the Children's Global Assessment Scale than outpatients (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our young Brazilian patients with ED present epidemiological and symptomatic characteristics very similar to those found in the scientific literature, including a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities. The higher frequency of full syndrome ED, the predominance of cases with an early onset, the delay in beginning specialized treatment, and the more severe state of inpatients provide grounds for concern because these factors differ from what has been reported in reference studies and indicate greater ED severity.

  14. Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Reinbott

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3-23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, and retinol binding protein (RBP were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored.Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%. Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin.Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young children.German Clinical Trials

  15. Exploring motivations to seek and undergo prosthodontic care: a cross-sectional study in a Brazilian adult sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira AH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Hélio Vieira, Donizete Castro e Silva, Túlio Eduardo Nogueira, Cláudio Rodrigues Leles Department of Prevention and Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil Abstract: This study explored the influence of individual and social factors regarding intentions and behaviors related to prosthodontic treatment, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB. A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 225 individuals with some degree of tooth loss. A questionnaire was used containing factors that would have potential influence on the intentions and behaviors of individuals, as well as clinical and sociodemographic data. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency analysis, chi-square test for trend, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The TPB components – attitude toward the behavior (ATB, subjective norm (SN, and perceived behavioral control (PBC – showed good internal consistency (alpha = 0.60–0.78. Intention and behavior were associated with TPB components and the overall scale. Similarly, positive intentions and behaviors were associated with age, upper tooth loss, anterior tooth loss, and higher social status. Multiple logistic regression showed that intention was associated with PBC (OR =1.57; P<0.016, while behavior was associated with tooth loss in both arches (OR =9.3; P<0.001, anterior tooth loss (OR =5.13; P<0.001, higher social status (OR =3.06; P<0.03, and PBC (OR =1.38; P=0.03. The presence of anterior tooth loss was the most relevant factor for prosthodontic treatment demand and utilization, while socioeconomic status and an individual’s perceived ease or difficulty in undergoing treatment played a significant, but secondary, role in behavior toward prosthodontic care. Keywords: edentulous patient, attitude to health, health services and demand, behavior

  16. Cross-sectional association between ZIP code-level gentrification and homelessness among a large community-based sample of people who inject drugs in 19 US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Sabriya L; Cooper, Hannah Lf; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny C; Ross, Zev; Wolfe, Mary E; Friedman, Samuel R; Jarlais, Don Des; Semaan, Salaam; Tempalski, Barbara; Sionean, Catlainn; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Wejnert, Cyprian; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-06-20

    Housing instability has been associated with poor health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). This study investigates the associations of local-level housing and economic conditions with homelessness among a large sample of PWID, which is an underexplored topic to date. PWID in this cross-sectional study were recruited from 19 large cities in the USA as part of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. PWID provided self-reported information on demographics, behaviours and life events. Homelessness was defined as residing on the street, in a shelter, in a single room occupancy hotel, or in a car or temporarily residing with friends or relatives any time in the past year. Data on county-level rental housing unaffordability and demand for assisted housing units, and ZIP code-level gentrification (eg, index of percent increases in non-Hispanic white residents, household income, gross rent from 1990 to 2009) and economic deprivation were collected from the US Census Bureau and Department of Housing and Urban Development. Multilevel models evaluated the associations of local economic and housing characteristics with homelessness. Sixty percent (5394/8992) of the participants reported homelessness in the past year. The multivariable model demonstrated that PWID living in ZIP codes with higher levels of gentrification had higher odds of homelessness in the past year (gentrification: adjusted OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.04 to 1.17). Additional research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which gentrification increases homelessness among PWID to develop appropriate community-level interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Determinants of Self-Rated Health in a Representative Sample of a Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Darviri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health (SRH is a health measure related to future health, mortality, healthcare services utilization and quality of life. Various sociodemographic, health and lifestyle determinants of SRH have been identified in different populations. The aim of this study is to extend SRH literature in the Greek population. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in rural communities between 2001 and 2003. Interviews eliciting basic demographic, health-related and lifestyle information (smoking, physical activity, diet, quality of sleep and religiosity were conducted. The sample consisted of 1,519 participants, representative of the rural population of Tripoli. Multinomial regression analysis was conducted to identify putative SRH determinants. Among the 1,519 participants, 489 (32.2%, 790 (52% and 237 (15.6% rated their health as “very good”, “good” and “poor” respectively. Female gender, older age, lower level of education and impaired health were all associated with worse SRH, accounting for 16.6% of SRH variance. Regular exercise, healthier diet, better sleep quality and better adherence to religious habits were related with better health ratings, after adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors. BMI and smoking did not reach significance while exercise and physical activity exhibited significant correlations but not consistently across SRH categories. Our results support previous findings indicating that people following a more proactive lifestyle pattern tend to rate their health better. The role of stress-related neuroendocrinologic mechanisms on SRH and health in general is also discussed.

  18. Demographics and sexual characteristics of sex-enhancing medication users: Study of a web-based cross-sectional sample of sexually active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abul-Fotouh; Alshahrani, Saad; Morgan, Anthony; Gabr, Ahmed H; Abdel-Razik, Mohamed; Daoud, Abdallah

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the frequency of sex-enhancing medications (S-EM) use and to investigate the demographics and sexual characteristics of the S-EM users amongst a Saudi Arabian male population. A cross-sectional sample of 1176 Saudi Arabian men was recruited using a web-based survey between 1 January and 1 April 2015. The survey included multiple open and closed questions to assess the frequency of S-EM use; and demographics, clinical, and sexual characteristics of S-EM users, as well as their perceptions of S-EM. Amongst the participants, 1008 were sexually active and included in the data analysis. Of the sexually active participants, 402 (39.9%) reported S-EM use in the form of herbal or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors at some time in their lives. Comparing S-EM users with S-EM non-users, the S-EM users had a number of demographic and sexual characteristics including: higher education level, higher income, smoking, more than one sexual partner, longer sexual activity duration, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, and lower sexual satisfaction level. Most of the S-EM users (82.1%) bought S-EM without a medical prescription and 62.5% had used them recreationally. In all, 52% of respondents used S-EM to treat ED and 69% of those who used it recreationally reported enhancement of erection with S-EM usage. Demographic and sexual characteristics of S-EM users and the attitude of the users towards the S-EM were identified amongst a Saudi Arabian male population.

  19. Demographics and sexual characteristics of sex-enhancing medication users: Study of a web-based cross-sectional sample of sexually active men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul-Fotouh Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of sex-enhancing medications (S-EM use and to investigate the demographics and sexual characteristics of the S-EM users amongst a Saudi Arabian male population. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional sample of 1176 Saudi Arabian men was recruited using a web-based survey between 1 January and 1 April 2015. The survey included multiple open and closed questions to assess the frequency of S-EM use; and demographics, clinical, and sexual characteristics of S-EM users, as well as their perceptions of S-EM. Results: Amongst the participants, 1008 were sexually active and included in the data analysis. Of the sexually active participants, 402 (39.9% reported S-EM use in the form of herbal or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors at some time in their lives. Comparing S-EM users with S-EM non-users, the S-EM users had a number of demographic and sexual characteristics including: higher education level, higher income, smoking, more than one sexual partner, longer sexual activity duration, higher frequency of sexual intercourse, and lower sexual satisfaction level. Most of the S-EM users (82.1% bought S-EM without a medical prescription and 62.5% had used them recreationally. In all, 52% of respondents used S-EM to treat ED and 69% of those who used it recreationally reported enhancement of erection with S-EM usage. Conclusions: Demographic and sexual characteristics of S-EM users and the attitude of the users towards the S-EM were identified amongst a Saudi Arabian male population. Keywords: Characteristics, Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, Sex-enhancing medication use

  20. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  1. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonchev A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  2. Estimating the incidence of influenza-virus infections in Dutch weaned piglets using blood samples from a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.; Nodelijk, G.; Heinen, P.P.; Leengoed, van L.A.M.G.; Hunneman, W.A.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 32 Dutch breeding herds to estimate the incidence of influenza-virus infections in piglets before the start of the finishing period, at the age of approximately 10 weeks. Longitudinal studies on two herds (8 and 10 litters, respectively) were done to obtain

  3. Comparing the characteristics of users of an online service for STI self-sampling with clinic service users: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sharmani; Free, Caroline; Bakolis, Ioannis; Turner, Katy M E; Looker, Katharine J; Baraitser, Paula

    2018-02-07

    Online services for self-sampling at home could improve access to STI testing; however, little is known about those using this new modality of care. This study describes the characteristics of users of online services and compares them with users of clinic services. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected data on STI testing activity from online and clinic sexual health services in Lambeth and Southwark between 1January 2016 and 31March 2016. Activity was included for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV and syphilis testing for residents of the boroughs aged 16 years and older. Logistic regression models were used to explore potential associations between type of service use with age group, gender, ethnic group, sexual orientation, positivity and Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) quintiles. We used the same methods to explore potential associations between return of complete samples for testing with age group, gender, ethnic group, sexual orientation and IMD quintiles among online users. 6456 STI tests were carried out by residents in the boroughs. Of these, 3582 (55.5%) were performed using clinic services and 2874 (44.5%) using the online service. In multivariate analysis, online users were more likely than clinic users to be aged between 20 and 30 years, female, white British, homosexual or bisexual, test negative for chlamydia or gonorrhoea and live in less deprived areas. Of the individuals that ordered a kit from the online service, 72.5% returned sufficient samples. In multivariate analysis, returners were more likely than non-returners to be aged >20 years and white British. Nearly half (44.5%) of all basic STI testing was done online, although the characteristics of users of clinic and online services differed and positivity rates for those using the online service for testing were lower. Clinics remain an important point of access for some groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  4. Cigarette, waterpipe and e-cigarette use among an international sample of medical students. Cross-sectional multicenter study in Germany and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Erika; Faubl, Nóra; Riemenschneider, Henna; Balázs, Péter; Bergmann, Antje; Cseh, Károly; Horváth, Ferenc; Schelling, Jörg; Terebessy, András; Wagner, Zoltán; Voigt, Karen; Füzesi, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, István

    2018-05-03

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Besides cigarette smoking, waterpipe and e-cigarettes are gaining popularity among young adults. Medical students' smoking behavior is of particular interest because of their impending role in health promotion as future physicians. Aim of our study is to examine the prevalence and predictors of cigarette, waterpipe and e-cigarette use and the association of tobacco use with self-reported health status in an international sample of medical students. In a multicenter cross-sectional study data on different aspects of health behavior were collected from medical students of 65 nationalities using a self-administered questionnaire in Germany (Dresden, Munich) and Hungary (Budapest, Pécs). The survey was conducted among 1st, 3rd and 5th year students. To explore associations between smoking behavior and socio-cultural factors Pearson's chi 2 -tests and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were performed. The largest subpopulations were formed by German (n = 1289), Hungarian (n = 1055) and Norwegian (n = 147) students. Mean age was 22.5 ± 3.3 years. Females represented 61.6% of the sample. In the whole sample prevalence of cigarette smoking was 18.0% (95% CI 16.6-19.4%), prevalence of waterpipe use was 4.8% (95% CI 4.0-5.7%), that of e-cigarette 0.9% (95% CI 0.5-1.2%). More males (22.0%) than females (15.5%) reported cigarette smoking. The lowest prevalence of cigarette smoking was found among Norwegian students (6.2%). Cigarette smokers were older, waterpipe users were younger than non-users. E-cigarette use was not associated with age of the students. Religious involvement was protective only against cigarette smoking. Financial situation showed no association with any kind of tobacco consumption. Cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users were less likely to report very good or excellent health status. Cigarette smoking is still the most popular way of consuming tobacco

  5. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in Morocco and its correlates: cross-sectional analysis of a sample of the adult Moroccan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Rhazi Karima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary habits in Morocco are changing and the causes are not well understood. This study aimed to analyse socio-demographic factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi in a national random sample of the adult Moroccan population. Methods The data collected in this cross-sectional survey included socio-demographic factors and a food frequency questionnaire. MeDi adherence was assessed in 2214 individuals with complete dietary data. MeDi adherence was measured according to a simplified MeDi score based on the weekly frequency of intake of eight food groups (vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereal or potatoes, fish, red meat, dairy products and olive oil with the use of the sex specific medians of the sample as cut-offs. A value of 0 or 1 was assigned to consumption of each component according to its presumed detrimental or beneficial effect on health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between MeDi adherence (low score 1-4 vs. high 5-8 and other factors. Results Mean age of the sample was 41.4 (standard deviation 15.3 years, 45.4% were men and 29.9% had a low MeDi adherence. Married subjects (adjusted odds ratio ORa=0.68, 95% CI 0.55-0.84 were less likely to have a low MeDi adherence compared to single, divorced or widowed persons. Persons from rural areas (ORa=1.46, 95% CI: 1.02-2.08, were more often low MeDi adherents compared to those from urban areas. Obese persons (ORa=1.56, 95% CI: 1.16-2.11 were more prone to low MeDi adherence than normal weight individuals. Conclusion MeDi is far from being a universal pattern in the Moroccan population. Intervention strategies should be implemented in target groups to maintain the traditional MeDi pattern considered as the original diet in Morocco.

  6. A Pebble Bed Reactor cross section methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, Nathanael H.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Rahnema, Farzad; Gougar, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for the evaluation of microscopic cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) neutron diffusion computational models during convergence to an equilibrium (asymptotic) fuel cycle. This method considers the isotopics within a core spectral zone and the leakages from such a zone as they arise during reactor operation. The randomness of the spatial distribution of fuel grains within the fuel pebbles and that of the fuel and moderator pebbles within the core, the double heterogeneity of the fuel, and the indeterminate burnup of the spectral zones all pose a unique challenge for the computation of the local microscopic cross sections. As prior knowledge of the equilibrium composition and leakage is not available, it is necessary to repeatedly re-compute the group constants with updated zone information. A method is presented to account for local spectral zone composition and leakage effects without resorting to frequent spectrum code calls. Fine group data are pre-computed for a range of isotopic states. Microscopic cross sections and zone nuclide number densities are used to construct fine group macroscopic cross sections, which, together with fission spectra, flux modulation factors, and zone buckling, are used in the solution of the slowing down balance to generate a new or updated spectrum. The microscopic cross-sections are then re-collapsed with the new spectrum for the local spectral zone. This technique is named the Spectral History Correction (SHC) method. It is found that this method accurately recalculates local broad group microscopic cross sections. Significant improvement in the core eigenvalue, flux, and power peaking factor is observed when the local cross sections are corrected for the effects of the spectral zone composition and leakage in two-dimensional PBR test problems.

  7. Using confirmatory factor analysis to explore associated factors of intimate partner violence in a sample of Chinese rural women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fengsu; Cerulli, Catherine; Wittink, Marsha N; Caine, Eric D; Qiu, Peiyuan

    2018-02-02

    To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of rural Chinese women and to explore associated factors. Cross-sectional study. Rural areas of Guangyuan City, Sichuan, China. We recruited 1501 women, aged 16 years and older, who had been living locally for at least 2 years and reported being married or in a relationship during the past 12 months. They were among a sample of 1898 potential participants from our larger parent study on the prevalence of depressive-distress symptoms. Participants completed demographic and social economic measures, the Short Form of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale and the Duke Social Support Index. We applied χ 2 test, analysis of variance and confirmatory factor analysis for analysis. The overall prevalence of IPV in the past 12 months was 29.05%; the prevalence of physical, psychological and sexual violence was 7.66%, 26.58% and 3.20%, respectively. The overall prevalence was highest among women aged 16-29 years, and was more common among those without a high school diploma and who saw their family's financial status as very poor or stagnant. Women who were not victims of IPV had higher levels of social support. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the total effects of social support on physical, psychological and sexual violence were -0.12, -0.35 and -0.12, respectively. The indirect effects of objective economic status on physical, psychological and sexual violence were -0.047, -0.014 and -0.047, respectively, but the total effect was not significant. The indirect effect of education on psychological violence was -0.056. IPV is common in rural Guangyuan. Our data are comparable with the findings from north-west of China. Social support is an important protective factor. Future work is needed to develop, test and later disseminate potential IPV interventions, with a focus on building actual and perceived supportive social networks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  8. Associations of smoking with cardiometabolic profile and renal function in a Romanian population-based sample from the PREDATORR cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Simona Georgiana; Moţa, Maria; Mihălţan, Florin Dumitru; Popa, Adina; Munteanu, Ioana; Moţa, Eugen; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Guja, Cristian; Hâncu, Nicolae; Catrinoiu, Doina; Lichiardopol, Radu; Bala, Cornelia; Mihai, Bogdan; Radulian, Gabriela; Roman, Gabriela; Timar, Romulus

    2017-12-01

    The impact of smoking on morbidity is well known, but in Romania, limited data are available regarding the smoking prevalence and relationship with cardiometabolic profile and kidney function. To assess the association of smoking with cardiometabolic traits and kidney function, in a Romanian population-based sample from the PREDATORR study. PREDATORR was an epidemiological cross-sectional study. Between 2012 and 2014, participants were randomly selected from the lists of general practitioners and enrolled if they were aged 20 to 79 years, born and living in the past 10 years in Romania. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires. Overall, 2704 participants were included in the analysis, 18% of them being current smokers and 30.8% former smokers. Current smokers compared to non-smokers had higher total cholesterol (220.6 ± 50.4 versus 213.9 ± 86.8 mg/dl, P = 0.017), LDL-cholesterol (137.8 ± 45.2 versus 130.7 ± 83.7 mg/dl, P = 0.004) and glomerular filtration rate (96.9 ± 16.8 versus 90.7 ± 19.1 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , P smoking was associated with hypercholesterolaemia [OR: 1.40 (95% CI: 1.01-1.96), P = 0.04] and low HDL-cholesterolaemia [OR: 1.39 (95% CI: 1.01-1.91), P = 0.04] and negatively associated with overweight/obesity [OR: 0.67 (95% CI: 0.48-0.94), P = 0.02]. Male former smokers had higher prevalence of abdominal obesity (82.4% versus 76.4%, P = 0.02), hypertriglyceridaemia (43.6% versus 35.6%, P = 0.01), hypertension (64% versus 56.4%, P = 0.01) and ischaemic vascular disease (40.5% versus 30.9%, P = 0.003) than male non-smokers. The PREDATORR study showed a high prevalence of smoking in the adult Romanian population providing data on the association of smoking with cardiometabolic traits.

  9. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours in female seasonal farm workers in Souss Massa Draa, Morocco: results from a cross-sectional survey using cluster-based sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Guezzar, Fatiha; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Bennani, Aziza; Handanagic, Senad; Barbaric, Jelena; El Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Khattabi, Hamida; Riedner, Gabriele; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2017-06-08

    To determine prevalence of HIV and HIV-related behaviours in female seasonal farm workers (FSFWs) in two provinces of Souss Massa Draa (SMD) region in Morocco. SMD has a higher burden of HIV compared with other parts of Morocco and is characterised by a substantial aggregation of FSFW. We carried out a cross-sectional HIV biobehavioural survey using cluster-based sampling of farms in the provinces Chtouka Aït Baha and Taroudant Ouled Teïma in 2014. HIV testing was done using the Determine HIV-1/2 rapid test and reactive specimens were tested using ELISA and western blot. Collected data were post hoc weighted for region-based stratification and adjusted for clustering effects using complex survey functions of SPSS (V.21). Among those eligible to participate, the response rate was 92.8%. HIV prevalence was 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 2.4%) among 520 recruited participants. A high proportion of respondents (67.7%) had no education. Ever having sex was reported by 79.8% and among these, 12.7% ever exchanged sex for money or goods. Sixty-one per cent reported condom use at most recent commercial vaginal sex in the past 12 months. STI symptom recognition was found to be low because 62.4% and 46.8% of FSFW could not report any STI symptoms in men and women, respectively. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents had an HIV test in the past 12 months. In multivariable analysis, those with primary or higher education (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.38, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.27) and those who participated in an HIV educational session at their workplace (aOR=11.00, 95% CI 3.99 to 30.31) had higher odds of ever been tested for HIV. Although we found a relatively low HIV prevalence among FSFW in SMD, HIV interventions should be intensified, in particular, in a subgroup of women who are involved in sex work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  11. Doppler broadening of cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, P.A.C.; Pull, I.C.

    1962-12-01

    Expressions for temperature dependent cross-sections in terms of resonance parameters are obtained, involving generalisations of the conventional Doppler functions, ψ and φ. Descriptions of Fortran sub-routines, which calculate broadened cross-sections in accordance with the derived formulae, are included. (author)

  12. The patient safety culture as perceived by staff at two different emergency departments before and after introducing a flow-oriented working model with team triage and lean principles: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Lena; Letterstål, Anna; Engström, Marie-Louise; Berglund, Anders; Enlund, Mats

    2014-07-09

    Patient safety is of the utmost importance in health care. The patient safety culture in an institution has great impact on patient safety. To enhance patient safety and to design strategies to reduce medical injuries, there is a current focus on measuring the patient safety culture. The aim of the present study was to describe the patient safety culture in an ED at two different hospitals before and after a Quality improvement (QI) project that was aimed to enhance patient safety. A repeated cross-sectional design, using the Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture questionnaire before and after a quality improvement project in two emergency departments at a county hospital and a university hospital. The questionnaire was developed to obtain a better understanding of the patient safety culture of an entire hospital or of specific departments. The Swedish version has 51 questions and 15 dimensions. At the county hospital, a difference between baseline and follow-up was observed in three dimensions. For two of these dimensions, Team-work within hospital and Communication openness, a higher score was measured at the follow-up. At the university hospital, a higher score was measured at follow-up for the two dimensions Team-work across hospital units and Team-work within hospital. The result showed changes in the self-estimated patient safety culture, mainly regarding team-work and communication openness. Most of the improvements at follow-up were seen by physicians, and mainly at the county hospital.

  13. Who are the children and adolescent patients of a national referral service of eating disorders in Brazil?: a cross-sectional study of a clinical sample

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzon,Vanessa Dentzien; Turkiewicz,Gizela; Monteiro,Denise Oliveira; Koritar,Priscila; Fleitlich-Bilyk,Bacy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED) in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. Results: A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onse...

  14. Photon-splitting cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannessen, A.M.; Mork, K.J.; Overbo, I.

    1980-01-01

    The differential cross section for photon splitting (scattering of one photon into two photons) in a Coulomb field, obtained earlier by Shima, has been integrated numerically to yield various differential cross sections. Energy spectra differential with respect to the energy of one of the outgoing photons are presented for several values of the primary photon energy. Selected examples of recoil momentum distributions and some interesting doubly or multiply differential cross sections are also given. Values for the total cross section are obtained essentially for all energies. The screening effect caused by atomic electrons is also taken into account, and is found to be important for high energies, as in e + e - pair production. Comparisons with various approximate results obtained by previous authors mostly show fair agreement. We also discuss the possibilities for experimental detection and find the most promising candidate to be a measurement of both photons, and their energies, at a moderately high energy

  15. NDS multigroup cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DayDay, N.

    1981-12-01

    A summary description and documentation of the multigroup cross section libraries which exist at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section are given in this report. The libraries listed are available either on tape or in printed form. (author)

  16. Neutron Cross Sections for Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Leif

    1963-08-15

    Total, elastic, inelastic, (n, 2n), (n, {alpha}), (n, p), and (n, {gamma}) cross sections for aluminium have been compiled from thermal to 100 MeV based upon literature search and theoretical interpolations and estimates. Differential elastic cross sections in the centre of mass system are represented by the Legendre coefficients. This method was chosen in order to obtain the best description of the energy dependence of the anisotropy.

  17. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a...

  18. Cosmogenic radionuclides in the environment: {sup 32}Si in precipitation samples from the Jungfraujoch, production cross sections of {sup 36}Cl in Argon and modeling of the atmospheric {sup 36}Cl production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrat, Y. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 32}Si were measured in four fresh snow samples from the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps (3450 m asl.) to study the feasibility of measuring this potential dating nuclide with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. This technique could reduce drastically the amount of material needed for measurements of {sup 32}Si concentrations in environmental samples in contrast to conventional radiometric detection. The measured {sup 32}Si concentrations in the snow samples were between 1.84 and 6.28 {mu}Bql{sup -1}. These values agree with other measurements of precipitation samples. The measured {sup 32}Si/Si{sub tot} ratios ranged from 2.5.10{sup -17} to 2.3.10{sup -15} and were thus below the present detection limit of about 10{sup -14}, showing that at present it is not possible to carry out AMS measurements of {sup 32}Si in precipitation samples. For the first time, experimental cross sections of the reaction {sup 40}Ar(p,X){sup 36}Cl have been determined for the proton energy range 16-590 MeV. These cross sections were measured using a gas target, a novel method which was tested successfully by irradiating nitrogen targets to confirm literature values of the N(p,X){sup 7}Be and N(p,X){sup 10}Be cross sections. In fact, good agreement was found between the obtained cross sections with those using solid targets. Production of several radionuclides in the reaction of proton with nickel were also measured. Comparison of these cross sections with literature data proved that the proton flux measurements carried out with ionization chambers were very accurate. The excitation function of the reaction {sup 40}Ar(p,X){sup 36}Cl exhibits two maxima at proton energies of 20 MeV for the (p,{alpha}n)reaction and 95 MeV for the (p,2p3n) reaction, with maximum cross sections of 105 mb and 53 mb, respectively. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  19. Low Energy Neutrino Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Present atmospheric and accelerator based neutrino oscillation experiments operate at low neutrino energies (Ev ∼ 1 GeV) to access the relevant regions of oscillation parameter space. As such, they require precise knowledge of the cross sections for neutrino-nucleon interactions in the sub-to-few GeV range. At these energies, neutrinos predominantly interact via quasi-elastic (QE) or single pion production processes, which historically have not been as well studied as the deep inelastic scattering reactions that dominate at higher energies.Data on low energy neutrino cross sections come mainly from bubble chamber, spark chamber, and emulsion experiments that collected their data decades ago. Despite relatively poor statistics and large neutrino flux uncertainties, these measurements provide an important and necessary constraint on Monte Carlo models in present use. The following sections discuss the current status of QE, resonant single pion, coherent pion, and single kaon production cross section measurements at low energy

  20. Primary school teachers in China: associations of organizational justice and effort-reward imbalance with burnout and intentions to leave the profession in a cross-sectional sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Meng, Heng; Chen, Min-Li; Herr, Raphael; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    We examined associations of organizational justice (OJ) and effort-reward imbalance (ERI) with burnout and intentions to leave the teaching profession (ILTP) among primary school teachers in China. Six primary schools located in Wuhan, China, were randomly selected from three different socioeconomic areas in 2010. In total, these schools employed 533 teachers, and 436 of these (82 %) participated in a cross-sectional survey. OJ and ERI were assessed by 13-item and 10-item questionnaires, respectively. Burnout was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory. ILTP were operationalized based on the frequency of thoughts about turnover during the past year. Logistic regression-based odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for OJ and ERI. In a second step, these work stress scales were entered into the same regression model. Separate regression models suggested moderate to strong associations of OJ and ERI with burnout and ILTP. After simultaneous adjustment, the overall OJ score remained associated with burnout and ILTP, but ERI appeared to be the stronger and more consistent determinant of both outcomes. For instance, an increase of 1 standard deviation of the ERI score was associated with an OR of 2.60 (95 % CI 1.97-3.43) for burnout and with an OR of 2.26 (95 % CI 1.66-3.08) for ILTP. Organizational justice and in particular ERI appeared to be determinants of burnout and ILTP among primary school teachers in China.

  1. Food neophobia and its association with intake of fish and other selected foods in a Norwegian sample of toddlers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Sissel H; Bere, Elling; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Øverby, Nina Cecilie

    2017-07-01

    Reluctance to try novel foods (food neophobia) prevents toddlers from accepting healthy foods such as fish and vegetables, which are important for child development and health. Eating habits established between ages 2 and 3 years normally track into adulthood and are therefore highly influential; even so, there are few studies addressing food neophobia in this age group. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the level of food neophobia and the frequency of toddlers' intake of fish, meat, berries, fruit, vegetables, and sweet and salty snacks. Parents of 505 toddlers completed a questionnaire assessing the degree of food neophobia in their toddlers (mean age 28 months, SD ± 3.5), and frequency of intake of various foods. Food neophobia was rated by the Children's Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS, score range 6-42). Associations between CFNS score and food frequency were examined using hierarchical multiple regression models, adjusting for significant covariates. Toddlers with higher CFNS scores had less frequent intake of vegetables (β = -0.28, p food neophobia in toddlers is associated with lower diet quality, and indicate a need for intervention studies to address the food neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microscopic cross-section measurements by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila L, J.

    1987-08-01

    Microscopic cross sections measured by thermal neutron activation using RP-0 reactor at the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute. The method consists in measuring microscopic cross section ratios through activated samples, requiring being corrected in thermal and epithermal energetic range by Westcott formalism. Furthermore, the comptage ratios measured for each photopeak to its decay fraction should be normalized from interrelation between both processes above, activation microscopic cross sections are obtained

  3. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  4. Pion-nucleus cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The tables of inelastic and total cross sections of π ± mesons interactions with nuclei 4 He- 238 U are presented. The tables are obtained by theoretical analysis of known experimental data for energies higher some tens of MeV. 1 ref.; 1 tab

  5. HIV-related risk behaviours and the correlates among rickshaw pullers of Kamrangirchar, Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study using probability sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National HIV serological and behavioural surveillance of Bangladesh repeatedly demonstrated a very high proportion of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city, having sex with female sex workers (FSWs and using illicit substances. However, no study has been conducted to identify the correlates of having sex with FSWs among this population. This study aimed to describe behavioural profile of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city using probability samples and to identify the correlates for having sex with FSWs in order to focus HIV prevention intervention. Methods Six hundred rickshaw pullers were randomly selected from rickshaw garages in the Kamrangirchar area, the single largest slum cluster of Dhaka, Bangladesh, during March–April 2008 using the Proportion Probability to Size method. Participants were interviewed, with a response rate of 99.2% (n = 595, using a structured questionnaire and asked about illicit substance use, sexual behaviour and risk perception for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Independent predictors of having sex with FSWs were analysed by multivariate analysis. A qualitative study was subsequently conducted with 30 rickshaw pullers to supplement the findings of the initial survey. Results The proportion of survey respondents who had sex with FSWs and those who used illicit substances in the previous 12 months period were 7.9% and 24.9%, respectively, much lower than the results achieved in the 2003–04 behavioural surveillance (72.8% and 89.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed the characteristics of younger age, being never married, living alone with family remaining in other districts and using illicit substances in the previous 12 months were significantly associated with having sex with FSWs. Conclusion HIV-related risk behaviour of our study population of the rickshaw pullers was lower than what has been suggested by the results of behavioural surveillance. While this discrepancy should be

  6. The moderating role of parental smoking on their children's attitudes toward smoking among a predominantly minority sample: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexander V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goals of the current analysis were to examine these two potential mechanisms. Methods In 2003, 1,417 high school students in Houston, Texas, completed a cross-sectional survey as part of the evaluation of an interactive smoking prevention and cessation program delivered via CD-ROM. To assess the relationship between number of parents who currently smoke and children's smoking status, we completed an unconditional logistic regression. To determine whether the attitudes that children of smokers hold toward smoking are significantly more positive than the attitudes of children of non-smokers we examined whether the parents smoking status moderated the relationship between children's attitudes toward smoking and their ever smoking using unconditional logistic regressions. Results Compared to participants whose parents did not currently smoke, participants who reported one or both parents currently smoke, had increased odds of ever smoking (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03–1.68; Wald χ2 = 4.78 (df = 1 p = 0.03 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51–3.10; Wald χ2 = 17.80 (df = 1 p 2 = 54.71 (df = 1 p 2 = 26.45 (df = 1 p Conclusion Children of smokers were more likely to smoke and reported more favorable attitudes toward smoking compared to children of non-smokers. One interpretation of our findings is that parental smoking not only directly influences behavior; it also moderates their children's attitudes towards smoking and thereby impacts their children's behavior. Our results

  7. The moderating role of parental smoking on their children's attitudes toward smoking among a predominantly minority sample: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Shete, Sanjay; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2008-07-14

    In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goals of the current analysis were to examine these two potential mechanisms. In 2003, 1,417 high school students in Houston, Texas, completed a cross-sectional survey as part of the evaluation of an interactive smoking prevention and cessation program delivered via CD-ROM. To assess the relationship between number of parents who currently smoke and children's smoking status, we completed an unconditional logistic regression. To determine whether the attitudes that children of smokers hold toward smoking are significantly more positive than the attitudes of children of non-smokers we examined whether the parents smoking status moderated the relationship between children's attitudes toward smoking and their ever smoking using unconditional logistic regressions. Compared to participants whose parents did not currently smoke, participants who reported one or both parents currently smoke, had increased odds of ever smoking (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.68; Wald chi2 = 4.78 (df = 1) p = 0.03 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51-3.10; Wald chi2 = 17.80 (df = 1) p parent currently smokes (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.96-3.19; Wald chi2 = 54.71 (df = 1) p parents did not smoke (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.40-2.12; Wald chi2 = 26.45 (df = 1) p parental smoking not only directly influences behavior; it also moderates their children's attitudes towards smoking and thereby impacts their children's behavior. Our results demonstrate a continued need for primary prevention smoking interventions to be sensitive to the family context. They also

  8. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central (|η| ≤ 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D null based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 pb -1 ) and 1994-1995 (90 pb -1 ) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made

  9. Neutron cross sections for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.

    1979-10-01

    First generation fusion reactors will most likely be based on the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction, which produces 14-MeV neutrons. In these reactors, both the number of neutrons and the average neutron energy will be significantly higher than for fission reactors of the same power. Accurate neutron cross section data are therefore of great importance. They are needed in present conceptual designs to calculate neutron transport, energy deposition, nuclear transmutation including tritium breeding and activation, and radiation damage. They are also needed for the interpretation of radiation damage experiments, some of which use neutrons up to 40 MeV. In addition, certain diagnostic measurements of plasma experiments require nuclear cross sections. The quality of currently available data for these applications will be reviewed and current experimental programs will be outlined. The utility of nuclear models to provide these data also will be discussed. 65 references

  10. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  11. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  12. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  13. Effect of sampling site, repeated sampling, pH, and PCO2 on plasma lactate concentration in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D; Rozanski, E R; Shofer, F S; Laster, L L; Drobatz, K J

    1999-04-01

    To characterize the variation in plasma lactate concentration among samples from commonly used blood sampling sites in conscious, healthy dogs. 60 healthy dogs. Cross-sectional study using a replicated Latin square design. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 10) representing all possible orders for 3 sites (cephalic vein, jugular vein, and femoral artery) used to obtain blood. Samples were analyzed immediately, by use of direct amperometry for pH, PO2, Pco2, glucose, and lactate concentration. Significant differences in plasma lactate concentrations were detected among blood samples from the cephalic vein (highest), femoral artery, and jugular vein (lowest). Mean plasma lactate concentration in the first sample obtained, irrespective of sampling site, was lower than in subsequent samples. Covariation was identified among plasma lactate concentration, pH, and PCO2, but correlation coefficients were low. Plasma lactate concentrations differed among blood samples from various sites. A reference range for plasma lactate concentration was 0.3 to 2.5 mmol/L. Differences in plasma lactate concentrations among samples from various sites and with repeated sampling, in healthy dogs, are small. Use of the reference range may facilitate the clinical use of plasma lactate concentration in dogs.

  14. Switching Between Noun and Verb Agreement Rules Comes at a Cost: Cross-Sectional and Interventional Studies in a Developmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Reybroeck Marie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study clarifies the impact of switching context between noun and verb number agreement rules in written language production. In Experiment 1, children from grade 3 to 6 were asked to fill in sentences with nouns and verbs in either a switching condition (noun followed by verb or a repeating condition (noun followed by noun. The results showed that third- and fourth-grade children produced more erroneous agreements in the switching condition than in the repeating condition, showing that switching between rules comes at a cost, whereas fifth- and sixth-grade participants’ performance was not affected by the switching context. Based on these findings, Experiment 2 aimed to assess whether a switching treatment offers a greater opportunity to improve the acquisition of grammatical agreement production, as compared to a simple treatment. Teachers from grade 3 gave either a switching treatment (mixed noun and verb exercises or a simple treatment (noun exercises followed by verb exercises. The results show that children learned better from the switching treatment than from the simple treatment. These findings highlight the cost of switching between noun and verb agreement rules during the acquisition of grammatical number agreement and also how grammatical spelling acquisition can be improved at school.

  15. The Moderating Effect of Chronological Age on the Relation Between Neuroticism and Physical Functioning: Cross-Sectional Evidence From Two French Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, Brice; Stephan, Yannick; Jaconelli, Alban; Duberstein, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies of age-restricted samples have demonstrated that, in older adulthood, neuroticism is negatively associated with difficulties performing specific daily activities. No studies of neuroticism and physical functioning have been conducted on life-span samples. This study tested the hypothesis that the relationship between neuroticism and physical functioning is stronger in older people compared with younger and middle-aged adults. Data were obtained from 2 independent French samples (n = 1,132 and 1,661 for Samples 1 and 2, respectively) ranging in age from 18 to 97. In addition to reporting sociodemographics, participants completed the Big Five Inventory, the physical functioning scale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and measures of disease burden. In both samples, regression analysis indicated that neuroticism is more negatively associated with physical functioning with advancing age, controlling for gender, marital status, disease burden, and educational attainment. In life-span samples of more than 2,700 adults, neuroticism was more strongly associated with worse physical functioning among older people compared with younger and middle-aged adults. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm this finding and to identify potential mediators. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  17. Neutron capture cross sections of Kr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiebiger Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron capture and β− -decay are competing branches of the s-process nucleosynthesis path at 85Kr [1], which makes it an important branching point. The knowledge of its neutron capture cross section is therefore essential to constrain stellar models of nucleosynthesis. Despite its importance for different fields, no direct measurement of the cross section of 85Kr in the keV-regime has been performed. The currently reported uncertainties are still in the order of 50% [2, 3]. Neutron capture cross section measurements on a 4% enriched 85Kr gas enclosed in a stainless steel cylinder were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE. 85Kr is radioactive isotope with a half life of 10.8 years. As this was a low-enrichment sample, the main contaminants, the stable krypton isotopes 83Kr and 86Kr, were also investigated. The material was highly enriched and contained in pressurized stainless steel spheres.

  18. Evaluation of kerma in carbon and the carbon cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axton, E.J.

    1992-02-01

    A preliminary simultaneous least squares fit to measurements of kerma in carbon, and carbon cross sections taken from the ENDF/B-V file was carried out. In the calculation the shapes of the total cross section and the various partial cross sections were rigid but their absolute values were allowed to float in the fit within the constraints of the ENDF/B-V uncertainties. The construction of the ENDF/B-V file imposed improbable shapes, particularly in the case of the (12)C(n,n'3(alpha)) reaction, which were incompatible with direct measurements of kerma and of the reaction cross sections. Consequently a new evaluation of the cross section data became necessary. Since the available time was limited the new evaluation concentrated particularly on those aspects of the ENDF/B-V carbon file which would have most impact on kerma calculations. Following the new evaluation of cross sections new tables of kerma factors were produced. Finally, the simultaneous least squares fit to measurements of kerma and the new cross section file was repeated

  19. Differences in opioid prescribing in low back pain patients with and without depression: a cross-sectional study of a national sample from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce A. Smith

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion:. Analysis of a nationwide sample of patients with LBP shows an association between depression and higher rates of opioid prescribing after controlling for several known cofounders. Clinicians prescribing opioids in LBP populations that rely on clinical trial results that exclude depressed patients may misjudge the risks and benefits of this class of therapy.

  20. Sample size and number of outcome measures of veterinary randomised controlled trials of pharmaceutical interventions funded by different sources, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, K J; Hyde, R M; Grindlay, D; Brennan, M L; Dean, R S

    2017-10-04

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are a key component of the veterinary evidence base. Sample sizes and defined outcome measures are crucial components of RCTs. To describe the sample size and number of outcome measures of veterinary RCTs either funded by the pharmaceutical industry or not, published in 2011. A structured search of PubMed identified RCTs examining the efficacy of pharmaceutical interventions. Number of outcome measures, number of animals enrolled per trial, whether a primary outcome was identified, and the presence of a sample size calculation were extracted from the RCTs. The source of funding was identified for each trial and groups compared on the above parameters. Literature searches returned 972 papers; 86 papers comprising 126 individual trials were analysed. The median number of outcomes per trial was 5.0; there were no significant differences across funding groups (p = 0.133). The median number of animals enrolled per trial was 30.0; this was similar across funding groups (p = 0.302). A primary outcome was identified in 40.5% of trials and was significantly more likely to be stated in trials funded by a pharmaceutical company. A very low percentage of trials reported a sample size calculation (14.3%). Failure to report primary outcomes, justify sample sizes and the reporting of multiple outcome measures was a common feature in all of the clinical trials examined in this study. It is possible some of these factors may be affected by the source of funding of the studies, but the influence of funding needs to be explored with a larger number of trials. Some veterinary RCTs provide a weak evidence base and targeted strategies are required to improve the quality of veterinary RCTs to ensure there is reliable evidence on which to base clinical decisions.

  1. Use of an oscillation technique to measure effective cross-sections of fissionable samples in critical assemblies; Mesure des sections efficaces effectives d'echantillons fissiles par une methode d'oscillation dans les-assemblages critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiakoff, O; Vidal, R; Carre, J C; Robin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The authors describe the technique used to measure the effective absorption and neutron-yield cross-sections of a fissionable sample. These two values are determined by analysing the signals due to the variation in reactivity (over-all signal) and the local perturbation in the flux (local signal) produced by the oscillating sample. These signals are standardized by means of a set of samples containing quantities of fissionable material ({sup 235}U) and an absorber, boron, which are well known. The measurements are made for different neutron spectra characterized by lattice parameters which constitute the central zone within which the sample moves. This technique is used to study the effective cross-sections of uranium-plutonium alloys for different heavy-water and graphite lattices in the MINERVE and MARIUS critical assemblies. The same experiments are carried out on fuel samples of different irradiations in order to determine the evolution of effective cross-sections as a function of the spectrum and the irradiations. (authors) [French] On decrit la methode utilisee pour mesurer les sections efficaces effectives d'absorption et de production de neutrons d'un echantillon fissile. Ces deux grandeurs sont determinees en analysant les signaux dus a la variation de reactivite (signal global) et a la perturbation locale de flux (signal local) produits par l'echantillon oscillant. Ces signaux sont etalonnes a l'aide d'un jeu d'echantillons dont les teneurs en materiau fissile ({sup 235}U) et en absorbeur (bore) sont bien connues. Les mesures sont realisees pour differents spectres de neutrons caracterises par les parametres du reseau constituant la zone centrale a l'interieur de laquelle se deplace l'echantillon. A l'aide de cette methode on etudie les sections efficaces effectives d'alliage uranium-plutonium pour differents reseaux a eau lourde et a graphite dans les assemblages crtiques MINERVE et MARIUS. Les memes experiences sont effectuees sur des echantillons de

  2. Not worth the fuss after all? cross-sectional and prospective data on violent video game influences on aggression, visuospatial cognition and mathematics ability in a sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica; Ramos, Raul; Galindo, Mariza

    2013-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court's recent decision relating to violent video games revealed divisions within the scientific community about the potential for negative effects of such games as well as the need for more, higher quality research. Scholars also have debated the potential for violent games to have positive effects such as on visuospatial cognition or math ability. The current study sought to extend previous literature by using well-validated clinical outcome measures for relevant constructs, which have generally been lacking in past research. Cross-section data on aggression, visuospatial cognition, and math achievement were available for a sample of 333 (51.7 % female) mostly Hispanic youth (mean age = 12.76). Prospective 1-year data on aggression and school GPA were available for 143 (46.2 % female) of those youth. Results from both sets of analysis revealed that exposure to violent game had neither short-term nor long-term predictive influences on either positive or negative outcomes. A developmental analysis of the cross-sectional data revealed that results did not differ across age categories of older children, preadolescents or adolescents. Analysis of effect sizes largely ruled out Type II error as a possible explanation for null results. Suggestions for new directions in the field of video game research are proffered.

  3. Measurement of double differential cross sections of charged particle emission reactions by incident DT neutrons. Correction for energy loss of charged particle in sample materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Terada, Yasuaki; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    2000-01-01

    In the measurement of charged particle emission spectrum induced by neutrons, correcting the energy loss of charged particle in sample materials becomes a very important inverse problem. To deal with this inverse problem, we have applied the Bayesian unfolding method to correct the energy loss, and tested the performance of the method. Although this method is very simple, it was confirmed from the test that the performance was not inferior to other methods at all, and therefore the method could be a powerful tool for charged particle spectrum measurement. (author)

  4. Spatial patterns of antimicrobial resistance genes in a cross-sectional sample of pig farms with indoor non-organic production of finishers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in pig populations is a public health concern. There is a lack of information of spatial distributions of AMR genes in pig populations at large scales. The objective of the study was to describe the spatial pattern of AMR genes in faecal samples from pig farms...... spatial clusters were identified for ermB, ermF, sulII and tet(W). The broad spatial trends in AMR resistance evident in the risk maps were in agreement with the results of the cluster analysis. However, they also showed that there were only small scale spatial differences in the gene levels. We conclude...

  5. Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; Wolf, Alexandra; Poortvliet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    that the fruit and vegetable intake in amounts and choice were highly diverse in the 9 participating countries. Vegetable intake was in general lower than fruit intake, boys consumed less fruit and vegetables than girls did. The highest total intake according to the 24-hour recall was found in Austria...... samples of schools and classes. The questionnaires, including a precoded 24-hour recall component and a food frequency part, were completed in the classroom. Data were treated using common syntax files for portion sizes and for merging of vegetable types into four subgroups. RESULTS: The results show...

  6. Mental health, employment and gender. Cross-sectional evidence in a sample of refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina living in two Swedish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, Karin Johansson; Ekblad, Solvig; Persson, Jan-Olov; Ekberg, Jan

    2006-04-01

    Large regional differences regarding access to employment have been observed amongst persons from Bosnia-Herzegovina coming to Sweden in 1993-1994. This has led to questions about the role of mental health. To explore this further, postal survey questionnaires were distributed to a community sample (N = 650) that was stratified and, within strata, randomly selected from a sampling frame of persons coming to Sweden from Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1993-1994. Four hundred and thirteen persons returned the questionnaire providing a response rate of 63.5%. The aim was to increase knowledge about the relationship between mental health and employment in the chosen population. The main mental health outcome measure was the Göteborg Quality of Life instrument from which 360 respondents were grouped according to low or high symptom levels. Data were cross tabulated (chi2-tested) against background variables such as age, gender and occupational status, and then tested using binary logistic regression. Binary logistic regression revealed unemployed men but not women, and women who had been working for longer periods during 1993-1999, to be associated with high levels of symptoms of poor mental health. Women living in the urban region were also overrepresented in the high symptom group. These findings indicate that, job occupancy is important to the health of men in the study. However, for the women, further understanding is needed, as job occupancy at some level as well as living in the urban region appear to be associated with poor mental health.

  7. Cigarette smoking susceptibility among youth alternate tobacco product users: implications of flavoured tobacco from a national cross-sectional Canadian sample (YSS 2012/2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Shuh, Alanna; Nguyen, Nghia; Azagba, Sunday; Manske, Steve R

    2015-12-30

    Declines in cigarette smoking have been accompanied by increases in alternative tobacco product (ATP) use, particularly among youth. This study examines smoking susceptibility and ATP use in a national sample of Canadian youth. Data from grades 9-12 students who participated in the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalisable sample of Canadian students (n=27,404) were used to examine cigarette smoking susceptibility among never smokers (n=17,396). Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in smoking susceptibility by use of flavoured and all ATPs and by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Overall, 30% of Canadian grades 9-12 never smokers were susceptible to cigarette smoking. Compared to never users, those who had ever tried ATPs (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.59 to 2.42) and those who had ever tried flavoured ATPs (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.96) had significantly higher odds of being susceptible to cigarette smoking. ATP use is associated with smoking susceptibility among youth never smokers. Findings from this study, along with existing evidence, can be used by policymakers to improve regulation around youth access to ATPs (particularly flavoured varieties). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Characterizing the context of sedentary lifestyles in a representative sample of adults: a cross-sectional study from the physical activity measurement study project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwon; Welk, Gregory J

    2015-12-09

    Research has clearly demonstrated that excess time spent on sedentary behavior (SB) increases health risks in the population. However, the lack of information on the context of SB in the population prevents a detailed understanding of sedentary lifestyles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the context of SB in a representative sample of adults and to examine differences across various socio-demographic indicators. A diverse sample of 1442 adults (ages 20-71 year) completed an interviewer-administered 24-h activity recall to provide detailed information about the time, type and location of the previous day's activities. All reported activities were matched with MET scores from the Compendium of Physical Activity but only SB (i.e., METS Work: 27.5%, Community: 24.8%, Home/Indoor: 20.5%, Home/Outdoor: 15.8%, and Transportation: 11.3%). Patterns of SB allocations varied considerably across different socio-demographic indicators indicating the extreme variability in SB in the population. The findings provide unique insights about the context of SB at the population level, and can serve as a guide for developing intervention/policy studies to reduce sedentary time and minimize disparities in SB.

  9. Culturally appropriate methodology in obtaining a representative sample of South Australian Aboriginal adults for a cross-sectional population health study: challenges and resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Tania; Taylor, Anne Winifred; Grande, Eleonora Dal; Avery, Jodie; Tucker, Graeme; Morey, Kim

    2015-05-19

    The considerably lower average life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, compared with non-Aboriginal and non-Torres Strait Islander Australians, has been widely reported. Prevalence data for chronic disease and health risk factors are needed to provide evidence based estimates for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population health planning. Representative surveys for these populations are difficult due to complex methodology. The focus of this paper is to describe in detail the methodological challenges and resolutions of a representative South Australian Aboriginal population-based health survey. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling methodology based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 Census with culturally appropriate and epidemiological rigorous methods, 11,428 randomly selected dwellings were approached from a total of 209 census collection districts. All persons eligible for the survey identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander and were selected from dwellings identified as having one or more Aboriginal person(s) living there at the time of the survey. Overall, the 399 interviews from an eligible sample of 691 SA Aboriginal adults yielded a response rate of 57.7%. These face-to-face interviews were conducted by ten interviewers retained from a total of 27 trained Aboriginal interviewers. Challenges were found in three main areas: identification and recruitment of participants; interviewer recruitment and retainment; and using appropriate engagement with communities. These challenges were resolved, or at least mainly overcome, by following local protocols with communities and their representatives, and reaching agreement on the process of research for Aboriginal people. Obtaining a representative sample of Aboriginal participants in a culturally appropriate way was methodologically challenging and required high levels of commitment and resources. Adhering to these principles has resulted in a

  10. Social Capital and Health Among Older Chinese Immigrants: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Sample in a Canadian Prairie City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai; Menec, Verena

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social capital and health among Chinese immigrants. The sample included 101 older Chinese immigrants aged 60 to 96 who were recruited in 2013 in a city on the Canadian prairies. Participant completed a questionnaire assessing their structural and cognitive social capital (views on community, trust and reciprocity, civic participation, social networks and support, and social participation), physical and mental health status (SF-36), and sociodemographic characteristics. Findings indicate that Chinese seniors overall obtained low levels of social capital on all social capital dimensions. Social networks and support (a structural social capital indicator) was significantly positively associated with mental health (β = .31, p social capital is potentially more promising than ensuring cognitive social capital in terms of providing physical and mental health benefits to older adults from Chinese background.

  11. A cross-sectional examination of non-suicidal self-injury, disordered eating, impulsivity, and compulsivity in a sample of adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emma B; Mildred, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury has been classed as having both impulsive and compulsive characteristics (Simeon & Favazza, 2001). These constructs have been related to disordered eating behaviors such as vomiting (Favaro & Santonastaso, 1998). Utilizing an international sample of adult females, this paper further explored this model, aiming to identify whether all types of disordered eating could be classified as impulsive or compulsive, and whether the impulsive and compulsive groupings reflect underlying trait impulsivity and compulsivity. The hypothesized impulsive and compulsive dimensions did not emerge from the data. Notably however, all self-injurious and disordered eating behaviors were linked to Urgency (an impulsivity facet) to varying degrees; no relationship with trait compulsivity was found. These findings are discussed, study limitations are noted, and relevance for clinical practice is outlined.

  12. Use of global coronary heart disease risk assessment in practice: a cross-sectional survey of a sample of U.S. physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shillinglaw Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global coronary heart disease (CHD risk assessment is recommended to guide primary preventive pharmacotherapy. However, little is known about physicians' understanding and use of global CHD risk assessment. Our objective was to examine US physicians' awareness, use, and attitudes regarding global CHD risk assessment in clinical practice, and how these vary by provider specialty. Methods Using a web-based survey of US family physicians, general internists, and cardiologists, we examined awareness of tools available to calculate CHD risk, method and use of CHD risk assessment, attitudes towards CHD risk assessment, and frequency of using CHD risk assessment to guide recommendations of aspirin, lipid-lowering and blood pressure (BP lowering therapies for primary prevention. Characteristics of physicians indicating they use CHD risk assessments were compared in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results A total of 952 physicians completed the questionnaire, with 92% reporting awareness of tools available to calculate CHD global risk. Among those aware of such tools, over 80% agreed that CHD risk calculation is useful, improves patient care, and leads to better decisions about recommending preventive therapies. However, only 41% use CHD risk assessment in practice. The most commonly reported barrier to CHD risk assessment is that it is too time consuming. Among respondents who calculate global CHD risk, 69% indicated they use it to guide lipid lowering therapy recommendations; 54% use it to guide aspirin therapy recommendations; and 48% use it to guide BP lowering therapy. Only 40% of respondents who use global CHD risk routinely tell patients their risk. Use of a personal digital assistant or smart phone was associated with reported use of CHD risk assessment (adjusted OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.17-2.12. Conclusions Reported awareness of tools to calculate global CHD risk appears high, but the majority of physicians in this sample do not

  13. Relationship between late-life depression and life stressors: large-scale cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Japanese general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Tatsuhiko; Mishima, Kazuo; Kitamura, Shingo; Enomoto, Minori; Nagase, Yukihiro; Li, Lan; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Nishikawa, Toru; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between late-life depression and daily life stress in a representative sample of 10 969 Japanese subjects. Data on 10 969 adults aged > or =50 who participated in the Active Survey of Health and Welfare in 2000, were analyzed. The self-administered questionnaire included items on 21 reasons for life stressors and the magnitude of stress, as well as the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The relationship between the incidence of life stressors and mild-moderate (D(16)) and severe (D(26)) depressive symptoms was examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 21.9% of subjects had D(16) symptoms, and 9.3% had D(26) symptoms. Further, increased age and being female were associated with more severe depressive state. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the strongest relationship between both the incidence of D(16) and D(26) symptoms and life stressors stemmed from 'having no one to talk to' (odds ratio = 3.3 and 5.0, respectively). Late-life depression was also associated with 'loss of purpose in life', 'separation/divorce', 'having nothing to do', 'health/illness/care of self', and 'debt'. There is a relationship between late-life depression and diminished social relationships, experiences involving loss of purpose in life or human relationships, and health problems in the Japanese general population.

  14. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  15. Terahertz radar cross section measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-12-06

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar on full-size objects. The measurements are performed in a terahertz time-domain system with freely propagating terahertz pulses generated by tilted pulse front excitation of lithium niobate crystals and measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The application of a time domain system provides ranging information and also allows for identification of scattering points such as weaponry attached to the aircraft. The shapes of the models and positions of reflecting parts are retrieved by the filtered back projection algorithm.

  16. Differences in sickness absence between self-employed and employed doctors: a cross-sectional study on national sample of Norwegian doctors in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors have a low prevalence of sickness absence. Employment status is a determinant in the multifactorial background of sickness absence. The effect of doctors’ employment status on sickness absence is unexplored. The study compares the number of sickness absence days during the last 12 months and the impact of employment status, psychosocial work stress, self-rated health and demographics on sickness absence between self-employed practitioners and employed hospital doctors in Norway. Methods The study population consisted of a representative sample of 521 employed interns and consultants and 313 self-employed GPs and private practice specialists in Norway, who received postal questionnaires in 2010. The questionnaires contained items on sickness absence days during the last 12 months, employment status, demographics, self-rated health, professional autonomy and psychosocial work stress. Results 84% (95% CI 80 to 88%) of self-employed and 60% (95% CI 55 to 64%) of employed doctors reported no absence at all last year. In three multivariate logistic regression models with sickness absence as response variable, employment category was a highly significant predictor for absence vs. no absence, 1 to 3 days of absence vs. no absence and 4 to 99 days of absence vs. no absence), while in a model with 100 or more days of absence vs. no absence, there was no difference between employment categories, suggesting that serious chronic disease or injury is less dependent on employment category. Average or poor self-rated health and low professional autonomy, were also significant predictors of sickness absence, while psychosocial work stress, age and gender were not. Conclusion Self-employed GPs and private practice specialist reported lower sickness absence than employed hospital doctors. Differences in sickness compensation, and organisational and individual factors may to a certain extent explain this finding. PMID:24885230

  17. The influence of optimism, social support and anxiety on aggression in a sample of dermatology patients: an analysis of cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coneo, A M C; Thompson, A R; Lavda, A

    2017-05-01

    Individuals with visible skin conditions often experience stigmatization and discrimination. This may trigger maladaptive responses such as feelings of anger and hostility, with negative consequences to social interactions and relationships. To identify psychosocial factors contributing to aggression levels in dermatology patients. Data were obtained from 91 participants recruited from outpatient clinics in the north of England, U.K. This study used dermatology-specific data extracted from a large U.K. database of medical conditions collected by The Appearance Research Collaboration. This study looked at the impact of optimism, perceptions of social support and social acceptance, fear of negative evaluation, appearance concern, appearance discrepancy, social comparison and well-being on aggression levels in a sample of dermatology patients. In order to assess the relationship between variables, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed. Dispositional style (optimism) was shown to have a strong negative relationship with aggression (β = -0·37, t = -2·97, P = 0·004). Higher levels of perceived social support were significantly associated with lower levels of aggression (β = -0·26, t = -2·26, P = 0·02). Anxiety was also found to have a significant positive relationship with aggression (β = 0·36, t = 2·56, P = 0·01). This study provides evidence for the importance of perceived social support and optimism in psychological adjustment to skin conditions. Psychosocial interventions provided to dermatology patients might need to address aggression levels and seek to enhance social support and the ability to be optimistic. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months

  19. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Measurement of thermal neutron capture cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Han Xiaogang; Yu Weixiang; Lu Hanlin; Zhao Wenrong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections of 71 Ga(n, γ) 72 Ga, 94 Zr(n, γ) 95 Zr and 191 Ir(n, γ) 192 Ir m1+g,m2 reactions were measured by using activation method and compared with other measured data. Meanwhile the half-life of 72 Ga was also measured. The samples were irradiated with the neutron in the thermal column of heavy water reactor of China Institute of Atomic Energy. The activities of the reaction products were measured by well-calibrated Ge(Li) detector

  1. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  2. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.

  3. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

    2013-07-05

    In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

  4. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Narita, Tsutomu

    1992-05-01

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  5. Integral nucleus-nucleus cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Kumawat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Expressions approximating the experimental integral cross sections for elastic and inelastic interactions of light and heavy nuclei at the energies up to several GeV/nucleon are presented. The calculated cross sections are inside the corridor of experimental errors or very close to it. Described in detail FORTRAN code and a numerical example of the cross section approximation are also presented

  6. increases in cross-sectional samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-27

    Mar 27, 1971 ... TABLE Ill. PERCE 'TAGE INCREASES IN BODY M EASU REM ENTS .... population means (polynomials) for calculating total per- ... with age in males, except for very small increases in Bantu. ..... this applies at high levels of energy expenditure is another .... available for adults of all 4 populations studied.

  7. Development of automatic cross section compilation system for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Fujio; Sakurai, Kiyoshi

    1999-01-01

    A development of a code system to automatically convert cross-sections for MCNP is in progress. The NJOY code is, in general, used to convert the data compiled in the ENDF format (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files by BNL) into the cross-section libraries required by various reactor physics codes. While the cross-section library: FSXLIB-J3R2 was already converted from the JENDL-3.2 version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for a continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, the library keeps only the cross-sections at room temperature (300 K). According to the users requirements which want to have cross-sections at higher temperature, say 600 K or 900 K, a code system named 'autonj' is under development to provide a set of cross-section library of arbitrary temperature for the MCNP code. This system can accept any of data formats adopted JENDL that may not be treated by NJOY code. The input preparation that is repeatedly required at every nuclide on NJOY execution is greatly reduced by permitting the conversion process of as many nuclides as the user wants in one execution. A few MCNP runs were achieved for verification purpose by using two libraries FSXLIB-J3R2 and the output of autonj'. The almost identical MCNP results within the statistical errors show the 'autonj' output library is correct. In FY 1998, the system will be completed, and in FY 1999, the user's manual will be published. (K. Tsuchihashi)

  8. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ''clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ''data production'' phase

  9. Relativistic photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienke, B.R.; Lathrop, B.L.; Devaney, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature corrected cross sections, complementing the Klein-Nishina set, are developed for astrophysical, plasma, and transport applications. The set is obtained from a nonlinear least squares fit to the exact photon-Maxwellian electron cross sections, using the static formula as the asymptotic basis. Two parameters are sufficient (two decimal places) to fit the exact cross sections over a range of 0-100 keV in electron temperature, and 0-1 MeV in incident photon energy. The fit is made to the total cross sections, yet the parameters predict both total and differential scattering cross sections well. Corresponding differential energy cross sections are less accurate. An extended fit to (just) the total cross sections, over the temperature and energy range 0-5 MeV, is also described. (author)

  10. Profile variation impact on FIB cross-section metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Aaron; Bunday, Benjamin; Nadeau, Jim

    2012-03-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) milling tool is an important component of reference metrology and process characterization, both as a supporting instrument for bulk sample preparation before forwarding to the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and other instruments and as an in situ measurement instrument using angled scanning electron microscopy. As features grow denser, deeper and more demanding, full-profile reference metrology is needed, and this methodology will only grow in importance. Thus, the ability to extract accurate dimensional and profile information out of the crosssectional faces produced by FIB milling is critical. For features that demonstrate perfect symmetry in the plane of the cross section, analyzing images and extracting metrology data are straightforward. However, for industrial materials, symmetry is not a safe assumption: as features shrink, the line edge and sidewall roughness increases as a percentage of the overall feature dimension. Furthermore, with the introduction of more complex architectures such as 3D memory and FinFETs, the areas of greatest interest, such as the intersections of wrap-around gates, cannot be assumed to be symmetrical in any given plane if cut placement is not precisely controlled. Therefore it is important to establish the exact location and repeatability of the cross-section plane, both in terms of coordinate placement and effective angle of the milled surface. To this end, we prepared designed-in line edge roughness samples in the Albany Nanotech facility using SEMATECH's AMAG6 metrology reticle. The samples were thoroughly characterized before being milled by a non-destructive, sidewall-scanning atomic force microscope (AFM). These samples are then milled and measured under varying process and setup parameters using a single-beam FIB with angled SEM. We established methodologies that allow precise alignment of the cut planes of slice-and-view FIB milling to 3D-AFM scan lines to compare repeated sections

  11. Some problem areas in capture cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, M.C.; Gayther, D.B.; Sowerby, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the problems that have been encountered and are envisaged in the measurement and evaluation of capture cross-sections. Particular emphasis is placed on the cross-sections of the structural materials (Fe, Ni, Cr) used in fast reactors. The topics considered are the influence of scattered neutrons in capture detectors, the determination of background, sample thickness corrections, and the theoretical representation of resonance parameters. (author)

  12. Augmented Cross-Sectional Prevalence Testing for Estimating HIV Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, R.; Lagakos, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of an HIV incidence rate based on a cross-sectional sample of individuals evaluated with both a sensitive and less-sensitive diagnostic test offers important advantages to incidence estimation based on a longitudinal cohort study. However, the reliability of the cross-sectional approach has been called into question because of two major concerns. One is the difficulty in obtaining a reliable external approximation for the mean “window period” between detectability of HIV infection ...

  13. Cross sections of the interactions of He nuclei with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, V.V.; Lebedev, R.M.; Pestova, G.D.; Shimansky, S.S.; Kravcikova, M.; Seman, M.; Sandor, L.; Dirner, A.; Hlavacova, J.; Martinska, G.; Urban, J.; Khairetdinov, K.U.; Braun, H.; Gerber, J.P.; Juillot, P.; Michalon, A.; Kacharava, A.K.; Menteshashvili, Z.P.; Nioradze, M.S.; Salukvadze, Z.R.; Sobczak, T.; Stepaniak, J.

    1993-01-01

    4 He-p collisions at two values of 4 He momenta 8.6 GeV/c and 13.6 GeV/c as well as the 3 He-p collisions at 13.5 GeV/c have been studied using the one-meter JINR hydrogen bubble chamber. Total, elastic, topological and reaction cross sections have been measured. The cross sections have been determined on a sample of minimum biased events. (orig.)

  14. Stunting coexisting with overweight in 2·0-4·9-year-old Indonesian children: prevalence, trends and associated risk factors from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-10-01

    The persistence of undernutrition, along with overweight and obesity, constitute the double burden of malnutrition. The present study aimed to: (i) describe the prevalence and trends of concurrent stunting and overweight in Indonesian children; (ii) identify potentially associated risk factors; and (iii) determine whether stunted children are at greater risk of overweight compared with those of healthy height. A secondary data analysis of children aged 2·0-4·9 years in four cross-sectional studies of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Children's height and BMI Z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Child Growth Standards (2006). We defined 'concurrent stunting and overweight' as height-for-age Z-score +1. Multivariate generalised linear latent and mixed models were used to determine associated risk factors. Thirteen out of twenty-seven provinces in Indonesia. Children (n 4101) from four waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993-2007). There were inconsistent trends in the prevalence of concurrent stunting and overweight from waves 1 to 4. Children were more likely to be stunted and overweight when they were in the youngest age group (2·0-2·9 years), were weaned after the age of 6 months, had short-statured mothers or lived in rural areas. Stunted children were significantly more likely to be overweight than healthy-height children (OR>1) but did not differ significantly different across each wave (OR=1·34-2·01). Concurrent stunting and overweight occurs in Indonesian children aged 2·0-4·9 years. Current policies and programmes need to be tailored for the management of this phenomenon.

  15. Does a 3-week critical research appraisal course affect how students perceive their appraisal skills and the relevance of research for clinical practice? A repeated cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter

    2015-01-01

    Research utilisation is essential in developing evidence-based practices; although many students may be generally able to adopt such skills, there are reports of barriers related to critical appraisal skills. To explore how students perceive the relevance of research to future clinical practice and patients, and to what extent they read research (including reading pattern). Additionally, the objective was to explore whether a three-week intensive course in critical appraisal of research could affect these variables. A cross-sectional survey design, with a pre- and post-test. One large university college in Southeastern Norway. 196 multidisciplinary healthcare students at baseline and 147 after three weeks. A purposely-designed 21 item questionnaire was used to quantify students' attitudes towards using research and critical thinking. The questionnaire was based on themes emerging from prior focus group interviews with 10 nursing and social educator students as well as from the existing literature. At baseline, 6.1% and 7.1% of respondents perceived the research to be of little or very little importance for their future work and patients, respectively. Furthermore, 83.2% reported that they seldom or very seldom read scientific papers. At baseline, 40 different patterns of reading a scientific paper were identified. Additionally, 7.1% of respondents reported to read the introduction, methods and conclusion in combination. Significantly improved scores were found after completing the three-week course related to a) relevance of research for future work (pskills in critical appraisal (pstudents' practical critical appraisal skills improved their view of the relevance of research for patients, future work as well as their own critical appraisal skills. Prospective studies are warranted to explore the effects of such teaching modules in the long-term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Response rates and selection problems, with emphasis on mental health variables and DNA sampling, in large population-based, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Lars

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias is a threat to the internal validity of epidemiological studies. In light of a growing number of studies which aim to provide DNA, as well as a considerable number of invitees who declined to participate, we discuss response rates, predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA, and the presence of possible selection bias, based on five samples of adolescents. Methods We included nearly 7,000 adolescents from two longitudinal studies of 18/19 year olds with two corresponding cross-sectional baseline studies at age 15/16 (10th graders, and one cross-sectional study of 13th graders (18/19 years old. DNA was sampled from the cheek mucosa of 18/19 year olds. Predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA were studied by Poisson regression. Selection bias in the follow-up at age 18/19 was estimated through investigation of prevalence ratios (PRs between selected exposures (physical activity, smoking and outcome variables (general health, mental distress, externalizing problems measured at baseline. Results Out of 5,750 who participated at age 15/16, we lost 42% at follow-up at age 18/19. The percentage of participants who gave their consent to DNA provision was as high as the percentage that consented to a linkage of data with other health registers and surveys, approximately 90%. Significant predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA samples in the present genetic epidemiological study were: male gender; non-western ethnicity; postal survey compared with school-based; low educational plans; low education and income of father; low perceived family economy; unmarried parents; poor self-reported health; externalized symptoms and smoking, with some differences in subgroups of ethnicity and gender. The association measures (PRs were quite similar among participants and all invitees, with some minor discrepancies in subgroups of non-western boys and girls. Conclusions Lost to

  17. Response rates and selection problems, with emphasis on mental health variables and DNA sampling, in large population-based, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjertness, Espen; Sagatun, Ase; Green, Kristian; Lien, Lars; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Selmer, Randi

    2010-10-12

    Selection bias is a threat to the internal validity of epidemiological studies. In light of a growing number of studies which aim to provide DNA, as well as a considerable number of invitees who declined to participate, we discuss response rates, predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA, and the presence of possible selection bias, based on five samples of adolescents. We included nearly 7,000 adolescents from two longitudinal studies of 18/19 year olds with two corresponding cross-sectional baseline studies at age 15/16 (10th graders), and one cross-sectional study of 13th graders (18/19 years old). DNA was sampled from the cheek mucosa of 18/19 year olds. Predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA were studied by Poisson regression. Selection bias in the follow-up at age 18/19 was estimated through investigation of prevalence ratios (PRs) between selected exposures (physical activity, smoking) and outcome variables (general health, mental distress, externalizing problems) measured at baseline. Out of 5,750 who participated at age 15/16, we lost 42% at follow-up at age 18/19. The percentage of participants who gave their consent to DNA provision was as high as the percentage that consented to a linkage of data with other health registers and surveys, approximately 90%. Significant predictors of lost to follow-up and failure to provide DNA samples in the present genetic epidemiological study were: male gender; non-western ethnicity; postal survey compared with school-based; low educational plans; low education and income of father; low perceived family economy; unmarried parents; poor self-reported health; externalized symptoms and smoking, with some differences in subgroups of ethnicity and gender. The association measures (PRs) were quite similar among participants and all invitees, with some minor discrepancies in subgroups of non-western boys and girls. Lost to follow-up had marginal impact on the estimated prevalence ratios

  18. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihisa

    2003-01-01

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  19. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmarjav Odsuren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  20. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  1. Porosity effects in the neutron total cross section of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R; Dawidowski, J; Petriw, S. N

    2009-01-01

    Graphite has been used in nuclear reactors since the birth of the nuclear industry due to its good performance as a neutron moderator material. Graphite is still an option as moderator for generation IV reactors due to its good mechanical and thermal properties at high operation temperatures. So, there has been renewed interest in a revision of the computer libraries used to describe the neutron cross section of graphite. For sub-thermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a larger total cross section (between 4 and 8 barns) than predicted by existing theoretical models (0.2 barns). In order to investigate the origin of this discrepancy we measured the total cross section of graphite samples of three different origins, in the energy range from 0.001 eV to 10 eV. Different experimental arrangements and sample treatments were explored, to identify the effect of various experimental parameters on the total cross section measurement. The experiments showed that the increase in total cross section is due to neutrons scattered around the forward direction. We associate these small-angle scattered neutrons (SANS) to the porous structure of graphite, and formulate a very simple model to compute its contribution to the total cross section of the material. This results in an analytic expression that explicitly depends on the density and mean size of the pores, which can be easily incorporated in nuclear library codes. [es

  2. Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1984–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernstsen Linda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD, but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT: HUNT 1 (1984–1986, HUNT 2 (1995–1997 and HUNT 3 (2006–2008, women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII. Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05 and among men (p = 0.01. Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05 and were stable among men (p = 0.33. For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational

  3. Models for Pooled Time-Series Cross-Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E Raffalovich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several models are available for the analysis of pooled time-series cross-section (TSCS data, defined as “repeated observations on fixed units” (Beck and Katz 1995. In this paper, we run the following models: (1 a completely pooled model, (2 fixed effects models, and (3 multi-level/hierarchical linear models. To illustrate these models, we use a Generalized Least Squares (GLS estimator with cross-section weights and panel-corrected standard errors (with EViews 8 on the cross-national homicide trends data of forty countries from 1950 to 2005, which we source from published research (Messner et al. 2011. We describe and discuss the similarities and differences between the models, and what information each can contribute to help answer substantive research questions. We conclude with a discussion of how the models we present may help to mitigate validity threats inherent in pooled time-series cross-section data analysis.

  4. Cross-section methodology in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.

    1975-11-01

    The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated

  5. Cross-section methodology in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.

    1976-05-01

    The cross-section methodology incorporated in the SIMMER code is described. Data base for all cross sections is the ENDF/B system with various progressing computer codes to group collapse and modify the group constants which are used in SIMMER. Either infinitely dilute cross sections or the Bondarenko formalism can be used in SIMMER. Presently only a microscopic treatment is considered, but preliminary macroscopic algorithms have been investigated

  6. High ET jet cross sections at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugher, B.

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for p anti p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the Σ E T cross section at √s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at √s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown

  7. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  8. Recommended activation detector cross sections (RNDL-82)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondars, Kh.Ya.; Lapenas, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the comparison between measured and calculated average cross sections in 5 benchmark experiments are presented. Calculations have been based on the data from 10 libraries of evaluated cross sections. The recommended library (RNDL-82) of the activation detector cross sections has been created on the basis of the comparison. RNDL-82, including 26 reactions, and the basic characteristics of the detectors are presented. (author)

  9. Transport methods: general. 2. Monte Carlo Particle Transport in Media with Exponentially Varying Time-Dependent Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated Monte Carlo schemes for analyzing particle transport through media with exponentially varying time-dependent cross sections. For such media, the cross sections are represented in the form Σ(t) = Σ 0 e -at (1) or equivalently as Σ(x) = Σ 0 e -bx (2) where b = av and v is the particle speed. For the following discussion, the parameters a and b may be either positive, for exponentially decreasing cross sections, or negative, for exponentially increasing cross sections. For most time-dependent Monte Carlo applications, the time and spatial variations of the cross-section data are handled by means of a stepwise procedure, holding the cross sections constant for each region over a small time interval Δt, performing the Monte Carlo random walk over the interval Δt, updating the cross sections, and then repeating for a series of time intervals. Continuously varying spatial- or time-dependent cross sections can be treated in a rigorous Monte Carlo fashion using delta-tracking, but inefficiencies may arise if the range of cross-section variation is large. In this paper, we present a new method for sampling collision distances directly for cross sections that vary exponentially in space or time. The method is exact and efficient and has direct application to Monte Carlo radiation transport methods. To verify that the probability density function (PDF) is correct and that the random-sampling procedure yields correct results, numerical experiments were performed using a one-dimensional Monte Carlo code. The physical problem consisted of a beam source impinging on a purely absorbing infinite slab, with a slab thickness of 1 cm and Σ 0 = 1 cm -1 . Monte Carlo calculations with 10 000 particles were run for a range of the exponential parameter b from -5 to +20 cm -1 . Two separate Monte Carlo calculations were run for each choice of b, a continuously varying case using the random-sampling procedures described earlier, and a 'conventional' case where the

  10. Total neutron cross section of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.; Aizawa, O.

    1976-01-01

    The total thermal-neutron cross section of natural lead under various physical conditions was measured by the transmission method. It became clear that the total cross section at room temperature previously reported is lower than the present data. The total cross section at 400, 500, and 600 0 C, above the melting point of lead, 327 0 C, was also measured, and the changes in the cross section as a function of temperature were examined, especially near and below the melting point. The data obtained for the randomly oriented polycrystalline state at room temperature were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical values calculated by the THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes

  11. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Asami, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Tadashi

    1990-07-01

    Neutron cross-section curves from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 3, JENDL-3, are presented in both graphical and tabular form for users in a wide range of application areas in the nuclear energy field. The contents cover cross sections for all the main reactions induced by neutrons with an energy below 20 MeV including; total, elastic scattering, capture, and fission, (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,α), (n,p) reactions. The 2200 m/s cross-section values, resonance integrals, and Maxwellian- and fission-spectrum averaged cross sections are also tabulated. (author)

  12. Cross section recondensation method via generalized energy condensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    of cross section recondensation is presented, and the method is verified with several sample problems.

  13. Methodology series module 3: Cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status, the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  14. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case-control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.

  15. Physical activity and screen-based media use: cross-sectional associations with health-related quality of life and the role of body satisfaction in a representative sample of German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Emily; Bucksch, Jens; Lampert, Thomas; Kolip, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose : Although it is widely accepted that physical activity (PA) positively, and screen-based media use (SBM) negatively, affects well-being, there is a lack of studies relating PA and SBM to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents. We examined these associations in German adolescents for different HRQoL subdomains and explored the role of body satisfaction as a possible mediator. Methods : The 11-17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (2003-2006) was analysed ( N = 6813; 51.3% male). Cross-sectional associations of self-reported PA frequency and amount of daily SBM with HRQoL subscale scores (according to KINDL-R) were examined by hierarchical linear regression models, adjusting for the clustering of the sample and for a variety of possible confounders. The size and significance of indirect effects via body (dis)satisfaction (BDS) were examined by mediation analyses. Results : Higher PA frequency was significantly associated with higher HRQoL on nearly all subscales and dose-response-relationships were observable. Variations were greatest in terms of social well-being in boys (effect size d = 0.59) and physical well-being in girls ( d = 0.43). Higher SBM was related to lower HRQoL on all subscales in girls and on some subscales in boys, with the largest effects for school functioning in both genders ( d = 0.31 and 0.37, respectively). The mediated effects for PA and SBM were significant in both genders, but the sizes and the proportions of total effects mediated by body satisfaction were rather small. Conclusions : Higher PA frequency was associated with higher self-reported HRQoL, and higher SBM was associated with lower self-reported HRQoL in both genders, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. The results support the assumption of independent health impacts of both behaviours, although no causal relationship can be confirmed with these cross-sectional data. Mechanisms other than body satisfaction

  16. Electron collision cross sections of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Susumu; Kuzuma, Kiyotaka; Itoh, Haruo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new collision cross section set for mercury which revises the original set summarized by Hayashi in 1989. Hanne reported three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) determined from an electron beam experiment in 1988. As a matter for regret, no attentive consideration was given to combining these three excitation cross sections with the cross section set of Hayashi. Therefore we propose a new set where these three excitation cross sections are included. In this study, other two excitation cross sections (6 1 P 1 , 6 3 D 3 ) except for the three excitation collision cross sections (6 3 P 0 , 6 3 P 1 , 6 3 P 2 ) are taken from the original set of Hayashi. The momentum transfer cross section and the ionization collision cross section are also taken from Hayashi. A Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique is applied for evaluating our new cross section set. The present results of the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient are compared to experimental values. Agreement is secured in relation to the electron drift velocity for 1.5 Td 2 ) is the reduced electric field, E (V/cm) is the electric field, N (1/cm 3 ) is the number density of mercury atoms at 0degC, 1 Torr, E/N is also equal to 2.828 x 10 -17 E/p 0 from the relation of the ideal gas equation, p 0 (Torr) is gas pressure at 0degC, 1 Torr=1.33322 x 10 -2 N/cm -2 and 10 -17 V/cm 2 is called 1 Td. Thus it is ensured that our new cross section set is reasonable enough to be used up to 100 eV when considering with the electron drift velocity and the ionization coefficient. (author)

  17. Television viewing, computer game play and book reading during meals are predictors of meal skipping in a cross-sectional sample of 12-, 14- and 16-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether television viewing, computer game playing or book reading during meals predicts meal skipping with the aim of watching television, playing computer games or reading books (media meal skipping). A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Analyses were controlled for age, gender and BMI. Data were obtained from a random sample of adolescents in Flanders, Belgium. Seven hundred and ten participants aged 12, 14 and 16 years. Of the participants, 11.8 % skipped meals to watch television, 10.5 % skipped meals to play computer games and 8.2 % skipped meals to read books. Compared with those who did not use these media during meals, the risk of skipping meals in order to watch television was significantly higher for those children who watched television during meals (2.9 times higher in those who watched television during at least one meal a day). The risk of skipping meals for computer game playing was 9.5 times higher in those who played computer games weekly or more while eating, and the risk of meal skipping in order to read books was 22.9 times higher in those who read books during meals less than weekly. The more meals the respondents ate with the entire family, the less likely they were to skip meals to watch television. The use of media during meals predicts meal skipping for using that same medium. Family meals appear to be inversely related to meal skipping for television viewing.

  18. First measurement of the Rayleigh cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.; Ubachs, W.

    2000-01-01

    Rayleigh cross section for N2, Ar and SF6 was performed using the technique of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The experiment was based on the assumption that scattering cross section is equal to the extinction in the absence of absorption. The theory explains the molecular origin of

  19. Total cross section of highly excited strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.

    1990-01-01

    The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  20. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1983-01-01

    A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  1. Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors

  2. Model cross section calculations using LAHET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prael, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of LAHET is discussed. The effect of a multistage preequilibrium exciton model following the INC is examined for neutron emission benchmark calculations, as is the use of a Fermi breakup model for light nuclei rather than an evaporation model. Comparisons are made also for recent fission cross section experiments, and a discussion of helium production cross sections is presented

  3. Vibrational enhancement of total breakup cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftel, M.I.; Lim, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the role of multi-two-body bound states, namely vibrational excitations, on total three-body breakup cross-sections. Total cross-sections are usually easy to measure, and they play a fundamental role in chemical kinetics. (orig.)

  4. Interference analysis of fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshkov, S.A.; Yaneva, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    The formula for the reaction cross-section based on the R-matrix formalism considering the interference between the two neighbouring resonances, referred to the same value of total momentum was used for the analysis of the cross-section of resonance neutron induced fission of 230Pu. The experimental resolution and thermal motion of the target nuclei were accounted for numerical integration

  5. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Tolstenkov, A.N.; Yushchenko, O.P.; Baldini, A.; Cobal, M.; Flaminio, V.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra, P.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and K L 0 . It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  6. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  7. Comparative analysis among several cross section sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Critical parameters were calculated using the one dimensional multigroup transport theory for several cross section sets. Calculations have been performed for water mixtures of uranium metal, plutonium metal and uranium-thorium oxide, and for metallics systems, to determine the critical dimensions of geometries (sphere and cylinder). For this aim, the following cross section sets were employed: 1) multigroup cross section sets obtained from the GAMTEC-II code; 2) the HANSEN-ROACH cross section sets; 3) cross section sets from the ENDF/B-IV, processed by the NJOY code. Finally, we have also calculated the corresponding critical radius using the one dimensional multigroup transport DTF-IV code. The numerical results agree within a few percent with the critical values obtained in the literature (where the greatest discrepancy occured in the critical dimensions of water mixtures calculated with the values generated by the NJOY code), a very good results in comparison with similar works. (Author) [pt

  8. Activation cross section data file, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, Nobuhiro; Iijima, Shungo.

    1989-09-01

    To evaluate the radioisotope productions due to the neutron irradiation in fission of fusion reactors, the data for the activation cross sections ought to be provided. It is planning to file more than 2000 activation cross sections at final. In the current year, the neutron cross sections for 14 elements from Ni to W have been calculated and evaluated in the energy range 10 -5 to 20 MeV. The calculations with a simplified-input nuclear cross section calculation system SINCROS were described, and another method of evaluation which is consistent with the JENDL-3 were also mentioned. The results of cross section calculation are in good agreement with experimental data and they were stored in the file 8, 9 and 10 of ENDF/B format. (author)

  9. Evaluation of fission product neutron cross sections for JENDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The recent activities on the evaluation of fission product (FP) neutron cross sections for JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) are presented briefly. The integral test of JENDL-1 FP cross section file was performed using the CFRMF sample activation data and the STEK sample reactivity data, and the ratio of experiment to calculation was nearly constant for all the samples in the STEK measurement. Therefore, a tentative analysis was performed by applying the correction to the calculated scattering reactivity component. Better agreement with the experiment was obtained after applying this correction in most cases. The evaluation work on the JENDL-2 FP neutron cross sections is now in progress. The improvement of the data evaluation is presented in an itemized form. The JENDL-2 FP file will contain the evaluated data for 100 nuclides from Kr to Tb. The improvement and the future scope of the integral test for JENDL-2 FP data are summarized. (Asami, T.)

  10. Is the quasielastic pion cross section really bigger than the pion-nucleus reaction cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbar, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that soft pion charge exchanges may increase the inclusive (π + ,π 0 ') cross section, relative to the total quasielastic (π + ,π + ') cross section, by as much as a factor of two. 4 references

  11. Electron-impact cross sections of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurubuchi, S.; Arakawa, K.; Kinokuni, S.; Motohashi, K.

    2000-01-01

    Electron-impact absolute emission cross sections were measured for the 3p→3s transitions of Ne. Excitation functions of the 3s→2p first resonance lines were measured in the energy range from the threshold to 1000 eV by a polarization-free optical method and relative cross sections were normalized to the absolute values, (41.0±5.4)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 73.6 nm line and (7.1±1.0)x10 -19 cm 2 for the 74.4 nm line, which were determined at 500 eV. The integrated level-excitation cross sections of Suzuki et al for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels were combined with the corresponding 3p→3s cascade cross sections obtained in this paper to give absolute emission cross sections for the resonance lines. The level-excitation cross sections of the 1s 2 and 1s 4 states in Paschen notation were determined from the threshold to 1000 eV by subtracting 3p→3s cascade cross sections from the corresponding 3s→2p emission cross sections of the resonance lines. A large cascade contribution is found in the emission cross section of the resonance lines. It is 28.5% for the 73.6 nm line and 49.6% for the 74.4 nm line at 40 eV, and 17.0 and 61.8%, respectively, at 300 eV. (author)

  12. A cross-sectional study of the magnitude, barriers, and outcomes of HIV status disclosure among women participating in a perinatal HIV transmission study, "the Nevirapine Repeat Pregnancy study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiweewa, Flavia M; Bakaki, Paul M; McConnell, Michelle S; Musisi, Maria; Namirembe, Constance; Nakayiwa, Frances; Kusasira, Fiona; Nakintu, Dorothy; Mubiru, Michael C; Musoke, Philippa; Fowler, Mary Glenn

    2015-09-29

    HIV status disclosure is a difficult emotional task for HIV-infected persons and may create the opportunity for both social support and rejection. In this study, we evaluated the proportions, patterns, barriers and outcomes of HIV- 1 status disclosure among a group of women in Uganda. An exit interview was conducted one year post-partum for 85 HIV-infected women who participated in a study of HIV-1 transmission rates among NVP-experienced compared with NVP-naïve women in "The Nevirapine Repeat Pregnancy (NVP-RP) Study" at the Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala-Uganda, between June 2004 and June 2006. Of the 85 women interviewed, 99 % had disclosed their HIV status to at least one other person. Disclosure proportions ranged between 1 % to employer(s) and 69 % to a relative other than a parent. Only 38 % of the women had disclosed to their sex partners. Women with an HIV-infected baby were more likely than those with an uninfected baby to disclose to their sex partner, OR 4.9 (95 % CI, 2.0 -11.2), and women were less likely to disclose to a partner if they had previously disclosed to another relative than if they had not, OR 0.19 (95 % CI, 0.14-0.52). The most common reasons for non-disclosure included fear of separation from the partner and subsequent loss of financial support 34 %, and not living with the partner (not having opportunities to disclose) 26 %. While most women (67 %) reported getting social support following disclosure, 22 % reported negative outcomes (neglect, separation from their partners, and loss of financial support). Following disclosure of HIV status, 9 % of women reported that their partner (s) decided to have an HIV test. Results from this study show high overall HIV disclosure proportions and how this disclosure of HIV status can foster social support. However, proportions of disclosure specifically to male sex partners were low, which suggests the need for interventions aimed at increasing male

  13. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  14. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations

  15. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.

    2010-06-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)

  16. Differential Top Cross-section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Fenton, Michael James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. The measurement of the differential top-quark pair production cross-section provides a stringent test of advanced perturbative QCD calculations. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of those differential cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This talk focuses on differential cross-section measurements in the lepton+jets final state, including using boosted top quarks to probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.

  17. Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodh, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived

  18. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Z. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of an earlier NNLO subtraction scheme over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state. (orig.)

  19. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Somogyi, Gabor; Trocsanyi, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of [1-4], over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

  20. Structural and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Country with a Highly Generalized HIV Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Probability Sample of Antenatal Care Facilities in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-Saaidi, Christina; Haumba, Samson; Tagutanazvo, Oslinah Buru; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland bears the highest HIV prevalence of 41% among pregnant women in this region. This heightened HIV-epidemic reflects the importance of context-specific interventions. Apart from routine HIV surveillance, studies that examine structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among women may facilitate the revitalization of existing programs and provide insights to inform context-specific HIV prevention interventions. This cross-sectional study employed a two-stage random cluster sampling in ten antenatal health care facilities in the Hhohho region of Swaziland in August and September 2015. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 18 years or older and had tested for HIV. Self-administered tablet-based questionnaires were used to assess HIV risk factors. Of all eligible pregnant women, 827 (92.4%) participated, out of which 297 (35.9%) were self-reportedly HIV positive. Among structural factors, family function was not significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status, while lower than high school educational attainment (AOR, 1.65; CI, 1.14-3.38; P = 0.008), and income below minimum wage (AOR, 1.81; CI, 1.09-3.01; P = 0.021) were significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status. Behavioral factors significantly associated with reporting a positive HIV status included; ≥2 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 3.16; CI, 2.00-5.00; PHIV/AIDS-related knowledge level was high but not associated to self-reported HIV status (P = 0.319). Structural and behavioral factors showed significant association with self-reported HIV infection among pregnant women in Swaziland while HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and family function did not. This suggests that HIV interventions should be reinforced taking into consideration these findings. The findings also suggest the importance of future research sensitive to the Swazi and African sociocultural contexts, especially

  1. The Prevalence of Internet Addiction among a Japanese Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic Sample with Autism Spectrum Disorder And/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Makino, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Masaki; Hirota, Tomoya; Ohcho, Kozo; Ikeda, Shin; Tsubouchi, Shouko; Inagaki, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are risk factors for internet addiction (IA). The present cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of IA among 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a Japanese psychiatric clinic using Young's Internet Addiction Test. The…

  2. Calculation of the resonance cross section functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slipicevic, K.F.

    1967-11-01

    This paper includes the procedure for calculating the Doppler broadened line shape functions ψ and χ which are needed for calculation of resonance cross section functions. The obtained values are given in tables

  3. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  4. Measurement of multinucleon transfer cross-sections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ni(C, ), Fe(C, ), =C, C, B, B, Be, Be, Be, Be, Li, Li; = 60 MeV; measured reaction cross-section; elastic scattering angular distribution; deduced transfer probabilities and enhancement factors.

  5. Calculation of the resonance cross section functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slipicevic, K F [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1967-11-15

    This paper includes the procedure for calculating the Doppler broadened line shape functions {psi} and {chi} which are needed for calculation of resonance cross section functions. The obtained values are given in tables.

  6. Pion-nucleus cross sections approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Polanski, A.; Sosnin, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical approximation of pion-nucleus elastic and inelastic interaction cross-section is suggested, with could be applied in the energy range exceeding several dozens of MeV for nuclei heavier than beryllium. 3 refs.; 4 tabs

  7. Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes

  8. Tachyonic ionization cross sections of hydrogenic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschitz, Roman [Department of Physics, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagami-yama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2005-03-11

    Transition rates for induced and spontaneous tachyon radiation in hydrogenic systems as well as the transversal and longitudinal ionization cross sections are derived. We investigate the interaction of the superluminal radiation field with matter in atomic bound-bound and bound-free transitions. Estimates are given for Ly-{alpha} transitions effected by superluminal quanta in hydrogen-like ions. The tachyonic photoelectric effect is scrutinized, in the Born approximation and at the ionization threshold. The angular maxima occur at different scattering angles in the transversal and longitudinal cross sections, which can be used to sift out longitudinal tachyonic quanta in a photon flux. We calculate the tachyonic ionization and recombination cross sections for Rydberg states and study their asymptotic scaling with respect to the principal quantum number. At the ionization threshold of highly excited states of order n {approx} 10{sup 4}, the longitudinal cross section starts to compete with photoionization, in recombination even at lower levels.

  9. a cross-sectional analytic study 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of HIV/AIDS comprehensive correct knowledge among Sudanese university: a cross-sectional analytic study 2014. ... There are limited studies on this topic in Sudan. In this study we investigated the Comprehensive correct ...

  10. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  11. Methods for calculating anisotropic transfer cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shaohui; Zhang, Yixin.

    1985-01-01

    The Legendre moments of the group transfer cross section, which are widely used in the numerical solution of the transport calculation can be efficiently and accurately constructed from low-order (K = 1--2) successive partial range moments. This is convenient for the generation of group constants. In addition, a technique to obtain group-angle correlation transfer cross section without Legendre expansion is presented. (author)

  12. Heisenberg rise of total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhela, V.V.; Yushchenko, O.P.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that on the basis of the original idea of Heisenberg on the quasiclassical picture of extended particle interactions one can construct a satisfactory description of the total cross sections, elastic cross sections, elastic diffractive slopes and mean charged multiplicities in the cm energy range from 5 to 900 GeV, and produce reasonable extrapolations up to several tens of TeV. 14 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  14. Health and health behaviours before and during the Great Recession, overall and by socioeconomic status, using data from four repeated cross-sectional health surveys in Spain (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoll, Xavier; Toffolutti, Veronica; Malmusi, Davide; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme; Suhrcke, Marc

    2015-09-07

    The objective of this study was to estimate changes over time in health status and selected health behaviours during the Great Recession, in the period 2011/12, in Spain, both overall, and according to socioeconomic position and gender. We applied a before-after estimation on data from four editions of the Spanish National Health Survey: 2001, 2003/04, 2006/07 and 2011/12. This involved applying linear probability regression models accounting for time-trends and with robust standard errors, using as outcomes self-reported health and health behaviours, and as the main explanatory variable a dummy "Great Recession" for the 2011/12 survey edition. All the computations were run separately by gender. The final sample consisted of 47,156 individuals aged between 25 and 64 years, economically active at the time of the interview. We also assessed the inequality of the effects across socio-economic groups. The probability of good self-reported health increased for women (men) by 9.6 % (7.6 %) in 2011/12, compared to the long term trend. The changes are significant for all educational levels, except for the least educated. Some healthy behaviours also improved but results were rather variable. Adverse dietary changes did, however, occur among men (though not women) who were unemployed (e.g., the probability of declaring eating fruit daily changed by -12.1 %), and among both men (-21.8 %) and women with the lowest educational level (-15.1 %). Socioeconomic inequalities in health and health behaviour have intensified, in the period 2011/12, in at least some respects, especially regarding diet. While average self-reported health status and some health behaviours improved during the economic recession, in 2011/12, this improvement was unequal across different socioeconomic groups.

  15. On analytical fits for electron impact ionisation cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; Ivanov, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of providing accurate recommended analytical fits for electron impact ionisation cross sections is discussed, and a number of approaches are considered on the sample case of neon and its ions. The previously known fits are being reassessed using complete experimental and theoretical data, with the preference for experiment, to avoid systematic shifts introduced by the present calculation methods. The feasibility of the standard BELI formula is investigated in detail, and a number of other analytical expressions is suggested, approximating single-ionization cross sections in the whole range of energies. The factors influencing the accuracy of the fits and the physical meaning of the parameters obtained are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2012-11-01

    We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.

  17. Controlling inclusive cross sections in parton shower + matrix element merging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2012-11-15

    We propose an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at tree level to preserve inclusive cross sections obtained from the merged and showered sample. Implementing this constraint generates approximate next-to-leading order (NLO) contributions similar to the LoopSim approach. We then show how full NLO, or in principle even higher order, corrections can be added consistently, including constraints on inclusive cross sections to account for yet missing parton shower accuracy at higher logarithmic order. We also show how NLO accuracy below the merging scale can be obtained.

  18. Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Sakurai, Kazuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2{sigma}, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m{sub t{sub 1}}{proportional_to}200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.

  19. Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof

    2013-03-01

    Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2σ, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m t 1 ∝200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.

  20. Event history analysis and the cross-section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Examples are given of problems in event history analysis, where several time origins (generating calendar time, age, disease duration, time on study, etc.) are considered simultaneously. The focus is on complex sampling patterns generated around a cross-section. A basic tool is the Lexis diagram....

  1. Structural and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Country with a Highly Generalized HIV Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Probability Sample of Antenatal Care Facilities in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele

    Full Text Available HIV disproportionately affects women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland bears the highest HIV prevalence of 41% among pregnant women in this region. This heightened HIV-epidemic reflects the importance of context-specific interventions. Apart from routine HIV surveillance, studies that examine structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among women may facilitate the revitalization of existing programs and provide insights to inform context-specific HIV prevention interventions.This cross-sectional study employed a two-stage random cluster sampling in ten antenatal health care facilities in the Hhohho region of Swaziland in August and September 2015. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 18 years or older and had tested for HIV. Self-administered tablet-based questionnaires were used to assess HIV risk factors. Of all eligible pregnant women, 827 (92.4% participated, out of which 297 (35.9% were self-reportedly HIV positive. Among structural factors, family function was not significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status, while lower than high school educational attainment (AOR, 1.65; CI, 1.14-3.38; P = 0.008, and income below minimum wage (AOR, 1.81; CI, 1.09-3.01; P = 0.021 were significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status. Behavioral factors significantly associated with reporting a positive HIV status included; ≥2 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 3.16; CI, 2.00-5.00; P<0.001, and ever cohabited (AOR, 2.39; CI, 1.66-3.43; P = 0.00. The most cited reason for having multiple sexual partners was financial gain. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge level was high but not associated to self-reported HIV status (P = 0.319.Structural and behavioral factors showed significant association with self-reported HIV infection among pregnant women in Swaziland while HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and family function did not. This suggests that HIV interventions should be reinforced taking into

  2. Cross sections for fast-neutron interaction with ytterbium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Junhua; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li; Ge, Suhong; Liu, Zhenlai; Sun, Guihua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The cross sections for the (n,x) reactions on ytterbium isotopes have been measured. ► Mono-energetic neutron beams using the D + T reaction; Energies: 13.5 and 14.8 MeV. ► Neutron cross-section measurements by means of the activation technique. ► Reference reactions 93 Nb(n,2n) 92m Nb and 27 (n,α) 24 Na. ► Data for 172 Yb(n,p) 172 Tm and 176 Yb(n,d * ) 175 Tm are reported for the first time. - Abstract: Measurements of (n,2n), (n,p), and (n,d * ) (The expression (n,d * ) cross section used in this work includes a sum of (n,d), (n,np) and (n,pn) cross sections.) reaction cross-sections on ytterbium isotopes have been carried out in the range of 13.5–14.8 MeV using the activation technique. The monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the 3 H(d,n) 3 He reaction. The neutron energies of different directions were determined using the Nb/Zr method. Samples were activated along with along with Nb and Al monitor foils to determine the incident neutron flux. Data are reported for the following reactions: 168 Yb(n,2n) 167 Yb, 170 Yb(n,2n) 169m+g Yb, 176 Yb(n,2n) 175m+g Yb, 172 Yb(n,p) 172 Tm, 173 Yb(n,p) 173 Tm, 176 Yb(n,d * ) 175 Tm, 174 Yb(n,p) 174 Tm, and 176 Yb(n,p) 176 Tm. The experimentally deduced cross-sections are compared with the existing experimental data. Furthermore, theoretical statistical model, based on the Hauser–Feshbach formalism, have been carried out using the HFTT

  3. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ye; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  4. Homogenized group cross sections by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Marck, S. C.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.

    2006-01-01

    Homogenized group cross sections play a large role in making reactor calculations efficient. Because of this significance, many codes exist that can calculate these cross sections based on certain assumptions. However, the application to the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, the Netherlands, the limitations of such codes imply that the core calculations would become less accurate when using homogenized group cross sections (HGCS). Therefore we developed a method to calculate HGCS based on a Monte Carlo program, for which we chose MCNP. The implementation involves an addition to MCNP, and a set of small executables to perform suitable averaging after the MCNP run(s) have completed. Here we briefly describe the details of the method, and we report on two tests we performed to show the accuracy of the method and its implementation. By now, this method is routinely used in preparation of the cycle to cycle core calculations for HFR. (authors)

  5. Partial cross sections near the higher resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk-Vairant, P.; Valladas, G.

    1961-07-01

    As a continuation of the report given at the 10. Rochester Conference, recent measurements of charge-exchange cross section and π 0 production in π - -p interactions are presented here. Section 1 gives a summary of the known results for the elastic, inelastic, and charge-exchange cross sections. Section 2 presents the behavior of the cross sections in the T=1/2 state, in order to discuss the resonances at 600 and 890 MeV. Section 3 discusses the charge-exchange scattering and the interference term between the T=1/2 and T=3/2 states. Section 4 presents some comments on inelastic processes. This report is reprinted from 'Reviews of Modern Physics', Vol. 33, No. 3, 362-367, July, 1961

  6. Photoproton cross section for /sup 19/F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubota, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education; Kawamura, N; Oikawa, S; Uegaki, J I

    1975-02-01

    Proton energy spectra have been measured at 90/sup 0/ for the /sup 19/F(e,e'p)/sup 18/O reaction in the giant resonance region. The (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) and (..gamma..,p/sub 1/) differential cross sections are extracted from the proton energy spectra by using virtual-photon spectra. The integrated differential cross section of the (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) and (..gamma..,p/sub 1/) reactions are 1.80+-0.27 and 0.50+-0.45 MeV-mb/sr, respectively. The results are discussed with the shell model theory by comparing with the (..gamma..,p/sub 0/) cross section of the neighboring 4n-nucleus /sup 20/Ne. A significant increase of the proton yield leaving the non-ground states is found at 25 MeV of the incident electron energy. This is discussed in terms of the core excitation effect.

  7. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  8. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Trocsanyi, Z. [CERN PH-TH, on leave from University of Debrecen and Institute of Nuclear Research of HAS, H-4001 P.O.Box 51 (Hungary)

    2010-08-15

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), (arXiv:hep-ph/0502226); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, (2006), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609041); G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609042); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609043)] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

  9. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trocsanyi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), (arXiv:hep-ph/0502226); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, (2006), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609041); G. Somogyi, Z. Trocsanyi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609042); G. Somogyi and Z. Trocsanyi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), (arXiv:hep-ph/0609043)] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

  10. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  11. Cross sections for charm production by neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushida, N [Aichi Univ. of Education, Kariya (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kondo, T [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Fujioka, G; Fukushima, J; Takahashi, Y; Tatsumi, S; Yokoyama, C [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Homma, Y; Tsuzuki, Y [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Liberal Arts; Bahk, S

    1983-02-03

    The production of charmed particles has been measured using a hybrid emulsion spectrometer in the Fermilab wide-band neutrino beam. The relative cross section for charged current charmed particle production is sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/c)/sigma(v -> ..mu../sup -/) = 6.5 +- 1.9/1.8%, and the energy dependence of the cross section is presented. One event with charm pair production was observed. A limit of sigma(v -> ..mu..canti c)/sigma(v -> ..mu..c) < 6% (90% CL) is found for the ratio of charged current pair and single charm production.

  12. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  13. Measurement of 76Se and 78Se (γ, n) cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitatani, Fumito; Harada, Hideo; Goko, Shinji; Utsunomiya, Hiroaki; Akimune, Hidetoshi; Toyokawa, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kawakatsu

    2011-01-01

    The (γ, n) cross sections of Se isotopes ( 76 Se, 78 Se) were measured to supply fundamental data for estimating the inverse reaction cross section, i.e., the 79 Se(n, γ) 80 Se cross section. The enriched samples and a reference 197 Au sample were irradiated with laser-Compton scattering (LCS) γ-rays. The excitation function of each (γ, n) cross section was determined for the energy range from each near neutron separation energy to the threshold energy of (γ, 2n) reaction. The energy point corresponding to each cross section was deduced using the accurately determined energy distribution of LCS γ-rays. Systematic (γ, n) cross sections for Se isotopes including 80 Se were compared with those calculated by using a statistical model calculation code TALYS. (author)

  14. Physical activity and nicotine dependence among a national sample of young U.S. adults who smoke daily: evaluation of cross-sectional and longitudinal associations to determine which behavior drives this relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Kane, Christy J; Mahoney, Sara; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-02-01

    The association between nicotine dependence and physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. No study has concurrently examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA and nicotine dependence, which was the primary purpose of this study. A secondary purpose was to examine how well nicotine dependence and PA behavior track over a two-year period. Data from the 2003-2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey (NYSCS) were used, with young adults (18-24 yrs; n=1168) being followed over a two-year period. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire and nicotine dependence was assessed using the modified Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. This study identified three notable findings: 1) baseline PA and nicotine dependence demonstrated a bidirectional, cross-sectional association (e.g., β=-0.23; 95% CI: -0.44 to -0.02; p=0.02); 2) when examined longitudinally, nicotine dependence influenced PA (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.99; p=0.04), but there was no evidence of the reverse pathway (i.e., PA influencing 2-year follow-up smoking status [OR=0.95; 95% CI: 0.66-1.39; p=0.82) or nicotine dependence (β=0.05; 95% CI: -0.14 to 0.24, p=0.61]); and 3) both PA (OR=3.52, 95% CI: 2.68-4.69; pdependence (β=0.52; 95% CI: 0.46-0.58, pphysical activity and nicotine dependence) track over time, but nicotine dependence appears to be driving the cross-sectional relationship between nicotine dependence and physical activity, as opposed to the reverse pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal cross section for 14 mev neutrons in constructional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasvary, L.; Divos, F.; Peto, G.; Csikai, J.; Mumba, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    Using flight time difference the direct and scattered neutrons and gammas produced in the target head and samples were separated. With this method the attenuation of primary neutrons and gammas originating from the target head has been studied. Thickness dependence of the secondary gamma yield from extended samples of Al, Fe, Pb, paraffin and reinforced concrete was also measured. Results indicate a geometry dependence of the removal cross sections

  16. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, M., E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Caciolli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua and INFN Padua, Padova (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Climent-Font, A. [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN Florence, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, {sup 19}F(p,p’){sup 19}F, from the first five excited levels of {sup 19}F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm{sup 2}) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm{sup 2}). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF{sub 2}) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  17. Measurement of inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Inclusive jet cross sections are measured in photoproduction at HERA using the H1 detector. The data sample of e+ p -> e+ + jet + X events in the kinematic range of photon virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 and photon-proton centre-of-mass energies 95 < W_gammap < 285 GeV represents an integrated luminosity of 24.1 pb^-1. Jets are defined using the inclusive k_T algorithm. Single- and multi-differential cross sections are measured as functions of jet transverse energy E_T^jet and pseudorapidity \\eta^jet in the domain 5 < E_T^jet < 75 GeV and -1 < \\eta^jet < 2.5. The cross sections are found to be in good agreement with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations corrected for fragmentation and underlying event effects. The cross section differential in E_T^jet, which varies by six orders of magnitude over the measured range, is compared with similar distributions from p pbar colliders at equal and higher energies.

  18. Validation of evaluated neutron standard cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, S.; Golashvili, T.

    2008-01-01

    Some steps of the validation and verification of the new version of the evaluated neutron standard cross sections were carried out. In particular: -) the evaluated covariance data was checked for physical consistency, -) energy-dependent evaluated cross-sections were tested in most important neutron benchmark field - 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron field, -) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation for preparation of specialized libraries of the neutron standards was verified. The results of the validation and verification of the neutron standards can be summarized as follows: a) the covariance data of the evaluated neutron standards is physically consistent since all the covariance matrices of the evaluated cross sections are positive definite, b) the 252 Cf spectrum averaged standard cross-sections are in agreement with the evaluated integral data (except for 197 Au(n,γ) reaction), c) a procedure of folding differential standard neutron data in group representation was tested, as a result a specialized library of neutron standards in the ABBN 28-group structure was prepared for use in reactor applications. (authors)

  19. Stability of tokamaks with elongated cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Bateman, G.

    1978-08-01

    Fixed boundary n = 1 MHD instabilities are studied computationally as a function of diamagnetism (β/sub pol/) and current profile in elongated toroidal equilibria (1 2) or a diamagnetic plasma (β/sub pol/ > 1) with only a mildly elongated cross section

  20. Modelisation of the fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, Claudia

    2013-03-01

    The neutron cross sections of four nuclear systems (n+ 235 U, n+ 233 U, n+ 241 Am and n+ 237 Np) are studied in the present document. The target nuclei of the first case, like 235 U and 239 Pu, have a large fission cross section after the absorption of thermal neutrons. These nuclei are called 'fissile' nuclei. The other type of nuclei, like 237 Np and 241 Am, fission mostly with fast neutrons, which exceed the fission threshold energy. These types of nuclei are called 'fertile'. The compound nuclei of the fertile nuclei have a binding energy higher than the fission barrier, while for the fissile nuclei the binding energy is lower than the fission barrier. In this work, the neutron induced cross sections for both types of nuclei are evaluated in the fast energy range. The total, reaction and shape-elastic cross sections are calculated by the coupled channel method of the optical model code ECIS, while the compound nucleus mechanism are treated by the statistical models implemented in the codes STATIS, GNASH and TALYS. The STATIS code includes a refined model of the fission process. Results from the theoretical calculations are compared with data retrieved from the experimental data base EXFOR. (author) [fr

  1. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  2. (, 3) Differential cross section of He

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The angular distribution of the five-fold differential cross section for the electron impact double ionization of He (21 ) and He (23 ) has been studied. The kinematical conditions for maxima/minima in the angular distribution for the two cases have been compared. The two-step process for the double ionization is found to ...

  3. Precise relative cross sections for np scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, J.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Hammans, M.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Jourdan, J.; Masson, G.; Qin, L.M.; Robinson, S.; Sick, I.; Tuccillo, M.

    1994-01-01

    We present data on the differential cross section for neutron-proton scattering for an incident neutron energy of 67 MeV. These data allow a precise determination of the 1 P 1 phase which, in phase-shift analyses, is strongly correlated with the S-D amplitude which we are measuring via different observables. ((orig.))

  4. Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Takemasa; Ogura, Koichi

    1995-03-01

    Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d 3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ( 4 I 9/2 ) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10 -15 cm 2 ) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ion. Charge transfer cross section between U + in the first excited state (289 cm -1 ) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)

  5. LAMBDA p total cross-section measurement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    A view of the apparatus used for the LAMBDA p total cross-section measurement at the time of its installation. The hyperons decaying into a proton and a pion in the conical tank in front were detected in the magnet spectrometer in the upper half of the picture. A novel detection technique using exclusively multiwire proportional chambers was employed.

  6. AXMIX program for cross section mixing and library arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, G.C.

    1976-03-01

    AXMIX is a FORTRAN IV computer code written to provide the user a tool for creating cross-section data sets for ANISN and DOT from cross-section sets already available on cards, nuclide-organized libraries, and group-independent data sets. Numerous options, including adjointing, P/sub n/ adjustments, and changing table length, are available to give the user broad flexibility. The number of energy groups which will fit into the core allocated is determined first. If all groups will fit, the solution is straightforward; if not, then the maximum number of groups which will fit is processed repeatedly by using direct access I/O and storage disks. Some flexibility in applying AXMIX is lost when cross sections to be processed contain upscatter. A special section on upscatter is included in the report. AXMIX is written for IBM System 360 computers with at least 150K bytes of memory. Problems of a practical nature require from 2 to 20 seconds of CPU time on a 360/91 computer. Running time is inversely proportional to the number of groups of data which will fit into core memory. I/O time is 50 to 100 times CPU time

  7. Neutron total cross section measurements on 249Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, R.F.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Pandey, M.S.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron total cross section measurements were performed on a sample of 249 Cf (5.65 mg total weight) with the ORELA as a source of pulsed neutrons. The sample, the inverse thickness of which was 1542 barns/atom, consisted of 85.3% 249 Cf and 14.4% 249 Bk, and was cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. Analyses were also made of data from a thin sample (l/n = 17430) of 65% 249 Cf in the region of the large fission resonance at 0.7 eV. Fifty-five resonances in 249 Cf were observed and analyzed over the energy range 0.1 eV to 90 eV by use of an R-matrix multilevel formalism. The resonance parameters obtained were used to determine the level spacing and the s-wave neutron and fission strength functions. Thermal total cross section measurements were also performed. 5 figures, 3 tables

  8. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, E.

    2011-01-01

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β - - 47 Sc, 67 Cu - β + - 44 Sc, 64 Cu, 82 Sr/ 82 Rb, 68 Ge/ 68 Ga - and α emitters - 211 At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - nat Cu or nat Ni - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the nat Ti(p,X) 47 Sc and 68 Zn(p,2p) 67 Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68 Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  9. pbarp, pbarD, pbar sup 4 He annihilation cross sections at low energy

    CERN Document Server

    Tessaro, S; Capponi, M; Cereda, B; De Castro, S; Ferretti, A; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Piccinini, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vezzani, A; Vigotti, F; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Belli, G; Corradini, M; Donzella, A; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Temnikov, P P; Usai, G L; Ableev, V G; Denisov, O Yu; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sapozhnikov, M G; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Nichitiu, F; Petrascu, C; Rosca, A; Cavion, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Lombardi, M; Vannucci, Luigi; Vedovato, G; Andrighetto, A; Morando, M; Ricci, R A; Bendiscioli, G; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Saino, A; Salvini, P; Filippi, A; Balestra, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Calvo, D; Cerello, P G; Costa, S; D'Isep, F; Fava, L; Feliciello, A; Ferrero, L; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Marcello, S; Mirfakhraee, N; Panzieri, D; Parena, D; Rossetto, E; Tosello, F; Zosi, G; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Pauli, G; Tessaro, S; Santi, L

    1999-01-01

    New measurements of the pbarp annihilation cross section have been performed with the OBELIX apparatus between 37 and 70 MeV/c. From previous samples of data it was already clear that the 1/p behaviour for the annihilation cross section is drastically modified at very low momenta, due to the Coulomb interaction. However, at the lowest measured momentum (43.6 MeV/c), the annihilation cross section was unexpectedly high; this evidence suggested a more accurate investigation of this region. Furthermore, measurements of annihilation cross section have been performed with pbar impinging on D sub 2 and sup 4 He targets.

  10. γ*γ* total cross-section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, M.; Royon, C.; Wallon, S.; Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris

    1999-01-01

    The total γ * γ * cross-section is derived in the Leading Order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from 2-gluon exchange. The Double Leading Logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross-section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the e + e - collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to Leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross-section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL. (author)

  11. $\\gamma^{*}\\gamma^{*}$ total cross-section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Boonekamp, M; Royon, C; Wallon, S

    1999-01-01

    The total $\\gamma^*\\gamma^*$ cross-section is derived in the Leading Order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from 2-gluon exchange. The Double Leading Logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross-section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the $e^+e^-$ collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to Leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross-section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL.

  12. γ*γ* total cross section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Maarten; De Roeck, Albert; Royon, Christophe; Wallon, Samuel

    1999-01-01

    The total γ * γ * cross section is derived in the leading order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from two-gluon exchange. The double leading logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the e + e - collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL effects

  13. Cross sectional moments and portfolio returns: Evidence for select emerging markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sehgal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research does not indicate a consensus on the relationship between idiosyncratic volatility and asset returns. Moreover, the role of cross sectional higher order moments in predicting market returns is relatively unexplored. We show that the cross sectional volatility measure suggested by Garcia et al. is highly correlated with alternative measures of idiosyncratic volatility constructed as variance of errors from the capital asset pricing model and the Fama French model. We find that cross sectional moments help in predicting aggregate market returns in some sample countries and also provide information for portfolio formation, which is more consistent for portfolios sorted on sensitivity to cross sectional skewness.

  14. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadana, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    A method to prepare cross-sectional (X) semiconductor specimens for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been described. The power and utility of XTEM has been demonstrated. It has been shown that accuracy and interpretation of indirect structural-defects profiling techniques, namely, MeV He + channeling and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) can be greatly enhanced by comparing their results with those obtained by XTEM from the same set of samples

  15. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  16. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  17. Structured ion impact: Doubly differential cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The electron emission in coincidence with a projectile that has been ionized has been measured, thus making it possible to separate and identify electrons resulting from these various mechanisms. In 1985, coincidence doubly differential cross sections were measured for 400 to 750 keV/atomic mass unit (amu) He + impact on He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and H 2 O. Cross sections were measured for selected angles and for electron energies ranging from 10 to 1000 eV. Because of the coincidence mode of measurement, the total electron emission was subdivided into its target emission and its projectile emission components. The most interesting findings were that target ionization does not account for the electron emission spectrum at lower electron energies. A sizable percentage of these low-energy electrons were shown to originate as a result of simultaneous projectile/target ionizations. Similar features were observed for all targets and impact energies that were studied

  18. Electron-collision cross sections for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.; Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R.; Brunger, M.J.; Hoshino, M.; Buckman, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.

  19. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  20. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...

  1. Electron Capture Cross Sections for Stellar Nucleosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Giannaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the abovementioned e--capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the 66Zn isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

  2. Test of RIPL-2 cross section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2002-01-01

    The new levels and optical segments and microscopic HF-BCS level densities (part of the density segment) were tested in practical calculations of cross sections for neutron induced reactions on 22 targets (40-Ca, 47-Ti, 52-Cr, 55-Mn, 58-Ni, 63-Cu, 71-Ga, 80-Se, 92-Mo, 93-Nb, 100-Mo, 109-Ag, 114-Cd, 124-Sn, 127-I, 133-Cs, 140-Ce, 153-Eu, 169-Tm, 186-W, 197-Au, 208-Pb). For each target all reactions involving up to 3 neutron, 1 proton and 1 α-particle emissions (subject to actual reaction thresholds) were considered in the incident energy range from 1 keV up to 20 MeV (in some cases up to 27 MeV). In addition, total, elastic, and neutron capture cross sections were calculated

  3. Double differential cross sections of ethane molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev

    2018-05-01

    Partial and total double differential cross sections corresponding to various cations C2H6+, C2H4+, C2H5+, C2H3+, C2H2+, CH3+, H+, CH2+, C2H+, H2+, CH+, H3+, C2+ and C+ produced during the direct and dissociative electron ionization of Ethane (C2H6) molecule have been calculated at fixed impinging electron energies 200 and 500eV by using modified Jain-Khare semi empirical approach. The calculation for double differential cross sections is made as a function of energy loss suffered by primary electron and angle of incident. To the best of my knowledge no other data is available for the comparison.

  4. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies

  5. Elliptical cross section fuel rod study II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, H.; Marajofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is continued the behavior analysis and comparison between cylindrical fuel rods of circular and elliptical cross sections. Taking into account the accepted models in the literature, the fission gas swelling and release were studied. An analytical comparison between both kinds of rod reveals a sensible gas release reduction in the elliptical case, a 50% swelling reduction due to intragranular bubble coalescence mechanism and an important swelling increase due to migration bubble mechanism. From the safety operation point of view, for the same linear power, an elliptical cross section rod is favored by lower central temperatures, lower gas release rates, greater gas store in ceramic matrix and lower stored energy rates. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Electron collision cross sections and radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the cross section data needs in radiation chemistry, and of the recent progress in electron impact studies on dissociative excitation of molecules. In the former some of the important target species, processes, and collision energies are presented, while in the latter it is demonstrated that radiation chemistry is a source of new ideas and information in atomic collision research. 37 references, 4 figures

  7. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  8. Total dissociation cross section of halo nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formanek, J. [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Fakulta Matematicko-Fyzikalni; Lombard, R.J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1996-10-01

    Calculations of the total dissociation cross section is performed in the impact parameter representation. The case of {sup 11}Be and {sup 11}Li loosing one and two neutron(s), respectively, by collision on a {sup 12}C target, which remains in its ground state are discussed. The results are found to depend essentially on the rms radius of the halo wave function. (author). 12 refs.

  9. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  10. Cross section of the CMS solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The pictures show a cross section of the CMS solenoid. One can see four layers of the superconducting coil, each of which contains the superconductor (central part, copper coloured - niobium-titanium strands in a copper coating, made into a "Rutherford cable"), surrounded by an ultra-pure aluminium as a magnetic stabilizer, then an aluminium alloy as a mechanical stabilizer. Besides the four layers there is an aluminium mechanical piece that includes pipes that transport the liquid helium.

  11. Cross sections for multistep direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriou, Paraskevi; Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Marianski, Bohdan

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions have been analysed at energies ranging from 14 to 27 MeV using the modified multistep direct reaction theory (MSD) of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. The modified theory considers the non-DWBA matrix elements in the MSD cross section formulae and includes both incoherent particle-hole excitations and coherent collective excitations in the continuum, according to the prescriptions. The results show important contributions from multistep processes at all energies considered. (author)

  12. Capture cross sections for very heavy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, N.; Grar, N.; Ntshangase, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    In intermediate-mass systems, collective excitations of the target and projectile can greatly enhance the sub-barrier capture cross section σ cap by giving rise to a distribution of Coulomb barriers. For such systems, capture essentially leads directly to fusion (formation of a compound nucleus (CN)), which then decays through the emission of light particles (neutrons, protons, and alpha particles). Thus the evaporation-residue (ER) cross section is essentially equal to σ cap . For heavier systems the experimental situation is significantly more complicated due to the presence of quasifission (QF) (rapid separation into two fragments before the CN is formed) and by fusion-fission (FF) of the CN itself. Thus three cross sections need to be measured in order to evaluate σ cap . Although the ER essentially recoil along the beam direction. QF and FF fragments are scattered to all angles and require the measurement of angular distribution in order to obtain the excitation function and barrier distribution for capture. Two other approaches to this problem exist. If QF is not important, one can still measure just the ER cross section and try to reconstruct the corresponding σ cap through use of an evaporation-model code that takes account of the FF degree of freedom. Some earlier results on σ cap obtained in this way will be re-analyzed with detail coupled-channels calculations, and the extra-push phenomenon discussed. One may also try to obtain σ cap by exploiting unitarity, that is, by measuring instead the flux of particles corresponding to quasielastic (QE) scattering from the Coulomb barrier. Some new QE results obtained for the 86 Kr + 208 Pb system at iThemba LABS in South Africa will be presented [ru

  13. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS-bar) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in e + e - annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-to-next-to-leading order.

  14. Atomic-process cross section data, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    Compiled by the Data Study Group, the data are intended for fusion plasma physics research. Cross sections of the latest experimental and theoretic studies cover the processes involving H,D,T as principal plasma materials as well as photons and electrons: emission and absorption of electromagnetic wave, electron collision, ion collision, recombination, neutral atom mutual collision, etc. Edition is so made to enable the future renewal by users. (J.P.N.)

  15. Neutron capture cross section of ^243Am

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandel, M.

    2009-10-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was used for neutron capture cross section measurement on ^243Am. The high granularity of DANCE (160 BaF2 detectors in a 4π geometry) enables the efficient detection of prompt gamma-rays following neutron capture. DANCE is located on the 20.26 m neutron flight path 14 (FP14) at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The methods and techniques established in [1] were used for the determination of the ^243Am neutron capture cross section. The cross sections were obtained in the range of neutron energies from 0.02 eV to 400 keV. The resonance region was analyzed using SAMMY7 and resonance parameters were extracted. The results will be compared to existing evaluations and calculations. Work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396 and at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. [4pt] [1] M. Jandel et al., Phys. Rev. C78, 034609 (2008)

  16. MXS cross-section preprocessor user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.; Ishikawa, M.; Luck, L.

    1987-03-01

    The MXS preprocessor has been designed to reduce the execution time of programs using isotopic cross-section data and to both reduce the execution time and improve the accuracy of shielding-factor interpolation in the SIMMER-II accident analysis program. MXS is a dual-purpose preprocessing code to: (1) mix isotopes into materials and (2) fit analytic functions to the shelf-shielding data. The program uses the isotope microscopic neutron cross-section data from the CCCC standard interface file ISOTXS and the isotope Bondarenko self-shielding data from the CCCC standard interface file BRKOXS to generate cross-section and self-shielding data for materials. The materials may be a mixture of several isotopes. The self-shielding data for the materials may be the actual shielding factors or a set of coefficients for functions representing the background dependence of the shielding factors. A set of additional data is given to describe the functions necessary to interpolate the shielding factors over temperature

  17. Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is critical to the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly important to train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutron cross-section data are vital components to strategies for detecting explosives and fissile materials, and these measurements require expertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclear spectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trained students in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader in nuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years. Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermal neutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. This file of 35, 000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for all elements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation of nuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutron generators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generator experimental facility

  18. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Vayatis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the 85 Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations

  19. NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trócsányi, Z.

    2010-08-01

    We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), arXiv:hep-ph/0502226; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, (2006), arXiv:hep-ph/0609041; G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609042; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609043] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

  20. Measurement of double differential t anti t production cross sections with the CMS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol, Ievgen

    2016-05-01

    The high energy scale of the pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN makes this facility to a real factory for the production of t anti t pairs. This enables to study the top-quark properties and its production and decay mechanisms in unprecedent detail. The dileptonic decay channel of the top-quark pair, in which both W bosons, produced from the top-quark decay, decay into a lepton and neutrino, is studied in this analysis. The limitation to one electron and one muon in final state used in this work allows to strongly suppress the possible background processes and leads to a higher signal purity. About 40k events with a top-quark pair have been selected using the √(s)=8 TeV data recorded with the CMS detector in the year 2012. Exploiting this large sample, double differential top-quark pair production cross sections are measured for the first time. The cross sections are studied as functions of various observables which describe the top and top-pair kinematics. To obtain the full kinematics of the t anti t final state, which contains two undetected neutrinos, a kinematic reconstruction procedure was developed and exploited in this work. The new procedure makes use of all available constraints and is based on a repeated reconstruction of each event with detector observables smeared according to their resolutions in order to obtain for each event solutions for the kinematic constraint equations. In order to obtain double differential cross sections, the distributions of reconstructed observables are then corrected for detector effects by using a double differential unfolding procedure, which is based on a χ 2 minimization. The double differential cross sections presented in this work allow to test the Standard Model in detail and investigate previously seen disagreements between measured and predicted single differential cross sections. The results of this work are compared to Standard Model predictions (up to next-to-leading order of the hard

  1. Measurement of the inclusive isolated prompt photon cross section in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$1.96~TeV, using the full CDF data sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Alessandra [Rome U., Tor Vergata

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the cross section for the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons in proton-antiproton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=1.96~TeV is presented. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 9.5~fb$^{-1}$, collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab in Run~II. The measurement is performed as a function of the photon transverse energy ($E_T^{\\gamma}$) covering the range of 30~GeV$< E_T^{\\gamma} <$500~GeV in the pseudorapidity region $|\\eta^{\\gamma}|<$1.0. To reduce the background coming from the decays of $\\pi^0$'s, $\\eta$'s and other hadrons, photons are required to be isolated in the calorimeter. The output distributions of an Artificial Neural Network are exploited to estimate the remaining contamination from jets faking isolated photons. Results are compared to leading-order and next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations.

  2. Mechanized evaluation of neutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, A.; Parker, J.B.

    1967-01-01

    The evaluation work to provide accurate and consistent neutron cross-section data for multigroup neutronics calculations is not fully exploiting the available theoretical and experimental results; this has been so particularly since the introduction of on-line data handling techniques enabled experimenters to turn out vast quantities of numbers. This situation can be radically improved only by mechanizing the evaluation processes. Systems such as the SC1SRS tape will not only largely overcome the task of collecting data but will provide speedy access to it; by using computers and graph-plotting machines to tabulate and display this data, the labour of evaluation can be very greatly reduced. With some types of cross-section there is hope that by using modern curve-fitting techniques the actual evaluation and statistical accounting of the data can be performed automatically. Some areas where automatic evaluation would seem likely to succeed are specified and a discussion of the mathematical difficulties incurred, such as the elimination of anomalous data, is given. Particularly promising is the use of splines in the mechanized evaluation of data. Splines are the mathematical analogues of the draughtsman's spline used in drawing smooth curves. Their principal properties are the excellent approximations they give to the derivatives of a function; in contrast to conventional polynomial fitting, this feature ensures good interpolation and, when required, stable extrapolation. Various methods of using splines in data graduation and the problem of marrying these methods to standard statistical procedures are examined. The results of work done at AWRE with cubic splines on the mechanized evaluation of neutron scattering total cross-section and angular distribution data are presented. (author)

  3. Neutron-induced fission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of fission research, neutron-induced fission has always played the most important role. The practical importance of neutron-induced fission rests upon the fact that additional neutrons are produced in the fission process, and thus a chain reaction becomes possible. The practical applications of neutron-induced fission will not be discussed in this chapter, but only the physical properties of one of its characteristics, namely (n,f) cross sections. The most important early summaries on the subject are the monograph edited by Michaudon which also deals with the practical applications, the earlier review article on fission by Michaudon, and the review by Bjornholm and Lynn, in which neutron-induced fission receives major attention. This chapter will attempt to go an intermediate way between the very detailed theoretical treatment in the latter review and the cited monograph which emphasizes the applied aspects and the techniques of fission cross-section measurements. The more recent investigations in the field will be included. Section II will survey the properties of cross sections for neutron-induced fission and also address some special aspects of the experimental methods applied in their measurement. Section Ill will deal with the formal theory of neutron-induced nuclear reactions for the resolved resonance region and the region of statistical nuclear reactions. In Section IV, the fission width, or fission transmission coefficient, will be discussed in detail. Section V will deal with the broader structures due to incompletely damped vibrational resonances, and in particular will address the special case of thorium and neighboring isotopes. Finally, Section VI will briefly discuss parity violation effects in neutron-induced fission. 74 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  4. LEP vacuum chamber, cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Cross-section of the final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber. The elliptic main-opening is for the beam. The small channel to the left is for the cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchrotron radiation. The square channel to the right houses the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) pump. The chamber is made from extruded aluminium. Its outside is clad with lead, to stop the synchrotron radiation emitted by the beam. For good adherence between Pb and Al, the Al chamber was coated with a thin layer of Ni. Ni being slightly magnetic, some resulting problems had to be overcome. See also 8301153.

  5. How to extract cross sections from TDHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tourneux, Jean

    1979-01-01

    In spite of all the recent progress in solving numerically TDHF (Time Dependent Hartree-Fock) equations for heavy-ion collisions, this method is still far from lending itself readily to the computation of cross sections, except in the case of fusion. The theory presented here is purely formal so far and would lead to fairly heavy calculations in practice. It solves the problem of channel identification in the outgoing asymptotic region of TDHF solutions. It throws a bridge between TDHF and more traditional theories of nuclear reactions, which are time-independent

  6. Hyperon magnetic moments and total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    The new data on both total cross sections and magnetic moments are simply described by beginning with the additive quark model in an SU(3) limit where all quarks behave like strange quarks and breaking both additivity and SU(3) simultaneously with an additional non-additive mechanism which affects only nonstrange quark contributions. The suggestion that strange quarks behave more simply than nonstrange may provide clues to underlying structure or dynamics. Small discrepancies in the moments are analyzed and shown to provide serious difficulties for most models if they are statistically significant. (author)

  7. Neutron capture cross section of $^{93}$Zr

    CERN Document Server

    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross section of the radioactive isotope $^{93}$Zr. This project aims at the substantial improvement of existing results for applications in nuclear astrophysics and emerging nuclear technologies. In particular, the superior quality of the data that can be obtained at n_TOF will allow on one side a better characterization of s-process nucleosynthesis and on the other side a more accurate material balance in systems for transmutation of nuclear waste, given that this radioactive isotope is widely present in fission products.

  8. Charge changing cross sections of relativistic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, H.; Greiner, D.; Lindstrom, P.; Symons, T.J.M.; Crawford, H.; Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H.

    1984-11-01

    We report equilibrium charge state distributions of uranium at energies of 962 MeV/nucleon, 437 MeV/nucleon and 200 MeV/nucleon in low Z and high Z targets and the cross sections for U 92+ reversible U 91+ and U 91+ reversible U 90+ at 962 MeV/nucleon and 437 MeV/nucleon. Equilibrium thickness Cu targets produce approx. = 5% bare U 92+ at 200 MeV/nucleon and 85% U 92+ at 962 MeV/nucleon. 7 references, 5 figures

  9. Charge changing cross sections of relativistic uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, H; Greiner, D; Lindstrom, P; Symons, T J.M.; Crawford, H; Thieberger, P; Wegner, H

    1985-05-15

    We report equilibrium charge state distributions of uranium at energies of 962 MeV/nucleon, 437 MeV/nucleon and 200 MeV/nucleon in low Z and high Z targets and the cross sections for U/sup 92 +/reversibleU/sup 91 +/ and U/sup 91 +/reversibleU/sup 90 +/ at 962 MeV/nucleon and 437 MeV/nucleon. Equilibrium thickness Cu targets produce approx.=5% bare U/sup 92 +/ at 200 MeV/nucleon and 85% U/sup 92 +/ at 962 MeV/nucleon.

  10. Empirical continuation of the differential cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, I.

    1978-12-01

    The theoretical basis as well as the practical methods of empirical continuation of the differential cross section into the nonphysical region of the cos theta variable are discussed. The equivalence of the different methods is proved. A physical applicability condition is given and the published applications are reviewed. In many cases the correctly applied procedure turns out to provide nonsignificant or even incorrect structure information which points to the necessity for careful and statistically complete analysis of the experimental data with a physical understanding of the analysed process. (author)

  11. L-shell photoelectric cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, S K; Allawadhi, K L; Sood, B S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1981-05-14

    L-shell photoelectric cross sections in Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th and U at 59.5 keV have been determined using three different versions of Sood's method of measuring the absolute yield of fluorescent x-rays when a target is irradiated with a known flux of photons. The results obtained by all the methods agree with one another showing that no hidden systematic errors are involved in the measurements. The present results are found to compare well with the theoretical calculations of Scofield (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Report No 51326).

  12. Sensitivity of neutron air transport to nitrogen cross section uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiler, A.; Beverly, W.B.; Banks, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The sensitivity of the transport of 14-MeV neutrons in sea level air to uncertainties in the ENDF/B-III values of the various Nitrogen cross sections has been calculated using the correlated sampling Monte Carlo neutron transport code SAMCEP. The source consisted of a 14.0- to 14.9-MeV band of isotropic neutrons and the fluences (0.5 to 15.0 MeV) were calculated at radii from 50 to 1500 metres. The maximum perturbations, assigned to the ENDF/B-III or base cross section set in the 6.0- to 14.5-MeV energy range were; (1) 2 percent to the total, (2) 10 percent to the total elastic, (3) 40 percent to the inelastic and absorption and (4) 20 percent to the first Legendre coefficient and 10 percent to the second Legendre coefficient of the elastic angular distribtuions. Transport calculations were carried out using various physically realistic sets of perturbed cross sections, bounded by evaluator-assigned uncertainties, as well as the base set. Results show that in some energy intervals at 1500 metres, the differential fluence level with a perturbed set differed by almost a factor of two from the differential fluence level with the base set. 5 figures

  13. ZZ SNLRML, Dosimetry Cross-Section Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Description of program or function: Format: SAND-II; Number of groups: 640 group SAND-II group structure. Nuclides: Cd, B, Au, S, Ni, Li, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Sc, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Rh, Ag, In, I, Th, U, Np, Pu, Am. Origin: ENDF/B-VI, ENDF/B-V, IRDF-90, JENDL-3, JEF 2.2 and GLUCS data with special modifications from private communications. Weighting spectrum: flat. SNLRML is a reactor dosimetry library that draws upon all available evaluated cross section libraries and selects the best evaluation for application to research reactor spectrum determinations. Many of the components of the SNLRML come from the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 (DLC-0161) libraries. The library format was selected for easy interface with spectrum determination codes such as SAND-II (CCC-0112 and LSL-M2 (PSR-233) and the new PSR-0345/SNL/SAND-II has been enhanced to interface with SNLRML. The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross section in wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-0547) and MCNP (CCC-0200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities for benchmark reactor experiments

  14. Pion production cross sections and associated parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems. 16 refs., 6 figs

  15. Total neutron cross section for 181Ta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling K.-D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The neutron time of flight facility nELBE, produces fast neutrons in the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 10 MeV by impinging a pulsed relativistic electron beam on a liquid lead circuit [1]. The short beam pulses (∼10 ps and a small radiator volume give an energy resolution better than 1% at 1 MeV using a short flight path of about 6 m, for neutron TOF measurements. The present neutron source provides 2 ⋅ 104  n/cm2s at the target position using an electron charge of 77 pC and 100 kHz pulse repetition rate. This neutron intensity enables to measure neutron total cross section with a 2%–5% statistical uncertainty within a few days. In February 2008, neutron radiator, plastic detector [2] and data acquisition system were tested by measurements of the neutron total cross section for 181Ta and 27Al. Measurement of 181Ta was chosen because lack of high quality data in an anergy region below 700 keV. The total neutron cross – section for 27Al was measured as a control target, since there exists data for 27Al with high resolution and low statistical error [3].

  16. Atlas of photoneutron cross sections obtained with monoenergetic photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, S.S.; Berman, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Photoneutron cross-section and integrated cross-section data obtained with monoenergetic photons are presented in a uniform format. All of the measured partial photoneutron cross sections, the total photoneutron cross section, and the photoneutron yield cross section are plotted as functions of the incident photon energy, as are the integrated photoneutron cross sections and their first and second moments. The values of the integrated cross sections and the moments of the integrated total cross section up to the highest photon energy for which they were measured are tabulated, as are the parameters of Lorentz curves fitted to the total photoneutron cross-section data for medium and heavy nuclei (A>50). This compilation is current as of June 1987. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  17. Measurement of charm and beauty dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA using the H1 vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, L.

    2007-01-01

    A measurement of charm and beauty dijet photoproduction cross sections at the ep collider HERA is presented. The lifetime signature of c- and b-flavoured hadrons is exploited to determine the fractions of events in the sample containing charm or beauty. Differential dijet cross sections for charm and beauty, and their relative contributions to the flavour inclusive dijet photoproduction cross section, are measured. Taking into account the theoretical uncertainties, the charm cross sections are consistent with a QCD calculation in next-to-leading order, the predicted cross sections for beauty production being somewhat lower than the measurement. (author)

  18. Working conditions and psychotropic drug use: cross-sectional and prospective results from the French national SIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Marion; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Prospective studies exploring the associations between a large range of occupational factors and psychotropic drug use among national samples of workers are seldom. This study investigates the cross-sectional and prospective associations between occupational factors, including a large set of psychosocial work factors, and psychotropic drug use in the national French working population. The study sample comprised 7542 workers for the cross-sectional analysis and 4213 workers followed up for a 4-year period for the prospective analysis. Psychotropic drug use was measured within the last 12 months and defined by the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics or hypnotics. Three groups of occupational factors were explored: classical and emergent psychosocial work factors, working time/hours and physical work exposures. Weighted Poisson regression analyses were performed to adjust for covariates. In the cross-sectional analysis, psychological demands, low social support and hiding emotions were associated with psychotropic drug use. Job insecurity for men and night work for women were associated with psychotropic drug use. In the prospective analysis, hiding emotions and physical exposure were predictive of psychotropic drug use. Dose-response associations were observed for the frequency/intensity of exposure and repeated exposure to occupational factors. This study underlines the role of psychosocial work factors, including emergent factors, in psychotropic drug use. Prevention policies oriented toward psychosocial work factors comprehensively may be useful to reduce this use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences between LASL- and ANL-processed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Becker, M.

    1978-03-01

    As part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) cross-section processing development, LASL cross sections and results from MINX/1DX system are compared to the Argonne National Laboratory cross sections and results from the ETOE-2/MC 2 -2 system for a simple reactor problem. Exact perturbation theory is used to establish the eigenvalue effect of every isotope group cross-section difference. Cross sections, cross-section differences, and their eigenvalue effects are clearly and conveniently displayed and compared on a group-by-group basis

  20. Cross section homogenization analysis for a simplified Candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounders, Justin; Rahnema, Farzad; Mosher, Scott; Serghiuta, Dumitru; Turinsky, Paul; Sarsour, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    The effect of using zero current (infinite medium) boundary conditions to generate bundle homogenized cross sections for a stylized half-core Candu reactor problem is examined. Homogenized cross section from infinite medium lattice calculations are compared with cross sections homogenized using the exact flux from the reference core environment. The impact of these cross section differences is quantified by generating nodal diffusion theory solutions with both sets of cross sections. It is shown that the infinite medium spatial approximation is not negligible, and that ignoring the impact of the heterogeneous core environment on cross section homogenization leads to increased errors, particularly near control elements and the core periphery. (authors)

  1. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors: cross-sectional survey in a sample of 36,127 public sector employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2006-01-01

    Background In occupational life, a mismatch between high expenditure of effort and receiving few rewards may promote the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors, however, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which the dimensions of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model – effort, rewards and ERI – are associated with the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors. Methods Based on data from the Finnish Public Sector Study, cross-sectional analyses were performed for 28,894 women and 7233 men. ERI was conceptualized as a ratio of effort and rewards. To control for individual differences in response styles, such as a personal disposition to answer negatively to questionnaires, occupational and organizational -level ecological ERI scores were constructed in addition to individual-level ERI scores. Risk factors included current smoking, heavy drinking, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and physical inactivity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of having one risk factor, two risk factors, and three or four risk factors. The associations between ERI and single risk factors were explored using binary logistic regression models. Results After adjustment for age, socioeconomic position, marital status, and type of job contract, women and men with high ecological ERI were 40% more likely to have simultaneously ≥3 lifestyle risk factors (vs. 0 risk factors) compared with their counterparts with low ERI. When examined separately, both low ecological effort and low ecological rewards were also associated with an elevated prevalence of risk factor co-occurrence. The results obtained with the individual-level scores were in the same direction. The associations of ecological ERI with single risk factors were generally less marked than the associations with the co-occurrence of risk factors. Conclusion This study suggests that a high ratio of occupational

  2. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors: cross-sectional survey in a sample of 36,127 public sector employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elovainio Marko

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In occupational life, a mismatch between high expenditure of effort and receiving few rewards may promote the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors, however, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which the dimensions of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI model – effort, rewards and ERI – are associated with the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors. Methods Based on data from the Finnish Public Sector Study, cross-sectional analyses were performed for 28,894 women and 7233 men. ERI was conceptualized as a ratio of effort and rewards. To control for individual differences in response styles, such as a personal disposition to answer negatively to questionnaires, occupational and organizational -level ecological ERI scores were constructed in addition to individual-level ERI scores. Risk factors included current smoking, heavy drinking, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and physical inactivity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of having one risk factor, two risk factors, and three or four risk factors. The associations between ERI and single risk factors were explored using binary logistic regression models. Results After adjustment for age, socioeconomic position, marital status, and type of job contract, women and men with high ecological ERI were 40% more likely to have simultaneously ≥3 lifestyle risk factors (vs. 0 risk factors compared with their counterparts with low ERI. When examined separately, both low ecological effort and low ecological rewards were also associated with an elevated prevalence of risk factor co-occurrence. The results obtained with the individual-level scores were in the same direction. The associations of ecological ERI with single risk factors were generally less marked than the associations with the co-occurrence of risk factors. Conclusion This study suggests that a high

  3. Effort-reward imbalance at work and the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors: cross-sectional survey in a sample of 36,127 public sector employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2006-02-07

    In occupational life, a mismatch between high expenditure of effort and receiving few rewards may promote the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors, however, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which the dimensions of the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model--effort, rewards and ERI--are associated with the co-occurrence of lifestyle risk factors. Based on data from the Finnish Public Sector Study, cross-sectional analyses were performed for 28,894 women and 7233 men. ERI was conceptualized as a ratio of effort and rewards. To control for individual differences in response styles, such as a personal disposition to answer negatively to questionnaires, occupational and organizational-level ecological ERI scores were constructed in addition to individual-level ERI scores. Risk factors included current smoking, heavy drinking, body mass index > or =25 kg/m2, and physical inactivity. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of having one risk factor, two risk factors, and three or four risk factors. The associations between ERI and single risk factors were explored using binary logistic regression models. After adjustment for age, socioeconomic position, marital status, and type of job contract, women and men with high ecological ERI were 40% more likely to have simultaneously > or =3 lifestyle risk factors (vs. 0 risk factors) compared with their counterparts with low ERI. When examined separately, both low ecological effort and low ecological rewards were also associated with an elevated prevalence of risk factor co-occurrence. The results obtained with the individual-level scores were in the same direction. The associations of ecological ERI with single risk factors were generally less marked than the associations with the co-occurrence of risk factors. This study suggests that a high ratio of occupational efforts relative to rewards may be

  4. K sup + nucleus total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.

  5. Differential cross section of atomic hydrogen photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratovich, V.D.; Ostrovskij, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Differential cross-section of atomic hydrogen photoeffect in external electric field was investigated in semiclassical approximation. Interference was described. It occurred due to the fact that infinite number of photoelectron trajectories leads to any point of classically accessible motion region. Interference picture can reach macroscopic sizes. The picture is determined by location of function nodes, describing finite electron motion along one of parabolic coordinates. The squares of external picture rings are determined only by electric field intensity in the general case at rather high energies. Quantum expression for photocurrent density was obtained using Green function in superposition of Coulomb and uniform field as well as semiclassical approximation. Possible applications of macroscopic interference picture to specification of atom ionization potentials, selective detection of atoms or particular molecules, as well as weak magnetic field and observation of Aaronov-Bom effect are discussed

  6. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV

  7. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  8. ISSUES IN NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattoon, C.M.; Oblozinsky,P.

    2010-04-30

    We review neutron cross section covariances in both the resonance and fast neutron regions with the goal to identify existing issues in evaluation methods and their impact on covariances. We also outline ideas for suitable covariance quality assurance procedures.We show that the topic of covariance data remains controversial, the evaluation methodologies are not fully established and covariances produced by different approaches have unacceptable spread. The main controversy is in very low uncertainties generated by rigorous evaluation methods and much larger uncertainties based on simple estimates from experimental data. Since the evaluators tend to trust the former, while the users tend to trust the latter, this controversy has considerable practical implications. Dedicated effort is needed to arrive at covariance evaluation methods that would resolve this issue and produce results accepted internationally both by evaluators and users.

  9. Partial cross sections in H- photodetachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halka, M.

    1993-04-01

    This dissertation reports experimental measurements of partial decay cross sections in the H - photodetachment spectrum. Observed decays of the 1 P 0 H -** (n) doubly-excitedresonances to the H(N=2) continuum are reported for n=2,3, and 4 from 1990 runs in which the author participated. A recent analysis of 1989 data revealing effects of static electric fields on the partial decay spectrum above 13.5 eV is also presented. The experiments were performed at the High Resolution Atomic Beam Facility. the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, with a relativistic H - beam (β=0.842)intersecting a ND:YAG laser. Variation of the intersection angle amounts to Doppler-shifting the photon energy, allowing continuous tuning of the laser energy as viewed from the moving ions' frame

  10. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  11. Sudakov resummation of multiparton QCD cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Bonciani, R; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, P

    2003-01-01

    We present the general expressions for the resummation, up to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, of Sudakov-type logarithms in processes with an arbirtrary number of hard-scattering partons. These results document the formulae used by the authors in several previous phenomenological studies. The resummation formulae presented here, which are valid for phase-space factorizable observables, determine the resummation correction in a process-independent fashion. All process dependence is encoded in the colour and flavour structure of the leading order and virtual one-loop amplitudes, and in Sudakov weights associated to the cross section kinematics. We explicitly illustrate the application to the case of Drell--Yan and prompt-photon production.

  12. Sudakov resummation of multiparton QCD cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonciani, Roberto; Catani, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Nason, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    We present the general expressions for the resummation, up to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, of Sudakov-type logarithms in processes with an arbitrary number of hard-scattering partons. These results document the formulae used by the authors in several previous phenomenological studies. The resummation formulae presented here, which are valid for phase-space factorizable observables, determine the resummation correction in a process-independent fashion. All process dependence is encoded in the colour and flavour structure of the leading order and virtual one-loop amplitudes, and in Sudakov weights associated to the cross section kinematics. We explicitly illustrate the application to the case of Drell-Yan and prompt-photon production

  13. Electroweak Boson Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    This report summarises the ATLAS prospects for the measurement of W and Z pro- duction cross-section at the LHC. The electron and muon decay channels are considered. Focusing on the early data taking phase, strategies are presented that allow a fast and robust extraction of the signals. An overall uncertainty of about 5% can be achieved with 50 pb−1 in the W channels, where the background uncertainty dominates (the luminosity measurement uncertainty is not discussed here). In the Z channels, the expected preci- sion is 3%, the main contribution coming from the lepton selection efficiency uncertainty. Extrapolating to 1 fb−1 , the uncertainties shrink to incompressible values of 1-2%, de- pending on the final state. This irreducible uncertainty is essentially driven by strong interaction effects, notably parton distribution uncertainties and non-perturbative effects, affecting the W and Z rapidity and transverse momentum distributions. These effects can be constrained by measuring these distributions. Al...

  14. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  15. Topological supersymmetric structure of hadron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Ouvry, S.

    1980-12-01

    Recently a way of fully implementing unitarity in the framework of a Dual Topological Unitarization theory, including not only mesons but also baryons, was found. This theory consists in the topological description of hadron interactions involving confined quarks in terms of two 2-dimensional surfaces (a closed 'quantum' surface and a bounded 'classical' surface). We show that this description directly leads, at the zeroth order of the topological expansion, to certain relations between hadron cross-sections, in nice agreement with experimental data. A new topological suppression mechanism is shown to play an important dynamical role. We also point out a new topological supersymmetry property, which leads to realistic experimental consequences. A possible topological origin of the rho and ω universality relations emerges as a by-product of our study

  16. Neutron scattering cross sections of uranium-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghian, L.E.; Kegel, G.H.R.; Marcella, T.V.; Barnes, B.K.; Couchell, G.P.; Egan, J.J.; Mittler, A.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Lowell high-resolution time-of-flight spectrometer was used to measure angular distributions and 90-deg excitation functions for neutrons scattered from 238 U in the energy range from 0.9 to 3.1 MeV. This study was limited to the elastic and the first two inelastic groups, corresponding to states of 238 U at 45 keV (2 + ) and 148 keV (4 + ). Angular distributions were measured at primary neutron energies of 1.1, 1.9, 2.5, and 3.1 MeV for the same three neutron groups. Whereas the elastic data are in fair agreement with the evaluation in the ENDF/B-IV file, there is substantial disagreement between the inelastic measurements and the evaluated cross sections. 12 figures

  17. Application of cross-sectional time series modeling for the prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) in children and adolescents is required for a better understanding of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance. Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) models, which account for correlation structure of repeated observati...

  18. Fission cross-section normalization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.; Ghent Rijksuniversiteit; Deruytter, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The present measurements yield σsub(f)-data in the neutron energy from 20 MeV to 30 keV directly normalized in the thermal region. In the keV-region these data are consistent with the absolute σsub(f)-measurements of Szabo and Marquette. For the secondary normalization integral I 2 values have been obtained in agreement with those of Gwin et al. and Czirr et al. which were also directly normalized in the thermal region. For the I 1 integral, however, puzzling low values have been obtained. This was also the case for σsub(f)-bar in neutron energy intervals containing strong resonances. Three additional measurements are planned to further investigate these observations: (i) maintaining the actual approx.2π-geometry but using a 10 B-foil for the neutron flux detection (ii) using a low detection geometry with a 10 B- as well as a 6 Li-flux monitor. Only after these measurements definite conclusions on the I 1 and I 2 integrals can be formulated and final σsub(f)-bar-values can be released. The present study also gives some evidence for a correlation between the integral I 2 and the neutron flux monitor used. The influence of a normalization via I 1 or I 2 on the final cross-section has been shown. The magnitude of possible normalization errors is illustrated. Finally, since 235 U is expected to be an ''easy'' nucleus (low α-activity high σsub(f)-values), there are some indications that the important discrepancies still present in 235 U(n,f) cross-section measurements might partially be due to errors in the neutron flux determination

  19. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  20. Electron capture cross sections by O+ from atomic He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Dwayne C; Saha, Bidhan C

    2009-01-01

    The adiabatic representation is used in both the quantal and semi classical molecular orbital close coupling methods (MOCC) to evaluate charge exchange cross sections. Our results show good agreement with experimental cross sections

  1. Electron capture cross sections by O+ from atomic He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dwayne C.; Saha, Bidhan C.

    2009-11-01

    The adiabatic representation is used in both the quantal and semi classical molecular orbital close coupling methods (MOCC) to evaluate charge exchange cross sections. Our results show good agreement with experimental cross sections

  2. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  3. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, B K; Joshipura, K N; Mason, N J

    2005-01-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF 4 , C 2 F 4 , C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 8 and CF 3 I and the CF x (x 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CF x (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species

  4. Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    -known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform

  5. Measurement of Beauty Particle Lifetimes and Hadroproduction Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose an experimental search for beauty particles produced in fixed target hadronic interactions. The essential feature of the proposed experimental technique is the use of two specially designed pieces of hardware~-~a high precision ``decay detector'' and a fast secondary vertex trigger processor. If these devices perform to our expectations, we should be able to obtain sufficient data sample to address several important physics issues, including measurements of the lifetimes of charged and neutral B~mesons, the B~hadroproduction cross-section, and possibly B$^0$- $ \\bar{B} ^0 $ mixing.

  6. Cross-sectional investigation of HEMS activities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Gava, Paolo; Truhlář, Anatolij

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs) activities across Europe. METHODS: Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013) activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used......, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit...

  7. Activation cross section and isomeric cross-section ratio for the (n,2n) reaction on {sup 132,134}Ba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Junhua [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). School of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering; Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). Inst. of New Energy; Wu, Chunlei; Jiang, Li [Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry; Li, Suyuan [Hexi Univ., Zhangye (China). Inst. of New Energy

    2017-07-01

    Cross sections of the {sup 132}Ba(n,2n){sup 131m,g}Ba and {sup 134}Ba(n,2n){sup 133m,g}Ba reactions and their isomeric cross section ratios σ{sub m}/σ{sub g} have been measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. BaCO{sub 3} samples and Nb monitor foils were activated together to determine the reaction cross section and the incident neutron flux. The quasimonoenergetic neutrons beam were produced via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction at the Pd-300 Neutron Generator of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ ray spectroscopy. The pure cross section of the ground-state was derived from the absolute cross section of the metastable state and the residual nuclear decay analysis. Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical nuclear model code, TALYS-1.8 with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.

  8. Photoionization cross section of atomic and molecular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen and dissociative photoionization cross sections of molecular oxygen were measured from their respective thresholds to 120 angstrom by use of a photoionization mass spectrometer in conjunction with a spark light source. The photoionization cross sections O 2 + parent ion and O + fragment ion from neutral O 2 were obtained by a technique that eliminated the serious problem of identifying the true abundances of O + ions. These ions are generally formed with considerable kinetic energy and, because most mass spectrometers discriminate against energetic ions, true O + abundances are difficult to obtain. In the present work the relative cross sections for producing O + ions are obtained and normalized against the total cross sections in a spectral region where dissociative ionization is not possible. The fragmentation cross sections for O + were then obtained by subtraction of O 2 + cross sections from the known total photoionization cross sections. The results are compared with the previously published measurements. The absolute photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen sigma 8 /sub +/ was measured at 304 A. The actual number density of oxygen atoms within the ionization region was obtained by measuring the fraction of 0 2 molecules dissociated. This sigma/sub +/ at 304 angstrom was used to convert the relative photoinization cross sections, measured as a function of wavelength using a calibrated photodiode, to absolute cross sections. The results are compared with previous measurements and calculated cross sections. angstrom Rydberg series converging to the OII 4 P state was observed

  9. Multilevel parametrization of fissile nuclei resonance cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, A.A.; Kolesov, V.V.; Janeva, N.

    1987-01-01

    Because the resonance interference has an important influence on the resonance structure of neutron cross sections energy dependence at lowest energies, multilevel scheme of the cross section parametrization which take into account the resonance interference is used for the description with the same provisions in the regions of the interferential maximum and minimum of the resonance cross sections of the fissile nuclei

  10. Improved calculation of displacements per atom cross section in solids by gamma and electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñera, Ibrahin, E-mail: ipinera@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Cruz, Carlos M.; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Cabal, Ana E. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Espen, Piet Van; Remortel, Nick Van [University of Antwerp, CGB, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We present a calculation procedure for dpa cross section in solids under irradiation. • Improvement about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section. • Improvement about 5–50% for the electron irradiation induced dpa cross section. • More precise results (20–70%) for thin samples irradiated with electrons. - Abstract: Several authors had estimated the displacements per atom cross sections under different approximations and models, including most of the main gamma- and electron-material interaction processes. These previous works used numerical approximation formulas which are applicable for limited energy ranges. We proposed the Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method (MCCM), which relates the established theories about atom displacements to the electron and positron secondary fluence distributions calculated from the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study the MCCM procedure is adapted in order to estimate the displacements per atom cross sections for gamma and electron irradiation. The results obtained through this procedure are compared with previous theoretical calculations. An improvement in about 10–90% for the gamma irradiation induced dpa cross section is observed in our results on regard to the previous evaluations for the studied incident energies. On the other hand, the dpa cross section values produced by irradiation with electrons are improved by our calculations in about 5–50% when compared with the theoretical approximations. When thin samples are irradiated with electrons, more precise results are obtained through the MCCM (in about 20–70%) with respect to the previous studies.

  11. Formulation and Analysis of the Quantum Radar Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.

    In radar, the amount of returns that an object sends back to the receiver after being struck by an electromagnetic wave is characterized by what is known as the radar cross section, denoted by sigma typically. There are many mechanisms that affect how much radiation is reflected back in the receiver direction, such as reflectivity, physical contours and dimensions, attenuation properties of the materials, projected cross sectional area and so on. All of these characteristics are lumped together in a single value of sigma, which has units of m2. Stealth aircrafts for example are designed to minimize its radar cross section and return the smallest amount of radiation possible in the receiver direction. A new concept has been introduced called quantum radar, that uses correlated quantum states of photons as well as the unique properties of quantum mechanics to ascertain information on a target at a distance. At the time of writing this dissertation, quantum radar is very much in its infancy. There still exist fundamental questions about the feasibility of its implementation, especially in the microwave spectrum. However, what has been theoretically determined, is that quantum radar has a fundamental advantage over classical radar in terms of resolution and returns in certain regimes. Analogous to the classical radar cross section (CRCS), the concept of the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) has been introduced. This quantity measures how an object looks to a quantum radar be describing how a single photon, or small cluster of photons scatter off of a macroscopic target. Preliminary simulations of the basic quantum radar cross section equation have yielded promising results showing an advantage in sidelobe response in comparison to the classical RCS. This document expands upon this idea by providing insight as to where this advantage originates, as well as developing more rigorous simulation analysis, and greatly expanding upon the theory. The expanded theory presented

  12. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: A North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Daniel D. Richter; Donald S. Ross; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Rock Ouimet; Richard A. F. Warby; Arthur H. Johnson; Henry Lin; James M. Kaste; Andrew G. Lapenis; Timothy J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest...

  13. Effective thermal neutron absorption cross section for heterogeneous mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabanska, B.; Igielski, A.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.; Woznicka, U.

    1989-01-01

    The first estimations (basing on Umiastowski's theory) of the influence of the sample heterogeneity of the effective thermal neutron absorption cross section were compared with the results obtained for the homogeneous mixture which components and concentration were the same as those of the heterogeneous sample. An experiment was prepared to determine how good this estimate is. Three artificial heterogeneous cylindrical samples (2R = H = 9 cm) were manufactured from pure silver cylinders embedded in plexiglass, keeping the Ag content and varying the size of cylinders (2R = H = 1.0 cm, 0.6 cm and 0.4 cm). Calculations performed show that the experimental effect of the sample heterogeneity can be significant. 5 figs., 5 tabs, 11 refs. (author)

  14. Comparison of integral cross section values of several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of some integral cross section values for several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format is presented. The integral cross section values are calculated with aid of the spectrum functions for a Watt fission spectrum, a 1/E spectrum and a Maxwellian spectrum. The libraries which are considered here are CCC-112B, ENDF/B-IV, DETAN74, LAPENAS and CESNEF. These 5 cross section libraries used have all the SAND-II format. (author)

  15. Continuous Extraction of Subway Tunnel Cross Sections Based on Terrestrial Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the continuous extraction of subway tunnel cross sections using terrestrial point clouds is proposed. First, the continuous central axis of the tunnel is extracted using a 2D projection of the point cloud and curve fitting using the RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm, and the axis is optimized using a global extraction strategy based on segment-wise fitting. The cross-sectional planes, which are orthogonal to the central axis, are then determined for every interval. The cross-sectional points are extracted by intersecting straight lines that rotate orthogonally around the central axis within the cross-sectional plane with the tunnel point cloud. An interpolation algorithm based on quadric parametric surface fitting, using the BaySAC (Bayesian SAmpling Consensus algorithm, is proposed to compute the cross-sectional point when it cannot be acquired directly from the tunnel points along the extraction direction of interest. Because the standard shape of the tunnel cross section is a circle, circle fitting is implemented using RANSAC to reduce the noise. The proposed approach is tested on terrestrial point clouds that cover a 150-m-long segment of a Shanghai subway tunnel, which were acquired using a LMS VZ-400 laser scanner. The results indicate that the proposed quadric parametric surface fitting using the optimized BaySAC achieves a higher overall fitting accuracy (0.9 mm than the accuracy (1.6 mm obtained by the plain RANSAC. The results also show that the proposed cross section extraction algorithm can achieve high accuracy (millimeter level, which was assessed by comparing the fitted radii with the designed radius of the cross section and comparing corresponding chord lengths in different cross sections and high efficiency (less than 3 s/section on average.

  16. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ν, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given

  17. Graphs of the cross sections in the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamon, R.E.; Soran, P.D.

    1980-06-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Alternate Monte Carlo Cross Section (AMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. The values of ν-bar, the average number of neutrons per fission, are also plotted for appropriate isotopes

  18. Accurate measurements of neutron activation cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkova, V.

    1999-01-01

    The applications of some recent achievements of neutron activation method on high intensity neutron sources are considered from the view point of associated errors of cross sections data for neutron induced reaction. The important corrections in -y-spectrometry insuring precise determination of the induced radioactivity, methods for accurate determination of the energy and flux density of neutrons, produced by different sources, and investigations of deuterium beam composition are considered as factors determining the precision of the experimental data. The influence of the ion beam composition on the mean energy of neutrons has been investigated by measurement of the energy of neutrons induced by different magnetically analysed deuterium ion groups. Zr/Nb method for experimental determination of the neutron energy in the 13-15 MeV energy range allows to measure energy of neutrons from D-T reaction with uncertainty of 50 keV. Flux density spectra from D(d,n) E d = 9.53 MeV and Be(d,n) E d = 9.72 MeV are measured by PHRS and foil activation method. Future applications of the activation method on NG-12 are discussed. (author)

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As projected in our previous proposal, the past year on the cross section project at the University of Michigan has been one primarily of construction and assembly of our 14 MeV pulsed Neutron Facility. All the components of the system have now been either purchased or fabricated in our shop facilities and have been assembled in their final configuration. We are now in the process of testing the rf components that have been designed to deliver voltage to both the pulser and buncher stages. We expect that the system will be operational by the end of the current contract year. We have also accomplished the design and construction of several other major pieces of equipment that are needed to begin fast neutron time-of-flight measurements. These include the primary proton recoil detector, and a californium fission chamber needed in the efficiency calibration of the primary detector. We have also added considerable concrete shielding designed to lower the neutron background in the experimental area. 10 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Neutron cross section measurements at ORELA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, J.W.T.

    1979-01-01

    ORELA (Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator) has been for the last decade the most powerful and useful pulsed neutron time-of-flight facility in the world, particularly in the broad midrange of neutron energies (10 eV to 1 MeV). This position will be enhanced with the addition of a pulse narrowing prebuncher, recently installed and now under test. Neutron capture, fission, scattering, and total cross sections are measured by members of the Physics and Engineering Physics Divisions of ORNL, and by numerous guests and visitors. Several fundamental and applied measurements are described, with some emphasis on instrumentation used. The facility comprises the accelerator and its target(s), 10 evacuated neutron flight paths having 18 measurement stations at flight path distances 8.9 to 200 meters, and a complex 4-computer data acquisition system capable of handling some 17,000 32-bit events/s from a total of 12 data input ports. The system provides a total of 2.08 x 10 6 words of data storage on 3 fast disk units. In addition, a dedicated PDP-10 timesharing system with a 250-megabyte disk system and 4 PDP-15 graphic display satellites permits on-site data reduction and analysis. More than 10 man-years of application software development supports the system, which is used directly by individual experiments. 12 figures, 1 table

  1. Resonance capture cross section of 207Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvar, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calvino, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapico, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillman, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Kappeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2006-01-01

    The radiative neutron capture cross section of 207Pb has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77(8)% to the solar abundance of 207Pb. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23(8)%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

  2. Josephson cross-sectional model experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchen, M.B.; Herrell, D.J.; Anderson, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the electrical design and evaluation of the Josephson cross-sectional model (CSM) experiment. The experiment served as a test vehicle to verify the operation at liquid-helium temperatures of Josephson circuits integrated in a package environment suitable for high-performance digital applications. The CSM consisted of four circuit chips assembled on two cards in a three-dimensional card-on-board package. The chips (package) were fabricated in a 2.5-μm (5-μm) minimum linewidth Pb-alloy technology. A hierarchy of solder and pluggable connectors was used to attach the parts together and to provide electrical interconnections between parts. A data path which simulated a jump control sequence and a cache access in each machine cycle was successfully operated with cycle times down to 3.7 ns. The CSM incorporated the key components of the logic, power, and package of a prototype Josephson signal processor and demonstrated the feasibility of making such a processor with a sub-4-ns cycle time

  3. Female medical leadership: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaerner, K J; Aasland, O G; Botten, G S

    1999-01-09

    To assess the relation between male and female medical leadership. Cross sectional study on predictive factors for female medical leadership with data on sex, age, specialty, and occupational status of Norwegian physicians. Oslo, Norway. 13 844 non-retired Norwegian physicians. Medical leaders, defined as physicians holding a leading position in hospital medicine, public health, academic medicine, or private health care. 14.6% (95% confidence interval 14.0% to 15.4%) of the men were leaders compared with 5.1% (4.4% to 5.9%) of the women. Adjusted for age men had a higher estimated probability of leadership in all categories of age and job, the highest being in academic medicine with 0.57 (0.42 to 0.72) for men aged over 54 years compared with 0.39 (0.21 to 0.63) for women in the same category. Among female hospital physicians there was a positive relation between the proportion of women in their specialty and the probability of leadership. Women do not reach senior positions as easily as men. Medical specialties with high proportions of women have more female leaders.

  4. New resonance cross section calculational algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Improved resonance cross section calculational algorithms were developed and tested for inclusion in a fast reactor version of the MICROX code. The resonance energy portion of the MICROX code solves the neutron slowing-down equations for a two-region lattice cell on a very detailed energy grid (about 14,500 energies). In the MICROX algorithms, the exact P 0 elastic scattering kernels are replaced by synthetic (approximate) elastic scattering kernels which permit the use of an efficient and numerically stable recursion relation solution of the slowing-down equation. In the work described here, the MICROX algorithms were modified as follows: an additional delta function term was included in the P 0 synthetic scattering kernel. The additional delta function term allows one more moments of the exact elastic scattering kernel to be preserved without much extra computational effort. With the improved synthetic scattering kernel, the flux returns more closely to the exact flux below a resonance than with the original MICROX kernel. The slowing-down calculation was extended to a true B 1 hyperfine energy grid calculatn in each region by using P 1 synthetic scattering kernels and tranport-corrected P 0 collision probabilities to couple the two regions. 1 figure, 6 tables

  5. Neutron cross section libraries for analysis of fusion neutronics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Kazuaki; Oyama, Yukio; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tomoo

    1988-03-01

    We have prepared two computer code systems producing neutron cross section libraries to analyse fusion neutronics experiments. First system produces the neutron cross section library in ANISN format, i.e., the multi-group constants in group independent format. This library can be obtained by using the multi-group constant processing code system MACS-N and the ANISN format cross section compiling code CROKAS. Second system is for the continuous energy cross section library for the MCNP code. This library can be obtained by the nuclear data processing system NJOY which generates pointwise energy cross sections and the cross section compiling code MACROS for the MCNP library. In this report, we describe the production procedures for both types of the cross section libraries, and show six libraries with different conditions in ANISN format and a library for the MCNP code. (author)

  6. Total cross section measurement of radioactive isotopes with a thin beam neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razbudej, V.F.; Vertebnyj, V.P.; Padun, G.S.; Muravitskij, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The method for measuring the neutron total cross sections of radioactive isotopes by a time-of-flight spectrometer with a narrow (0.17 mm in diameter) beam of thermal neutrons is described. The distinguishing feature of this method is the use of capillary samples with a small amount of substance (0.05-1.0 mg). The energy range is 0.01-0.3 eV. The total cross sections of irradiated samples of sub(153)Eu and sub(151)Eu are measured. From them are obtained the cross sections of sub(152)Eu (Tsub(1/2)=12.4 g) and of sub(154)E (Tsub(1/2)=8.6 yr); they equal 11400+-1400 and 1530+-190 barn at E=0.0253 eV. The cross section of the sub(152)Eu absorption for the thermal spectrum (T=333 K) is determined by the activation method; it is 8900+-1200 barn

  7. Preparation of next generation set of group cross sections. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kunio

    2002-03-01

    This fiscal year, based on the examination result about the evaluation energy range of heavy element unresolved resonance cross sections, the upper energy limit of the energy range, where ultra-fine group cross sections are produced, was raised to 50 keV, and an improvement of the group cross section processing system was promoted. At the same time, reflecting the result of studies carried out till now, a function producing delayed neutron data was added to the general-purpose group cross section processing system , thus the preparation of general purpose group cross section processing system has been completed. On the other hand, the energy structure, data constitution and data contents of next generation group cross section set were determined, and the specification of a 151 groups next generation group cross section set was defined. Based on the above specification, a concrete library format of the next generation cross section set has been determined. After having carried out the above-described work, using the general-purpose group cross section processing system , which was complete in this study, with use of the JENDL-3. 2 evaluated nuclear data, the 151 groups next generation group cross section of 92 nuclides and the ultra fine group resonance cross section library for 29 nuclides have been prepared. Utilizing the 151 groups next generation group cross section set and the ultra-fine group resonance cross-section library, a bench mark test calculation of fast reactors has been performed by using an advanced lattice calculation code. It was confirmed, by comparing the calculation result with a calculation result of continuous energy Monte Carlo code, that the 151 groups next generation cross section set has sufficient accuracy. (author)

  8. Comparison of integral cross section values of several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.

    1976-09-01

    A comparison of some integral cross-section values for several cross-section libraries in the SAND-II format is presented. The integral cross-section values are calculated with the aid of the spectrum functions for a Watt fission spectrum, a 1/E spectrum and a Maxwellian spectrum. The libraries which are considered here are CCC-112B, ENDF/B-IV, DETAN74, LAPENAS and CESNEF. These 5 cross-section libraries used have all the SAND-II format. Discrepancies between cross-sections in the different libraries are indicated but not discussed

  9. Thermal-neutron fission cross section of 26. 1-min /sup 235/U/sup m/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbert W.L. Jr.; Starner, J.W.; Estep, R.J.; Balestrini, S.J.; Attrep M. Jr.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.

    1987-11-01

    The thermal-neutron fission cross section of /sup 235/U/sup m/ has been measured relative to the ground-state cross section. A rapid radiochemical separation procedure was developed to provide sizeable (10/sup 10/ to 10/sup 11/ atom) samples that were reasonably free of the parent /sup 239/Pu. From a series of eight measurements, the value of 1.42 +- 0.04 was obtained for the ratio sigma/sub m//sigma/sub g/.

  10. Determination of equivalent cross sections for representation of control rod regions in diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, W.; Neef, H.J.

    1976-07-01

    The representation of control rod regions in reactor calculations requires a combination of transport and diffusion theory calculations. A method is described which produces equivalent cross sections for a rodded region. These cross sections used in a diffusion theory calcualtion yield the same rod efficiency and reaction rate distribution as the transport theory calculation for the explicit heterogeneous control rod. The description of the method is complemented by sample problems. (orig.) [de

  11. Perturbation analysis for Monte Carlo continuous cross section models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Chris B.; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis, including both its forward and adjoint applications, collectively referred to hereinafter as Perturbation Analysis (PA), is an essential tool to complete Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) and Data Assimilation (DA). PA-assisted UQ and DA have traditionally been carried out for reactor analysis problems using deterministic as opposed to stochastic models for radiation transport. This is because PA requires many model executions to quantify how variations in input data, primarily cross sections, affect variations in model's responses, e.g. detectors readings, flux distribution, multiplication factor, etc. Although stochastic models are often sought for their higher accuracy, their repeated execution is at best computationally expensive and in reality intractable for typical reactor analysis problems involving many input data and output responses. Deterministic methods however achieve computational efficiency needed to carry out the PA analysis by reducing problem dimensionality via various spatial and energy homogenization assumptions. This however introduces modeling error components into the PA results which propagate to the following UQ and DA analyses. The introduced errors are problem specific and therefore are expected to limit the applicability of UQ and DA analyses to reactor systems that satisfy the introduced assumptions. This manuscript introduces a new method to complete PA employing a continuous cross section stochastic model and performed in a computationally efficient manner. If successful, the modeling error components introduced by deterministic methods could be eliminated, thereby allowing for wider applicability of DA and UQ results. Two MCNP models demonstrate the application of the new method - a Critical Pu Sphere (Jezebel), a Pu Fast Metal Array (Russian BR-1). The PA is completed for reaction rate densities, reaction rate ratios, and the multiplication factor. (author)

  12. Preparation of TEM specimen by cross-section technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Shozo

    1986-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is applied to the direct observation of the depth dependent damage structure in ion-irradiated stainless steel by using the cross-section technique; obtaining the TEM specimen from a slice of the irradiated stainless steel with thick Ni plating. Here has been developed the specimen preparation method of cross-section technique without heat treatment, which was necessary in the conventional method to strengthen the bonding between Ni and stainless steel. Nickel plating with good bonding to stainless steel is enabled by the following manner. First, the irradiated stainless steel is immersed in the Wood's nickel solution at room temperature for 60s to activate the surface, followed by the stricking for 300s at a current density of 300 A/m 2 in the solution to make fine and homogeneous nucleation of Ni on the stainless steel. Then, the sample is plated with Ni in the Watt's nickel plating solution at 333 K with current density of 900 ∼ 1,000 A/m 2 . The TEM disc is obtained by mechanical slicing from the specimen with Ni plating of more than 3 mm thickness. Electropolishing is accomplished by using both Ballmann method and jet electropolishing to perforate the disc accurately at the aimed point for the observation of the damage structure. (author)

  13. Production cross sections of proton-induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The production cross sections of residual radionuclides such as {sup 86,88,89g}Zr, {sup 86g,87m,87g,88}Y, {sup 83g,85g}Sr, and {sup 83,84g}Rb in the {sup 89}Y(p,x) reaction were measured using a stacked-foil activation and offline γ-ray spectrometric technique with proton energies of 57 MeV and 69 MeV at the 100 MeV proton linac in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), Gyeongju, Korea. The induced activities of the activated samples were measured using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and the proton flux was determined using the {sup nat}Cu(p,x){sup 62}Zn reaction. The measured data was compared with other experimental data and the data from the TENLD-2015 library based on the TALYS code. The present results are generally lower than those in literature, but are found to be in agreement with the shape of the excitation functions. The integral yields for the thick target using the measured cross sections are given.

  14. MUTIL, Asymmetry Factor of Mott Cross-Sections for Electron, Positron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The asymmetry factor S of Mott's differential cross section for the scattering of electrons and positrons by point nuclei without screening is calculated for any energy, atomic number and angle of scattering. 2 - Method of solution: We have summed the conditionally convergent series, F and G, appearing in the asymmetry factor using two consecutive transformations: The one of Yennie, Ravenhall and Wilson and that of Euler till we have seven times six significant figures repeated in the factor S. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Those appearing in the use of Mott's cross section for unscreened point nuclei

  15. High variability of HIV and HCV seroprevalence and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs: results from a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in eight German cities (2011–14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wenz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who inject drugs (PWID are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV due to sharing injection paraphernalia and unprotected sex. To generate seroprevalence data on HIV and HCV among PWID and related data on risk behaviour, a multicentre sero- and behavioural survey using respondent driven sampling (RDS was conducted in eight German cities between 2011 and 2014. We also evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of RDS for recruiting PWID in the study cities. Methods Eligible for participation were people who had injected drugs within the last 12 months, were 16 years or older, and who consumed in one of the study cities. Participants were recruited, using low-threshold drop-in facilities as study sites. Initial seeds were selected to represent various sub-groups of people who inject drugs (PWID. Participants completed a face-to-face interview with a structured questionnaire about socio-demographics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours, as well as the utilisation of health services. Capillary blood samples were collected as dried blood spots and were anonymously tested for serological and molecular markers of HIV and HCV. The results are shown as range of proportions (min. and max. values (% in the respective study cities. For evaluation of the sampling method we applied criteria from the STROBE guidelines. Results Overall, 2,077 PWID were recruited. The range of age medians was 29–41 years, 18.5–35.3 % of participants were female, and 9.2–30.6 % were foreign born. Median time span since first injection were 10–18 years. Injecting during the last 30 days was reported by 76.0–88.4 % of participants. Sharing needle/syringes (last 30 days ranged between 4.7 and 22.3 %, while sharing unsterile paraphernalia (spoon, filter, water, last 30 days was reported by 33.0–43.8 %. A majority of participants (72.8–85.8 % reported incarceration at least once, and 17.8–39.8

  16. High variability of HIV and HCV seroprevalence and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs: results from a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling in eight German cities (2011-14).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Benjamin; Nielsen, Stine; Gassowski, Martyna; Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Cai, Wei; Ross, R Stefan; Bock, Claus-Thomas; Ratsch, Boris-Alexander; Kücherer, Claudia; Bannert, Norbert; Bremer, Viviane; Hamouda, Osamah; Marcus, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Ruth

    2016-09-05

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) due to sharing injection paraphernalia and unprotected sex. To generate seroprevalence data on HIV and HCV among PWID and related data on risk behaviour, a multicentre sero- and behavioural survey using respondent driven sampling (RDS) was conducted in eight German cities between 2011 and 2014. We also evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of RDS for recruiting PWID in the study cities. Eligible for participation were people who had injected drugs within the last 12 months, were 16 years or older, and who consumed in one of the study cities. Participants were recruited, using low-threshold drop-in facilities as study sites. Initial seeds were selected to represent various sub-groups of people who inject drugs (PWID). Participants completed a face-to-face interview with a structured questionnaire about socio-demographics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours, as well as the utilisation of health services. Capillary blood samples were collected as dried blood spots and were anonymously tested for serological and molecular markers of HIV and HCV. The results are shown as range of proportions (min. and max. values (%)) in the respective study cities. For evaluation of the sampling method we applied criteria from the STROBE guidelines. Overall, 2,077 PWID were recruited. The range of age medians was 29-41 years, 18.5-35.3 % of participants were female, and 9.2-30.6 % were foreign born. Median time span since first injection were 10-18 years. Injecting during the last 30 days was reported by 76.0-88.4 % of participants. Sharing needle/syringes (last 30 days) ranged between 4.7 and 22.3 %, while sharing unsterile paraphernalia (spoon, filter, water, last 30 days) was reported by 33.0-43.8 %. A majority of participants (72.8-85.8 %) reported incarceration at least once, and 17.8-39.8 % had injected while incarcerated. Between 30.8 and 66.2 % were

  17. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Bartolomeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013 activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA. Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60% reported base characteristics only and 73 (51% sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36% and trauma (36% prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission. Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions; endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network.

  18. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  19. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassan-Got L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  20. The abstraction of independent cross-sections from the γ activities of successively decayed daughter nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiwen; Zhang Li; Zhao Jinhua; Hu Qingyuan

    1999-01-01

    A technique for abstracting independent cross section on the basis of the γ activities from the observed isotope itself or its successively decayed daughter nuclei was developed. It is specially applicable for determining the independent cross sections of the isotope products involved in quick, element-separated samples. The authors have used it in the isotope-distribution measurement for Hg element produced in the reaction of 600-MeV 18 O beam bombarding on thick natural lead target, and a total of Hg-isotope independent cross sections more than twenty were obtained in the mass range of 180∼209. Some representative examples showing how the authors deduced these independent cross sections are given

  1. Respondent-driven sampling for identification of HIV- and HCV-infected people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men in India: A cross-sectional, community-based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil S Solomon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A major barrier to achieving ambitious targets for global control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV is low levels of awareness of infection among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM and people who inject drugs (PWID. We explored the potential of a strategy routinely used for surveillance in these groups, respondent-driven sampling (RDS, to be used as an intervention to identify HIV- and HCV-infected PWID and MSM who are unaware of their status and those who are viremic across 26 Indian cities at various epidemic stages.Data were collected as part of the baseline assessment of an ongoing cluster-randomized trial. RDS was used to accrue participants at 27 sites (15 PWID sites and 12 MSM sites selected to reflect varying stages of the HIV epidemic among MSM and PWID in India. A total of 56 seeds recruited a sample of 26,447 persons (approximately 1,000 participants per site between October 1, 2012, and December 19, 2013. Across MSM sites (n = 11,997, the median age was 25 years and the median number of lifetime male partners was 8. Across PWID sites (n = 14,450, 92.4% were male, the median age was 30 years, and 87.5% reported injection in the prior 6 months. RDS identified 4,051 HIV-infected persons, of whom 2,325 (57.4% were unaware of their HIV infection and 2,816 (69.5% were HIV viremic. It also identified 5,777 HCV-infected persons, of whom 5,337 (92.4% were unaware that they were infected with HCV and 4,728 (81.8% were viremic. In the overall sample (both MSM and PWID, the prevalence of HIV-infected persons who were unaware of their status increased with sampling depth, from 7.9% in participants recruited in waves 1 through 5 to 12.8% among those recruited in waves 26 and above (p-value for trend < 0.001. The overall detection rate of people unaware of their HIV infection was 0.5 persons per day, and the detection rate of HIV-infected persons with viremia (regardless of their awareness status was 0.7 per day. The detection

  2. Respondent-driven sampling for identification of HIV- and HCV-infected people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men in India: A cross-sectional, community-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sunil S; McFall, Allison M; Lucas, Gregory M; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Kumar, Muniratnam S; Anand, Santhanam; Quinn, Thomas C; Celentano, David D; Mehta, Shruti H

    2017-11-01

    A major barrier to achieving ambitious targets for global control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is low levels of awareness of infection among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID). We explored the potential of a strategy routinely used for surveillance in these groups, respondent-driven sampling (RDS), to be used as an intervention to identify HIV- and HCV-infected PWID and MSM who are unaware of their status and those who are viremic across 26 Indian cities at various epidemic stages. Data were collected as part of the baseline assessment of an ongoing cluster-randomized trial. RDS was used to accrue participants at 27 sites (15 PWID sites and 12 MSM sites) selected to reflect varying stages of the HIV epidemic among MSM and PWID in India. A total of 56 seeds recruited a sample of 26,447 persons (approximately 1,000 participants per site) between October 1, 2012, and December 19, 2013. Across MSM sites (n = 11,997), the median age was 25 years and the median number of lifetime male partners was 8. Across PWID sites (n = 14,450), 92.4% were male, the median age was 30 years, and 87.5% reported injection in the prior 6 months. RDS identified 4,051 HIV-infected persons, of whom 2,325 (57.4%) were unaware of their HIV infection and 2,816 (69.5%) were HIV viremic. It also identified 5,777 HCV-infected persons, of whom 5,337 (92.4%) were unaware that they were infected with HCV and 4,728 (81.8%) were viremic. In the overall sample (both MSM and PWID), the prevalence of HIV-infected persons who were unaware of their status increased with sampling depth, from 7.9% in participants recruited in waves 1 through 5 to 12.8% among those recruited in waves 26 and above (p-value for trend people unaware of their HIV infection was 0.5 persons per day, and the detection rate of HIV-infected persons with viremia (regardless of their awareness status) was 0.7 per day. The detection rate of HIV viremic individuals was

  3. Prevalence of HIV, STIs, and risk behaviors in a cross-sectional community- and clinic-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Konda, Kelika A; Salvatierra, H Javier; Segura, Eddy R; Hall, Eric R; Montano, Silvia M; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeff D; Caceres, Carlos F; Clark, Jesse L

    2013-01-01

    Further research is necessary to understand the factors contributing to the high prevalence of HIV/STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. We compared HIV/STI prevalence and risk factors between two non-probability samples of MSM, one passively enrolled from an STI clinic and the other actively enrolled from community venues surrounding the clinic in Lima, Peru. A total of 560 self-identified MSM were enrolled between May-December, 2007. 438 subjects enrolled from a municipal STI clinic and 122 subjects enrolled during community outreach visits. All participants underwent screening for HIV, syphilis, HSV-2, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia and completed a survey assessing their history of HIV/STIs, prior HIV testing, and sexual behavior. HIV prevalence was significantly higher among MSM enrolled from the clinic, with previously undiagnosed HIV identified in 9.1% compared with 2.6% of community participants. 15.4 % of all MSM screened were infected with ≥ 1 curable STI, 7.4% with early syphilis (RPR ≥ 1:16) and 5.5% with urethral gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia. No significant differences between populations were reported in prevalence of STIs, number of male sex partners, history of unprotected anal intercourse, or alcohol and/or drug use prior to sex. Exchange of sex for money or goods was reported by 33.5% of MSM enrolled from the clinic and 21.2% of MSM from the community (p = 0.01). Our data demonstrate that the prevalence of HIV and STIs, including syphilis, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia are extremely high among MSM enrolled from both clinic and community venues in urban Peru. New strategies are needed to address differences in HIV/STI epidemiology between clinic- and community-enrolled samples of MSM.

  4. Polynomial parameterized representation of macroscopic cross section for PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiel, Joao Claudio B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe, by means of Tchebychev polynomial, a parameterized representation of the homogenized macroscopic cross section for PWR fuel element as a function of soluble boron concentration, moderator temperature, fuel temperature, moderator density and 235 U 92 enrichment. Analyzed cross sections are: fission, scattering, total, transport, absorption and capture. This parameterization enables a quick and easy determination of the problem-dependent cross-sections to be used in few groups calculations. The methodology presented here will enable to provide cross-sections values to perform PWR core calculations without the need to generate them based on computer code calculations using standard steps. The results obtained by parameterized cross-sections functions, when compared with the cross-section generated by SCALE code calculations, or when compared with K inf , generated by MCNPX code calculations, show a difference of less than 0.7 percent. (author)

  5. Average cross sections for the 252Cf neutron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezso, Z.; Csikai, J.

    1977-01-01

    A number of average cross sections have been measured for 252 Cf neutrons in (n, γ), (n,p), (n,2n), (n,α) reactions by the activation method and for fission by fission chamber. Cross sections have been determined for 19 elements and 45 reactions. The (n,γ) cross section values lie in the interval from 0.3 to 200 mb. The data as a function of target neutron number increases up to about N=60 with minimum near to dosed shells. The values lie between 0.3 mb and 113 mb. These cross sections decrease significantly with increasing the threshold energy. The values are below 20 mb. The data do not exceed 10 mb. Average (n,p) cross sections as a function of the threshold energy and average fission cross sections as a function of Zsup(4/3)/A are shown. The results obtained are summarized in tables

  6. Criticality benchmark comparisons leading to cross-section upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Annese, C.E.; Heinrichs, D.P.; Lloyd, W.R.; Lent, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    For several years criticality benchmark calculations with COG. COG is a point-wise Monte Carlo code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It solves the Boltzmann equation for the transport of neutrons and photons. The principle consideration in developing COG was that the resulting calculation would be as accurate as the point-wise cross-sectional data, since no physics computational approximations were used. The objective of this paper is to report on COG results for criticality benchmark experiments in concert with MCNP comparisons which are resulting in corrections an upgrades to the point-wise ENDL cross-section data libraries. Benchmarking discrepancies reported here indicated difficulties in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Livermore (ENDL) cross-sections for U-238 at thermal neutron energy levels. This led to a re-evaluation and selection of the appropriate cross-section values from several cross-section sets available (ENDL, ENDF/B-V). Further cross-section upgrades anticipated

  7. Calculation of atom displacement cross section for structure material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Xu Yiping

    2015-01-01

    The neutron radiation damage in material is an important consideration of the reactor design. The radiation damage of materials mainly comes from atom displacements of crystal structure materials. The reaction cross sections of charged particles, cross sections of displacements per atom (DPA) and KERMA are the basis of radiation damage calculation. In order to study the differences of DPA cross sections with different codes and different evaluated nuclear data libraries, the DPA cross sections for structure materials were calculated with UNF and NJOY codes, and the comparisons of results were given. The DPA cross sections from different evaluated nuclear data libraries were compared. And the comparison of DPA cross sections between NJOY and Monte Carlo codes was also done. The results show that the differences among these evaluated nuclear data libraries exist. (authors)

  8. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godeau Emmanuelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable

  9. Measurement of reaction cross sections of {sup 129}I induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The cross sections were measured for the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I and {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reactions by DT neutrons, at OKTAVIAN facility of Osaka University, Japan. The foil activation method was used in the measurement. The sample was a sealed source of {sup 129}I, which was covered with a Cd foil. The irradiations were performed for 75 minutes to obtain the cross section of reaction producing {sup 128}I (T{sub 1/2}=24.99m) and 22 hours for the {sup 130}I (T{sub 1/2}=12.36h), respectively. The gamma-rays emitted from the irradiated sample were measured with a high purity Ge detector. The measured cross sections of {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I and {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reactions were 0.92{+-}0.11 barn and 0.013{+-}0.002 barn, respectively. For the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction, the evaluation of JENDL-3.2 overestimates cross section about 60% to the experimental result. However, especially for the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}) reaction, the measured cross section may include the contribution from the neutrons in MeV region as well as epithermal ones. Also, the obtained cross section of the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reaction was evaluated as an effective production cross section of {sup 130}I including {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130m}I reaction. In order to remove the contribution from the epithermal and MeV region neutrons. A new method was proposed for the measurement of (n,{gamma}) reaction cross section. (author)

  10. Health- and Taste-Related Attitudes Associated with Dietary Patterns in a Representative Sample of Polish Girls and Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study (GEBaHealth Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Lonnie, Marta; Wadolowska, Lidia; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2018-02-23

    Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13-21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS) and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs), derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were 'Traditional Polish', 'Fruit and vegetables', 'Fast food and sweets' and 'Dairy and fats'. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from -0.28 for attitudes towards health and 'Fast food and sweets' and 'Traditional Polish' DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the 'Fruit and vegetables' DP ( p girls and young women, positive attitudes towards health should be strengthened and supported by emphasizing the sensory values of pro-healthy foods.

  11. AXMIX, ANISN Cross-Sections Mixing, Transport Corrections, Data Library Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Mixing, changing table length, adjoining, making scattering order adjustments (PN delta function subtraction), and transport corrections of ANISN-type cross sections, and management of cross section data sets and libraries. 2 - Method of solution: The number of energy groups which will fit into the core allocated is determined first. If all groups will fit, the solution is straightforward. If not, then the maximum number of groups which will fit is processed repeatedly using direct access I/O and storage disks. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Some flexibility in applying AXMIX is lost when cross sections to be processed contain up-scatter. A special section on up-scatter is therefore included in the report

  12. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.

  13. Total cross sections for heavy flavour production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We compute total cross sections for charm and bottom photoproduction at HERA energies, and discuss the relevant theoretical uncertainties. In particular we discuss the problems arising from the small-x region, the uncertainties in the gluon parton density, and the uncertainties in the hadronic component of the cross section. Total electroproduction cross sections, calculated in the Weizs\\"acker-Williams approximation, are also given.

  14. Compact fitting formulas for electron-impact cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Compact fitting formulas, which contain four fitting constants, are presented for electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections of atoms and ions. These formulas can fit experimental and theoretical cross sections remarkably well, when resonant structures are smoothed out, from threshold to high incident electron energies (<10 keV), beyond which relativistic formulas are more appropriate. Examples of fitted cross sections for some atoms and ions are presented. The basic form of the formula is valid for both atoms and molecules

  15. Precise measurements of neutron capture cross sections for FP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Katoh, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross sections (σ 0 ) and the resonance integrals (I 0 ) of some fission products (FP), such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs, were measured by the activation and γ-ray spectroscopic methods. Moreover, the cross section measurements were done for other FP elements, such as 127 I, 133 Cs and 134 Cs. This paper provides the summary of the FP cross section measurements, which have been performed by authors. (author)

  16. Distorted eikonal cross sections: A time-dependent view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    For Hamiltonians with two potentials, differential cross sections are written as time-correlation functions of reference and distorted transition operators. Distorted eikonal differential cross sections are defined in terms of straight-line and reference classical trajectories. Both elastic and inelastic results are obtained. Expressions for the inelastic cross sections are presented in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions through the use of the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method

  17. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended

  18. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.

    2005-03-01

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross sections for five different sizes of the solid angles in steps from 99.1 to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  19. Discussion of electron cross sections for transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with selected aspects of the cross sections needed as input for transport calculations and for the modeling of radiation effects in biological materials. Attention is centered mainly on the cross sections for inelastic interactions between electrons and water molecules and the use of these cross sections for the calculation of energy degradation spectra and of ionization and excitation yields. 40 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  20. On the contradiction between the microscopic and integral data for fast neutron absorption cross-section for 238U nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van'kov, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The contradiction between a measured integral neutron absorption cross-section averaged over a fast reactor spectrum and the corresponding value which was calculated with the use of evaluated microscopic cross-sections and a theoretical neutron spectrum has been investigated. The possible systematic error of a correction factor which takes into account multiple resonance neutron scattering in samples used in the measurement of the absorption cross-section is investigated. It is proposed that this error may be one of the main reason for the contradiction mentioned above which arises in the measurement of the 236 U neutron absorption cross-section. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  1. Poor expectations of knee replacement benefit are associated with modifiable psychological factors and influence the decision to have surgery: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of a community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Daniel L; Golladay, Gregory J; Hayes, Amanda; Ghomrawi, Hassan M K

    2017-03-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a highly effective surgery, but is underutilized by some patient groups. This study determined factors associated with a person's expectations with respect to pain and walking function following a TKA procedure, should they elect to undergo a TKA. A total of 3542 people were studied with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis and enrolled in the community-based Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified demographic, socioeconomic, osteoarthritis-related, joint replacement awareness, and psychological correlates as poor outcome expectations. Logistic regression determined if outcome expectation was associated with future knee arthroplasty utilization. Approximately 25% of the sample expected a poor outcome. Several factors were associated with poor pain outcome expectation, with the most powerful being African American race (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.11, 95% CI=1.69, 2.64) and an interaction between clinical depression symptoms and pain catastrophizing (OR=3.17, 95% CI=2.26, 4.44 when both were coded 'yes'). Whether a person had knee OA did not affect expectations. Pain outcome expectations were strongly associated with future TKA utilization (OR=4.9, 95% CI=2.2, 11.1). A variety of modifiable psychological factors impact people's expectations of the extent of pain and walking difficulty following a potential future TKA. Expectations strongly predict future TKA utilization. Given the high prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, mass media educational interventions for the population may assist in better aligning expectations with evidence-based knee arthroplasty outcomes and lead to more appropriate utilization of an effective procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematics of fission cross sections at the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The systematics was obtained with fitting experimental data for proton induced fission cross sections of Ag, {sup 181}Ta, {sup 197}Au, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu above 20 MeV. The low energy cross section of actinoid nuclei is omitted from systematics study, since the cross section has a complicated shape and strongly depends on characteristic of nucleus. The fission cross sections calculated by the systematics are in good agreement with experimental data. (author)

  3. Fragmentation cross sections outside the limiting-fragmentation regime

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2003-01-01

    The empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, has been successfully applied to estimate fragment production cross sections in reactions of heavy ions at high incident energies. It is checked whether a similar parametrization can be found for proton-induced spallation around 1 GeV, the range of interest for ISOL-type RIB facilities. The validity of EPAX for medium-energy heavy-ion induced reactions is also checked. Only a few datasets are available, but in general EPAX predicts the cross sections rather well, except for fragments close to the projectile, where the experimental cross sections are found to be larger.

  4. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  5. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented

  6. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  7. Adjustement of multigroup cross sections using fast reactor integral data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renke, C.A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology for the adjustment of multigroup cross section is presented, structured with aiming to compatibility the limitated number of measured values of integral parameters known and disponible, and the great number of cross sections to be adjusted the group of cross section used is that obtained from the Carnaval II calculation system, understanding as formular the sets of calculation methods and data bases. The adjustment is realized, using the INCOAJ computer code, developed in function of one statistical formulation, structural from the bayer considerations, taking in account the measurement processes of cross section and integral parameters defined on statistical bases. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Neutron cross section measurements for the Fast Breeder Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, R.C.

    1979-06-01

    This research was concerned with the measurement of neutron cross sections of importance to the Fast Breeder Reactor. The capture and total cross sections of fission products ( 101 102 104 Ru, 143 145 Nd, 149 Sm, 95 97 Mo, Cs, Pr, Pd, 107 Pd, 99 Tc) and tag gases (Kr, 78 80 Kr) were measured up to 100 keV. Filtered neutron beams were used to measure the capture cross section of 238 U (with an Fe filter) and the total cross section of Na (with a Na filter). A radioactive neutron capture detector was developed. A list of publications is included

  9. Measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section of minor-actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Naohiro

    1997-03-01

    In fuel cycles with recycled actinide, core characteristics are largely influenced by minor actinide (MA: Np, Am, Cm). Accurate nuclear data of MA such as fission cross section are required to estimate the effect of MA with high accuracy. In this study, fast neutron induced fission cross section of MA is measured using Dynamitron Accelerator in Tohoku University. The experimental method and the samples, which were developed or introduced during the last year, were improved in this fiscal year: (1) Development of a sealed fission chamber, (2) Intensification of Li neutron target, (3) Improvement of time-resolution of Time-of-Flight (TOF) electronic circuit, (4) Introduction of Np237 samples with large sample mass and (5) Introduction of a U235 sample with high purity. Using these improved tools and samples, the fission cross section ratio of Np237 relative to U235 was measured between 5 to 100 keV, and the fission cross section of Np237 was deduced. On the other hand, samples of Am241 and Am243 were obtained from Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) after investigating fission cross section of two americium isotopes (Am241 and Am 243) which are important for core physics calculation of fast reactors. (author)

  10. Health- and Taste-Related Attitudes Associated with Dietary Patterns in a Representative Sample of Polish Girls and Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study (GEBaHealth Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnie, Marta; Wadolowska, Lidia; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13–21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS) and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs), derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were ‘Traditional Polish’, ‘Fruit and vegetables’, ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Dairy and fats’. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from −0.28 for attitudes towards health and ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Traditional Polish’ DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (p food and sweets’ DP (OR: 10.93; 95% CI: 3.32–36.01) and between positive attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (OR: 5.10; 3.11–8.37). The strongest associations within taste-related HTAS subscales were observed between positive attitudes towards craving for sweet foods and the ‘Traditional Polish’ DP (OR: 1.93; 1.43–2.61) and between positive attitudes towards using food as a reward and the ‘Dairy and fats’ DP (OR: 2.08; 1.22–3.55) as well as the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 2.07; 1.14–3.74). Positive attitudes towards health were associated with a pro-healthy dietary pattern characterised by the consumption of

  11. Rasch analysis of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC among a heterogeneous sample of long-term cancer survivors: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucca Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC is a well-recognised, popular measure of coping in psycho-oncology and assesses five cancer-specific coping strategies. It has been suggested that these five subscales could be grouped to form the over-arching adaptive and maladptive coping subscales to facilitate the interpretation and clinical application of the scale. Despite the popularity of the mini-MAC, few studies have examined its psychometric properties among long-term cancer survivors, and further validation of the mini-MAC is needed to substantiate its use with the growing population of survivors. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the mini-MAC in a sample of long-term cancer survivors using Rasch analysis. Methods RUMM 2030 was used to analyse the mini-MAC data (n=851. Separate Rasch analyses were conducted for each of the original mini-MAC subscales as well as the over-arching adaptive and maladaptive coping subscales to examine summary and individual model fit statistics, person separation index (PSI, response format, local dependency, targeting, item bias (or differential item functioning -DIF, and dimensionality. Results For the fighting spirit, fatalism, and helplessness-hopelessness subscales, a revised three-point response format seemed more optimal than the original four-point response. To achieve model fit, items were deleted from four of the five subscales – Anxious Preoccupation items 7, 25, and 29; Cognitive Avoidance items 11 and 17; Fighting Spirit item 18; and Helplessness-Hopelessness items 16 and 20. For those subscales with sufficient items, analyses supported unidimensionality. Combining items to form the adaptive and maladaptive subscales was partially supported. Conclusions The original five subscales required item deletion and/or rescaling to improve goodness of fit to the Rasch model. While evidence was found for overarching subscales of

  12. Rasch analysis of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC) among a heterogeneous sample of long-term cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Alison; Lambert, Sylvie D; Boyes, Allison W; Pallant, Julie F

    2012-05-20

    The mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC) is a well-recognised, popular measure of coping in psycho-oncology and assesses five cancer-specific coping strategies. It has been suggested that these five subscales could be grouped to form the over-arching adaptive and maladptive coping subscales to facilitate the interpretation and clinical application of the scale. Despite the popularity of the mini-MAC, few studies have examined its psychometric properties among long-term cancer survivors, and further validation of the mini-MAC is needed to substantiate its use with the growing population of survivors. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the mini-MAC in a sample of long-term cancer survivors using Rasch analysis. RUMM 2030 was used to analyse the mini-MAC data (n=851). Separate Rasch analyses were conducted for each of the original mini-MAC subscales as well as the over-arching adaptive and maladaptive coping subscales to examine summary and individual model fit statistics, person separation index (PSI), response format, local dependency, targeting, item bias (or differential item functioning -DIF), and dimensionality. For the fighting spirit, fatalism, and helplessness-hopelessness subscales, a revised three-point response format seemed more optimal than the original four-point response. To achieve model fit, items were deleted from four of the five subscales - Anxious Preoccupation items 7, 25, and 29; Cognitive Avoidance items 11 and 17; Fighting Spirit item 18; and Helplessness-Hopelessness items 16 and 20. For those subscales with sufficient items, analyses supported unidimensionality. Combining items to form the adaptive and maladaptive subscales was partially supported. The original five subscales required item deletion and/or rescaling to improve goodness of fit to the Rasch model. While evidence was found for overarching subscales of adaptive and maladaptive coping, extensive modifications were

  13. Health- and Taste-Related Attitudes Associated with Dietary Patterns in a Representative Sample of Polish Girls and Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study (GEBaHealth Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalkowska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13–21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs, derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, were ‘Traditional Polish’, ‘Fruit and vegetables’, ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Dairy and fats’. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES, and body mass index (BMI. The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from −0.28 for attitudes towards health and ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Traditional Polish’ DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (p < 0.05. In the logistic regression analysis, the strongest associations within health-related HTAS subscales were observed between negative attitudes towards natural products and the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 10.93; 95% CI: 3.32–36.01 and between positive attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (OR: 5.10; 3.11–8.37. The strongest associations within taste-related HTAS subscales were observed between positive attitudes towards craving for sweet foods and the ‘Traditional Polish’ DP (OR: 1.93; 1.43–2.61 and between positive attitudes towards using food as a reward and the ‘Dairy and fats’ DP (OR: 2.08; 1

  14. Measurement of Dijet Cross Sections in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Becker, J.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Mangano, S.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2002-01-01

    Dijet cross sections as functions of several jet observables are measured in photoproduction using the H1 detector at HERA. The data sample comprises e^+p data with an integrated luminosity of 34.9 pb^(-1). Jets are selected using the inclusive k_T algorithm with a minimum transverse energy of 25 GeV for the leading jet. The phase space covers longitudinal proton momentum fraction x_p and photon longitudinal momentum fraction x_gamma in the ranges 0.05

  15. Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms: nitrogen as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Hua, Wu; Jian-Min, Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Interference effects on the photoionization cross sections between two neighbouring atoms are considered based on the coherent scattering of the ionized electrons by the two nuclei when their separation is less than or comparable to the de Broglie wave length of the ionized electrons. As an example, the single atomic nitrogen ionization cross section and the total cross sections of two nitrogen atoms with coherently added photoionization amplitudes are calculated from the threshold to about 60 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm) of the photon energy. The photoionization cross sections of atomic nitrogen are obtained by using the close-coupling R-matrix method. In the calculation 19 states are included. The ionization energy of the atomic nitrogen and the photoionization cross sections agree well with the experimental results. Based on the R-matrix results of atomic nitrogen, the interference effects between two neighbouring nitrogen atoms are obtained. It is shown that the interference effects are considerable when electrons are ionized just above the threshold, even for the separations between the two atoms are larger than two times of the bond length of N 2 molecules. Therefore, in hot and dense samples, effects caused by the coherent interference between the neighbours are expected to be observable for the total photoionization cross sections. (atomic and molecular physics)

  16. Integral-capture measurements and cross-section adjustments for Nd, Sm, and Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Schmittroth, F.; Harker, Y.D.

    1981-07-01

    Integral-capture reaction rates are reported for 143 Nd, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, 147 Sm, 151 Eu, 152 Eu, 153 Eu, and 154 Eu irradiated in different neutron spectra in EBR-II. These reaction rates are based primarily on mass-spectrometric measurements of the isotopic atom ratios of the capture product to the target nuclide. The neutron spectra are characterized using passive neutron dosimetry and spectrum-unfolding with the FERRET least-squares data analysis code. Reaction rates for the neutron spectrum monitors were determined by the radiometric technique using Ge(Li) spectrometers. These rates are also reported here. The integral data for the rare-earth samples and for the spectrum monitors were used in multigroup flux/cross-section adtustment analyses with FERRET to generate adjustments to 47 group representations of the ENDF/B-IV capture cross sections for the rare-earth isotopes. These adjusted cross sections are in good agreement with recent differential data and with adjusted cross sections based on STEK integral data. Examples are given of the use of the adjusted cross sections and covariance matrices for cross-section evaluation

  17. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llovet, Xavier, E-mail: xavier@ccit.ub.edu [Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluís Solé i Sabarís 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Powell, Cedric J. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States); Salvat, Francesc [Facultat de Física (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jablonski, Aleksander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  18. Measurements of prompt charm production cross-sections in pp collisions at √s=5 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d’Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baszczyk, M.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M. O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. F.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D’Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall’Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Déléage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hatch, M.; Head, T.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, H.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kozachuk, A.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Mussini, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O’Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J.G.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubert, K.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J.P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T’Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Toriello, F.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2017-01-01

    Production cross-sections of prompt charm mesons are measured using data from pp collisions at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 5 TeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 8.60 ± 0.33 pb−1 collected by the LHCb experiment. The production cross-sections of D0, D+, Ds +, and

  19. Measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section of minor-actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Naohiro

    2000-06-01

    In fuel cycles with recycled actinide, core characteristics are largely influenced by minor actinide (MA: Np, Am, Cm). Accurate nuclear data of MA such as fission cross section are required to estimate the effect of MA with high accuracy. In this study, fast neutron induced fission cross section of MA is measured using Dynamitron accelerator in Tohoku University. The followings were performed in this fiscal year; (1) Research of nuclear data of MA, (2) Sample preparation and sample mass assay, (3) Investigation of neutron sources with the energy of several 10 keV, (4) Preliminary measurement of fission cross section using Dynamitron accelerator. As the result, four 237 Np samples were prepared and the sample mass were measured using alpha-spectrometry with the accuracy of 1.2%. Then, it was confirmed that a neutron source via 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction using a Li-thick target is suitable for measuring fission cross section of MA in the energy region of several 10 keV. Furthermore, it was verified by the preliminary measurement that the measurement of fission cross section of MA is available using a fission chamber and electronics developed in this study. (author)

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility: A Cross Sectional Examination of Incentivization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    which address organizational behavior: Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ), Expense Preference Approach (EPA), Resource Dependency Theory (RDT...i V *>V CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY : A CROSS SECTIONAL EXAMINATION OF INCENTIVIZATION THESIS Jennifer A. Block, B.S. First Lieutenant, USAF...Distribution/ Availability Codes Dist m Avail and/or Special \\&\\W 0\\1 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY : A CROSS SECTIONAL EXAMINATION OF

  1. 238U subthreshold neutron induced fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.; Perez, R.B.; De Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Ingle, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    High resolution measurements of the 238 U neutron induced fission cross section are reported for neutron energies between 600 eV and 2 MeV. The average subthreshold fission cross section between 10 and 100 keV was found to be 44 +- 6 μb

  2. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  3. Photoionization cross sections: present status and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    The existing experimental data situation for photoionization cross section of ground-state atoms, excited states and positive ions is reviewed. The ability of theory to predict these cross sections is also discussed. The likely progress for the near future is presented [pt

  4. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  5. Tearing mode stability of tokamak plasmas with elliptical cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Lynch, V.E.

    1981-02-01

    The effect of the ellipticity of the plasma cross section on tearing mode stability is investigated. The induced coupling between modes is shown to be destabilizing; however, the modification of the equilibrium tends to stabilize the tearing modes. The net effect depends on the manner in which the equilibrium is modified as the plasma cross-section shape is changed

  6. Simplified polynomial representation of cross sections for reactor calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.M.; Sakai, M.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown a simplified representation of a cross section library generated by transport theory using the cell model of Wigner-Seitz for typical PWR fuel elements. The effect of burnup evolution through tables of reference cross sections and the effect of the variation of the reactor operation parameters considered by adjusted polynomials are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Graphs of neutron cross section data for fusion reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shigeya

    1979-03-01

    Graphs of neutron cross section data relevant to fusion reactor development are presented. Nuclides and reaction types in the present compilation are based on a WRENDA request list from Japan for fusion reactor development. The compilation contains various partial cross sections for 55 nuclides from 6 Li to 237 Np in the energy range up to 20 MeV. (author)

  8. Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mental data cross-section with the theoretical codes, to study the quality of the theoretical ... the cross-section, angular distribution, double differential data, gamma ..... TALYS. TENDL. Figure 6. Excitation function of the 87Sr(p, 2n)86Y reaction.

  9. Differential bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Haakon A.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed differential cross sections for high energy bremsstrahlung and pair production are derived with specific attention to the differences between the two processes, which are considerable. For the integrated cross sections, which are the only cross sections specifically known until now, the final state integration theorem guarantees that the exact cross section formulas can be exchanged between bremsstrahlung and pair production by the same substitution rules as for the Born-approximation Bethe-Heitler cross sections, for any amount of atomic screening. In fact the theorem states that the Coulomb corrections to the integrated bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections are identical for any amount of screening. The analysis of the basic differential cross sections leads to fundamental physical differences between bremsstrahlung and pair production. Coulomb corrections occur for pair production in the strong electric field of the atom for 'large' momentum transfer of the order of mc. For bremsstrahlung, on the other hand, the Coulomb corrections take place at a 'large' distance from the atom of the order of ((ℎ/2π)/mc)ε, with a 'small' momentum transfer mc/ε, where ε is the initial electron energy in units of mc 2 . And the Coulomb corrections can be large, of the order of larger than (Z/137) 2 , which is considerably larger than the integrated cross section corrections

  10. Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2002-01-01

    Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.

  11. pp production cross sections and the constraint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, J.C.; Santoro, A.F.S.; Souza, M.H.G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of constructing production cross sections that satisfy the constraints represented by the first few moments is shown to give an excellent account of the data when applied to the high energy pp production cross section ν sub(n) (s) plotted as functions of n. (Author) [pt

  12. The 10B(n,α)7Li cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The data base relevant to an evaluation of the 10 B(n,α) standard cross sections have been improved through interlaboratory collaboration. Changes in the evaluated 10 B(n,α) cross sections resulted form the measurements made since the ENDF/B-VI evaluation have been estimated. 12 refs, 4 figs

  13. Systematics of new isotopic production cross sections from neon projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.X.; Guzik, T.G.; McMahon, M.; Wefel, J.P.; Flores, I.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Tull, C.E.; Mitchell, J.W.; Cronqvist, M.; Crawford, H.J.

    1996-02-01

    New isotopic production cross sections from 22 Ne projectiles at 377,581 and 891 MeV/nucleon in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured. These data allow to investigate the projectile energy and nuclear composition dependence of the cross sections. The comparisons between data and predictions can have important consequences in source abundance investigations. (K.A.)

  14. Systematics of new isotopic production cross sections from neon projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C X; Guzik, T G; McMahon, M; Wefel, J P [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Flores, I; Lindstrom, P J; Tull, C E [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, J W [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Cronqvist, M; Crawford, H J [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.; and others

    1996-02-01

    New isotopic production cross sections from {sup 22}Ne projectiles at 377,581 and 891 MeV/nucleon in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured. These data allow to investigate the projectile energy and nuclear composition dependence of the cross sections. The comparisons between data and predictions can have important consequences in source abundance investigations. (K.A.). 9 refs.

  15. Fusion cross sections from measurements of delayed X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.J.; Gregorio, D.E. di; Fernandez Niello, J.O; Elgue, M.

    1988-01-01

    The program XRAY is a FORTRAN 77 computer code for the extraction of fusion cross sections from delayed X-ray measurements. This is accomplished by calculating the theoretical expressions of the time dependence of the evaporation-residue cross sections and taking them as adjustable parameters in a χ 2 minimization procedure. (orig.)

  16. The effect of the decay data on activation cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the decay data on evaluation of activation cross section is investigated. Present work shows that these effects must be considered carefully when activation cross section is evaluated. Sometime they are main reason for causing the discrepancies among the experimental data

  17. Tables of RCN-2 fission-product cross section evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.

    1979-05-01

    This report (continuation of ECN-13 and ECN-33) describes the third part of the RCN-2 evaluation of neutron cross sections for fission product nuclides in KEDAK format. It contains evaluated data for nine nuclides, i.e. 142 Nd, 143 Nd, 144 Nd, 145 Nd, 146 Nd, 147 Nd, 148 Nd, 150 Nd and 147 Pm. Most emphasis has been given to the evaluation of the radiative capture cross section, in order to provide a data base for adjustment calculations using results of integral measurements. Short evaluation reports are given for this cross section. The evaluated capture cross sections are compared with recent experimental differential and integral data. Graphs are given of the capture cross sections at neutron energies above 1 keV, in which also adjusted point cross sections, based upon integral STEK and CFRMF data have been plotted. Moreover, the results are compared with those of the well-known ENDF/B-IV evaluation for fission product nucleides. Finally, evaluation summaries are given, which include tables of other important neutron cross sections, such as the total, elastic scattering and inelastic scattering cross sections

  18. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  19. Evaluation of covariance for 238U cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kanda, Yukinori

    1995-01-01

    Covariances of 238 U are generated using analytic functions for representation of the cross sections. The covariances of the (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions are derived with a spline function, while the covariances of the total and the inelastic scattering cross section are estimated with a linearized nuclear model calculation. (author)

  20. Q.C.D. estimates of hadronic cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.

    1983-03-01

    Estimates for hadron-hadron cross-sections are made using the leading log approximation of Q.C.D. The rise of the total inelastic pp cross-sections at high energy is reproduced, thanks to the competition between the small parton-parton interaction and the large multiplicity of gluons predicted by Q.C.D