WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeated close approaches

  1. Tracking a closing volcanic system using repeating earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, H.; West, M. E.; Grapenthin, R.

    2011-12-01

    Repeating, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes were recorded at the end of the explosive phase of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. The events cluster into several families which exhibit cross-correlation values greater than 0.8 and are distributed between 0-10 km below the edifice. The earthquake magnitudes decline gradually with time, and the events also appear to shallow as the sequence progresses. This activity continued for over 2 months and accompanied steady dome growth, which halted around the same time that the last of the repeating VTs were recorded. The repetitive nature of these earthquakes, their relatively deep locations and their occurrence following 3 weeks of major explosive eruptions suggest that they are related to changes around the conduit system and/or the magma storage area as the last of the magma was removed from the mid-crustal storage area. Geodetic data indicate that the deflation of the edifice, which had been continuous throughout the explosive activity, ceased coincident with the onset of the repeating VT earthquakes. We use evidence from earthquake relocations and earthquake focal mechanisms to investigate the source for the repeating VT earthquakes. We propose a model in which the repeating earthquakes are closely related to the adjustment of the conduit system and mid crustal storage area in response to the last of the ascending magma.

  2. Rational design of alpha-helical tandem repeat proteins with closed architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lindsey; Hallinan, Jazmine; Bolduc, Jill; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Baker, David; Stoddard, Barry L.; Bradley, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Tandem repeat proteins, which are formed by repetition of modular units of protein sequence and structure, play important biological roles as macromolecular binding and scaffolding domains, enzymes, and building blocks for the assembly of fibrous materials1,2. The modular nature of repeat proteins enables the rapid construction and diversification of extended binding surfaces by duplication and recombination of simple building blocks3,4. The overall architecture of tandem repeat protein structures – which is dictated by the internal geometry and local packing of the repeat building blocks – is highly diverse, ranging from extended, super-helical folds that bind peptide, DNA, and RNA partners5–9, to closed and compact conformations with internal cavities suitable for small molecule binding and catalysis10. Here we report the development and validation of computational methods for de novo design of tandem repeat protein architectures driven purely by geometric criteria defining the inter-repeat geometry, without reference to the sequences and structures of existing repeat protein families. We have applied these methods to design a series of closed alpha-solenoid11 repeat structures (alpha-toroids) in which the inter-repeat packing geometry is constrained so as to juxtapose the N- and C-termini; several of these designed structures have been validated by X-ray crystallography. Unlike previous approaches to tandem repeat protein engineering12–20, our design procedure does not rely on template sequence or structural information taken from natural repeat proteins and hence can produce structures unlike those seen in nature. As an example, we have successfully designed and validated closed alpha-solenoid repeats with a left-handed helical architecture that – to our knowledge – is not yet present in the protein structure database21. PMID:26675735

  3. Rational design of α-helical tandem repeat proteins with closed architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lindsey; Hallinan, Jazmine; Bolduc, Jill; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Baker, David; Stoddard, Barry L; Bradley, Philip

    2015-12-24

    Tandem repeat proteins, which are formed by repetition of modular units of protein sequence and structure, play important biological roles as macromolecular binding and scaffolding domains, enzymes, and building blocks for the assembly of fibrous materials. The modular nature of repeat proteins enables the rapid construction and diversification of extended binding surfaces by duplication and recombination of simple building blocks. The overall architecture of tandem repeat protein structures--which is dictated by the internal geometry and local packing of the repeat building blocks--is highly diverse, ranging from extended, super-helical folds that bind peptide, DNA, and RNA partners, to closed and compact conformations with internal cavities suitable for small molecule binding and catalysis. Here we report the development and validation of computational methods for de novo design of tandem repeat protein architectures driven purely by geometric criteria defining the inter-repeat geometry, without reference to the sequences and structures of existing repeat protein families. We have applied these methods to design a series of closed α-solenoid repeat structures (α-toroids) in which the inter-repeat packing geometry is constrained so as to juxtapose the amino (N) and carboxy (C) termini; several of these designed structures have been validated by X-ray crystallography. Unlike previous approaches to tandem repeat protein engineering, our design procedure does not rely on template sequence or structural information taken from natural repeat proteins and hence can produce structures unlike those seen in nature. As an example, we have successfully designed and validated closed α-solenoid repeats with a left-handed helical architecture that--to our knowledge--is not yet present in the protein structure database.

  4. Close approach maneuvers around an oblate planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, G. M. C.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Sanchez, D. M.

    2015-10-01

    There are many applications of the close approach maneuvers in astronautics, and several missions used this technique in the last decades. In the present work, those close approach maneuvers are revisited, but now considering that the spacecraft passes around an oblate planet. This fact changes the distribution of mass of the planet, increasing the mass in the region of the equator, so increasing the gravitational forces in the equatorial plane. Since the present study is limited to planar trajectories, there is an increase in the variation of energy given by the maneuver. The planet Jupiter is used as the body for the close approach, but the value of J2 is varied in a large range to simulate situations of other celestial bodies that have larger oblateness, but the same mass ratio. This is particularly true in recent discovered exoplanets, and this first study can help the study of the dynamics around those bodies.

  5. Closed-loop approach to thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goupil, C; Herbert, E; Benenti, G; D'Angelo, Y; Lecoeur, Ph

    2016-01-01

    We present the closed-loop approach to linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics considering a generic heat engine dissipatively connected to two temperature baths. The system is usually quite generally characterized by two parameters: the output power $P$ and the conversion efficiency $\\eta$, to which we add a third one, the working frequency $\\omega$. We establish that a detailed understanding of the effects of the dissipative coupling on the energy conversion process, necessitates the knowledge of only two quantities: the system's feedback factor $\\beta$ and its open-loop gain $A_{0}$, the product of which, $A_{0}\\beta$, characterizes the interplay between the efficiency, the output power and the operating rate of the system. The feedback loop approach thus provides a versatile and economical, hence efficient, tool for the study of any conversion engine operation for which a feedback factor may be defined as illustrated with a thermoelectric system.

  6. Closed-loop approach to thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, C.; Ouerdane, H.; Herbert, E.; Benenti, G.; D'Angelo, Y.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2016-09-01

    We present the closed-loop approach to linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics considering a generic heat engine dissipatively connected to two temperature baths. The system is usually quite generally characterized by two parameters: the output power P and the conversion efficiency η , to which we add a third one, the working frequency ω . We establish that a detailed understanding of the effects of the dissipative coupling on the energy conversion process requires only knowing two quantities: the system's feedback factor β and its open-loop gain A0, which product A0β characterizes the interplay between the efficiency, the output power, and the operating rate of the system. By raising the abstract hermodynamic analysis to a higher level, the feedback loop approach provides a versatile and economical, hence fairly efficient, tool for the study of any conversion engine operation for which a feedback factor can be defined.

  7. Deformation effect of lateral roof roadway in close coal seams after repeated mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jianlin; Xu Jialin; Wang Feng; Guo Jiekai; Liu Donglin

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the deformation mechanism in lateral roof roadway of the Ding Wu-3 roadway which was disturbed by repeated mining of close coal seams Wu-8 and Wu-10 in Pingdingshan No. 1 Mine. To determine the strata disturbance scope, the strata displacement angle was used to calculate the protection pillar width. A numerical model was built considering the field geological conditions. In simulation, the mining stress borderline was defined as the contour where the induced stress is 1.5 times of the original stress. Simulation results show the mining stress borderline of the lateral roadway extended 91.7 m outward after repeated mining. Then the original stress increased, deforming the road-way of interest. This deformation agreed with the in situ observations. Moreover, the strata displacement angle changed due to repeated mining. Therefore, reselection of the displacement angle was required to design the protective pillar width. Since a constant strata displacement angle was used in traditional design, the proposed method was beneficial in field cases.

  8. Defining an Approach for Future Close Air Support Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ARROYO CENTER Defining an Approach for Future Close Air Support Capability John Matsumura, John Gordon IV, Randall Steeb Prepared for the United...capabilities; however, this research subsequently refocused specifically on close air support (CAS) capabilities in recent conflict and the possible...1 Definition of Close Air Support

  9. Socioeconomic factors are associated with frequency of repeat emergency department visits for closed pediatric fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Christopher J.; Lyman, Stephen; Do, Huong T.; Fabricant, Peter D.; Marx, Robert G.; Green, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated both greater difficulty in obtaining follow-up appointments and increased likelihood of return visits to the emergency department (ED) for patients with government-funded insurance plans. The purpose of the current study is to determine whether socioeconomic factors, such as race and insurance type, are associated with the frequency of repeat ED visits in pediatric patients with closed fractures. Methods A review of ED visit data over a 2-year period from a statewide hospital discharge database in New York was conducted. Discharges for patients with a unique person identifier in the database age 17 and younger were examined for an ICD-9 diagnosis of closed upper or lower extremity fracture. Age, sex, race, and insurance type for patients with a return ED visit within 8 weeks for the same fracture diagnosis were compared to those without a return visit using standard univariate statistical tests and logistic regression analyses. Results Of the 68,236 visits reviewed, the revisit rate was 0.85%. Patients of non-white or unidentified race were significantly more likely to have a revisit than white patients (OR 1.27; p=0.006). Patients with government-funded insurance were significantly more likely to have a revisit than those without government-funded insurance (OR 1.55; p<0.001). Patients with private insurance were significantly less likely to have a revisit than those without private insurance (OR 0.72; p=0.001). Conclusions Our analysis revealed that non-white patients are more likely to return to the ED within 8 weeks for the same fracture diagnosis. Patients with government insurance are 55% more likely to have a revisit, while patients with private insurance are 28% less likely to have a revisit. Our results suggest that socioeconomic disparities exist in access to orthopaedic care for closed fractures in a pediatric population. Physicians and policy makers should be mindful of these health care disparities when

  10. Characterisation data of simple sequence repeats of phages closely related to T7M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiao-Yin Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coliphages T7M and T3, Yersinia phage ϕYeO3-12, and Salmonella phage ϕSG-JL2 share high homology in genomic sequences. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are found in their genomes and variations of SSRs among these phages are observed. Analyses on regions of sequences in T7M and T3 genomes that are likely derived from phage recombination, as well as the counterparts in ϕYeO3-12 and ϕSG-JL2, have been discussed by Lin in “Simple sequence repeat variations expedite phage divergence: mechanisms of indels and gene mutations” [1]. These regions are referred to as recombinant regions. The focus here is on SSRs in the whole genome and regions of sequences outside the recombinant regions, referred to as non-recombinant regions. This article provides SSR counts, relative abundance, relative density, and GC contents in the complete genome and non-recombinant regions of these phages. SSR period sizes and motifs in the non-recombinant regions of phage genomes are plotted. Genomic sequence changes between T7M and T3 due to insertions, deletions, and substitutions are also illustrated. SSRs and nearby sequences of T7M in the non-recombinant regions are compared to the sequences of ϕYeO3-12 and ϕSG-JL2 in the corresponding positions. The sequence variations of SSRs due to vertical evolution are classified into four categories and tabulated: (1 insertion/deletion of SSR units, (2 expansion/contraction of SSRs without alteration of genome length, (3 changes of repeat motifs, and (4 generation/loss of repeats.

  11. Close Approaches of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids during Two Centuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Asteroids are the most important small bodies in the solar system and the near-earth asteroids (NEAs) are of especial concern to the world. The reasonis that they will make close approaches to the earth in the near future. We usea reasonable dynamical model and an efficient computing method to calculate the orbits of over 160 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) for two centuries.

  12. Repeated Closed Head Injury in Mice Results in Sustained Motor and Memory Deficits and Chronic Cellular Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N Bolton Hall

    Full Text Available Millions of mild traumatic brain injuries (TBIs occur every year in the United States, with many people subject to multiple head injuries that can lead to chronic behavioral dysfunction. We previously reported that mild TBI induced using closed head injuries (CHI repeated at 24h intervals produced more acute neuron death and glial reactivity than a single CHI, and increasing the length of time between injuries to 48h reduced the cumulative acute effects of repeated CHI. To determine whether repeated CHI is associated with behavioral dysfunction or persistent cellular damage, mice receiving either five CHI at 24h intervals, five CHI at 48h intervals, or five sham injuries at 24h intervals were evaluated across a 10 week period after injury. Animals with repeated CHI exhibited motor coordination and memory deficits, but not gait abnormalities when compared to sham animals. At 10wks post-injury, no notable neuron loss or glial reactivity was observed in the cortex, hippocampus, or corpus callosum. Argyrophilic axons were found in the pyramidal tract of some injured animals, but neither silver stain accumulation nor inflammatory responses in the injury groups were statistically different from the sham group in this region. However, argyrophilic axons, microgliosis and astrogliosis were significantly increased within the optic tract of injured animals. Repeated mild CHI also resulted in microgliosis and a loss of neurofilament protein 200 in the optic nerve. Lengthening the inter-injury interval from 24h to 48h did not effectively reduce these behavioral or cellular responses. These results suggest that repeated mild CHI results in persistent behavioral dysfunction and chronic pathological changes within the visual system, neither of which was significantly attenuated by lengthening the inter-injury interval from 24h to 48h.

  13. Repeated, Close Physician Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Teams Associated with Greater Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Jordan; Funk, Russell J; Kaufman, Samuel R; Owen-Smith, Jason; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Pagani, Francis D; Hollingsworth, John M

    2017-05-04

    To determine whether observed patterns of physician interaction around shared patients are associated with higher levels of teamwork as perceived by physicians. Michigan Medicare beneficiaries who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures at 24 hospitals in the state between 2008 and 2011. We assessed hospital teamwork using the teamwork climate scale in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. After aggregating across CABG discharges at these hospitals, we mapped the physician referral networks (including both surgeons and nonsurgeons) that served them and measured three network properties: (1) reinforcement, (2) clustering, and (3) density. We then used multilevel regression models to identify associations between network properties and teamwork at the hospitals on which the networks were anchored. In hospitals where physicians repeatedly cared for patients with the same colleagues, physicians perceived better teamwork (β-reinforcement = 3.28, p = .003). When physicians who worked together also had other colleagues in common, the reported teamwork was stronger (β clustering = 1.71, p = .001). Reported teamwork did not change when physicians worked with a higher proportion of other physicians at the hospital (β density = -0.58, p = .64). In networks with higher levels of reinforcement and clustering, physicians perceive stronger teamwork, perhaps because the strong ties between them create a shared understanding; however, sharing patients with more physicians overall (i.e., density) did not lead to stronger teamwork. Clinical and organizational leaders may consider designing the structure of clinical teams to increase interactions with known colleagues and repeated interactions between providers. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Can Repeated Painful Blunt Impact Deter Approach Toward a Goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    paintball, motivation, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, projectile, human behavioral experimentation, human behavior, Target Behavioral...individuals’ movements & approach/avoidance choices? •A prior study had been conducted that incorporated: •explicit social and monetary  rewards •more layers of...deterrence  •Use greater force, on people who are not  rewarded  for  approaching, in a simple approach task, with more blunt impact hits  on subjects

  15. NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad

    2000-01-01

    Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.

  16. Convergent Close-Coupling Approach to Electron-Atom Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, Andris

    2007-01-01

    It was with great pleasure and honour to accept the invitation to make a presentation at the symposium celebrating the life-long work of Aaron Temkin and Richard Drachman. The work of Aaron Temkin was particularly influential on our own during the development of the CCC method for electron-atom collisions. There are a number of key problems that need to be dealt with when developing a general computational approach to such collisions. Traditionally, the electron energy range was subdivided into the low, intermediate, and high energies. At the low energies only a finite number of channels are open and variational or close-coupling techniques could be used to obtain accurate results. At high energies an infinite number of discrete channels and the target continuum are open, but perturbative techniques are able to yield accurate results. However, at the intermediate energies perturbative techniques fail and computational approaches need to be found for treating the infinite number of open channels. In addition, there are also problems associated with the identical nature of electrons and the difficulty of implementing the boundary conditions for ionization processes. The beauty of the Temkin-Poet model of electron-hydrogen scattering is that it simplifies the full computational problem by neglecting any non-zero orbital angular momenta in the partial-wave expansion, without loosing the complexity associated with the above-mentioned problems. The unique nature of the problem allowed for accurate solution leading to benchmark results which could then be used to test the much more general approaches to electron-atom collision problems. The immense value of the Temkin-Poet model is readily summarised by the fact that the initial papers of Temkin and Poet have been collectively cited around 250 times to date and are still being cited in present times. Many of the citations came from our own work during the course of the development of the CCC method, which we now describe.

  17. RESEARCH FOR THE STRAIN ENERGY RELEASE RATE OF COMPLEX CRACKS BY USING POINT-BY-POINT CLOSED EXTRAPOLATION APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茂林; 孟庆元; 王彪

    2003-01-01

    A new extrapolation approach was proposed to calculate the strain energy release rates of complex cracks. The point-by-point closed method was used to calculate the closed energy, thus the disadvantage of self inconsistency in some published papers can be avoided. The disadvantage is that the closed energy is repeatedly calculated: when closed nodal number along radial direction is more than two, the displacement of nodes behind the crack tip that is multiplied by nodal forces, the closed energy has been calculated and the crack surfaces have been closed, and that closed energy of middle point is calculated repeatedly. A DCB ( double cantilever beam) specimen was calculated and compared with other theoretical results, it is shown that a better coincidence is obtained. In addition the same results are also obtained for compact tension specimen, three point bend specimen and single edge cracked specinen. In comparison with theoretical results, the error can be limited within 1 per cent. This method can be extended to analyze the fracture of composite laminates with various delamination cracks.

  18. A CA-repeat polymorphism close to the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene offers improved diagnostic testing for familial APC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirio, L.; Nelson, L.; Ward, K.; Burt, R.; White, R.; Leppert, M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Presymptomatic genetic testing for the presence of a mutant allele causing familial adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has been difficult to perform effectively in the past because DNA markers surrounding the APC gene on chromosome 5q have not been very informative. The authors report results of genetic linkage studies on both research families and clinical families by using D5S346, a highly polymorphic dinucleotide (CA)-repeat locus 30-70 kb from the APC gene. Linkage analysis with this marker in a large APC pedigree showed an increase of at least 9.0 LOD units, in likelihood of linkage of the disease-causing allele to the APC locus, when compared with the highest LOD score attained with any other closely linked marker. When the first 14 APC families that requested genotypic analysis by the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Utah were tested with D5S346, 20 of the 31 at-risk individuals were identified as either carriers or noncarriers of an APC-predisposing allele. The authors see this marker as an important tool for research studies and for the presymptomatic diagnosis of APC. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Shortening trinucleotide repeats using highly specific endonucleases: a possible approach to gene therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck

    2015-04-01

    Trinucleotide repeat expansions are involved in more than two dozen neurological and developmental disorders. Conventional therapeutic approaches aimed at regulating the expression level of affected genes, which rely on drugs, oligonucleotides, and/or transgenes, have met with only limited success so far. An alternative approach is to shorten repeats to non-pathological lengths using highly specific nucleases. Here, I review early experiments using meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), and transcription-activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) to contract trinucleotide repeats, and discuss the possibility of using CRISPR-Cas nucleases to the same end. Although this is a nascent field, I explore the possibility of designing nucleases and effectively delivering them in the context of gene therapy.

  20. Predicting Space Weather Effects on Close Approach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, Matthew D.; Newman, Lauri K.; Besser, Rebecca L.; Pachura, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team sends ephemeris data to the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) for conjunction assessment screening against the JSpOC high accuracy catalog and then assesses risk posed to protected assets from predicted close approaches. Since most spacecraft supported by the CARA team are located in LEO orbits, atmospheric drag is the primary source of state estimate uncertainty. Drag magnitude and uncertainty is directly governed by atmospheric density and thus space weather. At present the actual effect of space weather on atmospheric density cannot be accurately predicted because most atmospheric density models are empirical in nature, which do not perform well in prediction. The Jacchia-Bowman-HASDM 2009 (JBH09) atmospheric density model used at the JSpOC employs a solar storm active compensation feature that predicts storm sizes and arrival times and thus the resulting neutral density alterations. With this feature, estimation errors can occur in either direction (i.e., over- or under-estimation of density and thus drag). Although the exact effect of a solar storm on atmospheric drag cannot be determined, one can explore the effects of JBH09 model error on conjuncting objects' trajectories to determine if a conjunction is likely to become riskier, less risky, or pass unaffected. The CARA team has constructed a Space Weather Trade-Space tool that systematically alters the drag situation for the conjuncting objects and recalculates the probability of collision for each case to determine the range of possible effects on the collision risk. In addition to a review of the theory and the particulars of the tool, the different types of observed output will be explained, along with statistics of their frequency.

  1. Advanced welding for closed structure. Pt. 3 The thermal approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacripanti, A.; Bonanno, G.; Paoloni, M.; Sagratella, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Arborino, A.; Varesi, R.; Antonucci, A. [DUNE, (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    This report describes the activities developed for the European Contract BRITE AWCS III to study the use of thermal sensing techniques to obtain an accurate detection of the internal reinforcement of the closed steel structures employed in the shipbuilding industry. After a description of the methods, normally developed in Russia, about the techniques and problems, for the thermal testing of materials in the conventional approach, a new thermal detector was utilized, a new bolometric thermo camera is introduced with a special software for the on line image analysis, there are also shown the experimental tests and results. The obtained conclusion shows that the thermal non destructive testing techniques with the new detector should be useful to assemble a complete sensing system with one ultrasonic head. [Italian] Questo rapporto descrive le attivita' sperimentali sviluppate nell'ambito del contratto europeo BRITE AWCS III, in cui si sono utilizzate tecniche termiche per ottenere un preciso rilevamento dei rinforzi interni di strutture metalliche chiuse utilizzate nell'industria delle costruzioni navali. Dopo la descrizione dei metodi sviluppati essenzialmente in Russia, circa le tecniche e i problemi riguardanti il testing termico dei materiali, e' stato introdotto un approccio innovativo basato su un nuovo sensore: una termocamera bolometrica connessa con un software dedicato per l'analisi online del setto; vengono inoltre mostrati i risultati sperimentali ottenuti. Le conclusioni ottenute mostrano che nel nuovo approccio, il testing termico non distruttivo dovrebbe essere utile per assemblare un sistema sensoriale completo che utilizzi anche un sensore di tipo ultrasonico.

  2. The Multilevel Approach to Repeated Measures for Complete and Incomplete Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, CJM; Snijders, TAB

    2003-01-01

    Repeated measurements often are analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). An alternative approach is provided by multilevel analysis, also called the hierarchical linear model (HLM), which makes use of random coefficient models. This paper is a tutorial which indicates that the HLM can

  3. Repeat Purchase Intention of Starbucks Consumers in Indonesia: A Green Brand Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Farida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and tests the repeat purchase intention model (with a green brand approach. The model considers four determinants; perceived image, satisfaction, trust, and attitude. The model is tested using data and a survey of 203 Starbucks customers in Indonesia. The analysis was carried out by employing Structural Equation Modeling. The data was processed with AMOS 21. The results confirm that the company’s green brand image is positively and significantly related to consumer satisfaction, trust, and attitude. On the other hand, consumer satisfaction and trust are shown to have insignificant influence on repeat purchase intention.

  4. A SUSY n = 2 approach to closed string tachyon cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vázquez-Báez, V.; Ramírez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matemáticas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, P.O. Box 165, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-07-23

    We present calculations towards obtaining a wave functions of the universe for the supersymmetric closed string tachyon cosmology. Supersymmetrization, in the superfield formalism, is performed by taking advantage of the time reparametrization invariance of the cosmological action and generalizing the transformations to include grassmannian variables. We calculate the corresponding Hamiltonian, by means of the Dirac formalism, and make use of the superalgebra to find solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equations indirectly.

  5. On the accuracy of close stellar approaches determination

    CERN Document Server

    Dybczyński, Piotr A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the accuracy of our knowledge of close stellar passage distances in the pre-GAIA era.We used the most precise astrometric and kinematic data available at the moment and prepared a list of 40 stars nominally passing (in the past or future) closer than 2 pc from the Sun.We used a full gravitational potential of the Galaxy to calculate the motion of the Sun and a star from their current positions to the proximity epoch. For this calculations we used a numerical integration in rectangular, Galactocentric coordinates. We showed that in many cases the numerical integration of the star motion gives significantly different results than popular rectilinear approximation.We found several new stellar candidates for close visitors in past or in future. We used a covariance matrices of the astrometric data for each star to estimate the accuracy of the obtained proximity distance and epoch. To this aim we used a Monte Carlo method, replaced each star with 10 000 of its clones and stu...

  6. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Structured Approach to Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chari A.; Brigman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a group counseling intervention on student academic and social performance. Twenty-five school counselors were trained to use a structured approach to small-group counseling with students scoring in the mid-to-low range in math and reading. The group intervention focused on improving student achievement and…

  7. Canonical approach to the closed string non-commutativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovic, Lj.; Nikolic, B.; Sazdovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 57, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-01-15

    We consider the closed stringmoving in a weakly curved background and its totally T-dualized background. Using T-duality transformation laws, we find the structure of the Poisson brackets in the T-dual space corresponding to the fundamental Poisson brackets in the original theory. From this structure we see that the commutative original theory is equivalent to the non-commutative T-dual theory, whose Poisson brackets are proportional to the background fluxes times winding and momentum numbers. The noncommutative theory of the present article is more nongeometrical than T-folds and in the case of three space-time dimensions corresponds to the nongeometric space-time with R-flux. (orig.)

  8. HA novel approach to investigate tissue-specific trinucleotide repeat instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boily Marie-Josee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Huntington's disease (HD, an expanded CAG repeat produces characteristic striatal neurodegeneration. Interestingly, the HD CAG repeat, whose length determines age at onset, undergoes tissue-specific somatic instability, predominant in the striatum, suggesting that tissue-specific CAG length changes could modify the disease process. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the tissue specificity of somatic instability may provide novel routes to therapies. However progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of sensitive high-throughput instability quantification methods and global approaches to identify the underlying factors. Results Here we describe a novel approach to gain insight into the factors responsible for the tissue specificity of somatic instability. Using accurate genetic knock-in mouse models of HD, we developed a reliable, high-throughput method to quantify tissue HD CAG repeat instability and integrated this with genome-wide bioinformatic approaches. Using tissue instability quantified in 16 tissues as a phenotype and tissue microarray gene expression as a predictor, we built a mathematical model and identified a gene expression signature that accurately predicted tissue instability. Using the predictive ability of this signature we found that somatic instability was not a consequence of pathogenesis. In support of this, genetic crosses with models of accelerated neuropathology failed to induce somatic instability. In addition, we searched for genes and pathways that correlated with tissue instability. We found that expression levels of DNA repair genes did not explain the tissue specificity of somatic instability. Instead, our data implicate other pathways, particularly cell cycle, metabolism and neurotransmitter pathways, acting in combination to generate tissue-specific patterns of instability. Conclusion Our study clearly demonstrates that multiple tissue factors reflect the level of

  9. Closing the gap between centralized and decentralized compound management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, Marc R M; Steiner, Thomas; Hueber, Matthieu; Schopfer, Ulrich; Smith, Robert; Igo, Debra; Cantrell, Daryl; Hohos, Aaron; Kiwanuka, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    The demand for organized storage concepts to maintain, collect and distribute compounds has grown not only at pharmaceutical companies, but also at smaller research organizations and academic laboratories where there is the demand to store and retrieve substances systematically. However, budget limitations have prevented these smaller groups from buying costly storage systems offered by specialized commercial vendors. On the other hand, within pharmaceutical companies a need for inexpensive and flexible storage concepts has developed and complements the existing automated archives. For reasons of efficiency, most companies have built centralized facilities holding large collections of internal medicinal chemistry compounds to assist various, globally distributed research programs. This standardization and centralization though is not always ideal for a global organization. Therefore, site specific and localized requirements need to be addressed to ensure quick on site access to compounds without losing the global accessibility to them. In this article, we describe an approach towards a low cost and highly flexible store concept with manual compound stores of variable design addressing local needs, created to complement the existing automated stores. A key component of our implementation is the Compound Store Manager software which is capable of administering the different global stores. The developed backend system and centralized data management facilitates the operation and integration of the stores into an existing store environment.

  10. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  11. Notes On The Born-Oppenheimer Approach In A Closed Dynamical System

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Dhurjati Prasad

    1997-01-01

    The various recent studies on the applications of the Born-Oppenheimer approach in a closed gravity matter system is examined. It is pointed out that the Born-Oppenheimer approach in the absence of an a priori time is likely to yield potentially new results.

  12. When history repeats itself: exploring the genetic architecture of host-plant adaptation in two closely related lepidopteran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Hermine; Ponsard, Sergine; Bourguet, Denis; Vitalis, Renaud; Audiot, Philippe; Cros-Arteil, Sandrine; Streiff, Réjane

    2013-01-01

    The genus Ostrinia includes two allopatric maize pests across Eurasia, namely the European corn borer (ECB, O. nubilalis) and the Asian corn borer (ACB, O. furnacalis). A third species, the Adzuki bean borer (ABB, O. scapulalis), occurs in sympatry with both the ECB and the ACB. The ABB mostly feeds on native dicots, which probably correspond to the ancestral host plant type for the genus Ostrinia. This situation offers the opportunity to characterize the two presumably independent adaptations or preadaptations to maize that occurred in the ECB and ACB. In the present study, we aimed at deciphering the genetic architecture of these two adaptations to maize, a monocot host plant recently introduced into Eurasia. To this end, we performed a genome scan analysis based on 684 AFLP markers in 12 populations of ECB, ACB and ABB. We detected 2 outlier AFLP loci when comparing French populations of the ECB and ABB, and 9 outliers when comparing Chinese populations of the ACB and ABB. These outliers were different in both countries, and we found no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between any two of them. These results suggest that adaptation or preadaptation to maize relies on a different genetic architecture in the ECB and ACB. However, this conclusion must be considered in light of the constraints inherent to genome scan approaches and of the intricate evolution of adaptation and reproductive isolation in the Ostrinia spp. complex.

  13. Mapping snow depth in complex alpine terrain with close range aerial imagery - estimating the spatial uncertainties of repeat autonomous aerial surveys over an active rock glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jason; Marcer, Marco; Bodin, Xavier; Brenning, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Snow depth mapping in open areas using close range aerial imagery is just one of the many cases where developments in structure-from-motion and multi-view-stereo (SfM-MVS) 3D reconstruction techniques have been applied for geosciences - and with good reason. Our ability to increase the spatial resolution and frequency of observations may allow us to improve our understanding of how snow depth distribution varies through space and time. However, to ensure accurate snow depth observations from close range sensing we must adequately characterize the uncertainty related to our measurement techniques. In this study, we explore the spatial uncertainties of snow elevation models for estimation of snow depth in a complex alpine terrain from close range aerial imagery. We accomplish this by conducting repeat autonomous aerial surveys over a snow-covered active-rock glacier located in the French Alps. The imagery obtained from each flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to create an individual digital elevation model (DEM) of the snow surface. As result, we obtain multiple DEMs of the snow surface for the same site. These DEMs are obtained from processing the imagery with the photogrammetry software Agisoft Photoscan. The elevation models are also georeferenced within Photoscan using the geotagged imagery from an onboard GNSS in combination with ground targets placed around the rock glacier, which have been surveyed with highly accurate RTK-GNSS equipment. The random error associated with multi-temporal DEMs of the snow surface is estimated from the repeat aerial survey data. The multiple flights are designed to follow the same flight path and altitude above the ground to simulate the optimal conditions of repeat survey of the site, and thus try to estimate the maximum precision associated with our snow-elevation measurement technique. The bias of the DEMs is assessed with RTK-GNSS survey observations of the snow surface elevation of the area on and surrounding

  14. Generalizing Merton's approach of pricing risky debt: some closed-form results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. F.

    In this work, I generalize Merton's approach of pricing risky debt to the case where the interest rate risk is modeled by the CIR term structure. Closed-form result for pricing the debt is given for the case where the firm value has non-zero correlation with the interest rate. This extends previous closed-form pricing formular of zero-correlation case to the generic one of non-zero correlation between the firm value and the interest rate.

  15. Mixed double-embryo transfer: A promising approach for patients with repeated implantation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenov, Georgi Stamenov; Parvanov, Dimitar Angelov; Chaushev, Todor Angelov

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of frozen mixed double-embryo transfer (MDET; the simultaneous transfer of day 3 and day 5 embryos) in comparison with frozen blastocyst double-embryo transfer (BDET; transfer of two day 5 blastocysts) in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF). A total of 104 women with RIF who underwent frozen MDET (n=48) or BDET (n=56) with excellent-quality embryos were included in this retrospective analysis. All frozen embryo transfers were performed in natural cycles. The main outcome measures were the implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and miscarriage rate. These measures were compared between the patients who underwent MDET or BDET using the chi-square test or the Fisher exact test, as appropriate. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in patients who underwent MDET than in those who underwent BDET (60.4% vs. 39.3%, p=0.03 and 52.1% vs. 30.4%, p=0.05, respectively). A significantly lower miscarriage rate was observed in the MDET group (6.9% vs. 10.7%, p=0.05). In addition, the multiple pregnancy rate was slightly, but not significantly, higher in the MDET group (27.1% vs. 25.0%). MDET was found to be significantly superior to double blastocyst transfer. It could be regarded as an appropriate approach to improve in vitro fertilization success rates in RIF patients.

  16. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins: a new approach to mimic complex antigens for diagnostic purposes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hausammann

    Full Text Available Inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII can be found in patients with acquired and congenital hemophilia A. Such FVIII-inhibiting antibodies are routinely detected by the functional Bethesda Assay. However, this assay has a low sensitivity and shows a high inter-laboratory variability. Another method to detect antibodies recognizing FVIII is ELISA, but this test does not allow the distinction between inhibitory and non-inhibitory antibodies. Therefore, we aimed at replacing the intricate antigen FVIII by Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins mimicking the epitopes of FVIII inhibitors. As a model we used the well-described inhibitory human monoclonal anti-FVIII antibody, Bo2C11, for the selection on DARPin libraries. Two DARPins were selected binding to the antigen-binding site of Bo2C11, which mimic thus a functional epitope on FVIII. These DARPins inhibited the binding of the antibody to its antigen and restored FVIII activity as determined in the Bethesda assay. Furthermore, the specific DARPins were able to recognize the target antibody in human plasma and could therefore be used to test for the presence of Bo2C11-like antibodies in a large set of hemophilia A patients. These data suggest, that our approach might be used to isolate epitopes from different sets of anti-FVIII antibodies in order to develop an ELISA-based screening assay allowing the distinction of inhibitory and non-inhibitory anti-FVIII antibodies according to their antibody signatures.

  17. Failure of a repeat course of cyclooxygenase inhibitor to close a PDA is a risk factor for developing chronic lung disease in ELBW infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrouche-Amrani Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal treatment regimen or protocol for managing a persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants has not been well established. This study was aimed at evaluating the failure rate of a cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitor (COI for PDA closure and to determine the incidence of a PDA requiring ligation in ELBW infants. We examined the clinical characteristics and risk factors that may predict the clinical consequences of failure of PDA closure by COI. Methods Medical information on 138 infants with birth weight (BW 48 hours was retrieved. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients whose PDAs closed with COI were compared with those who did not close. Results Of the 138 patients, 112 survived to discharge. Eighty (71.4% of those who survived received 1-3 courses of COI treatment for a symptomatic PDA. A total of 32 (40% failed COI treatment and underwent PDA ligation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis suggests that the observed differences in the outcomes in infants with or without symptomatic PDA can be explained by the babies with symptomatic PDA being more immature and sicker. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD in infants whose PDA was treated medically versus those who failed medical treatment and then underwent ligation. However, after adjusting for disease severity and other known risk factors, the odds ratio of developing CLD for surviving babies with a persistent PDA compared to those whose PDA was successfully closed with 1-2 courses of COI is 3.24 (1.07-9.81; p = 0.038. Conclusions When successfully treated, PDA in ELBW infants did not contribute significantly to the adverse outcomes such as CLD, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and age at discharge. This suggests that it is beneficial for a hemodynamically significant PDA to be closed. The failure of a repeat course of COI to close a PDA is a major risk factor for

  18. Simple and Practical Approaches for Upgrading Installed Electronic-Repeater-Based Fiber Systems to Optically Amplified Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pasu; Kaewplung; Wadis; Kasantikul

    2003-01-01

    We propose simple and practical approaches to upgrade electronic-repeated systems by using optical amplifiers and zero-dispersion wavelength transmission. Possibility of increasing data rate from 560 Mbit/s to 80 Gbit/s in 1,318-km-long Thai-Malaysia system is demonstrated.

  19. A novel PCR-based approach for the detection of the Huntington disease associated trinucleotide repeat expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, I; Lassen, C; Kristoffersson, U; Aman, P

    1999-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder associated with expansions of an unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat in exon 1 of the IT15 gene. In normal individuals, IT15 contains up to 35 CAG repeats, while in affected the repeat length is >36. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to estimate the number of CAG repeats but may be inefficient in long repeats because of the high C+G content of the HD locus. We present a novel PCR approach for the diagnosis of HD, which permits direct visualization of the amplified products on agarose gel, using ethidium bromide. It is based on the methylation-sensitive conversion of C residues to U by bisulfite treatment of single-stranded DNA and subsequent amplification of the sense strand with specific primers. The bisulfite treatment dramatically reduces the C + G content of the region; thus, the high Tm and stable secondary structures are no longer obstacles to PCR. In both normal and affected individuals, UAG repeats (5'- CAG-3', before bisulfite treatment) in the sense strand can easily be amplified and visualized on a gel by ethidium bromide staining. The method has considerable advantages compared with other described PCR-based diagnostic tests for HD.

  20. Review of tandem repeat search tools: a systematic approach to evaluating algorithmic performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Kian Guan; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Hsu, Li Yang; Wirawan, Adrianto

    2013-01-01

    .... Over the last 10-15 years, numerous tools have been developed for searching tandem repeats, but differences in the search algorithms adopted and difficulties with parameter settings have confounded...

  1. Performance and physiological responses to repeated-sprint exercise: a novel multiple-set approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpiello, Fabio R; McKenna, Michael J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J; Aughey, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the acute and chronic responses to multiple sets of repeated-sprint exercise (RSE), focusing on changes in acceleration, intermittent running capacity and physiological responses. Ten healthy young adults (7 males, 3 females) performed an incremental test, a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level1 (Yo-Yo IR1), and one session of RSE. RSE comprised three sets of 5 × 4-s maximal sprints on a non-motorised treadmill, with 20 s of passive recovery between repetitions and 4.5 min of passive recovery between sets. After ten repeated-sprint training sessions, participants repeated all tests. During RSE, performance was determined by measuring acceleration, mean and peak power/velocity. Recovery heart rate (HR), HR variability, and finger-tip capillary lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]) were measured. Performance progressively decreased across the three sets of RSE, with the indices of repeated-sprint ability being impaired to a different extent before and after training. Training induced a significant increase (p RSE. There were strong correlations between Yo-Yo IR1 performance and indices of RSE performance, especially acceleration post-training (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). Repeated-sprint training, comprising only 10 min of exercise overall, effectively improved performance during multiple-set RSE. This exercise model better reflects team-sport activities than single-set RSE. The rapid training-induced improvement in acceleration, quantified here for the first time, has wide applications for professional and recreational sport activities.

  2. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measures designs: a flexible approach using the SPSS MANOVA procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, E J; Neilands, T B; Zambarano, R

    2001-11-01

    Although power analysis is an important component in the planning and implementation of research designs, it is often ignored. Computer programs for performing power analysis are available, but most have limitations, particularly for complex multivariate designs. An SPSS procedure is presented that can be used for calculating power for univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures models with and without time-varying and time-constant covariates. Three examples provide a framework for calculating power via this method: an ANCOVA, a MANOVA, and a repeated measures ANOVA with two or more groups. The benefits and limitations of this procedure are discussed.

  3. A hybrid solution approach for a multi-objective closed-loop logistics network under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Tu, Nan; Miao, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    The design of closed-loop logistics (forward and reverse logistics) has attracted growing attention with the stringent pressures of customer expectations, environmental concerns and economic factors. This paper considers a multi-product, multi-period and multi-objective closed-loop logistics network model with regard to facility expansion as a facility location-allocation problem, which more closely approximates real-world conditions. A multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming formulation is linearized by defining new variables and adding new constraints to the model. By considering the aforementioned model under uncertainty, this paper develops a hybrid solution approach by combining an interactive fuzzy goal programming approach and robust counterpart optimization based on three well-known robust counterpart optimization formulations. Finally, this paper compares the results of the three formulations using different test scenarios and parameter-sensitive analysis in terms of the quality of the final solution, CPU time, the level of conservatism, the degree of closeness to the ideal solution, the degree of balance involved in developing a compromise solution, and satisfaction degree.

  4. A novel biased proportional navigation guidance law for close approach phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Wenshan; Yao Dangnai; Li Kebo; Chen Lei

    2016-01-01

    A novel biased proportional navigation guidance (BPNG) law is proposed for the close approach phase, which aims to make the spacecraft rendezvous with the target in specific relative range and direction. Firstly, in order to describe the special guidance requirements, the concept of zero effort miss vector is proposed and the dangerous area where there exists collision risk for safety consideration is defined. Secondly, the BPNG, which decouples the range control and direc-tion control, is designed in the line-of-sight (LOS) rotation coordinate system. The theoretical anal-ysis proves that BPNG meets guidance requirements quite well. Thirdly, for the consideration of fuel consumption, the optimal biased proportional navigation guidance (OBPNG) law is derived by solving the Schwartz inequality. Finally, simulation results show that BPNG is effective for the close approach with the ability of evading the dangerous area and OBPNG consumes less fuel compared with BPNG.

  5. A Comprehensive Approach in Assessing the Performance of an Automobile Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezutah Udoncy Olugu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecological issues arising from manufacturing operations have led to the focus on environmental sustainability in manufacturing. This can be addressed adequately using a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC. To attain an effective and efficient CLSC, it is necessary to imbibe a holistic performance measurement approach. In order to achieve this, there is a need to adopt a specific approach for a particular product rather than being generic. Since sustainability has direct environmental footprints that involve organizational stakeholders, suppliers, customers and the society at large, complexities surrounding supply chain performance measurement have multiplied. In this study, a suitable approach has been proposed for CLSC performance measurement in the automotive industry, based on reviewed literature. It is believed that this approach will result in increased effectiveness and efficiency in CLSC performance measurement.

  6. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  7. IMC-PID design based on model matching approach and closed-loop shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qi B; Liu, Q

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by the limitations of the conventional internal model control (IMC), this communication addresses the design of IMC-based PID in terms of the robust performance of the control system. The IMC controller form is obtained by solving an H-infinity problem based on the model matching approach, and the parameters are determined by closed-loop shaping. The shaping of the closed-loop transfer function is considered both for the set-point tracking and for the load disturbance rejection. The design procedure is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem which is solved by a specific optimization algorithm. A nice feature of this design method is that it permits a clear tradeoff between robustness and performance. Simulation examples show that the proposed method is effective and has a wide applicability.

  8. A Cranial-Sided Approach for Repeated Mitral Periprosthetic Leak After Right Pneumonectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yosuke; Shibata, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motoki, Manabu; Morisaki, Akimasa; Nishimura, Shinsuke; Hattori, Koji

    2016-03-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with worsening dyspnea on effort. He underwent right pneumonectomy 40 years ago, then mitral valve replacement through a right thoracotomy 8 years ago with repeat surgery to repair a periprosthetic valve leak; the mediastinum was displaced to the right, and the heart was rotated counterclockwise. Transthoracic echocardiography showed periprosthetic valve leak recurrence near the left atrial appendage. We repaired the periprosthetic valve leak through a median sternotomy. Transecting the main pulmonary artery allowed us to widely open the cranial-sided left atrium. We obtained good exposure of the mitral valve, and repaired the periprosthetic valve leak using pledgeted sutures and a pericardial patch.

  9. Closed-loop approach for situation awareness of medical devices and operating room infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh Max

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, approaches for information and control integration in the digital operating room have emerged. A major step towards an intelligent operating room and a cooperative technical environment would be autonomous adaptation of medical devices and systems to the surgical workflow. The OR staff should be freed from information seeking and maintenance tasks. We propose a closed-loop concept integrating workflow monitoring, processing and (semi-automatic interaction to bridge the gap between OR integration of medical devices and workflow-related information management.

  10. Concurrent Edge Prevision and Rear Edge Pruning Approach for Frequent Closed Itemset Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Choubey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Past observations have shown that a frequent item set mining algorithm are purported to mine the closed ones because the finish provides a compact and a whole progress set and higher potency. Anyhow, the newest closed item set mining algorithms works with candidate maintenance combined with check paradigm that is pricey in runtime yet as space usage when support threshold is a smaller amount or the item sets gets long. Here, we show, CEG&REP that could be a capable algorithm used for mining closed sequences while not candidate. It implements a completely unique sequence finality verification model by constructing a Graph structure that build by an approach labeled “Concurrent Edge Prevision and Rear Edge Pruning” briefly will refer as CEG&REP. a whole observation having sparse and dense real-life knowledge sets proved that CEG&REP performs bigger compared to older algorithms because it takes low memory and is quicker than any algorithms those cited in literature frequently.

  11. Open Versus Closed Hearing-Aid Fittings: A Literature Review of Both Fitting Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexandra; Latzel, Matthias; Holube, Inga

    2016-02-15

    One of the main issues in hearing-aid fittings is the abnormal perception of the user's own voice as too loud, "boomy," or "hollow." This phenomenon known as the occlusion effect be reduced by large vents in the earmolds or by open-fit hearing aids. This review provides an overview of publications related to open and closed hearing-aid fittings. First, the occlusion effect and its consequences for perception while using hearing aids are described. Then, the advantages and disadvantages of open compared with closed fittings and their impact on the fitting process are addressed. The advantages include less occlusion, improved own-voice perception and sound quality, and increased localization performance. The disadvantages associated with open-fit hearing aids include reduced benefits of directional microphones and noise reduction, as well as less compression and less available gain before feedback. The final part of this review addresses the need for new approaches to combine the advantages of open and closed hearing-aid fittings.

  12. Heating of near-Earth objects and meteoroids due to close approaches to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, S; Morbidelli, A; Paolicchi, P; Lazzarin, M

    2009-01-01

    It is known that near-Earth objects (NEOs) during their orbital evolution may often undergo close approaches to the Sun. Indeed it is estimated that up to ~70% of them end their orbital evolution colliding with the Sun. Starting from the present orbital properties, it is possible to compute the most likely past evolution for every NEO, and to trace its distance from the Sun. We find that a large fraction of the population may have experienced in the past frequent close approaches, and thus, as a consequence, a considerable Sun-driven heating, not trivially correlated to the present orbits. The detailed dynamical behaviour, the rotational and the thermal properties of NEOs determine the exact amount of the resulting heating due to the Sun. In the present paper we discuss the general features of the process, providing estimates of the surface temperature reached by NEOs during their evolution. Moreover, we investigate the effects of this process on meteor-size bodies, analyzing possible differences with the NEO...

  13. The OSIRIS Weight of Evidence approach: ITS for the endpoints repeated-dose toxicity (RepDose ITS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Batke, Monika; Kroese, Dinant; Buist, Harrie; Aldenberg, Tom; Pauné, Eduard; Grimm, Helvi; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Escher, Sylvia E

    2013-11-01

    In the FP6 European project OSIRIS, Integrated Testing Strategies (ITSs) for relevant toxicological endpoints were developed to avoid new animal testing and thus to reduce time and costs. The present paper describes the development of an ITS for repeated-dose toxicity called RepDose ITS which evaluates the conditions under which in vivo non-guideline studies are reliable. In a tiered approach three aspects of these "non-guideline" studies are assessed: the documentation of the study (reliability), the quality of the study design (adequacy) and the scope of examination (validity). The reliability is addressed by the method "Knock-out criteria", which consists of four essential criteria for repeated-dose toxicity studies. A second tool, termed QUANTOS (Quality Assessment of Non-guideline Toxicity Studies), evaluates and weights the adequacy of the study by using intra-criterion and inter-criteria weighting. Finally, the Coverage approach calculates a probability that the detected Lowest-Observed-Effect-Level (LOEL) is similar to the LOEL of a guideline study dependent on the examined targets and organs of the non-guideline study. If the validity and adequacy of the non-guideline study are insufficient for risk assessment, the ITS proposes to apply category approach or the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept, and only as a last resort new animal-testing.

  14. Approaches to Avoid Immune Responses Induced by Repeated Subcutaneous Injections of Allogeneic Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Bram V.; Cho, Patricia S.; Hirsh, Erica L.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Teague, Alexander G. S.; Hanekamp, John S.; Chi, Nina; Goldman, Stephanie N.; Messina, Darin J.; Houser, Stuart; Yeap, Beow Y.; Popma, Sicco H.; Sachs, David H.; Huang, Christene A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cellular treatments for repairing diseased tissues represent a promising clinical strategy. Umbilical cord tissue-derived cells (UTC) are a unique source of cells with a low immunogenic profile and potential for tissue repair. By using UTC from miniature swine, we previously demonstrated that despite their low immunogenic phenotype, UTC could induce an immune response under certain inflammatory conditions and after multiple subcutaneous (SC) injections. Given that repeat dosing of cells may be necessary to achieve a lasting therapeutic benefit, in this study, we examined approaches to avoid an immune response to multiple SC injections of UTC. Methods By using in vitro and in vivo measures of sensitization to SC cellular injections, we assessed the effects of varying the location of administration site, prolongation of timing between injections, and use of immunosuppressive treatments on repeated cellular injections in Massachusetts General Hospital major histocompatibility complex-defined miniature swine. Results Although under normal conditions, a single SC injection of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched UTC did not induce a detectable immune response, multiple SC injections of UTC demonstrated rapid humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Avoidance of an immune response to repeat SC injection was achieved by concurrent immunosuppression with each dose of UTC. Conclusions UTC and other similar cell types believed to be nonimmunogenic have the potential to induce immune responses under certain conditions. These studies provide important considerations and guidelines for preclinical studies investigating allogeneic cellular therapies. PMID:21451445

  15. Addressing the need for repeat prostate biopsy: new technology and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Abel, E Jason; Downs, Tracy M; Kelcz, Frederick; Jarrard, David F

    2015-08-01

    No guidelines currently exist that address the need for rebiopsy in patients with a negative diagnosis of prostate cancer on initial biopsy sample analysis. Accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer in these patients is often complicated by continued elevation of serum PSA levels that are suggestive of prostate cancer, resulting in a distinct management challenge. Following negative initial findings of biopsy sample analysis, total serum PSA levels and serum PSA kinetics are ineffective indicators of a need for a repeat biopsy; therefore, patients suspected of having prostate cancer might undergo several unnecessary biopsy procedures. Several alternative strategies exist for identifying men who might be at risk of prostate cancer despite negative findings of biopsy sample analysis. Use of other serum PSA-related measurements enables more sensitive and specific diagnosis and can be combined with knowledge of clinicopathological features to improve outcomes. Other options include the FDA-approved Progensa(®) test and prostate imaging using MRI. Newer tissue-based assays that measure methylation changes in normal prostate tissue are currently being developed. A cost-effective strategy is proposed in order to address this challenging clinical scenario, and potential directions of future studies in this area are also described.

  16. Comet Siding Spring (C/2013 A1) and its close approach to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, T.; Kelley, M.; Bodewits, D.; Kleyna, J.; Li, J.-Y.; Stevenson, R.; Bauer, J.

    2014-07-01

    Comet Siding Spring (C/2013 A1) is a dynamically new comet that was discovered in January 2013. On 19 October 2014, it will pass within 135,000 km of Mars, a distance less than 1/16th that of the closest known approach of a comet to the Earth. This event is essentially a natural flyby, where spacecraft orbiting Mars have the opportunity to obtain the first ever high-resolution observations of a dynamically new comet. In anticipation of this event, we undertook a study to characterize the comet's behavior, and to use that information to predict what the dust environment will be like at the time of the close approach. This information was used by the orbiter teams to evaluate the potential hazards to their spacecraft and develop mitigation strategies that might be needed, as well as allowing for detailed planning of any comet observations. We incorporated observations from PanSTARRS, HST, Swift, NEOWISE and ground-based observatories to characterize the comet's properties. Results from the analyses of these data indicate that Siding Spring was behaving much like comet ISON (C/2012 S1) at similar distances. It first became active between 10 and 8.0 au, and brightened through ˜6 au. From 6 to ˜3 au, its brightness remained nearly constant, following the typical behavior of dynamically new comets. The activity through early 2014 was likely driven by CO_2 emission, which was found to be 1.4 × 10^{26} mol/sec from the 4.6 μ m excess in NEOWISE observations. (We assume the excess is due to CO_2 because the activity was low until around 10 au). As of March 2013, there were no detections of water or OH production, though Swift measurements produced an upper limit of Q(H_2O) Mars during the close approach. These simulations followed 10^7 particles, emitted isotropically, from 13 to 1.4 au. The coma was modeled by tracking the grains' motions under the influence of their initial emission velocity, solar gravity and radiation pressure, and computing their positions at the

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Experienced Students' Preference for Open- and Closed-Book Examinations, Approaches to Learning and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia; Milienos, Fotios S.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between university students' approaches to learning and preference for the open- and closed-book examinations was investigated for 144 Greek undergraduate (56 third- and 88 fourth-year) students attending a Philosophy, Education and Psychology Department. The approaches were explored by the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory…

  18. Walking at speeds close to the preferred transition speed as an approach to obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Duško

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increasing energy expenditure through certain exercise is an important component of effective interventions to enhance initial weight loss and prevent weight regain. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a 16-week weight loss exercise programme on morpho-functional changes in female adults and to examine the programme effects on two subpopulations with different levels of obesity. Methods. Fifty-six middle-aged women were divided into 2 groups according to their body mass index (BMI: 25-29.9 kg/m2 - overweight (OW and ≥30 kg/m2 - obese (OB. The exercise protocol included a walking technique based on hip rotation at horizontal plane at speeds close to the preferred transition speed (PTS. At the initiation of the study and after 16 weeks of the programme, anthropometric, morphological and cardiovascular parameters of all subjects were assessed. The main effects of Group (OW and OB and Time and the interaction effect of Group by Time were tested by time repeated measures General Linear Model (mixed between-within subjects ANOVA. Results. Mean weight loss during the programme was 10.3 kg and 20.1 kg in OW and OB, respectively. The average fat mass (FM loss was 9.4 kg in OW and 16.9 kg in OB. The Mixed ANOVA revealed a significant Group by Time interaction effects for waist circumference, body weight, body water, fat free mass, FM, %FM and BMI (p<0.05. Conclusion. The applied exercise protocol has proved as beneficial in the treatment of obesity, since it resulted in a significant weight loss and body composition changes. The reduction in body weight was achieved mainly on account of the loss of fat mass.

  19. Global sensitivity analysis for repeated measures studies with informative drop-out: A semi-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Daniel; McDermott, Aidan; Díaz, Iván; Carone, Marco; Lunardon, Nicola; Turkoz, Ibrahim

    2017-05-23

    In practice, both testable and untestable assumptions are generally required to draw inference about the mean outcome measured at the final scheduled visit in a repeated measures study with drop-out. Scharfstein et al. (2014) proposed a sensitivity analysis methodology to determine the robustness of conclusions within a class of untestable assumptions. In their approach, the untestable and testable assumptions were guaranteed to be compatible; their testable assumptions were based on a fully parametric model for the distribution of the observable data. While convenient, these parametric assumptions have proven especially restrictive in empirical research. Here, we relax their distributional assumptions and provide a more flexible, semi-parametric approach. We illustrate our proposal in the context of a randomized trial for evaluating a treatment of schizoaffective disorder. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  20. A Multifunctional Frontloading Approach for Repeated Recycling of a Pressure-Controlled AFM Micropipette.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Roder

    Full Text Available Fluid force microscopy combines the positional accuracy and force sensitivity of an atomic force microscope (AFM with nanofluidics via a microchanneled cantilever. However, adequate loading and cleaning procedures for such AFM micropipettes are required for various application situations. Here, a new frontloading procedure is described for an AFM micropipette functioning as a force- and pressure-controlled microscale liquid dispenser. This frontloading procedure seems especially attractive when using target substances featuring high costs or low available amounts. Here, the AFM micropipette could be filled from the tip side with liquid from a previously applied droplet with a volume of only a few μL using a short low-pressure pulse. The liquid-loaded AFM micropipettes could be then applied for experiments in air or liquid environments. AFM micropipette frontloading was evaluated with the well-known organic fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the AlexaFluor647-labeled antibody goat anti-rat IgG as an example of a larger biological compound. After micropipette usage, specific cleaning procedures were tested. Furthermore, a storage method is described, at which the AFM micropipettes could be stored for a few hours up to several days without drying out or clogging of the microchannel. In summary, the rapid, versatile and cost-efficient frontloading and cleaning procedure for the repeated usage of a single AFM micropipette is beneficial for various application situations from specific surface modifications through to local manipulation of living cells, and provides a simplified and faster handling for already known experiments with fluid force microscopy.

  1. A Multifunctional Frontloading Approach for Repeated Recycling of a Pressure-Controlled AFM Micropipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Phillip; Hille, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Fluid force microscopy combines the positional accuracy and force sensitivity of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with nanofluidics via a microchanneled cantilever. However, adequate loading and cleaning procedures for such AFM micropipettes are required for various application situations. Here, a new frontloading procedure is described for an AFM micropipette functioning as a force- and pressure-controlled microscale liquid dispenser. This frontloading procedure seems especially attractive when using target substances featuring high costs or low available amounts. Here, the AFM micropipette could be filled from the tip side with liquid from a previously applied droplet with a volume of only a few μL using a short low-pressure pulse. The liquid-loaded AFM micropipettes could be then applied for experiments in air or liquid environments. AFM micropipette frontloading was evaluated with the well-known organic fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the AlexaFluor647-labeled antibody goat anti-rat IgG as an example of a larger biological compound. After micropipette usage, specific cleaning procedures were tested. Furthermore, a storage method is described, at which the AFM micropipettes could be stored for a few hours up to several days without drying out or clogging of the microchannel. In summary, the rapid, versatile and cost-efficient frontloading and cleaning procedure for the repeated usage of a single AFM micropipette is beneficial for various application situations from specific surface modifications through to local manipulation of living cells, and provides a simplified and faster handling for already known experiments with fluid force microscopy.

  2. Treatment of cervical contractures utilising a closed platysmotomy like approach: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haik, Josef; Prat, Daphna; Kornhaber, Rachel; Tessone, Ariel

    2016-09-01

    Contractures to the cervical region as a result of burns has the capacity to cause restrictions in range of movement, function of the lower face, cervical spine distortion and poor aesthetic outcomes that remain a surgical challenge. Consequently, physical and aesthetic deformities as a result of cervical contractures are reported to cause depression having implications for patients' quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing. At the time this research was conducted, there were no case reports describing a closed platysmotomy approach in burn patients. In this article, we review the literature surrounding closed platysmotomies and present what we believe to be the first reported case in the treatment of cervical contractures utilising a closed platysmotomy approach in a burns patient. A closed platysmotomy approach for the treatment of cervical contractures is a less invasive technique. Further investigation is warranted to determine the feasibility of this reconstructive approach in the area of burn scar management.

  3. Assessing variability and comparing short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure using a repeated measurements approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Manini, P; Campo, L; De Palma, G; Andreoli, R; Mutti, A; Bertazzi, P A; Rappaport, S M

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this work is to compare several short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure, namely urinary styrene (StyU), mercapturic acids (M1+M2), mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), phenylglycine (PHG), and 4-vinylphenol conjugates (VP), for use as biomarkers of exposure in epidemiologic studies. A repeated measurements protocol (typically 4 measurements per worker over 6 weeks) was applied to measure airborne styrene (StyA) and urinary biomarkers in 10 varnish and 8 fiberglass reinforced plastic workers. Estimated geometric mean personal exposures to StyA were 2.96mg/m(3) in varnish workers and 15.7mg/m(3) in plastic workers. The corresponding levels of StyU, M1+M2, MA, PGA, MA+PGA, PHG and VP were 5.13microg/L, 0.111, 38.2, 22.7, 62.6, 0.978, and 3.97mg/g creatinine in varnish workers and 8.38microg/L, 0.303, 146, 83.4, 232, 2.85 and 3.97mg/g creatinine in plastic workers. Within-worker (sigma(wY)(2)) and between-worker (sigma(bY)(2)) variance components were estimated from the log-transformed data as were the corresponding fold ranges containing 95% of the respective lognormal distributions of daily levels ((w)R(0.95)) and subject-specific mean levels ((b)R(0.95)). Estimates of (w)R(0.95) (range: 4-26) were generally smaller than those of (b)R(0.95) (range: 5-790) for both environmental and biological markers; this indicates that exposures varied much more between workers than within workers in these groups. Since attenuation bias in an estimated exposure-response relationship increases with the variance ratio lambda=sigma(wY)(2)/sigma(bY)(2), we estimated values of lambda for all exposure measures in our study. Values of lambda were typically much less than one (median=0.220) and ranged from 0.089 for M1+M2 in plastic workers to 1.38 for PHG in varnish workers. Since values of lambda were 0.147 and 0.271 for StyA in varnish workers and plastic workers, respectively, compared to 0.178 and 0.210 for MA in the same groups, our results suggest that either

  4. One Approach for Dynamic L-lysine Modelling of Repeated Fed-batch Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Todorov

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with establishment of dynamic unstructured model of variable volume fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-lysine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates as a second-order non-linear dynamic models; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  5. Observations of comet 252P/LINEAR during its historically close approach to Earth in 2016 from Lowell Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2016-10-01

    We report on imaging and photometry of comet 252P/LINEAR acquired at Lowell Observatory during 2016 February-April. 252P passed 0.036 AU from Earth on March 21, among the closest passages on record. Its southern declination and the full moon made observations during the close encounter impractical from Lowell Observatory, but we observed 252P on one night each in February and early March, and on 13 nights from April 2-21 using the 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope, Hall 1.1-m, and 0.8-m. According to reports by other observers, the comet brightened significantly beginning in late-February and, coupled with the extreme close approach, was highly extended during our April observations. Narrowband photometry revealed a typical gas composition and an extremely low dust-to-gas ratio. The ratios remained essentially unchanged between late-February and April, e.g., during and after the extended "outburst" reported by other observers. 252P exhibited distinctly different coma morphology between dust and gas species. Enhanced images revealed a short sunward dust feature and the dust tail. Enhanced CN and C3 images exhibited a tilted spiral that was seen partially edge on approximately in the north-south directions. Enhanced OH images were also brightest along this direction but with considerably more material in the tailward hemisphere, potentially implying icy grains subject to radiation pressure. The CN coma morphology varied smoothly during a night and repeated every ~22 hr, implying a period of ~22 hr or a sub-multiple. There was also a repetition of features after ~95.5 hr, implying that the actual period is 7.35 +/- 0.05 hr. The repetition of features was most consistent April 2-7; the morphology diverged during later later nights, with the apparent spiral seen earlier separating into two or more distinct jet features. We will discuss these results as well as the results of our ongoing analyses. These studies were supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy grant NNX14AG81G.

  6. A Hybrid Approach to Solve a Model of Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Tokhmehchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a closed-loop supply chain network, including plants, demand centers, as well as collection centers, and disposal centers. In forward flow, the products are directly sent to demand centers, after being produced by plants, but in the reverse flow, reused products are returned to collection centers and, after investigating, are partly sent to disposal centers and the other part is resent to plants for remanufacturing. The proposed mathematical model is based on mixed-integer programming and helps minimizing the total cost. Total costs include the expenditure of establishing new centers, producing new products, cargo transport in the network, and disposal. The model aims to answer these two questions. (1 What number and in which places the plants, collection centers, and disposal centers will be constructed. (2 What amount of products will be flowing in each segment of the chain, in order to minimize the total cost. Four types of tuned metaheuristic algorithms were used, which are hybrid forms of genetic and firefly algorithms. Finally an adequate number of instances are generated to analyse the behavior of proposed algorithms. Computational results reveal that iterative sequentialization hybrid provides better solution compared with the other approaches in large size.

  7. The Extremely Low Activity Comet 209P/LINEAR During Its Extraordinary Close Approach in 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Schleicher, David G

    2016-01-01

    We present results from our observing campaign of Comet 209P/LINEAR during its exceptionally close approach to Earth during May of 2014, the third smallest perigee of any comet in two centuries. These circumstances permitted us to pursue several studies of this intrinsically faint object, including measurements of gas and dust production rates, searching for coma morphology, and direct detection of the nucleus to measure its properties. Indeed, we successfully measured the lowest water production rates of an intact comet in over 35 years and a corresponding smallest active area, ~0.007 km^2. When combined with the nucleus size found from radar (Howell et al. 2014), this also yields the smallest active fraction for any comet, ~0.024%. In all, this strongly suggests that 209P/LINEAR is on its way to becoming an inert object. The nucleus was detected but could not easily be disentangled from the inner coma due to seeing variations and changing spatial scales. Even so, we were able to measure a double-peaked ligh...

  8. Closing the Gaps and Filling the STEM Pipeline: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerschuk, Peggy; Bahrim, Cristian; Daniel, Jennifer; Kruger, Joseph; Mann, Judith; Martin, Cristopher

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing demand for degreed science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professionals, but the production of degreed STEM students is not keeping pace. Problems exist at every juncture along the pipeline. Too few students choose to major in STEM disciplines. Many of those who do major in STEM drop out or change majors. Females and minorities remain underrepresented in STEM. The success rate of college students who are from low-income background or first-generation students is much lower than that of students who do not face such challenges. Some of those who successfully complete their degree need help in making the transition to the workforce after graduation. A program at Lamar University takes a multidisciplinary approach to addressing these problems. It is designed to recruit, retain and transition undergraduates to careers in STEM, focusing its efforts on five science disciplines and on these "at-risk" students. The program was supported by a 5-year grant from the National Science Foundation and is supported through August 31, 2016 by Lamar University and a grant from ExxonMobil. A formal assessment plan documents the program's success. The program received an award from the Texas Higher Education Board for its contributions towards Closing the Gaps in Higher Education in Texas. This paper describes the program's theoretical framework, research questions, methods, evaluation plan, and instruments. It presents an analysis of the results achieved using these methods and implications for improvements to the program resulting from lessons learned.

  9. A system for predicting close approaches and potential collisions in geosynchronous orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beusch, J.; Abbot, R.; Sridharan, R.

    The geosynchronous orbit is getting crowded with over 300 active, revenue producing large satellites and over 500 inactive dead resident space objects that pose a physical collision threat to the active satellites. The in situ demise of a particular satellite, Telstar 401, followed by a similar demise of SOLIDARIDAD 1, initiated a research and development effort at MIT Lincoln Laboratory to address this threat. This work with commercial satellite operators is accomplished using the mechanism of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements. Initial work to detect and warn of close approaches with these two failed satellites led to more extensive research on the collision threat over the entire geosynchronous belt. It is apparent that: a) There is a significant probability of collision; b) The probability has increased considerably in the last decade or so; c) The continuing failure of geosynchronous satellites and injection of rocket bodies into or near geosynchronous orbit will increase the threat; d) Debris in or near geosynchronous orbit poses another problem that has to be addressed. This paper surveys what has been achieved so far in predicting the threat and protecting satellites. An assessment of the probability of collision is presented as well as a description of the Geosynchronous Monitoring and Warning System. The operations of the GMWS are described as well as some of the results achieved so far. Areas of current research are mentioned.

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases and related genes in plants:A phylogenomic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Shi; Hongwen Huang; Michael J.Sanderson; Frans E.Tax

    2014-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinases (RLKs), evolutionarily related LRR receptor-like proteins (RLPs) and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) have important roles in plant signaling, and their gene subfamilies are large with a complicated history of gene duplication and loss. In three pairs of closely related lineages, including Arabidopsis thaliana and A. lyrata (Arabidopsis), Lotus japonicus, and Medicago truncatula (Legumes), Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, and O. sativa ssp. indica (Rice), we find that LRR RLKs comprise the largest group of these LRR-related subfamilies, while the related RLCKs represent the smal est group. In addition, comparison of orthologs indicates a high frequency of reciprocal gene loss of the LRR RLK/LRR RLP/RLCK subfamilies. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons show that reciprocal gene loss is often associated with lineage-specific duplication(s) in the alternative lineage. Last, analysis of genes in A. thaliana involved in development revealed that most are highly conserved orthologs without species-specific duplication in the two Arabidopsis species and originated from older Arabidopsis-specific or rosid-specific duplications. We discuss potential pitfal s related to functional prediction for genes that have undergone frequent turnover (duplications, losses, and domain architecture changes), and conclude that prediction based on phylogenetic relationships wil likely outperform that based on sequence similarity alone.

  11. Chemical genetic approach identifies microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 as a leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Petranka; Reyniers, Lauran; Meyer, Marc; Lobbestael, Evy; Stauffer, Daniela; Gerrits, Bertran; Muller, Lionel; Hoving, Sjouke; Kaupmann, Klemens; Voshol, Johannes; Fabbro, Doriano; Bauer, Andreas; Rovelli, Giorgio; Taymans, Jean-Marc; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Baekelandt, Veerle

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant forms of Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is a modular, multidomain protein containing 2 enzymatic domains, including a kinase domain, as well as several protein-protein interaction domains, pointing to a role in cellular signaling. Although enormous efforts have been made, the exact pathophysiologic mechanisms of LRRK2 are still not completely known. In this study, we used a chemical genetics approach to identify LRRK2 substrates from mouse brain. This approach allows the identification of substrates of 1 particular kinase in a complex cellular environment. Several of the identified peptides are involved in the regulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics, including microtubule-associating protein (MAP)/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1 (MARK1). MARK1 is a serine/threonine kinase known to phosphorylate MT-binding proteins such as Tau, MAP2, and MAP4 at KXGS motifs leading to MT destabilization. In vitro kinase assays and metabolic-labeling experiments in living cells confirmed MARK1 as an LRRK2 substrate. Moreover, we also showed that LRRK2 and MARK1 are interacting in eukaryotic cells. Our findings contribute to the identification of physiologic LRRK2 substrates and point to a potential mechanism explaining the reported effects of LRRK2 on neurite morphology.

  12. Selecting a linear mixed model for longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern model, and growth curve approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2012-03-01

    With increasing popularity, growth curve modeling is more and more often considered as the 1st choice for analyzing longitudinal data. Although the growth curve approach is often a good choice, other modeling strategies may more directly answer questions of interest. It is common to see researchers fit growth curve models without considering alterative modeling strategies. In this article we compare 3 approaches for analyzing longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern models, and growth curve models. As all are members of the general linear mixed model family, they represent somewhat different assumptions about the way individuals change. These assumptions result in different patterns of covariation among the residuals around the fixed effects. In this article, we first indicate the kinds of data that are appropriately modeled by each and use real data examples to demonstrate possible problems associated with the blanket selection of the growth curve model. We then present a simulation that indicates the utility of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion in the selection of a proper residual covariance structure. The results cast doubt on the popular practice of automatically using growth curve modeling for longitudinal data without comparing the fit of different models. Finally, we provide some practical advice for assessing mean changes in the presence of correlated data.

  13. Evidence of spring formation and subrosion-induced sinkhole development at Ghor Al-Haditha, Jordan, from repeated close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Eoghan, P. Holohan; Leila, Saberi; Hussam, Alrshdan; Thomas, Walter; Ali, Sawarieh; Torsten, Dahm

    2016-04-01

    The widespread development of sinkholes and land subsidence poses a major geological hazard to infrastructure, local population, agriculture and industry in the Dead Sea area. For assessment of the key physical factors in this development, repeated photogrammetric and field surveys at Ghor Al-Haditha in Jordan have been undertaken. Recent results provide evidence for subrosion based on strong periodic water flows, as the basic underlying physical process of such land subsidence phenomena. From combined Helikite- and Quatrocopter-based photogrammetric surveys, high resolution Digital Surface Models from October 2014 and October 2015 are compared. Change detection reveals: (1) active subsidence in a hundred metre-scale depression zone, (2) a highly-dynamic spring and canyon system connected with recent sinkhole collapses and (3) the rapid formation of new sinkholes both in alluvium and mud cover sediments. The formation of new sinkholes has been documented locally by means of aerial and field observations during a storm with strong rainfall. A new artesian spring formed in the former Dead Sea bed (mud-flat) at this event. The alluvial sediment load of the stream, a periodic location change of the spring and a connected uphill sinkhole cluster formation provide strong evidence for subrosion of weak material with subsequent underground void collapse. Additionally a documented lake and its' subsequent drainage forming a new canyon reveals the local penetration of the aquiclude behavior of the mud-flat in the major depression area, which can be explained by an under-saturated groundwater flow at a strong hydrostatic gradient. Furthermore an enlargement of the investigated area in the 2015 survey indicates a continuation of subsidence and sinkhole activity towards the North. It reveals several points of emanation of water streams in the mud-flat beneath the alluvial cover and vegetation as an indicator of relatively fresh groundwater inflow. This repeated photogrammetry

  14. A Hybrid Approach to Solve a Model of Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tokhmehchi, Nafiseh; Makui, Ahmad; Sadi-Nezhad, Soheil

    2015-01-01

    ... consumption, and transportation costs. Supply chain networks of sustainable development are considered suitable means for designing closed-loop production networks. This method fits the procedures in an e...

  15. Teachers' Relationship Closeness with Students as a Resource for Teacher Wellbeing: A Response Surface Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatz, Anne; Lüftenegger, Marko; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' relationship quality with students has been argued to be an important source of teacher wellbeing. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate to what extent teachers' relationship closeness toward students, combined with attachment security is a resource protecting against teacher burnout. Eighty-three elementary school teachers reported on their most and least attached student's relationship closeness, their attachment security and levels of burnout, as measured by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Response surface analysis (RSA), enabling researchers to investigate the effect of congruence/incongruence of two predictors on an outcome, revealed that teachers' depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were lowest when they developed homogenous close relationships toward the students within their classroom and when teachers in general made congruent relationship experiences. No RSA model could be specified for personal accomplishment, even though a correlational analysis revealed that increasing closeness with students fostered teachers' personal accomplishment. Teachers' secure attachment experiences were not directly related to burnout, but enhanced their capability to establish close relationships toward their students. Findings suggest that teachers' relationships toward students are a resource for the teacher's wellbeing, which highlights once again the importance of student-teacher relationships in education.

  16. A combined modulated feedback and temperature compensation approach to improve bias drift of a closed-loop MEMS capacitive accelerometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-jun MA; Zhong-he JIN‡; Hui-jie ZHU

    2015-01-01

    The bias drift of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer suffers from the 1/f noise and the tem-perature effect. For massive applications, the bias drift urgently needs to be improved. Conventional methods often cannot ad-dress the 1/f noise and temperature effect in one architecture. In this paper, a combined approach on closed-loop architecture modification is proposed to minimize the bias drift. The modulated feedback approach is used to isolate the 1/f noise that exists in the conventional direct feedback approach. Then a common mode signal is created and added into the closed loop on the basis of modulated feedback architecture, to compensate for the temperature drift. With the combined approach, the bias instability is improved to less than 13 µg, and the drift of the Allan variance result is reduced to 17 µg at 100 s of the integration time. The temperature coefficient is reduced from 4.68 to 0.1 mg/°C. The combined approach could be useful for many other closed-loop accelerometers.

  17. New Closeness Coefficients for Fuzzy Similarity Based Fuzzy TOPSIS: An Approach Combining Fuzzy Entropy and Multidistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Collan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new closeness coefficients for fuzzy similarity based TOPSIS. The new closeness coefficients are based on multidistance or fuzzy entropy, are able to take into consideration the level of similarity between analysed criteria, and can be used to account for the consistency or homogeneity of, for example, performance measuring criteria. The commonly known OWA operator is used in the aggregation process over the fuzzy similarity values. A range of orness values is considered in creating a fuzzy overall ranking for each object, after which the fuzzy rankings are ordered to find a final linear ranking. The presented method is numerically applied to a research and development project selection problem and the effect of using two new closeness coefficients based on multidistance and fuzzy entropy is numerically illustrated.

  18. Mapping Speech Spectra from Throat Microphone to Close-Speaking Microphone: A Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yegnanarayana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech recorded from a throat microphone is robust to the surrounding noise, but sounds unnatural unlike the speech recorded from a close-speaking microphone. This paper addresses the issue of improving the perceptual quality of the throat microphone speech by mapping the speech spectra from the throat microphone to the close-speaking microphone. A neural network model is used to capture the speaker-dependent functional relationship between the feature vectors (cepstral coefficients of the two speech signals. A method is proposed to ensure the stability of the all-pole synthesis filter. Objective evaluations indicate the effectiveness of the proposed mapping scheme. The advantage of this method is that the model gives a smooth estimate of the spectra of the close-speaking microphone speech. No distortions are perceived in the reconstructed speech. This mapping technique is also used for bandwidth extension of telephone speech.

  19. An Approach to Polynomial NARX/NARMAX Systems Identification in a Closed-loop with Variable Structure Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. M. Mohamed Vall; R. M'hiri

    2008-01-01

    Many physical processes have nonlinear behavior which can be well represented by a polynomial NARX or NARMAX model. The identification of such models has been widely explored in literature. The majority of these approaches are for the open-loop identification. However, for reasons such as safety and production restrictions, open-loop identification cannot always be done. In such cases, closed-loop identification is necessary. This paper presents a two-step approach to closed-loop identification of the polynomial NARX/NARMAX systems with variable structure control (VSC). First, a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to maximize the similarity of VSC signal to white noise by tuning the switching function parameters. Second, the system is simulated again and its parameters are estimated by an algorithm of the least square (LS) family. Finally, simulation examples are given to show the validity of the proposed approach.

  20. Peer Evaluation of Master Programs: Closing the Quality Circle of the CDIO Approach?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Bisi, Anita; Malmqvist, Johan;

    2012-01-01

    programs within their field at another N5T institution. The article describes the quality enhancement tool in detail, its contribution to the development of the involved programs, and how international peer evaluation can contribute to closing the quality circle. Finally, it assesses the value...... peer evaluations of educational programs to enable their further development and close the quality circle. In addition, the project will contribute to the consolidation of the N5T alliance by facilitating contacts between faculty members and providing them with an in-depth knowledge of the study...

  1. Detection of quasi-periodic processes in repeated measurements: New approach for the fitting and clusterization of different data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, R.; Rakhmatullin, R.

    2014-12-01

    Many experimentalists were accustomed to think that any independent measurement forms a non-correlated measurement that depends weakly from others. We are trying to reconsider this conventional point of view and prove that similar measurements form a strongly-correlated sequence of random functions with memory. In other words, successive measurements "remember" each other at least their nearest neighbors. This observation and justification on real data help to fit the wide set of data based on the Prony's function. The Prony's decomposition follows from the quasi-periodic (QP) properties of the measured functions and includes the Fourier transform as a partial case. New type of decomposition helps to obtain a specific amplitude-frequency response (AFR) of the measured (random) functions analyzed and each random function contains less number of the fitting parameters in comparison with its number of initial data points. Actually, the calculated AFR can be considered as the generalized Prony's spectrum (GPS), which will be extremely useful in cases where the simple model pretending on description of the measured data is absent but vital necessity of their quantitative description is remained. These possibilities open a new way for clusterization of the initial data and new information that is contained in these data gives a chance for their detailed analysis. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements realized for empty resonator (pure noise data) and resonator containing a sample (CeO2 in our case) confirmed the existence of the QP processes in reality. But we think that the detection of the QP processes is a common feature of many repeated measurements and this new property of successive measurements can attract an attention of many experimentalists. To formulate some general conditions that help to identify and then detect the presence of some QP process in the repeated experimental measurements. To find a functional equation and its solution that

  2. A genetic algorithm approach for solving a closed loop supply chain model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, G.; Sasikumar, P.; Kannan, Devika

    2010-01-01

    . Because of the need for environmental protection and the lack of considerable lead resources, the spent batteries treatment and lead recovery are becoming crucial now-a-days. The objective of this paper is to develop a multi echelon, multi period, multi product closed loop supply chain network model...

  3. How integrated are behavioral and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress-coping style model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kay; Couto, Elsa; Grimmer, Andrew J; Earley, Ryan L; Canario, Adelino V M; Wilson, Alastair J; Walling, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive-proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress response traits, few studies incorporate repeated observations of both. To test this model, we use a multivariate, repeated measures approach in a captive-bred population of Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantify among-individual variation in behavioral stress response to an open field trial (OFT) with simulated predator attack (SPA) and measure waterborne steroid hormone levels (cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone) before and after exposure. Under the mild stress stimulus (OFT), (multivariate) behavioral variation among individuals was consistent with a strong axis of personality (shy-bold) or coping style (reactive-proactive) variation. However, behavioral responses to a moderate stressor (SPA) were less repeatable, and robust statistical support for repeatable endocrine state over the full sampling period was limited to 11-ketotestosterone. Although post hoc analysis suggested cortisol expression was repeatable over short time periods, qualitative relationships between behavior and glucocorticoid levels were counter to our a priori expectations. Thus, while our results clearly show among-individual differences in behavioral and endocrine traits associated with stress response, the correlation structure between these is not consistent with a simple proactive-reactive axis of integrated stress-coping style. Additionally, the low repeatability of cortisol suggests caution is warranted if single observations (or indeed repeat measures over short sampling

  4. Short term soil erosion dynamics in alpine grasslands - Results from a Fallout Radionuclide repeated-sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Improper land management and climate change has resulted in accelerated soil erosion rates in Alpine grasslands. To efficiently mitigate and control soil erosion and reduce its environmental impact in Alpine grasslands, reliable and validated methods for comprehensive data generation on its magnitude and spatial extent are mandatory. The use of conventional techniques (e.g. sediment traps, erosion pins or rainfall simulations) may be hindered by the extreme topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. However, the application of the Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers has already showed promising results in these specific agro-ecosystems. Once deposited on the ground, FRNs strongly bind to fine particles at the surface soil and move across the landscape primarily through physical processes. As such, they provide an effective track of soil and sediment redistribution. So far, applications of FRN in the Alps include 137Cs (half-life: 30.2 years) and 239+240Pu (239Pu [half-life = 24110 years] and 240Pu [half-life = 6561 years]). To investigate short term (4-5 years) erosion dynamics in the Swiss Alps, the authors applied a FRNs repeated sampling approach. Two study areas in the central Swiss Alps have been investigated: the Urseren Valley (Canton Uri), where significant land use changes occurred in the last centuries, and the Piora Valley (Canton Ticino), where land use change plays a minor role. Soil samples have been collected at potentially erosive sites along the valleys over a period of 4-5 years and measured for 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity. The inventory change between the sampling years indicates high erosion and deposition dynamics at both valleys. High spatial variability of 137Cs activities at all sites has been observed, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986. Finally, a new modelling technique to convert the inventory changes to quantitative estimates of soil erosion has

  5. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  6. Influence of open- and closed-book tests on medical students' learning approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT Two learning approaches are consistently distinguished in the literature: deep and surface learning. The deep learning approach is considered preferable. Open-book tests are expected to stimulate deep learning and to offer a possible way of handling the substantial growth in medical knowledg

  7. Influence of open- and closed-book tests on medical students' learning approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT Two learning approaches are consistently distinguished in the literature: deep and surface learning. The deep learning approach is considered preferable. Open-book tests are expected to stimulate deep learning and to offer a possible way of handling the substantial growth in medical knowledg

  8. Influence of open- and closed-book tests on medical students' learning approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT Two learning approaches are consistently distinguished in the literature: deep and surface learning. The deep learning approach is considered preferable. Open-book tests are expected to stimulate deep learning and to offer a possible way of handling the substantial growth in medical

  9. A Frequent Closed Itemsets Lattice-based Approach for Mining Minimal Non-Redundant Association Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Vo, Bay

    2011-01-01

    There are many algorithms developed for improvement the time of mining frequent itemsets (FI) or frequent closed itemsets (FCI). However, the algorithms which deal with the time of generating association rules were not put in deep research. In reality, in case of a database containing many FI/FCI (from ten thousands up to millions), the time of generating association rules is much larger than that of mining FI/FCI. Therefore, this paper presents an application of frequent closed itemsets lattice (FCIL) for mining minimal non-redundant association rules (MNAR) to reduce a lot of time for generating rules. Firstly, we use CHARM-L for building FCIL. After that, based on FCIL, an algorithm for fast generating MNAR will be proposed. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is much faster than frequent itemsets lattice-based algorithm in the mining time.

  10. Semi-Closed Cube: An Effective Approach to Trading Off Data Cube Size and Query Response Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-En Li; Shan Wang

    2005-01-01

    The results of data cube will occupy huge amount of disk space when the base table is of a large number of attributes. A new type of data cube, compact data cube like condensed cube and quotient cube, was proposed to solve the problem. It compresses data cube dramatically. However, its query cost is so high that it cannot be used in most applications. This paper introduces the semi-closed cube to reduce the size of data cube and achieve almost the same query response time as the data cube does. Semi-closed cube is a generalization of condensed cube and quotient cube and is constructed from a quotient cube. When the query cost of quotient cube is higher than a given threshold, semi-closed cube selects some views and picks a fellow for each of them. All the tuples of those views are materialized except those closed by their fellows. To find a tuple of those views, users only need to scan the view and its fellow. Thus, their query performance is improved. Experiments were conducted using a real-world data set. The results show that semi-closed cube is an effective approach of data cube.

  11. Forthcoming Close Angular Approaches of Planets to Radio Sources and Possibilities to Use Them as GR Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Malkin, Z M; Tsekmeister, S D; 10.1134/S0038094609040054

    2009-01-01

    During close angular approaches of solar system planets to astrometric radio sources, the apparent positions of these sources shift due to relativistic effects and, thus, these events may be used for testing the theory of general relativity; this fact was successfully demonstrated in the experiments on the measurements of radio source position shifts during the approaches of Jupiter carried out in 1988 and 2002. An analysis, performed within the frames of the present work, showed that when a source is observed near a planet's disk edge, i.e., practically in the case of occultation, the current experimental accuracy makes it possible to measure the relativistic effects for all planets. However, radio occultations are fairly rare events. At the same time, only Jupiter and Saturn provide noticeable relativistic effects approaching the radio sources at angular distances of about a few planet radii. Our analysis resulted in the creation of a catalog of forthcoming occultations and approaches of planets to astromet...

  12. Nitrogen recycling and methane production using Gracilaria tikvahiae: a closed system approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, C.; Andrews, D.A.; Ryther, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The macroalga Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyta) was used in a closed system of materials to study methane production and nitrogen recycling. Twenty liter carboys served as digesters. The performance of these digesters mirrors results obtained with two- and four litre Gracilaria digesters with respect to optimal retention times for biogas production, methane content, and bioconversion efficiency to methane. Three groups of Gracilaria were cultivated in 850-L vaults to compare growth performance under three different enrichment treatments. These treatments consisted of an unfertilized group, a group raised on a typical commercial enrichment regime, and a group raised on the residues removed from the digester when additional substrate was loaded into the digester. The results indicate that growth of Gracilaria on the digester residue enrichment scheme is statistically similar to growth using a commercial enrichment mixture. In addition, the nitrogen content of the digester residue is described, along with nitrogen assimilation by Gracilaria and nitrogen recycling efficiencies. Both nitrogen assimilation and recycling efficiency closely parallel the ammonium content of the residue enrichment media. (Refs. 18).

  13. The Role of Qualitative Approaches to Research in CALL Contexts: Closing in on the Learner's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the role of qualitative research methods in CALL through describing a series of examples. These examples are used to highlight the importance and value of qualitative data in relation to a specific research objective in CALL. The use of qualitative methods in conjunction with other approaches as in mixed method research…

  14. A Closed Mars Analog Simulation: The Approach of Crew 5 At the Mars Desert Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For twelve days in April 2002 we performed a closed simulation in the Mars Desert Research Station, isolated from other people, as on Mars, while performing systematic surface exploration and life support chores. Email provided our only means of contact; no phone or radio conversations were possible. All mission-related messages were mediated by a remote mission support team. This protocol enabled a systematic and controlled study of crew activities, scheduling, and use of space. The analysis presented here focuses on two questions: Where did the time go-why did people feel rushed and unable to complete their work? How can we measure and model productivity, to compare habitat designs, schedules, roles, and tools? Analysis suggests that a simple scheduling change-having lunch and dinner earlier, plus eliminating afternoon meetings-increased the available productive time by 41%.

  15. The OSIRIS Weight of Evidence approach: ITS for the endpoints repeated-dose toxicity (RepDose ITS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tluczkiewicz, I.; Batke, M.; Kroese, D.; Buist, H.; Aldenberg, T.; Pauné, E.; Grimm, H.; Kühne, R.; Schüürmann, G.; Mangelsdorf, I.; Escher, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    In the FP6 European project OSIRIS, Integrated Testing Strategies (ITSs) for relevant toxicological endpoints were developed to avoid new animal testing and thus to reduce time and costs. The present paper describes the development of an ITS for repeated-dose toxicity called RepDose ITS which evalua

  16. A team approach to recruitment in hospice research: engaging patients, close people and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Campbell, Cathy; Bailey, Cara; Armour, Kathy; Perry, Rachel; Orlando, Rosanna; Kinghorn, Philip; Jones, Louise; Coast, Joanna

    2016-07-02

    Research is vital to the future development of hospice care. However, research in hospice settings is very challenging. This paper describes a case study of a successful multidisciplinary research team approach (MDRT) to the recruitment of participants (hospice patients, family members and health professionals) for a study in a hospice setting on the economic evaluation of end-of-life care. A successful recruitment plan includes three key strategies: identifying key members of the MDRT early in the research process; having a clear and constant communication stream; and creating an environment where all team members have a shared commitment to the research, all voices are heard and valued, and everyone contributes to the research aims. An MDRT approach will be helpful to guide the development of successful recruitment plans for academic-community research partnerships in the hospice setting.

  17. Plan for VLBI observations of close approaches of Jupiter to compact extragalactic radio sources in 2014-2016

    CERN Document Server

    Girdiuk, Anastassia

    2013-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry is capable of measuring the gravitational delay caused by the Sun and planet gravitational fields. The post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ is now estimated with accuracy of $\\sigma_{\\gamma}=2\\cdot 10^{-4}$ using a global set of VLBI data from 1979 to present (Lambert, Gontier, 2009), and $\\sigma_{\\gamma}=2\\cdot10^{-5}$ by the Cassini spacecraft (Bertotti et. al, 2003). Unfortunately, VLBI observations in S- and X-bands very close to the Solar limb (less than 2-3 degrees) are not possible due to the strong turbulence in the Solar corona. Instead, the close approach of big planets to the line of sight of the reference quasars could be also used for testing of the general relativity theory with VLBI. Jupiter is the most appropriate among the big planets due to its large mass and relatively fast apparent motion across the celestial sphere. Six close approaches of Jupiter with quasars in 2014-2016 were found using the DE405/LE405 ephemerides, including one occultation in 2016. We ha...

  18. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  19. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  20. CdZnS thin films sublimated by closed space using mechanical mixing: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Waqar; Shah, Nazar Abbas

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a prominent material for its tunable band gap used as a window layer in II-VI semiconductor solar cells. The light trapping capability of window layer is one of the powerful tools to enhance the efficiency of the cell. CdS and zinc (Zn) powders were mixed mechanically with different weight percents to make CdZnS (CZS) powder. CZS was deposited onto an ultrasonically cleaned glass substrate using close spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. CZS as-deposited thin films were characterized for structural, surface morphology with energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) and optical properties for the use of window layer in CdS/CdTe based solar cells. The different Zn concentrations in CZS played a vital role on crystallite size in structural analysis and optical properties e.g. transmission, absorption coefficient and energy band gap, etc. The crystallite size of as-deposited CZS thin films were increased as Zn concentration was increased up to certain value. The energy band gap varies from 2.42 eV to 2.57 eV for as-deposited CZS thin films with increasing Zn concentrations and surface morphology changes also. These changes were occurred due to zinc diffusion in CdS thin films. An angle resolved transmission data was taken to check the behavior of CdS and CZS thin film at different angles. A comparative study was carried out between CdS thin films and CZS thin films for the use of good window layer material.

  1. Scattering approach to fidelity decay in closed systems and parametric level correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, T; López Vázquez, P C

    2013-07-01

    Based on an exact analytical approach to describe scattering fidelity experiments [Köber et al., Phys. Rev. E 82, 036207 (2010)], we obtain an expression for the fidelity amplitude decay of quantum chaotic or diffusive systems under arbitrary Hermitian perturbations. This allows us to rederive previous separately obtained results in a simpler and unified manner, as is shown explicitly for the case of a global perturbation. The general expression is also used to derive a so far unpublished exact analytical formula for the case of a moving S-wave scatterer. In the second part of the paper, we extend a relation between fidelity decay and parametric level correlations from the universal case of global perturbations to an arbitrary combination of global and local perturbations. Thereby, the relation becomes a versatile tool for the analysis of unknown perturbations.

  2. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  3. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  4. A Cubesat to Image Comet Wirtanen at its 2018 Close Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, David W.; Stakkestad, Kjell; Hardgrove, Craig; Vedder, Peter W.; Gaylor, David; Kidd, John; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2016-10-01

    In Dec. 2018, Comet Wirtanen will pass 0.077 AU from Earth, the best opportunity for a fly by of an active comet on a low-energy orbit in the next 40 years. In 2013, the late Robert Farquhar presented a paper, "A Unique Multi-Comet Mission Opportunity for China in 2018" [1]. He used a 1.4-year-Earth-return orbit with launch C3 Earth swingby to fly by SW3C in 2022. While at the 2013 conference, Dr. Farquhar visited the China National Space Administration, which said that all of their funds were committed to their lunar program, precluding a new mission. Other agencies Farquhar approached had similar views.NASA announced its SIMPLEx opportunity in 2014 for cubesats deployed from the second stage of the 1st SLS mission (EM-1) to the Moon. We are on the Arizona State Univ. team that is developing the Lunar Polar Hydrogen Mapper (LunaH-Map) cubesat selected for EM-1. LunaH-Map will use an iodine solar electric propulsion system by Busek (Natick, MA) to enter an elliptical lunar orbit with periselene over the lunar south pole. The 1st launch date for EM-1 was in Dec. 2017, but in May 2016, NASA changed it to October 7, 2018. That's 2 months before Wirtanen's closest approach, so we looked into sending a cubesat with LunaH-Map's propulsion system to Wirtanen. The lunar swingby that might send a cubesat to Wirtanen would occur on Oct. 12 when the Earth C3 to reach Wirtanen is 2.25 km^2/s^2. We tried realistic simulations, finding that a LunaH-Map-like cubesat could not reach Wirtanen, but a spacecraft with 4 times the thrust could. Another cubesat with a more capable propulsion system might reach Wirtanen from EM-1. EM-1 can deploy 13 cubesats, all taken except for 3 for foreign partners. If EM-1 launches a month earlier, then a LunaH-Map-like cubesat could reach Wirtanen; the lowest C3 is 0.95 km^2/s^2 with an Earth departure on Sept. 5. If there is another launch with the possibility of carrying a cubesat then, the authors would be interested.[1] Farquhar, R., Jing, Qian

  5. Reverse Pharmacognosy and Reverse Pharmacology; Two Closely Related Approaches for Drug Discovery Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad R; Manayi, Azadeh

    Pharmacognosy is a science, which study natural products as a source of new drug leads and effective drug development. Rational and economic search for novel lead structures could maximize the speed of drug discovery by using powerful high technology methods. Reverse pharmacognosy, a complementary to pharmacognosy, couples the high throughput screening (HTS), virtual screening and databases along with the knowledge of traditional medicines. These strategies lead to identification of numerous in vitro active and selective hits enhancing the speed of drug discovery from natural sources. Besides, reverse pharmacology is a target base drug discovery approach; in the first step, a hypothesis is made that the alteration of specific protein activity will produce beneficial curative effects. Both, reverse pharmacognosy and reverse pharmacology take advantages of high technology methods to accomplish their particular purposes. Moreover, reverse pharmacognosy effectively utilize traditional medicines and natural products as promising sources to provide new drug leads as well as promote the rational use of them by using valuable information like protein structure databases and chemical libraries which prepare pharmacological profile of traditional medicine, plant extract or natural compounds.

  6. Neuro-mechanical determinants of repeated treadmill sprints - Usefulness of an “hypoxic to normoxic recovery” approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Millet, Grégoire P.

    2015-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the limiting factors during repeated sprinting, we manipulated hypoxia severity during an initial set and examined the effects on performance and associated neuro-mechanical alterations during a subsequent set performed in normoxia. On separate days, 13 active males performed eight 5-s sprints (recovery = 25 s) on an instrumented treadmill in either normoxia near sea-level (SL; FiO2 = 20.9%), moderate (MH; FiO2 = 16.8%) or severe normobaric hypoxia (SH; FiO2 = 13.3%) followed, 6 min later, by four 5-s sprints (recovery = 25 s) in normoxia. Throughout the first set, along with distance covered [larger sprint decrement score in SH (−8.2%) compared to SL (−5.3%) and MH (−7.2%); P sprint of the subsequent normoxic set, the distance covered (99.6, 96.4, and 98.3% of sprint 1 in SL, MH, and SH, respectively), the main kinetic (mean vertical, horizontal, and resultant forces) and kinematic (contact time and step frequency) variables as well as surface electromyogram of quadriceps and plantar flexor muscles were fully recovered, with no significant difference between conditions. Despite differing hypoxic severity levels during sprints 1–8, performance and neuro-mechanical patterns did not differ during the four sprints of the second set performed in normoxia. In summary, under the circumstances of this study (participant background, exercise-to-rest ratio, hypoxia exposure), sprint mechanical performance and neural alterations were largely influenced by the hypoxia severity in an initial set of repeated sprints. However, hypoxia had no residual effect during a subsequent set performed in normoxia. Hence, the recovery of performance and associated neuro-mechanical alterations was complete after resting for 6 min near sea level, with a similar fatigue pattern across conditions during subsequent repeated sprints in normoxia. PMID:26441679

  7. Algorithmic design of a noise-resistant and efficient closed-loop deep brain stimulation system: A computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamintziou, Sofia D.; Custódio, Ana Luísa; Piallat, Brigitte; Polosan, Mircea; Chabardès, Stéphan; Stathis, Pantelis G.; Tagaris, George A.; Sakas, Damianos E.; Polychronaki, Georgia E.; Tsirogiannis, George L.; David, Olivier; Nikita, Konstantina S.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in the field of closed-loop neuromodulation call for analysis and modeling approaches capable of confronting challenges related to the complex neuronal response to stimulation and the presence of strong internal and measurement noise in neural recordings. Here we elaborate on the algorithmic aspects of a noise-resistant closed-loop subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation system for advanced Parkinson’s disease and treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, ensuring remarkable performance in terms of both efficiency and selectivity of stimulation, as well as in terms of computational speed. First, we propose an efficient method drawn from dynamical systems theory, for the reliable assessment of significant nonlinear coupling between beta and high-frequency subthalamic neuronal activity, as a biomarker for feedback control. Further, we present a model-based strategy through which optimal parameters of stimulation for minimum energy desynchronizing control of neuronal activity are being identified. The strategy integrates stochastic modeling and derivative-free optimization of neural dynamics based on quadratic modeling. On the basis of numerical simulations, we demonstrate the potential of the presented modeling approach to identify, at a relatively low computational cost, stimulation settings potentially associated with a significantly higher degree of efficiency and selectivity compared with stimulation settings determined post-operatively. Our data reinforce the hypothesis that model-based control strategies are crucial for the design of novel stimulation protocols at the backstage of clinical applications. PMID:28222198

  8. On a closed form approach to the fractional neutron point kinetics equation with temperature feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Marcelo; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T.M.B., E-mail: marceloschramm@hotmail.com, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Petersen, Claudio Z., E-mail: claudiopetersen@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Matematica; Alvim, Antonio C.M., E-mail: alvim@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia

    2013-07-01

    Following the quest to find analytical solutions, we extend the methodology applied successfully to timely fractional neutron point kinetics (FNPK) equations by adding the effects of temperature. The FNPK equations with temperature feedback correspond to a nonlinear system and “stiff” type for the neutron density and the concentration of delayed neutron precursors. These variables determine the behavior of a nuclear reactor power with time and are influenced by the position of control rods, for example. The solutions of kinetics equations provide time information about the dynamics in a nuclear reactor in operation and are useful, for example, to understand the power fluctuations with time that occur during startup or shutdown of the reactor, due to adjustments of the control rods. The inclusion of temperature feedback in the model introduces an estimate of the transient behavior of the power and other variables, which are strongly coupled. Normally, a single value of reactivity is used across the energy spectrum. Especially in case of power change, the neutron energy spectrum changes as well as physical parameters such as the average cross sections. However, even knowing the importance of temperature effects on the control of the reactor power, the character of the set of nonlinear equations governing this system makes it difficult to obtain a purely analytical solution. Studies have been published in this sense, using numerical approaches. Here the idea is to consider temperature effects to make the model more realistic and thus solve it in a semi-analytical way. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to obtain an analytical representation of fractional neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback, without having to resort to approximations inherent in numerical methods. To this end, we will use the decomposition method, which has been successfully used by the authors to solve neutron point kinetics problems. The results obtained will

  9. Neuro-mechanical determinants of repeated treadmill sprints - Usefulness of an ‘hypoxic to normoxic recovery’ approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eGIRARD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve our understanding of the limiting factors during repeated sprinting, we manipulated hypoxia severity during an initial set and examined the effects on performance and associated neuro-mechanical alterations during a subsequent set performed in normoxia. On separate days, thirteen active males performed eight 5-s sprints (recovery = 25 s on an instrumented treadmill in either normoxia near sea-level (SL; FiO2 = 20.9%, moderate (MH; FiO2 = 16.8% or severe normobaric hypoxia (SH; FiO2 = 13.3% followed, 6 min later, by four 5-s sprints (recovery = 25 s in normoxia. Throughout the first set, along with distance covered [larger sprint decrement score in SH (-8.2% compared to SL (-5.3% and MH (-7.2%; P<0.05], changes in contact time, step frequency and root mean square activity (surface electromyography of the quadriceps (rectus femoris muscle in SH exceeded those in SL and MH (P<0.05. During first sprint of the subsequent normoxic set, the distance covered (99.6%, 96.4% and 98.3% of sprint 1 in SL, MH and SH, respectively, the main kinetic (mean, horizontal and resultant forces and kinematic (contact time and step frequency variables as well as surface electromyogram of quadriceps and plantar flexor muscles were fully recovered, with no significant difference between conditions. Despite differing hypoxic severity levels during sprints 1 to 8, performance and neuro-mechanical patterns did not differ during the four sprints of the second set performed in normoxia. In summary, under the circumstances of this study (participant background, exercise-to-rest ratio, hypoxia exposure, sprint mechanical performance and neural alterations were largerly influenced by the hypoxia severity in an initial set of repeated sprints. However, hypoxia had no residual effect during a subsequent set performed in normoxia. Hence, the recovery of performance and associated neuro-mechanical alterations was complete after resting for 6 min near sea level, with a

  10. Repeated testing improves achievement in a blended learning approach for risk competence training of medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, C; Juenger, J

    2017-09-26

    Adequate estimation and communication of risks is a critical competence of physicians. Due to an evident lack of these competences, effective training addressing risk competence during medical education is needed. Test-enhanced learning has been shown to produce marked effects on achievements. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated tests implemented on top of a blended learning program for risk competence. We introduced a blended-learning curriculum for risk estimation and risk communication based on a set of operationalized learning objectives, which was integrated into a mandatory course "Evidence-based Medicine" for third-year students. A randomized controlled trial addressed the effect of repeated testing on achievement as measured by the students' pre- and post-training score (nine multiple-choice items). Basic numeracy and statistical literacy were assessed at baseline. Analysis relied on descriptive statistics (histograms, box plots, scatter plots, and summary of descriptive measures), bootstrapped confidence intervals, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and effect sizes (Cohen's d, r) based on adjusted means and standard deviations. All of the 114 students enrolled in the course consented to take part in the study and were assigned to either the intervention or control group (both: n = 57) by balanced randomization. Five participants dropped out due to non-compliance (control: 4, intervention: 1). Both groups profited considerably from the program in general (Cohen's d for overall pre vs. post scores: 2.61). Repeated testing yielded an additional positive effect: while the covariate (baseline score) exhibits no relation to the post-intervention score, F(1, 106) = 2.88, p > .05, there was a significant effect of the intervention (repeated tests scenario) on learning achievement, F(1106) = 12.72, p blended learning approach can be improved significantly by implementing a test-enhanced learning design, namely repeated testing. As

  11. An interactive possibilistic programming approach for a multi-objective closed-loop supply chain network under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    lireza Fallah-Tafti, A.; Sahraeian, Rashed; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza; Moeinipour, Masoud

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we first propose a closed-loop supply chain network design that integrates network design decisions in both forward and reverse supply chain networks into a unified structure as well as incorporates the tactical decisions with strategic ones (e.g., facility location and supplier selection) at each period. To do so, various conflicting objectives and constraints are simultaneously taken into account in the presence of some uncertain parameters, such as cost coefficients and customer demands. Then, we propose a novel interactive possibilistic approach based on the well-known STEP method to solve the multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming model. To validate the presented model and solution method, a numerical test is accomplished through the application of the proposed possibilistic-STEM algorithm. The computational results demonstrate suitability of the presented model and solution method.

  12. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  13. Phylogenomic approaches to common problems encountered in the analysis of low copy repeats: The sulfotransferase 1A gene family example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benner Steven A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blocks of duplicated genomic DNA sequence longer than 1000 base pairs are known as low copy repeats (LCRs. Identified by their sequence similarity, LCRs are abundant in the human genome, and are interesting because they may represent recent adaptive events, or potential future adaptive opportunities within the human lineage. Sequence analysis tools are needed, however, to decide whether these interpretations are likely, whether a particular set of LCRs represents nearly neutral drift creating junk DNA, or whether the appearance of LCRs reflects assembly error. Here we investigate an LCR family containing the sulfotransferase (SULT 1A genes involved in drug metabolism, cancer, hormone regulation, and neurotransmitter biology as a first step for defining the problems that those tools must manage. Results Sequence analysis here identified a fourth sulfotransferase gene, which may be transcriptionally active, located on human chromosome 16. Four regions of genomic sequence containing the four human SULT1A paralogs defined a new LCR family. The stem hominoid SULT1A progenitor locus was identified by comparative genomics involving complete human and rodent genomes, and a draft chimpanzee genome. SULT1A expansion in hominoid genomes was followed by positive selection acting on specific protein sites. This episode of adaptive evolution appears to be responsible for the dopamine sulfonation function of some SULT enzymes. Each of the conclusions that this bioinformatic analysis generated using data that has uncertain reliability (such as that from the chimpanzee genome sequencing project has been confirmed experimentally or by a "finished" chromosome 16 assembly, both of which were published after the submission of this manuscript. Conclusion SULT1A genes expanded from one to four copies in hominoids during intra-chromosomal LCR duplications, including (apparently one after the divergence of chimpanzees and humans. Thus, LCRs may

  14. preparation of microgram samples on iron wool for radiocarbon analysis via accelerator mass spectrometry: A closed-system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Klouda, George A.; Currie, Lloyd A.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Linick, T. W.

    1987-11-01

    A technique has been developed at NBS for the production of high quality targets for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Our process optimizes chemical yields, ion currents and characterizes the chemical blank. The approach encompasses sample combustion to CO 2, catalytic reduction of CO 2 by Zn to CO, reduction to graphitic carbon on high-purity iron wool and in situ formation of a homogeneous iron-carbon bead; all steps are performed in a closed system. The total measurement system blank and variability are considered in the light of contributions from combustion, iron wool, reduction, bead formation and instrument blank. Additionally, use of this approach provides an increase in throughput, i.e. the effective management of large numbers of samples. Chemical yields for 50-800 μg C samples deposited on 15 mg iron wool were greater than 90%. Integrated 12C - ion currents observed were significant, being 4-64% of those observed in pure graphite. These currents are about an order of magnitude greater than those expected from dilution of graphite with an inert substrate. Isotopic accuracy, precision and blank were assessed by measuring the {14C }/{13C } ratios of a series of targets prepared from dead carbon and oxalic acid (SRM 4990C). Each target was typically measured for one hour; bead consumption was estimated at 5% to 10%. System blank subsequent to combustion was equivalent to (2.2 ± 0.5) μg modern carbon (chemistry + instrument); combustion blank currently stands at (0.4 ± 0.1) (SE, n = 6) μg C.

  15. LATERAL APPROACH UNDER FLUROSCOPIC GUIDANCE WITH NONLOCKING CALCANEAL PLATE IS AN EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CLOSED CALCANEAL FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sobhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intra-articular calcaneal fractures which accounts for about 75% of calcaneal fractures is usually associated with poor functional outcome. The present was under taken to evaluate the efficacy of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced articular fractures of calcaneum in adults through lateral approach under fluroscopic guidance with non-locking calcaneal plate and ipsilateral iliac crest bone graft. 30 adult patients (25 males and 5 females with closed displaced intra articular fractures of calcaneum of less than 15 days constituted the study group. All cases were operated by lateral approach as described by Seligson, a modification of Gould’s technique under spinal anaesthesia. All machers Arthrosis Rating Scale were used for the evaluation of posttraumatic posterior facet degenerative changes. Primarily27 of all 35 wounds (77% healed without any form of wound complications. Excellent to good results noted in 3 (100% patients with preoperative Bohler´s angle larger or equal to 20° (n = 3 whereas patients with preoperative Bohler´s angle smaller than 20° (n=32 achieved excellent to good results in 16 cases (50% Clinically significant subtalararthrosis (Allmacher grade 2-4 noted in 7 cases (20% cases with Bohler´s angle smaller than 20° (n=32. In 5 cases, clinically significant complaints (Allmachers Arthrosis Rating Scale grades II to V noted. Therapeutic success of such fracture depends on timely open reduction and internal fixation with proper fracture reduction and early rehabilitation. Thus management of these injuries as well as complications should be performed in a specialized orthopaedics or traumatology center.

  16. Teaching renewable energy using online PBL in investigating its effect on behaviour towards energy conservation among Malaysian students: ANOVA repeated measures approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Norfarah; Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Hadi Harun, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether online problem based learning (PBL) approach to teach renewable energy topic improves students’ behaviour towards energy conservation. A renewable energy online problem based learning (REePBaL) instruction package was developed based on the theory of constructivism and adaptation of the online learning model. This study employed a single group quasi-experimental design to ascertain the changed in students’ behaviour towards energy conservation after underwent the intervention. The study involved 48 secondary school students in a Malaysian public school. ANOVA Repeated Measure technique was employed in order to compare scores of students’ behaviour towards energy conservation before and after the intervention. Based on the finding, students’ behaviour towards energy conservation improved after the intervention.

  17. Complete clinical responses to cancer therapy caused by multiple divergent approaches: a repeating theme lost in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coventry BJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brendon J Coventry, Martin L AshdownDiscipline of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Over 50 years of cancer therapy history reveals complete clinical responses (CRs from remarkably divergent forms of therapies (eg, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, vaccines, autologous cell transfers, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies for advanced solid malignancies occur with an approximately similar frequency of 5%–10%. This has remained frustratingly almost static. However, CRs usually underpin strong durable 5-year patient survival. How can this apparent paradox be explained?Over some 20 years, realization that (1 chronic inflammation is intricately associated with cancer, and (2 the immune system is delicately balanced between responsiveness and tolerance of cancer, provides a greatly significant insight into ways cancer might be more effectively treated. In this review, divergent aspects from the largely segmented literature and recent conferences are drawn together to provide observations revealing some emerging reasoning, in terms of "final common pathways" of cancer cell damage, immune stimulation, and auto-vaccination events, ultimately leading to cancer cell destruction. Created from this is a unifying overarching concept to explain why multiple approaches to cancer therapy can provide complete responses at almost equivalent rates. This "missing" aspect provides a reasoned explanation for what has, and is being, increasingly reported in the mainstream literature – that inflammatory and immune responses appear intricately associated with, if not causative of, complete responses induced by divergent forms of cancer therapy. Curiously, whether by chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, or other means, therapy-induced cell injury results, leaving inflammation and immune system stimulation as a final common denominator across all of these mechanisms of cancer

  18. A science-based approach to understanding waste form durability in open and closed nuclear fuel cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M. T.; Ewing, R. C.

    2007-05-01

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U6+-secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behaviour of the source term over long time periods (greater than 105 years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modelling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms 'tailored' to specific geologic settings.

  19. Cross-Layer Approach using k-NN Based Adaptive Modulation Coding (AMC and Incremental Redundancy Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (IR-HARQ for MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sofia Priya Dharshini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In MIMO Technology, a cross layer design enhances the spectral efficiency, reliability and throughput of the network. In this paper, a cross-layer approach using k-NN based Adaptive Modulation Coding (AMC and Incremental Redundancy Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (IR-HARQ is proposed for MIMO Systems. The proposed cross layer approach connects physical layer and data link layer to enhance the performance of MIMO network. By means of MIMO fading channels, the coded symbols are forwarded in the physical layer on a frame by frame fashion subsequently using Space Time Block Coding (STBC. The receiver computes the signal to noise ratio (SNR and forwards back to the AMC controller. The controller selects a suitable MCS for the next transmission through k-NN classifier supervised learning algorithm. IR-HARQ is utilized at the data link layer to regulate packet retransmissions. The obtained results prove that the proposed technique has better performance in terms of throughput, BER and spectral efficiency

  20. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  1. Efficient ring-closing metathesis of alkenyl bromides: the importance of protecting the catalyst during the olefin approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Michele; Drinkel, Emma; Wu, Linglin; Pusterla, Ivano; Gaggia, Fiona; Dorta, Reto

    2010-11-01

    We present the first productive ring-closing metathesis reaction that leads to the construction of cyclic alkenyl bromides. Efficient catalysis employing commercially available Grubbs II catalyst is possible through appropriate modification of the starting bromoalkene moiety.

  2. A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jess Walter

    2004-01-01

    A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae) by Jess W. Jones Richard J. Neves, Chairperson Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences (ABSTRACT) Primers for 10 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and characterized for the endangered oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis from the Clinch River, TN. Microsatellite...

  3. A statistical approach designed for finding mathematically defined repeats in shotgun data and determining the length distribution of clone-inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Lan; Zhang, Kunlin; Huang, Xiangang

    2003-01-01

    The large amount of repeats, especially high copy repeats, in the genomes of higher animals and plants makes whole genome assembly (WGA) quite difficult. In order to solve this problem, we tried to identify repeats and mask them prior to assembly even at the stage of genome survey. It is known...... that repeats of different copy number have different probabilities of appearance in shotgun data, so based on this principle, we constructed a statistical model and inferred criteria for mathematically defined repeats (MDRs) at different shotgun coverages. According to these criteria, we developed software......-inserts using our model. In our simulated genomes of human and rice, the length distribution of repeats is different, so their optimal length distributions of clone-inserts were not the same. Thus with optimal length distribution of clone-inserts, a given genome could be assembled better at lower coverage...

  4. A Statistical Approach Designed for Finding Mathematically Defined Repeats in Shotgun Data and Determining the Length Distribution of Clone—Inserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LanZhong; KunlinZhang; XiangangHuang; PeixiangNi; YujunHan; KaiWang; JunWang; SonggangLi

    2003-01-01

    The large amount of repeats,especially high copy repeats,in the genomes of higher animals and plants makes whole genome assembly(WGA)quite difficult.In order to solve this problem,we tried to identify repeats and mask them prior to assembly even at the stage of genome survey.It is known that repeats of different copy number have different probabilities of appearance in shotgun data,so based on this principle,we constructed a statistical model and inferred criteria for mathematically defined repeats(MDRs)at different shotgun coverages.According to these criteria,we developed software MDRmasker to identify and mask MDRs in shotgun data.With repeats masked prior to assembly,the speed of as sembly was increased with lower error probability.In addition,clone-insert size affects the accuracy of repeat assembly and scaffold construction.We also designed length distribution of clone-inserts using our model.In our simulated genomes of human and rice,the length distribution of repeats in different,so their optimal length distributions of clone-inserts were not the same.Thus with optimal length distribution of clone-inserts,a given genome could be assembled better at lower coverage.

  5. A Statistical Approach Designed for Finding Mathematically De fined Repeats in Shotgun Data and Determining the Length Distri bution of Clone-Inserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Zhong; Kunlin Zhang; Xiangang Huang; Peixiang Ni; Yujun Han; Kai Wang; Jun Wang; Songgang Li

    2003-01-01

    The large amount of repeats, especially high copy repeats, in the genomes of higher animals and plants makes whole genome assembly (WGA) quite difficult. In order to solve this problem, we tried to identify repeats and mask them prior to assembly even at the stage of genome survey. It is known that repeats of different copy number have different probabilities of appearance in shotgun data, so based on this principle, we constructed a statistical model and inferred criteria for mathematically defined repeats (MDRs) at different shotgun coverages. According to these criteria, we developed software MDRmasker to identify and mask MDRs in shotgun data. With repeats masked prior to assembly, the speed of assembly was increased with lower error probability. In addition, clone-insert size affects the accuracy of repeat assembly and scaffold construction. We also designed length distribution of clone-inserts using our model. In our simulated genomes of human and rice, the length distribution of repeats is different, so their optimal length distributions of clone-inserts were not the same. Thus with optimal length distribution of clone-inserts, a given genome could be assembled better at lower coverage.

  6. NEW APPROACHES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINING TECHNOLOGY OF DIMENSION STONE USING A CLOSE-SET DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kalchuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the current state the non-blasting monolith extraction technology was conducted. The further research direction was substantiated. Has been considered and justified the rational parameters of close-set drilling technology of dimension stones. Solution is offered that consist the combined drilling (a close-set and a holes line drilling, that provides to increase of stone splitting efficiency under its own weight. The calculation of the parameters of the scheme of partial underdrilling at a monolith of stone with the purpose of reducing the volume of drilling works is given. Diagrams of tensile stress changes depending on the specific area of splitting were built. A rational correlation between the drilling parameters of the holes has been established by solving the problems of loading the cantilever beam and stress concentration by the Kirsch solution. The most important parameter for the implementation of this technology is the ratio of monoloth hight to its length. Engineering formulas are proposed for calculating the technological parameters of the realization of the “gravitational-hole” stone splitting. The configuration of a rough block of stones is determined under which this technology can be realized. Creating of close-set holes provides the increase of maximal tensile stress with equal values of specific splitting area ratio. It is established that the effective drilling depth of close-set holes is 43,2 % of monolith height. It is estimated that combined drilling method application of savings from drilling operation will be 11,36 %.

  7. Identifying ways of closing the metal flow loop in the global mobile phone product system : A system dynamics modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajib; Laurenti, Rafael; Singh, Jagdeep; Malmström, Maria E.; Frostell, Björn

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, e-waste has emerged as one of the fastest growing and increasingly complex waste flows world-wide. Within e-waste, the life cycle of the mobile phone product system is particularly important because of: (1) the increasing quantities of mobile phones in this waste flow; and (2) the sustainability challenges associated with the emerging economies of reuse, refurbishment, and export of used mobile phones. This study examined the possibilities of closing the material flow...

  8. Closed vessel combustion modelling by using pressure-time evolution function derived from two-zonal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Mladen A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new method for burned mass fraction - pressure relation, x-p relation, for two-zone model combustion calculation is developed. The main application of the two-zone model is obtaining laminar burning velocity, SL, by using a pressure history from a closed vessel combustion experiment. The linear x-p relation by Lewis and Von Elbe is still widely used. For linear x-p relation, the end pressure is necessary as input data for the description of the combustion process. In this paper a new x-p relation is presented on the basis of mass and energy conservation during the combustion. In order to correctly represent pressure evolution, the model proposed in this paper needs several input parameters. They were obtained from different sources, like the PREMIX software (with GRIMECH 3.0 mechanism and GASEQ software, as well as thermodynamic tables. The error analysis is presented in regard to the input parameters. The proposed model is validated against the experiment by Dahoe and Goey, and compared with linear x-p relation from Lewis and Von Elbe. The proposed two zone model shows sufficient accuracy when describing the combustion process in a closed vessel without knowing the end pressure in advance, i.e. both peak pressure and combustion rates can be sufficiently correctly captured.

  9. Effective closed form mathematical approach to determine kinetic constants of NR vulcanized with sulphur and accelerators at different concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it, E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Hanel, Thomas; Donetti, Raffaella [Pirelli Tyre, Via Alberto e Piero Pirelli 25, 20126 Milan (Italy); Milani, Federico [CHEMCO Consultant, Via J.F. Kennedy 2, 45030 Occhiobello (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The basic reaction scheme due to Han and co-workers for NR vulcanized with sulphur is adopted and modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators, focusing in particular on some experimental data ad hoc obtained at Pirelli’s laboratories, where NR was vulcanized at different temperatures (from 150 to 180 °C) and concentrations of sulphur, using TBBS and DPG in the mixture as co-agents. Typically, the chain reactions are initiated by the formation of macro-compounds that are responsible of the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer. This first reaction depends on the reciprocal concentrations of all components and their chemical nature. In presence of two accelerators, it was considered that the reactions between each single accelerator and the NR raw material occur in parallel, making the reasonable assumption that there are no mutual reactions between the two accelerators. From the kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution was found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. Even kinetic constants are evaluated in closed form, avoiding a numerically demanding least-squares best fitting on rheometer experimental data. Two series of experiments available, relying into rheometer curves at different temperatures and different concentrations of sulphur and accelerator, are utilized to evaluate the fitting capabilities of the mathematical model. Very good agreement between numerical output and experimental data is experienced in all cases analysed.

  10. How do we close the hermeneutic circle? A Gadamerian approach to justification in interpretation in qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debesay, Jonas; Nåden, Dagfinn; Slettebø, Ashild

    2008-03-01

    In this article, an attempt is made to analyse important implications of the hermeneutic approach in qualitative studies. The article discusses the hermeneutic circle with regard to reasoning contexts, on which the researcher's interpretation is based. Problems in connection with achievement of 'proper' understanding in an interpretative process are discussed in light of Gadamer's hermeneutic philosophy. Some features of qualitative studies are addressed. This is concerned with arguments in the presentation of findings in qualitative studies using the hermeneutic approach. The essence of the article is there are grounds for reasonable understanding, even though it cannot be absolute in the hermeneutic.

  11. Bridging the gap: Cognitive and social approaches to research in second language learning and teaching. Editor's introduction & Editor's closing thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Young, R.F.; Ortega, L.

    2014-01-01

    For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential

  12. Bridging the gap: Cognitive and social approaches to research in second language learning and teaching. Editor's introduction & Editor's closing thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Young, R.F.; Ortega, L.

    2014-01-01

    For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential

  13. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  14. Use of two novel approaches to discriminate between closely related host microRNAs that are manipulated by Toxoplasma gondii during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Gusti M; Boothroyd, John C

    2010-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenously encoded regulatory RNAs that function to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in a wide variety of eukaryotes. Within organisms, some mature miRNAs, such as paralogous miRNAs, have nearly identical nucleotide sequences, which makes them virtually indistinguishable from one another by conventional hybridization-based approaches. Here we describe two inexpensive, sensitive methods for rapidly discriminating between paralogous miRNAs or other closely related miRNAs and for quantifying their abundance. The first approach is a sequential ribonuclease-protection and primer-extension assay; the second approach is a primer-extension assay that employs short oligonucleotide probes to exacerbate the instability of mismatched probe:miRNA hybrids. Both approaches are rapid and can be easily performed in their entirety using common laboratory equipment. As a proof of concept, we have used these methods to determine the exact identities of the human miR-17 family members that are increased by infection with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. These methods can be used to rapidly and inexpensively discriminate between any closely related miRNAs in any organism.

  15. Comparative Study between Traditional and Heuristic Approach on Close-degree Concept Lattice for better Attribute Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ravindra k. Gupta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Concept lattice is a new mathematical tool for data analysis and knowledge processing. There is an increasing interest on application of concept lattices in the different information systems. The concept lattice may be used for representation of the concept generalization structure generated from the underlying data set. Attribute reduction is very important in the theory of concept lattice because it can make the discovery of implicit knowledge in data easier and the representation simpler. The paper presents a modified lattice building algorithm where the generated concept nodes may contain not only the attributes of the children nodes but some other generalized attributes, too. The generalization structure of the attributes is called attribute lattice. In this approach we find concept lattice, Attribute Concept lattice and, Formal Concept Lattice based on all the deduction we find the Heuristic Result which provide better attribute reduction. We also discuss a comparative study between the traditional and the new heuristic approach.

  16. An up-close look at Urban Regeneration. Cultural approaches and applied strategies for the rebirth of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cangelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The term Regeneration defines new approaches to the transformation of cities, designed in such a way to move beyond traditional urban-restoration efforts centred around large-scale plans by proposing minimal, non-invasive initiatives that stress listening to the citizenry while bringing to bear creative capabilities and a knowledge of the new-generation technology that has taken on strategic importance when it comes to the development of urban areas. Emphasising an ethical awareness that the city constitutes a shared resource, and that any transformations it undergoes must meet the needs of the public as a whole, endowing the local territory with a strong core structure but a light architecture, is one promising approach to actual renewal efforts. In examining the characteristics of Italian cities, the author focuses on the potential for establishing an environmental balance of the urban metabolism through work on outlying areas, describing the technical and scientific contribution made to date by Technological and Environmental Planning and Design while identifying project design and planning as the path to be taken to arrive at applied assessment and confirmation of the hypothetical approaches explored.

  17. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with e-diaries makes it feasible to repeatedly assess mood states in real-time and real life and to relate them to physical activity. This state-of-the-art methodology comes with several advantages, like bypassing systematic distortions of retrospective methods, avoiding distortions seen in laboratory settings, and revealing an objective physical activity assessment. Most importantly, ambulatory assessment studies enable to analyze how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in contrast to existing studies on physical activity and mood which mostly investigated between-person associations. However, there are very few studies on how mood dimensions (i.e., feeling well, energetic and calm) drive non-exercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs) within persons. Recent reviews argued that some of these studies have methodological limitations, e.g., scarcely representative samples, short study periods, physical activity assessment via self-reports, and low sampling frequencies. To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study in a community-based sample of 106 adults over 1 week. Participants were asked to report mood ratings on e-diaries and to wear an accelerometer in daily life. We conducted multilevel analyses to investigate whether mood predicted NEA, which was defined as the mean acceleration within the 10-min interval directly following an e-diary assessment. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of NEA on different time frames

  18. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  19. Thermodynamics of the Classical Planar Ferromagnet Close to the Zero-Temperature Critical Point: A Many-Body Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Campana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the low-temperature thermodynamic properties and crossovers of a d-dimensional classical planar Heisenberg ferromagnet in a longitudinal magnetic field close to its field-induced zero-temperature critical point by employing the two-time Green’s function formalism in classical statistical mechanics. By means of a classical Callen-like method for the magnetization and the Tyablikov-like decoupling procedure, we obtain, for any d, a low-temperature critical scenario which is quite similar to the one found for the quantum counterpart. Remarkably, for d>2 the discrimination between the two cases is found to be related to the different values of the shift exponent which governs the behavior of the critical line in the vicinity of the zero-temperature critical point. The observation of different values of the shift-exponent and of the related critical exponents along thermodynamic paths within the typical V-shaped region in the phase diagram may be interpreted as a signature of emerging quantum critical fluctuations.

  20. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  1. Are "classical" tests of repeated-sprint ability in football externally valid? A new approach to determine in-game sprinting behaviour in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpchen, Jan; Skorski, Sabrina; Nopp, Stephan; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of repeated sprinting bouts in elite football. Furthermore, the construct validity of current tests assessing repeated-sprint ability (RSA) was analysed using information of sprinting sequences as they actually occurred during match-play. Sprinting behaviour in official competition was analysed for 19 games of the German national team between August 2012 and June 2014. A sprinting threshold was individually calculated based on the peak velocity reached during in-game sprinting. Players performed 17.2 ± 3.9 sprints per game and during the entire 19 games a total of 35 bouts of repeated sprinting (a minimum of three consecutive sprints with a recovery duration repeated sprinting per player every 463 min. No general decrement in maximal sprinting speed was observed during bouts with up to five consecutive sprints. Results of the present study question the importance of RSA as it is classically defined. They indicate that shorter accelerations are more important in game-specific situations which do not reach speeds necessary to qualify them as sprints. The construct validity of classic tests of RSA in football is not supported by these observations.

  2. Novel Approach to Repeated Arterial Blood Sampling in Small Animal PET : Application in a Test-Retest Study with the Adenosine A1 Receptor Ligand [C-11]MPDX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbesma, Jürgen W A; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Vállez García, David; Houwertjes, Martin C; Doorduin, Janine; Kwizera, Chantal; Maas, Bram; Meerlo, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi A; Slart, Riemer H J A; Elsinga, Philip H; van Waarde, Aren

    2016-01-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to detect small changes in neuroreceptor availability. This often requires rapid arterial blood sampling. However, current catheterization procedures do not allow repeated blood sampling. We have developed a procedure which allows arterial

  3. A high stability and repeatability electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-12-15

    We present a home built electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) with very high stability and repeatability. Its coarse approach is driven by a closely stacked piezo motor of GeckoDrive type with four rigid clamping points, which enhances the rigidity, compactness, and stability greatly. It can give high clarity atomic resolution images without sound and vibration isolations. Its drifting rates in XY and Z directions in solution are as low as 84 pm/min and 59 pm/min, respectively. In addition, repeatable coarse approaches in solution within 2 mm travel distance show a lateral deviation less than 50 nm. The gas environment can be well controlled to lower the evaporation rate of the cell, thus reducing the contamination and elongating the measurement time. Atomically resolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} image on Au (111) work electrode is demonstrated to show the performance of the ECSTM.

  4. Results from ground-based observations of asteroid 2012 DA_{14} during its close approach to the Earth on February 15, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Morales, N.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Licandro, J.; Perez-Romero, A.; Lorenzi, V.; Cikota, S.

    2014-07-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA_{14} (hereafter DA_{14}) made its closest approach to the Earth on February 15, 2013, when it passed at a distance of 27,700 km from the Earth's surface. DA_{14} was discovered only one year before the approach. This fact, together with its small size, made a good characterization of the body very difficult. However, it was the first time an asteroid of moderate size (˜45 m estimated before the approach) was predicted to come that close to the Earth, becoming bright enough to permit a detailed study from ground-based telescopes. With the aim of collecting the most varied and useful information, we designed and carried out an observational campaign that involved 5 ground-based telescopes located in 4 different Spanish observatories. Visible colors and spectra were obtained using the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at the ''El Roque de los Muchachos'' Observatory (ORM) and the 2.2-m CAHA telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria); near-infrared colors were obtained using the 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, located also at the ORM; time-series photometry was obtained using the f/3 0.77-m telescope at La Hita Observatory (Toledo) and the f/8 1.5-m telescope at the Sierra Nevada Observatory (Granada, Spain). The analysis of the data confirmed that this NEA can be classified as an L-type asteroid with an estimated geometric albedo of p_V = 0.44 ± 0.20. L-type asteroids are not very common and most of them display unusual characteristics that indicate that their surfaces could be covered by a mixture of high- and low-albedo particles, as it is detected on some carbonaceous chondrites (CV3 and CO3). We found the asteroid to be quite elongated and very irregular, with an equivalent diameter of 18 m, less than a half of the former estimation. This suggests that close approaches of objects as small as DA_{14} are 4 times more frequent per year than it was thought before (once every 40 years). The rotational period of the object was

  5. A novel approach to propagate flavivirus infectious cDNA clones in bacteria by introducing tandem repeat sequences upstream of virus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Szu-Yuan; Wu, Ren-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Han; Yang, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chung-Ming; Yueh, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Despite tremendous efforts to improve the methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, the manipulation of flavivirus cDNAs remains a difficult task in bacteria. Here, we successfully propagated DNA-launched type 2 dengue virus (DENV2) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infectious cDNAs by introducing seven repeats of the tetracycline-response element (7×TRE) and a minimal cytomegalovirus (CMVmin) promoter upstream of the viral genome. Insertion of the 7×TRE-CMVmin sequence upstream of the DENV2 or JEV genome decreased the cryptic E. coli promoter (ECP) activity of the viral genome in bacteria, as measured using fusion constructs containing DENV2 or JEV segments and the reporter gene Renilla luciferase in an empty vector. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from DNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs were similar to those of parental viruses. Similarly, RNA-launched DENV2 infectious cDNAs were generated by inserting 7×TRE-CMVmin, five repeats of the GAL4 upstream activating sequence, or five repeats of BamHI linkers upstream of the DENV2 genome. All three tandem repeat sequences decreased the ECP activity of the DENV2 genome in bacteria. Notably, 7×TRE-CMVmin stabilized RNA-launched JEV infectious cDNAs and reduced the ECP activity of the JEV genome in bacteria. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from RNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs displayed patterns similar to those of the parental viruses. These results support a novel methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, which will facilitate research in virology, viral pathogenesis and vaccine development of flaviviruses and other RNA viruses. © 2014 The Authors.

  6. [Closing diastemas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L C; Pereira, J C; Coradazzi, J L; Francischone, C E

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a clinical case of closing upper central incisives diastema, reconstructiva of a conoid upper lateral and the rechaping of an upper canine to a lateral incisive. The material used was composite resin.

  7. XML Genetic Structure of SSR1 & SSR2 loci from Iranian Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Isolates by a Short Sequence Repeat Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Chalesh (MSc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Paratuberculosis has been repeatedly reported from Iranian ruminant herds. The extrem fastidious nature of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculsos hinders genomic diversity studies of the pathogen. Short Sequence Repeat analysis is one of the genome-based approches recently developed to overcome this difficulty. In this study we describe the application of SSR genotyping on three Iranian MAP type strains plus the III & V vaccinal strain. Methods: All the bacteria were examined by PCR-F57 and PCR-IS900 experiments in order to authenticate their identity as MAP. SSR genotyping using SSR1 & SSR2 loci was conducted according to the Amonsin method. PCR amplicons were sequenced to guarantee the accuracy of findings. Results: At SSR1 locus two allels were identified, a larger allel of 770 bp and a smaller allel of 763 bp long. At SSR2 only a single allele, 800 bp long, was detected. Two Iranian bovine and ovine MAP isolates along with the vaccinal III & V strain shared a single SSR1/SSR2 pattern while a different SSR1/SSR2 was represented by the third (caprine Iranian MAP isolate. Conclusion: While finding a shared SSR type between the two Iranian MAP isolates and the III & V strain might represent a mutual ancestral background but this has to be assessed through further studies. Detection of two SSR genotypes between three Iranian type strains is likely a reflection of more MAP clones in Iran.

  8. Capacity of Closely-spaced Parallel Runways Using Dependent Approach Procedures%近距平行跑道相关进近模式容量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶媚; 聂润兔; 赵纬经

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the runway capacity of closely-spaced parallel runways using segregated operation has been widely attached importance, however, runway capacity using dependent approach procedures which promises greater potential has not yet been paid due attention. This paper develops analytical models for calculating the ultimate arrival, mixed operating capacity of closed-spaced runways using dependent approach procedures which is the experience of other countries for reference. The models are based on a timing diagram in accord with realistic operational features of dependent procedures. The models are applied to calculating the ultimate capacity of closed-spaced runways at Shang hai/Pudong airport. The output from the models consists of corresponding capacities and their variations depending on key parameters such as aircraft fleet mix characterized by the wake-vortex categories and radar separation diagonally with pairs of lead/trailing aircraft. The results show that the method accurately grasps the operating characteristics and the results are of great significance for the operation of ATC.%目前近距平行跑道隔离运行下的跑道容量已经得到广泛重视,而运行潜力更大的相关进近模式下的跑道容量分析研究较少。本文借鉴国外近距平行跑道相关进近的运行理念,根据近距平行跑道运行的管制规定,通过引入符合近距平行跑道相关进近的时序图,构建相关进近模式下近距平行跑道的两种主要运行模式的容量模型。以上海浦东机场为例对模型进行验证,并对关键参数包括机型比例、相关进近航空器之间的斜距对跑道容量的影响进行分析。结果表明,本文方法准确把握了运行特征,计算结果对空管运行有很大的指导意义。

  9. Dynamic Effects of Embedded Macro-Fiber Composite Actuators on Ultra-Light Flexible Structures of Repeated Pattern- a Homogenization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salehian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by deployable satellite technology, this article presents a homogenization model of an inflatable, rigidized lattice structure with distributed macro-fiber composite (MFC actuation. The model is based upon a general expression for the strain and kinetic energy of a fundamental repeated element of the structure. These expressions are reduced in order and expressed in terms of the strain and displacement components of an equivalent one-dimensional vibration model. The resulting model is used to analyze changes in the structural natural frequencies introduced by the local effects of the added macro-fiber composite actuators for several configurations. A finite element solution is used as a comparison for the homogenization model, and the two are shown to be in good agreement, although the latter requires significantly less computational effort.

  10. 3D Position and Velocity Vector Computations of Objects Jettisoned from the International Space Station Using Close-Range Photogrammetry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanyan, Valeri; Oshle, Edward; Adamo, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the jettisoned object departure trajectory and velocity vector in the International Space Station (ISS) reference frame is vitally important for prompt evaluation of the object s imminent orbit. We report on the first successful application of photogrammetric analysis of the ISS imagery for the prompt computation of the jettisoned object s position and velocity vectors. As post-EVA analyses examples, we present the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and the Russian "Orlan" Space Suit jettisons, as well as the near-real-time (provided in several hours after the separation) computations of the Video Stanchion Support Assembly Flight Support Assembly (VSSA-FSA) and Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) jettisons during the US astronauts space-walk. Standard close-range photogrammetry analysis was used during this EVA to analyze two on-board camera image sequences down-linked from the ISS. In this approach the ISS camera orientations were computed from known coordinates of several reference points on the ISS hardware. Then the position of the jettisoned object for each time-frame was computed from its image in each frame of the video-clips. In another, "quick-look" approach used in near-real time, orientation of the cameras was computed from their position (from the ISS CAD model) and operational data (pan and tilt) then location of the jettisoned object was calculated only for several frames of the two synchronized movies. Keywords: Photogrammetry, International Space Station, jettisons, image analysis.

  11. Prospective evaluation of potential toxicity of repeated doses of Thymus vulgaris L. extracts in rats by means of clinical chemistry, histopathology and NMR-based metabonomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benourad, Fouzia; Kahvecioglu, Zehra; Youcef-Benkada, Mokhtar; Colet, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-01

    In the field of natural extracts, research generally focuses on the study of their biological activities for food, cosmetic, or pharmacological purposes. The evaluation of their adverse effects is often overlooked. In this study, the extracts of Thymus vulgaris L. were obtained by two different extraction methods. Intraperitoneal injections of both extracts were given daily for four days to male Wistar Han rats, at two different doses for each extract. The evaluation of the potential toxic effects included histopathological examination of liver, kidney, and lung tissues, as well as serum biochemistry of liver and kidney parameters, and (1)H-NMR-based metabonomic profiles of urine. The results showed that no histopathological changes were observed in the liver and kidney in rats treated with both extracts of thyme. Serum biochemical investigations revealed significant increases in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid in animals treated with polyphenolic extract at both doses. In these latter groups, metabonomic analysis revealed alterations in a number of urine metabolites involved in the energy metabolism in liver mitochondria. Indeed, the results showed alterations of glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and β-oxidative pathways as evidenced by increases in lactate and ketone bodies, and decreases in citrate, α-ketoglutarate, creatinine, hippurate, dimethylglycine, and dimethyalanine. In conclusion, this work showed that i.p. injection of repeated doses of thyme extracts causes some disturbances of intermediary metabolism in rats. The metabonomic study revealed interesting data which could be further used to determine the cellular pathways affected by such treatments.

  12. Validation of 'variable number of tandem repeat'-based approach for examination of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' diversity and its applications for the analysis of the pathogen populations in the areas of recent introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luis A; Hilf, Mark E; Chen, Jianchi; Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2013-01-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. In South Asia HLB has been known for more than a century, while in Americas the disease was found relatively recently. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) has most wide distribution. Recently, a number of studies identified different regions in the CLas genome with variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) that could be used for examination of CLas diversity. One of the objectives of the work presented here was to further validate the VNTR analysis-based approach by assessing the stability of these repeats upon multiplication of the pathogen in a host over an extended period of time and upon its passaging from a host to a host using CLas populations from Florida. Our results showed that the numbers of tandem repeats in the four loci tested display very distinguishable "signature profiles" for the two Florida-type CLas haplotype groups. Remarkably, the profiles do not change upon passage of the pathogen in citrus and psyllid hosts as well as after its presence within a host over a period of five years, suggesting that VNTR analysis-based approach represents a valid methodology for examination of the pathogen populations in various geographical regions. Interestingly, an extended analysis of CLas populations in different locations throughout Florida and in several countries in the Caribbean and Central America regions and in Mexico where the pathogen has been introduced recently demonstrated the dispersion of the same haplotypes of CLas. On the other hand, these CLas populations appeared to differ significantly from those obtained from locations where the disease has been present for a much longer time.

  13. Validation of 'variable number of tandem repeat'-based approach for examination of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' diversity and its applications for the analysis of the pathogen populations in the areas of recent introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Matos

    Full Text Available Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. In South Asia HLB has been known for more than a century, while in Americas the disease was found relatively recently. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas has most wide distribution. Recently, a number of studies identified different regions in the CLas genome with variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs that could be used for examination of CLas diversity. One of the objectives of the work presented here was to further validate the VNTR analysis-based approach by assessing the stability of these repeats upon multiplication of the pathogen in a host over an extended period of time and upon its passaging from a host to a host using CLas populations from Florida. Our results showed that the numbers of tandem repeats in the four loci tested display very distinguishable "signature profiles" for the two Florida-type CLas haplotype groups. Remarkably, the profiles do not change upon passage of the pathogen in citrus and psyllid hosts as well as after its presence within a host over a period of five years, suggesting that VNTR analysis-based approach represents a valid methodology for examination of the pathogen populations in various geographical regions. Interestingly, an extended analysis of CLas populations in different locations throughout Florida and in several countries in the Caribbean and Central America regions and in Mexico where the pathogen has been introduced recently demonstrated the dispersion of the same haplotypes of CLas. On the other hand, these CLas populations appeared to differ significantly from those obtained from locations where the disease has been present for a much longer time.

  14. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with ...

  15. Joint modeling of repeated multivariate cognitive measures and competing risks of dementia and death: a latent process and latent class approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust-Lima, Cécile; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène

    2016-02-10

    Joint models initially dedicated to a single longitudinal marker and a single time-to-event need to be extended to account for the rich longitudinal data of cohort studies. Multiple causes of clinical progression are indeed usually observed, and multiple longitudinal markers are collected when the true latent trait of interest is hard to capture (e.g., quality of life, functional dependency, and cognitive level). These multivariate and longitudinal data also usually have nonstandard distributions (discrete, asymmetric, bounded, etc.). We propose a joint model based on a latent process and latent classes to analyze simultaneously such multiple longitudinal markers of different natures, and multiple causes of progression. A latent process model describes the latent trait of interest and links it to the observed longitudinal outcomes using flexible measurement models adapted to different types of data, and a latent class structure links the longitudinal and cause-specific survival models. The joint model is estimated in the maximum likelihood framework. A score test is developed to evaluate the assumption of conditional independence of the longitudinal markers and each cause of progression given the latent classes. In addition, individual dynamic cumulative incidences of each cause of progression based on the repeated marker data are derived. The methodology is validated in a simulation study and applied on real data about cognitive aging obtained from a large population-based study. The aim is to predict the risk of dementia by accounting for the competing death according to the profiles of semantic memory measured by two asymmetric psychometric tests.

  16. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  17. Chasing tics in the human brain: development of open, scheduled and closed loop responsive approaches to deep brain stimulation for tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leonardo; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Rossi, Peter J; Peng, Zhongxing; Gunduz, Aysegul; Okun, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset disorder characterized by a combination of motor and vocal tics, often associated with psychiatric comorbidities including attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Despite an onset early in life, half of patients may present symptoms in adulthood, with variable degrees of severity. In select cases, the syndrome may lead to significant physical and social impairment, and a worrisome risk for self injury. Evolving research has provided evidence supporting the idea that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome is directly related to a disrupted circuit involving the cortex and subcortical structures, including the basal ganglia, nucleus accumbens, and the amygdala. There has also been a notion that a dysfunctional group of neurons in the putamen contributes to an abnormal facilitation of competing motor responses in basal ganglia structures ultimately underpinning the generation of tics. Surgical therapies for Tourette syndrome have been reserved for a small group of patients not responding to behavioral and pharmacological therapies, and these therapies have been directed at modulating the underlying pathophysiology. Lesion therapy as well as deep brain stimulation has been observed to suppress tics in at least some of these cases. In this article, we will review the clinical aspects of Tourette syndrome, as well as the evolution of surgical approaches and we will discuss the evidence and clinical responses to deep brain stimulation in various brain targets. We will also discuss ongoing research and future directions as well as approaches for open, scheduled and closed loop feedback-driven electrical stimulation for the treatment of Tourette syndrome.

  18. Application of ecological risk assessment based on a novel TRIAD-tiered approach to contaminated soil surrounding a closed non-sealed landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Garbisu, Carlos; Ciprián, Estela; Becerril, José M; Soto, Manu; Etxebarria, Javier; Madariaga, Juan M; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Epelde, Lur

    2015-05-01

    The Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) is a reliable tool for communicating risk to decision makers in a comprehensive and scientific evidence-based way. In this work, a site-specific ERA methodology based on the TRIAD approach was applied to contaminated soil surrounding a closed non-sealed landfill, as a case study to implement and validate such ERA methodology in the Basque Country (northern Spain). Initially, the procedure consisted of the application of a Parameter Selection Module aimed at selecting the most suitable parameters for the specific characteristics of the landfill contaminated soil, taking into consideration the envisioned land use, intended ecosystem services and nature of contaminants. Afterwards, the selected parameters were determined in soil samples collected from two sampling points located downstream of the abovementioned landfill. The results from these tests were normalized to make them comparable and integrable in a risk index. Then, risk assessment criteria were developed and applied to the two landfill contaminated soil samples. Although the lack of a proper control soil was evidenced, a natural land use was approved by the ERA (at Tier 2) for the two landfill contaminated soils. However, the existence of a potential future risk resulting from a hypothetical soil acidification must be considered.

  19. Closed-form cdf and pdf of Tukey's h-distribution, the heavy-tail Lambert W approach, and how to bijectively "Gaussianize" heavy-tailed data

    CERN Document Server

    Goerg, Georg M

    2010-01-01

    Recently Goerg (2010) introduced Lambert W - F random variables (RVs), a new family of generalized skewed distributions. Here I will adapt this appealing framework to generate heavy (heavier) tailed versions of arbitrary distributions. As in the skewed case a non-linear, parametric transformation of an input RV X with arbitrary cumulative distribution function (cdf) FX(x) yields a heavy-tailed version Y . The tail behavior depends on a tail parameter gamma > = 0; for gamma = 0, Y = X, for gamma > 0 Y has heavier tails than X. It turns out that heavy-tail Lambert W - Gaussian RVs equals heavy-tailed Tukey h RVs (the g - h family with g = 0), with the major advantage that the Lambert W framework gives closed-form solution of the inverse transformation of the h-transformation, and thus a analytical expressions for the cdf and pdf for Tukey's h distribution - to the author's knowledge the ?rst time in the literature. Furthermore, the Lambert W approach allows practicioners to "Gaussianize" their heavy-tailed data...

  20. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  1. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  2. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  3. In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlage, Walter K.; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Geertz, Marcel; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral pre-neoplasia, cancer and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. Using a systems toxicology approach, we have previously assessed the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) seen as perturbations of biological processes in human nasal and bronchial organotypic epithelial culture models. Here, we report our further assessment using in vitro human oral organotypic epithelium models. We exposed the buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures to CS at the air–liquid interface. CS exposure was associated with increased secretion of inflammatory mediators, induction of cytochrome P450s activity and overall weak toxicity in both tissues. Using microarray technology, gene-set analysis and a novel computational modeling approach leveraging causal biological network models, we identified CS impact on xenobiotic metabolism-related pathways accompanied by a more subtle alteration in inflammatory processes. Gene-set analysis further indicated that the CS-induced pathways in the in vitro buccal tissue models resembled those in the in vivo buccal biopsies of smokers from a published dataset. These findings support the translatability of systems responses from in vitro to in vivo and demonstrate the applicability of oral organotypical tissue models for an impact assessment of CS on various tissues exposed during smoking, as well as for impact assessment of reduced-risk products. PMID:25046638

  4. In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlage, Walter K; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Geertz, Marcel; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-10-01

    Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral pre-neoplasia, cancer and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. Using a systems toxicology approach, we have previously assessed the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) seen as perturbations of biological processes in human nasal and bronchial organotypic epithelial culture models. Here, we report our further assessment using in vitro human oral organotypic epithelium models. We exposed the buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures to CS at the air-liquid interface. CS exposure was associated with increased secretion of inflammatory mediators, induction of cytochrome P450s activity and overall weak toxicity in both tissues. Using microarray technology, gene-set analysis and a novel computational modeling approach leveraging causal biological network models, we identified CS impact on xenobiotic metabolism-related pathways accompanied by a more subtle alteration in inflammatory processes. Gene-set analysis further indicated that the CS-induced pathways in the in vitro buccal tissue models resembled those in the in vivo buccal biopsies of smokers from a published dataset. These findings support the translatability of systems responses from in vitro to in vivo and demonstrate the applicability of oral organotypical tissue models for an impact assessment of CS on various tissues exposed during smoking, as well as for impact assessment of reduced-risk products.

  5. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  6. Tandem repeat markers as novel diagnostic tools for high resolution fingerprinting of Wolbachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riegler Markus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis are extremely diverse both genotypically and in terms of their induced phenotypes in invertebrate hosts. Despite extensive molecular characterisation of Wolbachia diversity, little is known about the actual genomic diversity within or between closely related strains that group tightly on the basis of existing gene marker systems, including Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST. There is an urgent need for higher resolution fingerprinting markers of Wolbachia for studies of population genetics, horizontal transmission and experimental evolution. Results The genome of the wMel Wolbachia strain that infects Drosophila melanogaster contains inter- and intragenic tandem repeats that may evolve through expansion or contraction. We identified hypervariable regions in wMel, including intergenic Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs, and genes encoding ankyrin (ANK repeat domains. We amplified these markers from 14 related Wolbachia strains belonging to supergroup A and were successful in differentiating size polymorphic alleles. Because of their tandemly repeated structure and length polymorphism, the markers can be used in a PCR-diagnostic multilocus typing approach, analogous to the Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA established for many other bacteria and organisms. The isolated markers are highly specific for supergroup A and not informative for other supergroups. However, in silico analysis of completed genomes from other supergroups revealed the presence of tandem repeats that are variable and could therefore be useful for typing target strains. Conclusions Wolbachia genomes contain inter- and intragenic tandem repeats that evolve through expansion or contraction. A selection of polymorphic tandem repeats is a novel and useful PCR diagnostic extension to the existing MLST typing system of Wolbachia, as it allows rapid and inexpensive high-throughput fingerprinting of

  7. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  8. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  9. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  10. EDITORIAL: Close contact Close contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    means to produce nanoscale device elements, such as carbon nanotube transistors [5] and high-density memory crossbar circuits [6]. Recently, the use of scanning tunnelling microscopes has broached a new field of research, which is currently attracting enormous interest—single molecule detection. In issue 25 of Nanotechnology researchers in Houston reported unprecedented sensitivities using localized surface plasmon resonance shifts of gold bipyramids to detect concentrations of substances down to the single molecule level [7]. In issue 26 a collaboration of researchers from the US and Czech Republic describe a different approach, namely tunnelling recognition. In their topical review they describe hydrogen-bond mediated tunnelling and the associated experimental methods that facilitate the detection of single molecules in a tunnel junction using chemically functionalized electrodes [8]. The nanoworld depicted by scanning probe microgaphs over 20 years ago may have looked as extraterrestrial as any science fiction generated alien terrain, but though study and analysis these nano-landscapes have become significantly less alien territory. The work so far to unveil the intricacies of electronic contact has been a story of progress in investigating this new territory and manipulating the mechanisms that govern it to formulate new devices and delve deeper into phenomena at the nanoscale. References [1] Binning G, Rohrer H, Gerber Ch and Weibel E 1982 Phys. Rev. Lett. 49 57-61 [2] X D Cui, X Zarate, J Tomfohr, O F Sankey, A Primak, A L Moore, T A Moore, D Gust, G~Harris and S M Lindsay 2002 Nanotechnology 13 5-14 [3] Martin C A, van Ruitenbeek J M and van der Zant S J H 2010 Nanotechnology 21 265201 [4] Davis J J and Hanyu Y 2010 Nanotechnology 21 265302 [5] Tans S J, Verschueren A R M and Dekker C 1998 Nature 393 49-52 [6] Chen Y, Jung G-Y, Ohlberg D A A, Li X, Stewart D R, Jeppesen J O, Nielsen K A, Stoddart J F and Williams R S 2003 Nanotechnology 14 462-8 [7] Mayer K M

  11. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  12. A Simple and Transparent Alternative to Repeated Measures ANOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Grice

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation Oriented Modeling is a novel approach toward conceptualizing and analyzing data. Compared with traditional parametric statistics, Observation Oriented Modeling is more intuitive, relatively free of assumptions, and encourages researchers to stay close to their data. Rather than estimating abstract population parameters, the overarching goal of the analysis is to identify and explain distinct patterns within the observations. Selected data from a recent study by Craig et al. were analyzed using Observation Oriented Modeling; this analysis was contrasted with a traditional repeated measures ANOVA assessment. Various pitfalls in traditional parametric analyses were avoided when using Observation Oriented Modeling, including the presence of outliers and missing data. The differences between Observation Oriented Modeling and various parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were finally discussed.

  13. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gallery > Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  14. Closing global material loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosman, Ernst-Jan; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Liotta, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Replacing virgin materials with waste materials, a practice known as Industrial Symbiosis (IS), has been identified as a key strategy for closing material loops. This article adopts a critical view on geographic proximity and external coordinators – two key enablers of IS. By ‘uncovering’ a case...... where both enablers are absent, this study seeks to explore firm-level challenges of IS. We adopt an exploratory case study approach at a cement manufacturer who engages in cross-border IS without the support of external coordinators. Our research presents insights into two key areas of IS: 1) setting...... for geographic proximity and external coordinators. In doing so, our insights into firm-level challenges of long-distance IS exchanges contribute to closing global material loops by increasing the number of potential circular pathways....

  15. Interaction of small repeating earthquakes in a rate and state fault model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapusta, N.; Chen, T.

    2010-12-01

    Small repeating earthquake sequences can be located very close, for example, the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) target cluster repeaters "San Francisco" and "Los Angeles" are separated by only about 50 m. These two repeating sequences also show closeness in occurrence time, indicating substantial interaction. Modeling of the interaction of repeating sequences and comparing the modeling results with observations would help us understand the physics of fault slip. Here we conduct numerical simulations of two asperities in a rate and state fault model (Chen and Lapusta, JGR, 2009), with asperities being rate weakening and the rest of the fault being rate-strengthening. One of our goals is to create a model for the observed interaction between "San Francisco" and "Los Angeles" clusters. The study of Chen and Lapusta (JGR, 2009) and Chen et al (accepted by EPSL, 2010) showed that this approach can reproduce behavior of isolated repeating earthquake sequences, in particular, the scaling of their moment versus recurrence time and the response to accelerated postseismic creep. In this work, we investigate the effect of distance between asperities and asperity size on the interaction, in terms of occurrence time, seismic moment and rupture pattern. The fault is governed by the aging version of rate-and-state friction. To account for relatively high stress drops inferred seismically for Parkfield SAFOD target earthquakes (Dreger et al, 2007), we also conduct simulations that include enhanced dynamic weakening during seismic events. As expected based on prior studies (e.g., Kato, JGR, 2004; Kaneko et al., Nature Geoscience, 2010), the two asperities act like one asperity if they are close enough, and they behave like isolated asperities when they are sufficiently separated. Motivated by the SAFOD target repeaters that rupture separately but show evidence of interaction, we concentrate on the intermediate distance between asperities. In that regime, the

  16. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  17. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  18. A Cmparison of Closed World Assumptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈一栋

    1992-01-01

    In this Paper.we introduce a notion of the family of closed world assumptions and compare several well-known closed world approaches in the family to the extent to whic an incomplete database is com pleted.

  19. How Does an Interactive Approach to Literary Texts Work in an English as a Foreign Language Context? Learners' Perspectives in Close-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi Thu

    2016-01-01

    Interactive approaches to literary texts in second/foreign language education have enjoyed wide theoretical and empirical support. However, the teaching of literary texts in traditional English as a foreign language contexts still remains information-oriented, with a focus on the transmission and replication of an objectified interpretation of a…

  20. Transactional vs. strategic sourcing: a close-up look at these two approaches to comparator drug sourcing and how they differ.(PEER REVIEWED)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ware, Mark

    2010-01-01

    ... of comparators, both encourage adherence to good manufacturing and clinical practice when sourcing. This article will examine two comparator sourcing models: a transactional model and a strategic model. It will review the pros and cons of each to help guide procurement teams on the most effective sourcing approach to help ensure an uninterrupt...

  1. Closed polderized housing developments in the lower basin of the Río Luján: Approaches to this phenomenon's dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper springs up from reflecting upon the connection between global capitalism and urbanization, specifically of the transformations produced in the metropolitan territories during the past two decades. What can be particularly observed is the spreading of closed polderized housing developments (CPHD, the new forms of production in residential areas on the borders of the metropolitan conglomerate of Buenos Aires, whose development implies an extensive demand of the soil in areas of great patrimonial value and environmental fragility, like the wetlands in the lower basin of the Río Luján. From such a perspective, this work contributes elements which allow for a characterization and dimensioning of the phenomenon, based on a thorough surveying of the variables deemed essential by the study, by comparing databases from public institutions, journalistic information and real estate developers' web sites from the area.

  2. The potential value of employing a RLV-based {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory approach for space access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, E.; OLeary, R. [W. J. Schafer Associates 2000 Randolph Rd, SE, Ste. 205 Albuquerque, New Mexico87106 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the potential benefits of employing useful upper stages with planned reusable launch vehicle systems to increase payload performance to various earth orbits. It highlights these benefits through performance analysis on a generic vehicle/upper-stage combination (basing all estimates on realistic technology availability). A nominal 34,019 kg [75,000 lbm] dry mass RLV capable of orbiting 454 kg into a polar orbit by itself (SSTO) would be capable of orbiting 9500{endash}10,000 kg into a polar orbit using a nominal upper stage released from a suborbital trajectory. The paper also emphasizes the technical and operational issues associated with actually executing a {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory launch and deployment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. An Approach for Hydrogen Recycling in a Closed-loop Life Support Architecture to Increase Oxygen Recovery Beyond State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee; Greenwood, Zachary; Alvarez, Giraldo

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art atmosphere revitalization life support technology on the International Space Station is theoretically capable of recovering 50% of the oxygen from metabolic carbon dioxide via the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA). When coupled with a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA), oxygen recovery increases dramatically, thus drastically reducing the logistical challenges associated with oxygen resupply. The PPA decomposes methane to predominantly form hydrogen and acetylene. Because of the unstable nature of acetylene, a down-stream separation system is required to remove acetylene from the hydrogen stream before it is recycled to the CRA. A new closed-loop architecture that includes a PPA and downstream Hydrogen Purification Assembly (HyPA) is proposed and discussed. Additionally, initial results of separation material testing are reported.

  4. Closed circuit television welding alignment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darner, G.S.

    1976-09-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) weld targeting systems were developed to provide accurate and repeatable positioning of the electrode of an electronic arc welder with respect to the parts being joined. A sliding mirror electrode holder was developed for use with closed circuit television equipment on existing weld fixturing. A complete motorized CCTV weld alignment system was developed to provide weld targeting for even the most critical positioning requirements.

  5. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  6. Brain spontaneous fluctuations in sensorimotor regions were directly related to eyes open and eyes closed: evidences from a machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishan eLiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference between resting-state brain activations depends on whether the subject was eyes open (EO or eyes closed (EC. However, whether the spontaneous fluctuations are directly related to these two different resting states are still largely unclear. In the present study, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 24 healthy subjects (11 males, 20.17 ± 2.74 years under the EO and EC states. The amplitude of the spontaneous brain activity in low-frequency band was subsequently investigated by using the metric of fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF for each subject under each state. A support vector machine (SVM analysis was then applied to evaluate whether the category of resting states could be determined from the brain spontaneous fluctuations. We demonstrated that these two resting states could be decoded from the identified pattern of brain spontaneous fluctuations, predominantly based on fALFF in the sensorimotor module. Specifically, we observed prominent relationships between increased fALFF for EC and decreased fALFF for EO in sensorimotor regions. Overall, the present results indicate that a SVM performs well in the discrimination between the brain spontaneous fluctuations of distinct resting states and provide new insight into the neural substrate of the resting states during EC and EO.

  7. Multi-objective Mixed Integer Programming approach for facility layout design by considering closeness ratings, material handling, and re-layout cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Muhammad Ridwan Andi; Satrio Wiwoho, Yoga

    2016-01-01

    Facility layout becomes one of production system factor that should be managed well, as it is designated for the location of production. In managing the layout, designing the layout by considering the optimal layout condition that supports the work condition is essential. One of the method for facility layout optimization is Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In this study, the MIP is solved using Lingo 9.0 software and considering quantitative and qualitative objectives to be achieved simultaneously: minimizing material handling cost, maximizing closeness rating, and minimizing re-layout cost. The research took place in Rekayasa Wangdi as a make to order company, focusing on the making of concrete brick dough stirring machine with 10 departments involved. The result shows an improvement in the new layout for 333,72 points of objective value compared with the initial layout. As the conclusion, the proposed MIP is proven to be used to model facility layout problem under multi objective consideration for a more realistic look.

  8. Cobalt‐Porphyrin‐Catalysed Intramolecular Ring‐Closing C−H Amination of Aliphatic Azides: A Nitrene‐Radical Approach to Saturated Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Petrus F.; Tiekink, Martijn J.; Breukelaar, Willem B.; Broere, Daniël L. J.; van Leest, Nicolaas P.; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Reek, Joost N. H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cobalt‐porphyrin‐catalysed intramolecular ring‐closing C−H bond amination enables direct synthesis of various N‐heterocycles from aliphatic azides. Pyrrolidines, oxazolidines, imidazolidines, isoindolines and tetrahydroisoquinoline can be obtained in good to excellent yields in a single reaction step with an air‐ and moisture‐stable catalyst. Kinetic studies of the reaction in combination with DFT calculations reveal a metallo‐radical‐type mechanism involving rate‐limiting azide activation to form the key cobalt(III)‐nitrene radical intermediate. A subsequent low barrier intramolecular hydrogen‐atom transfer from a benzylic C−H bond to the nitrene‐radical intermediate followed by a radical rebound step leads to formation of the desired N‐heterocyclic ring products. Kinetic isotope competition experiments are in agreement with a radical‐type C−H bond‐activation step (intramolecular KIE=7), which occurs after the rate‐limiting azide activation step. The use of di‐tert‐butyldicarbonate (Boc2O) significantly enhances the reaction rate by preventing competitive binding of the formed amine product. Under these conditions, the reaction shows clean first‐order kinetics in both the [catalyst] and the [azide substrate], and is zero‐order in [Boc2O]. Modest enantioselectivities (29–46 % ee in the temperature range of 100–80 °C) could be achieved in the ring closure of (4‐azidobutyl)benzene using a new chiral cobalt‐porphyrin catalyst equipped with four (1S)‐(−)‐camphanic‐ester groups. PMID:28332743

  9. Vocabulary Learning through Assisted and Unassisted Repeated Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effects of unassisted and assisted repeated reading has primarily focused on how each approach may contribute to improvement in reading comprehension and fluency. Incidental learning of the form and meaning of unknown or partially known words encountered through assisted and unassisted repeated reading has yet…

  10. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  11. Physical Properties of Asteroid (308635) 2005 YU55 derived from multi-instrument infrared observations during a very close Earth-Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, T G; Kiss, C; Gurwell, M A; Hasegawa, S; Vilenius, E; Sako, S; Kamizuka, T; Nakamura, T; Asano, K; Uchiyama, M; Konishi, M; Yoneda, M; Ootsubo, T; Usui, F; Yoshii, Y; Kidger, M; Altieri, B; Lorente, R; Pal, A; O'Rourke, L; Metcalfe, L

    2013-01-01

    The near-Earth asteroid (308635) 2005 YU55 is a potentially hazardous asteroid which was discovered in 2005 and passed Earth on November 8th 2011 at 0.85 lunar distances. This was the closest known approach by an asteroid of several hundred metre diameter since 1976 when a similar size object passed at 0.5 lunar distances. We observed 2005 YU55 from ground with a recently developed mid-IR camera (miniTAO/MAX38) in N- and Q-band and with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 1.3 mm. In addition, we obtained space observations with Herschel/PACS at 70, 100, and 160 micron. Our thermal measurements cover a wide range of wavelengths from 8.9 micron to 1.3 mm and were taken after opposition at phase angles between -97 deg and -18 deg. We performed a radiometric analysis via a thermophysical model and combined our derived properties with results from radar, adaptive optics, lightcurve observations, speckle and auxiliary thermal data. We find that (308635) 2005 YU55 has an almost spherical shape with an effective diamete...

  12. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  13. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  14. Repeatability Evaluation of Finger Tapping Device with Magnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    We tested the repeatability of a finger tapping device with magnetic sensors to determine its reliability. This device, which was developed to assist in the diagnosis of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and strokes, measures the distance between the first and index fingers during finger tapping movements (opening and closing the fingers repeatedly). We evaluated three types of repeatability based on ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) and Welch's test (test for equal means in a oneway layout): repeatability when measured at different times, when using different devices, and when using different measurers. We calculated these three types for three finger tapping tasks on both hands for 21 characteristics calculated from finger tapping waveforms. Results demonstrated that the repeatability when using different devices is high regardless of the task or hand. The repeatability when measuring at different times and when using different measurers is high at some tasks, but not all. One of the finger tapping tasks (finger tapping movement with the largest amplitude and highest velocity), which is used in a conventional PD diagnosis method (UPDRS), does not have enough repeatability, while other tasks show high repeatability. Results also showed that five characteristics have the highest repeatability (ICC ≥ 0.5 or significance probability of Welch's test ≥ 5% in all tasks): “total moving distance,” “average of local minimum acceleration in opening motion,” “average of local minimum acceleration in closing motion,” “average of local maximum distance” and “average of local minimum velocity”. These results clearly demonstrate the strong repeatability of this device and lead to more precise diagnosis of movement disorders.

  15. Closely Reading Informational Texts in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the differences between close reading in the primary grades and upper elementary grades. We focus on text selection, initial reading. repeated reading, annotation, text-based discussions, and responding to texts.

  16. An integrated mechanical-enzymatic reverse osmosis treatment of dairy industry wastewater and milk protein recovery as a fat replacer: a closed loop approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sarghini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry can be classified among the most polluting of the food industries in volume in regard to its large water consumption, generating from 0.2 to 10 L of effluent per liter of processed milk. Dairy industry effluents usually include highly dissolved organic matter with varying characteristics, and a correct waste management project is required to handle. In a framework of natural water resource availability and cost increase, wastewater treatment for water reuse can lower the overall water consumption and the global effluent volume of industrial plants. Moreover, correct dismissal of dairy industry wastewater is sometimes neglected by the operators , increasing the environmental impact due to the chemical and biological characteristics of such effluents. On the other hand, in the case of whey effluents, several by-products are still present inside, such as lactose and milk proteins. Membrane technology has some advantages including a high degree of reliability in removing dissolved, colloidal and particulate matter, like the selectivity in size of pollutants to be removed and the possibility of very compact treatment plants. For example, Reverse Osmosis (RO technology has been successfully applied for the treatment of dairy wastes (1, and as a technology for concentration and fractionation of whey. In this work a membrane treatment approach using reverse osmosis technology is investigated and implemented: the permeate obtained can be reused as clean warm water for cleaning and sanitation of production plants, while concentrated milk proteins are modified by using transglutaminase enzyme obtaining a high temperature resistant fat replacer to be used in different low-fat products like for example mozzarella cheese.

  17. Data Fusion Approaches to Close the Spatial and Temporal Scale Gaps between MetOp-ASCAT and Sentinel-1 Soil Moisture Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Marschallinger, Bernhard; Mistelbauer, Thomas; Hochstöger, Simon; Paulik, Christoph; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Earth observation (EO), and more specifically, spaceborne radar remote sensing had made much progress toward its high potential to retrieve Soil Moisture (SM) at different scales. Yet, for a single sensing system there always exists a trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution of the observations: While scatterometer-derived SM products can well describe temporal soil moisture dynamics, they lack of spatial details. They do not facilitate analysis of local hydrological patterns, such as effects from convectional rains and topography and thus miss the requirements of many users. Contrary, SM products from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can resolve dynamics at this level. However, they observe individual locations less frequently and are thus not suitable for acquisition of short-term variations. To overcome these spatial and temporal scale gaps, data fusion of C-Band scatterometer and SAR radar observations is the method of choice, yielding a high-resolution, high-frequency soil profile wetness product called SCAT-SAR Soil Water Index (SWI). Benefiting from the input's either high temporal or spatial resolution, respectively, this 500m-sampling product bears great potential for operational use, even at local scale. In this study, different approaches to fuse MetOp ASCAT scatterometer data (12.5km and almost-daily sampling) with SAR data from the new Sentinel-1 (10m and 3-6-day sampling) are examined. Methods entailed in the fusion process comprise spatial resampling, spatial correlation analysis, data matching, temporal matching and filtering as well as signal-to-noise estimation. Different sets of methods for data fusion are employed for SM derivation. The results are evaluated against alone-standing ASCAT and Sentinel-1 SM data, as well as against in-situ measurements at the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria.

  18. Physical properties of asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55) derived from multi-instrument infrared observations during a very close Earth approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T. G.; Miyata, T.; Kiss, C.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hasegawa, S.; Vilenius, E.; Sako, S.; Kamizuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Asano, K.; Uchiyama, M.; Konishi, M.; Yoneda, M.; Ootsubo, T.; Usui, F.; Yoshii, Y.; Kidger, M.; Altieri, B.; Lorente, R.; Pál, A.; O'Rourke, L.; Metcalfe, L.

    2013-10-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55) is a potentially hazardous asteroid which was discovered in 2005 and passed Earth on Nov. 8, 2011 at 0.85 lunar distances. This was the closest known approach by an asteroid of several hundred metres in diameter since 1976 when an object of similar size passed at 0.5 lunar distances. We observed 2005 YU55 from the ground with a recently developed mid-IR camera (miniTAO/MAX38) in N and Q bands and with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 1.3 mm. In addition, we obtained space observations with Herschel/PACS at 70, 100, and 160 μm. Our thermal measurements cover a wide range of wavelengths from 8.9 μm to 1.3 mm and were taken after opposition at phase angles between -97° and -18°. We performed a radiometric analysis via a thermophysical model and combined our derived properties with results from radar, adaptive optics, lightcurve observations, speckle, and auxiliary thermal data. We find that 308635 (2005 YU55) has an almost spherical shape with an effective diameter of 300 to 312 m and a geometric albedo pV of 0.055 to 0.075. Its spin axis is oriented towards celestial directions (λecl, βecl) = (60° ± 30°, -60° ± 15°), which means it has a retrograde sense of rotation. The analysis of all available data combined revealed a discrepancy with the radar-derived size. Our radiometric analysis of the thermal data together with the problem to find a unique rotation period might be connected to a non-principal axis rotation. A low to intermediate level of surface roughness (rms mean slope in the range 0.1-0.3) is required to explain the available thermal measurements. We found a thermal inertia in the range 350-800 Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1, very similar to the rubble-pile asteroid 25 143 Itokawa and indicating a surface with a mixture of low conductivity fine regolith with larger rocks and boulders of high thermal inertia. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Identification and characterization of tandem repeats in exon III of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) genes from different mammalian species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Svend Arild; Mogensen, Line; Dietz, Rune

    2005-01-01

    tandem repeat, while a tandem repeat consisting of 27-bp modules was identified in a sequence from European badger. Both these tandem repeats were composed of 9-bp basic units, which were closely related with the 9-bp repeat modules identified in the mink and ferret. Tandem repeats could...... repeat being found. In the domestic cow and gray seal we identified tandem repeats composed of 36-bp modules, each consisting of two closely related 18-bp basic units. A tandem repeat consisting of 9-bp modules was identified in sequences from mink and ferret. In the European otter we detected an 18-bp...

  20. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  1. Rings from Close Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    the centaur internal structure, its spin, and the distance of closest approach of the centaur to the giant planet. Blue and red represent icy and silicate material, respectively. [Hyodo et al. 2016]The outcomes of the close encounters are diverse, depending strongly on the internal structure and spin of the minor planet and the geometry of the encounter. But the team finds that, in many scenarios, the centaur is only partially destroyed by tidal forces from the giant as it passes close by.In these cases the icy mantle and even some of the centaurs core can be ripped away and scattered, becoming gravitationally bound to the largest remaining clump of the core. The particles travel in highly eccentric orbits, gradually damping as they collide with each other and forming a disk around the remaining core. Further dynamical evolution of this disk could easily shape the rings that we observe today around Chariklo and Chiron.If Hyodo and collaborators scenario is correct, then Chariklo and Chiron are differentiated bodies with dense silicate cores, and their rings are either pure water ice, or a mixture of water ice and a small amount of silicate. Future observations of these minor planets will help to test this model and observations of other centaurs may discover yet more ring systems hiding in our solar system!BonusCheck out this awesomeanimation from ESO showing an artists impression of thering system around Chariklo! [ESO/L. Calada/M. Kornmesser]CitationRyuki Hyodo et al 2016 ApJ 828 L8. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/828/1/L8

  2. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  3. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  4. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  5. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  6. StaRProtein, A Web Server for Prediction of the Stability of Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongtao; Zhou, Xu; Huang, Meilan

    2015-01-01

    Repeat proteins have become increasingly important due to their capability to bind to almost any proteins and the potential as alternative therapy to monoclonal antibodies. In the past decade repeat proteins have been designed to mediate specific protein-protein interactions. The tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins are two classes of helical repeat proteins that form different binding pockets to accommodate various partners. It is important to understand the factors that define folding and stability of repeat proteins in order to prioritize the most stable designed repeat proteins to further explore their potential binding affinities. Here we developed distance-dependant statistical potentials using two classes of alpha-helical repeat proteins, tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins respectively, and evaluated their efficiency in predicting the stability of repeat proteins. We demonstrated that the repeat-specific statistical potentials based on these two classes of repeat proteins showed paramount accuracy compared with non-specific statistical potentials in: 1) discriminate correct vs. incorrect models 2) rank the stability of designed repeat proteins. In particular, the statistical scores correlate closely with the equilibrium unfolding free energies of repeat proteins and therefore would serve as a novel tool in quickly prioritizing the designed repeat proteins with high stability. StaRProtein web server was developed for predicting the stability of repeat proteins. PMID:25807112

  7. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  8. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  9. The mass of (1 Ceres obtained from four close encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Anđelka B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of asteroid mass determination from perturbation during close approach requires as many as possible different close approaches in order to derive reliable mass of a perturber. Here are presented some results for the mass of (1 Ceres obtained using newly found close approaches.

  10. O retratamento da tuberculose no município do Recife, 1997: uma abordagem epidemiológica Repeated treatment of tuberculosis in the city of Recife, 1997: an epidemiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERMIRA MARIA AMORIM CAMPOS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudo descreve as características e analisa o acompanhamento de casos de retratamento ocorridos em residentes no município do Recife, no ano de 1997, com o objetivo de avaliar a importância deste grupo de doentes para a vigilância da tuberculose nos sistemas locais de saúde. Casuística e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com uma amostra de 240 casos de retratamento que representaram 16,2% dos casos de tuberculose notificados à Secretaria Estadual de Saúde do Estado de Pernambuco, em 1997. Resultados: O abandono do tratamento anterior foi o principal motivo para o retratamento (55,8%, seguido por casos de recidiva da doença (39,2%. Os doentes eram predominantemente do sexo masculino, com idade entre 30 e 49 anos, com baixa ou nenhuma escolaridade, e apresentavam um predomínio da forma pulmonar. Chama a atenção que 42,7% dos casos de retratamento tinham história de dois ou mais tratamentos anteriores. Em relação ao desfecho do retratamento, 52,5% dos casos apresentaram resultado desfavorável. Entre estes, 44,2% dos indivíduos abandonaram o esquema terapêutico e 39,6% deles fizeram-no até o primeiro mês. Os casos que voltaram a tratar-se após recidiva apresentaram maior percentual de desfecho favorável de retratamento (64% quando comparados com os casos que voltaram a tratar-se após falência ou abandono do tratamento anterior e esta diferença foi estatisticamente significante (chi² = 19,55; p Objectives: This study describes the epidemiological profile of cases of repeated treatment of tuberculosis occurring among residents of the city of Recife in the year of 1997. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed and 240 cases of repeated treatment were studied, representing 16.2% of all cases of tuberculosis. Results: Interruption of previous treatment was the principal reason for repeated treatments (55.8%, followed by cases of recurrence of the disease (39.2%. Patients undergoing

  11. Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T J; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Huang, Po-Ssu; Bhabha, Gira; Ekiert, Damian C; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hura, Greg L; Tainer, John A; Baker, David

    2015-12-24

    A central question in protein evolution is the extent to which naturally occurring proteins sample the space of folded structures accessible to the polypeptide chain. Repeat proteins composed of multiple tandem copies of a modular structure unit are widespread in nature and have critical roles in molecular recognition, signalling, and other essential biological processes. Naturally occurring repeat proteins have been re-engineered for molecular recognition and modular scaffolding applications. Here we use computational protein design to investigate the space of folded structures that can be generated by tandem repeating a simple helix-loop-helix-loop structural motif. Eighty-three designs with sequences unrelated to known repeat proteins were experimentally characterized. Of these, 53 are monomeric and stable at 95 °C, and 43 have solution X-ray scattering spectra consistent with the design models. Crystal structures of 15 designs spanning a broad range of curvatures are in close agreement with the design models with root mean square deviations ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Å. Our results show that existing repeat proteins occupy only a small fraction of the possible repeat protein sequence and structure space and that it is possible to design novel repeat proteins with precisely specified geometries, opening up a wide array of new possibilities for biomolecular engineering.

  12. Morphological sampling of closed sets:

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Ronse; Mohamed Tajine

    2004-01-01

    We briefiy survey the standard morphological approach (Heijmans, 1994) to the sampling (or discretization) of sets. Then we summarize the main results of our metric theory of sampling (Ronse and Tajine, 2000; 2001; 2002; Tajine and Ronse, 2002), which can be used to analyse several sampling schemes, in particular the morphological one. We extend it to the sampling of closed sets (instead of compact ones), and to the case where the sampling subspace is boundedly compact (instead of boundedly f...

  13. Teaching the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with a Computerized Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Carsten; Baylor, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a constructivist approach for teaching game theory, on the basis, in part, of Axelrod's research approach. Using the Axelrod tournament multi-user system (ATMUS) software, students create strategies for a repeated prisoner's dilemma (RPD). Later, these strategies are matched with those of their classmates' in a classroom…

  14. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  15. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  16. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  17. Close-ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Investigations in the close-up and its meaning regarding nearness, abstraction and transparency. Face, facelike and animism are also major key-words in thsi article... . I have always been fascinated with the close-up, not as an end, but a filter of opportunities to open up for and nearness of tr...

  18. Surviving a School Closing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Peter M.; Moccia, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    When a beloved school closes, community emotions run high. De Witt and Moccia, administrators in the Averill Park School District in upstate New York, describe how their district navigated through parents' anger and practical matters in closing a small neighborhood elementary school and transferring all its students to another school. With a group…

  19. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA repeats from Phaseolus beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tiago; Dos Santos, Karla G B; Richard, Manon M S; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Geffroy, Valérie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) subtelomeres are highly enriched for khipu, the main satellite DNA identified so far in this genome. Here, we comparatively investigate khipu genomic organization in Phaseolus species from different clades. Additionally, we identified and characterized another satellite repeat, named jumper, associated to khipu. A mixture of P. vulgaris khipu clones hybridized in situ confirmed the presence of khipu-like sequences on subterminal chromosome regions in all Phaseolus species, with differences in the number and intensity of signals between species and when species-specific clones were used. Khipu is present as multimers of ∼500 bp and sequence analyses of cloned fragments revealed close relationship among khipu repeats. The new repeat, named jumper, is a 170-bp satellite sequence present in all Phaseolus species and inserted into the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rDNA in the P. vulgaris genome. Nevertheless, jumper was found as a high-copy repeat at subtelomeres and/or pericentromeres in the Phaseolus microcarpus lineage only. Our data argue for khipu as an important subtelomeric satellite DNA in the genus and for a complex satellite repeat composition of P. microcarpus subtelomeres, which also contain jumper. Furthermore, the differential amplification of these repeats in subtelomeres or pericentromeres reinforces the presence of a dynamic satellite DNA library in Phaseolus.

  1. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  2. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  3. Skew-closed categories

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the new examples found by Kornel Szlach\\'anyi of a form of lax monoidal category, the author felt the time ripe to publish a reworking of Eilenberg-Kelly's original paper on closed categories appropriate to the laxer context. The new examples are connected with bialgebroids. With Stephen Lack, we have also used the concept to give an alternative definition of quantum category and quantum groupoid. Szlach\\'anyi has called the lax notion {\\em skew monoidal}. This paper defines {\\em skew closed category}, proves Yoneda lemmas for categories enriched over such, and looks at closed cocompletion.

  4. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy Blair

    Full Text Available Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap.

  5. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap.

  6. Never, once, and repeated illness: a geometric view for insights and interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Shanmugam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical/health researchers depend on data evidence for knowledge discovery. At times, data analysis to capture the data evidence is overwhelming and the process becomes too tedious to give up the attempt. A prudent thing to do is to seek out a simpler visual approach to obtain insights. One visual approach is devised in this article to understand what the data are really revealing to either get an insight first or then confirm what is intuitively configured by the medical concepts. This visual approach is geometric concepts based. In specific, triangle is employed in this new and novel approach. Methods: A successful treatment of any illness is a consequence of knowledge build-up arising from data mining about the never, once, or repeated episode of a disease incidence in a patient. This article investigates and illustrates a novel and pioneering geometric approach, especially based on the properties of triangle, to extract hidden evidence in the data. New probabilistic expressions are derived utilizing trigonometric relations among the corner points of a triangle. The conceptual contents of this article are versatile enough for different medical/health data analysis. Results: For illustration here, the medical binomial data in Hopper et al. (Genetic Epidemiology, 1990 on the occurrence of asthma or hay fever among the four groups: (1 monozygotic females (MZF, (2 monozygotic males (MZM, (3 di-zygotic females (DZF, and (4 di-zygotic males (DZM are considered and triangularly interpreted. The results indicate that the angle in the vertex representing one episode is the largest compared to the other two angles in the vertices representing never or repeated episode of an illness among a random sample of twins from these four groups with respect to getting asthma or hay fever. This geometric finding implies that the event of never and the event of repeated incidence of the illness have farthest Euclidean distance in probability sense. In

  7. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Saraswat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding in buffaloes was evaluated in terms of incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. The incidence of repeat breeding is low in buffaloes however in different studies the incidence varied from 0.70% to 30%. Because of seasonal suppression of fertility repeat breeding in buffaloes should be limited to the breeding season. Spring and winter calving, first parity, peri-parturient disease and lactation are significant risk factors for repeat breeding in buffaloes. The etiologies of repeat breeding in buffaloes can be failure of fertilization and early embryonic deaths. Only a few of causes of failure of fertilization have been identified in buffaloes. Ovulatory disturbances and ovarian cysts are uncommon in buffaloes and cysts have poor clinical manifestation. Endometritis is the common female cause of fertilization failures in buffaloes whereas poor semen quality and improper insemination are the bull side factors for fertilization failures. Early embryonic deaths are common in buffaloes mated/inseminated during the end of the breeding season due to a low luteal progesterone however embryonic deaths occur late (<25 days in buffaloes. Diagnostic approaches for repeat breeding include vaginoscopic and transrectal examination and uterine cytology for genital health. More precise evaluations of the ovarian and uterine function can be obtained by ultrasonographic and hysteroscopic examinations performed sequentially however, precise diagnosis of the cause of repeat breeding seems difficult.

  8. Closed Claim Query File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This file is used to hold information about disability claims that have been closed and have been selected for sampling.Sampling is the process whereby OQR reviews...

  9. Mitigation : Closed Basin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The upcoming meeting on waterfowl mitigation for the Closed Basin Project will have several people talk about possible changes to the waterfowl mitigation program. A...

  10. A and B Theories of Closed Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phill Dowe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Closed time is possible in several senses of ‘possible’. One might like to know, therefore, whether closed time is possible in the sense that it is compatible with standard metaphysical theories of time. In this paper I am concerned with whether closed time is compatible with A and/or B theories of time. A common enough view amongst philosophers is that B theories do but A theories do not allow closed time. However, I show that prima-facie neither approach allows closed time, but that with a little work standard versions of both approaches do. This shows that there’s no special problem with the notion of eternal return.

  11. Close supermassive binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive blackhole binary (SMB). The AGN J1536+0441 (=SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that 1536+044 is an example of line emission from a disc. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBs is significant and argues either that the merging of close SMBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.

  12. Markerless modification of trinucleotide repeat loci in BACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzow, Kellie A; Koob, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Transcription and splicing of human genes are regulated by nucleotide sequences encoded across large segments of our genome, and trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations can have both profound and subtle effects on these processes. In the course of our work to understand the impact of the Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 8 (SCA8) CTG repeat expansion on the transcription and splicing of the RNAs encoded near the SCA8 locus, we have developed a set of reagents and protocols for modifying large genomic BAC clones of this region. We describe the two-step procedure that allows us to precisely replace unexpanded trinucleotide repeats with expanded variants of these repeat sequences without leaving any exogenous sequences in the final constructs, and we discuss how this approach can be adapted to make other desired sequence changes to these genomic clones.

  13. Assessing agreement with repeated measures for random observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Cheng; Barnhart, Huiman X

    2011-12-30

    Agreement studies are often concerned with assessing whether different observers for measuring responses on the same subject or sample can produce similar results. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a popular index for assessing the closeness among observers for quantitative measurements. Usually, the CCC is used for data without and with replications based on subject and observer effects only. However, we cannot use this methodology if repeated measurements rather than replications are collected. Although there exist some CCC-type indices for assessing agreement with repeated measurements, there is no CCC for random observers and random time points. In this paper, we propose a new CCC for repeated measures where both observers and time points are treated as random effects. A simulation study demonstrates our proposed methodology, and we use vertebral body data and image data for illustrations.

  14. Analysis on Libor’ s misrepresentations and relative policy recommendations under repeated game approach%Libor虚报操纵的重复博弈分析及政策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉姝

    2014-01-01

    To further analyze the reason of Libor ’ s frequent misrepresentations , for the first time in this paper a repeated game model on Libor ’ s bidding process is constructed , which find out the critical value of the punishment for dishonest quotations by means of reasonably simplifying the makers ’ complex relationship and quantizing their profit and loss under different strategy choices.And on the basis of the analysis of the threshold combining motivation for manipulation and the parameters ’ less optimistic availability , it is conclu-ded that the institutional defects in existing price forming system inevitably lead to Libor ’ s quite frequent bi-ding crimes.Finally, several policy recommendations for the upcoming new system are proposed.%为深入分析Libor被屡次虚报操纵的原因,引入重复博弈模型,在对价格形成机制中的关联行为进行合理简化、对各报价行不同策略选择下的得益与损失进行量化的基础上,分析了Libor的报价过程,找出使得如实报价的“惩罚”力度的临界值。并在分析该临界值的基础上结合操纵动因和各影响因子的测算难度,得出现有价格形成体系的制度性缺陷必然引发Libor被虚报的不诚信行为的结论。最后针对2014年即将推行的新体系提出相关政策建议。

  15. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  16. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  17. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  18. ACCA phosphopeptide recognition by the BRCT repeats of BRCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Hind; Moreau, Karen; Dizin, Eva; Callebaut, Isabelle; Venezia, Nicole Dalla

    2006-06-16

    The tumour suppressor gene BRCA1 encodes a 220 kDa protein that participates in multiple cellular processes. The BRCA1 protein contains a tandem of two BRCT repeats at its carboxy-terminal region. The majority of disease-associated BRCA1 mutations affect this region and provide to the BRCT repeats a central role in the BRCA1 tumour suppressor function. The BRCT repeats have been shown to mediate phospho-dependant protein-protein interactions. They recognize phosphorylated peptides using a recognition groove that spans both BRCT repeats. We previously identified an interaction between the tandem of BRCA1 BRCT repeats and ACCA, which was disrupted by germ line BRCA1 mutations that affect the BRCT repeats. We recently showed that BRCA1 modulates ACCA activity through its phospho-dependent binding to ACCA. To delineate the region of ACCA that is crucial for the regulation of its activity by BRCA1, we searched for potential phosphorylation sites in the ACCA sequence that might be recognized by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using sequence analysis and structure modelling, we proposed the Ser1263 residue as the most favourable candidate among six residues, for recognition by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using experimental approaches, such as GST pull-down assay with Bosc cells, we clearly showed that phosphorylation of only Ser1263 was essential for the interaction of ACCA with the BRCT repeats. We finally demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of ACCA in cells, that the whole BRCA1 protein interacts with ACCA when phosphorylated on Ser1263.

  19. Brain Vulnerability to Repeated Blast Overpressure and Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    discrimination procedures were developed, refined and implemented to test visual acuity and visually based cognitive performance and reaction time. Telemetric...exposure: The shock tube consists of a 2.5 ft long compression chamber that is separated from a 15 ft long expansion chamber by polyester Mylar...single BOP (figs 8 & 9) or 2 BOPs separated by 24 hr (not shown), closely coupled repeated BOP exposure increased reaction times (fig 11

  20. 瘢痕子宫再次妊娠产科处理方式的探讨%Discussion of obstetrical management approach for repeated pregnancy with scarred uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由明学; 敖明珠; 冯去非

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨瘢痕子宫再次妊娠产科处理方式的选择. 方法 回顾性分析2014年3月~2015年2月我院收治的剖宫产术后或子宫肌瘤核除术后的瘢痕子宫再次妊娠的产妇112例的临床资料,同期选择再次剖宫产瘢痕子宫产妇981例,分析瘢痕子宫再次妊娠产科处理方式的选择. 结果112例阴道试产患者中有107例试产成功,成功率为95.5%,其中自然分娩者97例,阴道助产10例(其中产钳3例,胎头吸引5例,臀助产2例),剖宫产5例,再次剖宫产分娩为986例. 瘢痕子宫阴道分娩与再次剖宫产两组分娩方式的孕妇在年龄、孕周、新生儿血气、产褥病率方面比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);阴道分娩的产妇产后出血量、新生儿体重、住院天数明显低于剖宫产分娩产妇,差异有统计学意义(P0.05); the amount of bleeding, neonatal body weight and length of stay in the puerpera with vaginal delivery were all significantly lower than those in the puerpera with cesarean section, and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion The pregnant women with repeated pregnancy in scarred uterus who meet the criteria of vaginal delivery should be given the opportunity of vaginal trial delivery. The advantages of vaginal trial delivery are more than disadvantages, and the risk of uterine rupture is not higher.

  1. Closed Loop Subspace Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir W. Nilsen

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A new three step closed loop subspace identifications algorithm based on an already existing algorithm and the Kalman filter properties is presented. The Kalman filter contains noise free states which implies that the states and innovation are uneorre lated. The idea is that a Kalman filter found by a good subspace identification algorithm will give an output which is sufficiently uncorrelated with the noise on the output of the actual process. Using feedback from the output of the estimated Kalman filter in the closed loop system a subspace identification algorithm can be used to estimate an unbiased model.

  2. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  3. Associations between inverted repeats and the structural evolution of bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, Guillaume; Coissac, Eric; Netter, Pierre; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2003-08-01

    The stability of the structure of bacterial genomes is challenged by recombination events. Since major rearrangements (i.e., inversions) are thought to frequently operate by homologous recombination between inverted repeats, we analyzed the presence and distribution of such repeats in bacterial genomes and their relation to the conservation of chromosomal structure. First, we show that there is a strong under-representation of inverted repeats, relative to direct repeats, in most chromosomes, especially among the ones regarded as most stable. Second, we show that the avoidance of repeats is frequently associated with the stability of the genomes. Closely related genomes reported to differ in terms of stability are also found to differ in the number of inverted repeats. Third, when using replication strand bias as a proxy for genome stability, we find a significant negative correlation between this strand bias and the abundance of inverted repeats. Fourth, when measuring the recombining potential of inverted repeats and their eventual impact on different features of the chromosomal structure, we observe a tendency of repeats to be located in the chromosome in such a way that rearrangements produce a smaller strand switch and smaller asymmetries than expected by chance. Finally, we discuss the limitations of our analysis and the influence of factors such as the nature of repeats, e.g., transposases, or the differences in the recombination machinery among bacteria. These results shed light on the challenges imposed on the genome structure by the presence of inverted repeats.

  4. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  5. Pd Close Coupled Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua SHI; Mao Chu GONG; Yao Qiang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst comprised novel high surface area alumina support was prepared to control emission of automobiles. The results showed that prepared catalyst could satisfy the requirements of a high performance close coupled catalyst for its good catalytic activity at low temperature and good stability at high temperature.

  6. Repeated measurement sampling in genetic association analysis with genotyping errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Renzhen; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2007-02-01

    Genotype misclassification occurs frequently in human genetic association studies. When cases and controls are subject to the same misclassification model, Pearson's chi-square test has the correct type I error but may lose power. Most current methods adjusting for genotyping errors assume that the misclassification model is known a priori or can be assessed by a gold standard instrument. But in practical applications, the misclassification probabilities may not be completely known or the gold standard method can be too costly to be available. The repeated measurement design provides an alternative approach for identifying misclassification probabilities. With this design, a proportion of the subjects are measured repeatedly (five or more repeats) for the genotypes when the error model is completely unknown. We investigate the applications of the repeated measurement method in genetic association analysis. Cost-effectiveness study shows that if the phenotyping-to-genotyping cost ratio or the misclassification rates are relatively large, the repeat sampling can gain power over the regular case-control design. We also show that the power gain is not sensitive to the genetic model, genetic relative risk and the population high-risk allele frequency, all of which are typically important ingredients in association studies. An important implication of this result is that whatever the genetic factors are, the repeated measurement method can be applied if the genotyping errors must be accounted for or the phenotyping cost is high.

  7. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  8. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  9. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  10. Quantum repeaters using continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Josephine; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum optical states are fragile and can become corrupted when passed through a lossy communication channel. Unlike for classical signals, optical amplifiers cannot be used to recover quantum signals. Quantum repeaters have been proposed as a way of reducing errors and hence increasing the range of quantum communications. Current protocols target specific discrete encodings, for example quantum bits encoded on the polarization of single photons. We introduce a more general approach that can reduce the effect of loss on any quantum optical encoding, including those based on continuous variables such as the field amplitudes. We show that in principle the protocol incurs a resource cost that scales polynomially with distance. We analyze the simplest implementation and find that while its range is limited it can still achieve useful improvements in the distance over which quantum entanglement of field amplitudes can be distributed.

  11. DNA profiling of extended tracts of primitive DNA repeats: Direct identification of unstable simple repeat loci in complex genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogaeva, E.A.; Korovaitseva, G.; St. George-Hyslop, P. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The most simple DNA repetitive elements, with repetitive monomer units of only 1-10 bp in tandem tracts, are an abundant component of the human genome. The expansion of at least one type of these repeats ((CCG)n and (CTG)n) have been detected for a several neurological diseases with anticipation in successive generations. We propose here a simple method for the identification of particularly expanded repeats and for the recovery of flanking sequences. We generated DNA probes using PCR to create long concatamers (n>100) by amplification of the di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeat oligonucleotide primer pairs. To reduce the complexity of the background band pattern, the genomic DNA was restricted with a mixture of at least five different endonucleases, thereby reducing the size of restriction fragments containing short simple repeat arrays while leaving intact the large fragments containing the longer simple repeats arrays. Direct blot hybridization has shown different {open_quotes}DNA fingerprint{close_quotes} patterns with all arbitrary selected di-hexa nucleotide repeat probes. Direct hybridization of the (CTG)n and (CCG)n probes revealed simple or multiple band patterns depending upon stringency conditions. We were able to detect the presence of expanded unstable tri-nucleotide alleles by (CCG)n probe for some FRAXA subjects and by (CTG)n probe for some myotonic dystrophy subjects which were not present in the parental DNA patterns. The cloning of the unstable alleles for simple repeats can be performed by direct recover from agarose gels of the aberrant unstable bands detected above. The recovered flanking regions can be cloned, sequenced and used for PCR detection of expanded alleles or can be used to screen cDNA. This method may be used for testing of small families with diseases thought to display clinical evidence of anticipation.

  12. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  13. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  15. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  16. Close partner relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović-Stanojević Tatjana Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of emotional attachment, specific emotional relationships are being established at an early age between a child and its parents. On the basis of the quality of these relationships the child creates the so-called internal working model ie the image of itself as well as others. The working model persists throughout one's lifetime, shaping in part the quality of adult relationships. Thus, a dominant adult relationship is a close, partner or love one. Within the indicated theoretical context, we were interested in finding out whether there is a statistically significant link between the emotional ties of parents and their children formed in early childhood. The investigation included 180 grown-ups of the same sex and age. For investigating close partner relationships the test Experience in Close Relationship by the American authors (Brenan K.A., Clark C.L., & Shaver P.R. 1998. was used, while the early emotional relationships were investigated using a test which has been the only one so far to measure this quality in adults - Adult Attachment Interview, (Main M., Casidy J., & Kaplan N., 1985. The results show there is a statistically significant link between the observed variables.

  17. Open and closed loop manipulation of charged microchiplets in an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. P., E-mail: jplu@parc.com; Thompson, J. D.; Whiting, G. L.; Biegelsen, D. K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Lujan, R.; Veres, J.; Lavery, L. L.; Völkel, A. R.; Chow, E. M. [Palo Alto Research Center, Inc., 3333 Coyote Hill Rd., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate the ability to orient, position, and transport microchips (“chiplets”) with electric fields. In an open-loop approach, modified four phase traveling wave potential patterns manipulate chiplets in a dielectric solution using dynamic template agitation techniques. Repeatable parallel assembly of chiplets is demonstrated to a positional accuracy of 6.5 μm using electrodes of 200 μm pitch. Chiplets with dipole surface charge patterns are used to show that orientation can be controlled by adding unique charge patterns on the chiplets. Chip path routing is also demonstrated. With a closed-loop control system approach using video feedback, dielectric, and electrophoretic forces are used to achieve positioning accuracy of better than 1 μm with 1 mm pitch driving electrodes. These chip assembly techniques have the potential to enable future printer systems where inputs are electronic chiplets and the output is a functional electronic system.

  18. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  19. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  20. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  1. Evaluation of pulsed RFI effects on digital satellite repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. C.; Braun, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical approach for assessing the effect of pulsed RFI on the error probability of a coherent phase-shift keyed signal through a nonlinear satellite repeater. The RFI is assumed to affect the uplink channel and to consist of CW pulses with random power levels and arriving randomly in time with a Poisson distribution. A model to approximate the effect of intermodulation products is introduced and the error probability conditioned on the output of the satellite repeater is computed. The classical moment technique is then used as an efficient method of averaging the conditional error probability over the numerous random parameters associated with the uplink signal.

  2. Eigenvector derivatives of repeated eigenvalues using singular value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Ghaemmaghami, Peiman

    1989-01-01

    An explicit formula is obtained for the first-order eigenvector derivative that corresponds to the eigenvector of a repeated eigenvalue, in the case of the nonself-adjoint eigenvalue problem. This method applies to the class of nondefective problems whose first eigenvalue derivatives of the repeated eigenvalues are distinct. A singular-value decomposition approach is used to compute four requisite bases for eigenspaces, as well as to keep track of the dimensions of state variables and the conditioning of the state equations.

  3. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  4. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  5. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  6. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  7. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  8. Closed lung trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feden, Jeffrey P

    2013-04-01

    Pulmonary injuries from blunt thoracic trauma are seen regularly with high-energy mechanisms but described less frequently in association with sports. Pneumothorax, hemothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pulmonary contusion are uncommon with athletic participation and often follow a benign clinical course. Life-threatening complications may arise, and athletes with chest trauma deserve close attention. Appropriate diagnosis is suggested by history and physical examination; conventional chest radiography is preferred as the initial imaging study but has limitations. Use of CT for trauma has improved diagnostic sensitivity for occult injury, although this may not alter management or outcomes. Return to play is guided by resolution of symptoms and radiographic findings.

  9. Plumb line deflection varied with time obtained by repeated gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 付广裕; 李正心

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the plumb line deflection varied with time (PLV) are calculated with the Vening-Meinesz formula for Xiaguan and Beijing point based on the 28 and 39 campaigns of gravimetry at the local gravity networks in the Western Yunnan Earthquake Prediction Experiment Area and the North China, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that: ① the maximum of PLV is under 0.12 and amplitudes of interannual variation are under 0.022.②PLV can be determined with the reliability of 0.012 by the modeling based on the precession of repeated gravimetry. This implies that repeated gravimetry could be used to determine the PLV. ③There exist some common and different characteristics for the different places and different components. It may provide a new approach for the study on the local or global geodynamic by using repeated gravimetry.

  10. Intra-genomic variation in the ribosomal repeats of nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M Bik

    Full Text Available Ribosomal loci represent a major tool for investigating environmental diversity and community structure via high-throughput marker gene studies of eukaryotes (e.g. 18S rRNA. Since the estimation of species' abundance is a major goal of environmental studies (by counting numbers of sequences, understanding the patterns of rRNA copy number across species will be critical for informing such high-throughput approaches. Such knowledge is critical, given that ribosomal RNA genes exist within multi-copy repeated arrays in a genome. Here we measured the repeat copy number for six nematode species by mapping the sequences from whole genome shotgun libraries against reference sequences for their rRNA repeat. This revealed a 6-fold variation in repeat copy number amongst taxa investigated, with levels of intragenomic variation ranging from 56 to 323 copies of the rRNA array. By applying the same approach to four C. elegans mutation accumulation lines propagated by repeated bottlenecking for an average of ~400 generations, we find on average a 2-fold increase in repeat copy number (rate of increase in rRNA estimated at 0.0285-0.3414 copies per generation, suggesting that rRNA repeat copy number is subject to selection. Within each Caenorhabditis species, the majority of intragenomic variation found across the rRNA repeat was observed within gene regions (18S, 28S, 5.8S, suggesting that such intragenomic variation is not a product of selection for rRNA coding function. We find that the dramatic variation in repeat copy number among these six nematode genomes would limit the use of rRNA in estimates of organismal abundance. In addition, the unique pattern of variation within a single genome was uncorrelated with patterns of divergence between species, reflecting a strong signature of natural selection for rRNA function. A better understanding of the factors that control or affect copy number in these arrays, as well as their rates and patterns of evolution

  11. Quantum mechanics of the closed collapsing Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Viarenich, K A; Cherkas, S L

    2008-01-01

    Two approaches to quantization of Freedman's closed Universe are compared. In the first approach, the Shrodinger's norm of the wave function of Universe is used, and in the second approach, the Klein-Gordon's norm is used. The second one allows building the quasi-Heisenberg operators as functions of time and finding their average values. It is shown that the average value of the Universe scale factor oscillates with damping and approaches to some constant value at the end of the Universe evolution.

  12. Over-representation of repeats in stress response genes: a strategy to increase versatility under stressful conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo P C; Matic, Ivan; Taddei, François

    2002-05-01

    The survival of individual organisms facing stress is enhanced by the induction of a set of changes. As the intensity, duration and nature of stress is highly variable, the optimal response to stress may be unpredictable. To face such an uncertain future, it may be advantageous for a clonal population to increase its phenotypic heterogeneity (bet-hedging), ensuring that at least a subset of cells would survive the current stress. With current techniques, assessing the extent of this variability experimentally remains a challenge. Here, we use a bioinformatic approach to compare stress response genes with the rest of the genome for the presence of various kinds of repeated sequences, elements known to increase variability during the transfer of genetic information (i.e. during replication, but also during gene expression). We investigated the potential for illegitimate and homologous recombination of 296 Escherichia coli genes related to repair, recombination and physiological adaptations to different stresses. Although long repeats capable of engaging in homologous recombination are almost absent in stress response genes, we observed a significant high number of short close repeats capable of inducing phenotypic variability by slipped-mispair during DNA, RNA or protein synthesis.

  13. Closed strings in Misner space

    CERN Document Server

    Berkooz, M; Rozali, M

    2004-01-01

    Misner space, also known as the Lorentzian orbifold $R^{1,1}/boost$, is one of the simplest examples of a cosmological singularity in string theory. In this work, the study of weakly coupled closed strings on this space is pursued in several directions: (i) physical states in the twisted sectors are found to come in two kinds: short strings, which wind along the compact space-like direction in the cosmological (Milne) region, and long strings, which wind along the compact time direction in the (Rindler) whiskers. The latter can be viewed as infinitely long static open strings, stretching from Rindler infinity to a finite radius and folding back onto themselves. (ii) As in the Schwinger effect, tunneling between these states corresponds to local pair production of winding strings. The tunneling rate approaches unity as the winding number $w$ gets large, as a consequence of the singular geometry. (iii) The one-loop string amplitude has singularities on the moduli space, associated to periodic closed string traj...

  14. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  15. Closing the loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassau, E; Atlas, E; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    Closed-loop algorithms can be found in every aspect of everyday modern life. Automation and control are used constantly to provide safety and to improve quality of life. Closed-loop systems and algorithms can be found in home appliances, automobiles, aviation and more. Can one imagine nowadays driving a car without ABS, cruise control or even anti-sliding control? Similar principles of automation and control can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The idea of an algorithmic/technological way to control glycaemia is not new and has been researched for more than four decades. However, recent improvements in both glucose-sensing technology and insulin delivery together with advanced control and systems engineering made this dream of an artificial pancreas possible. The artificial pancreas may be the next big step in the treatment of DM since the use of insulin analogues. An artificial pancreas can be described as internal or external devices that use continuous glucose measurements to automatically manage exogenous insulin delivery with or without other hormones in an attempt to restore glucose regulation in individuals with DM using a control algorithm. This device as described can be internal or external; can use different types of control algorithms with bi-hormonal or uni-hormonal design; and can utilise different ways to administer them. The different designs and implementations have transitioned recently from in silico simulations to clinical evaluation stage with practical applications in mind. This may mark the beginning of a new era in diabetes management with the introduction of semi-closed-loop systems that can prevent or minimise nocturnal hypoglycaemia, to hybrid systems that will manage blood glucose (BG) levels with minimal user intervention to finally fully automated systems that will take the user out of the loop. More and more clinical trials will be needed for the artificial pancreas to become a reality but initial encouraging

  16. Capturing learning effects on eye movements in repeated measures experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Martin; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Fiedler, Susann

    We propose and illustrate that repeated exposure to stimuli sets increases the size of the saccade amplitudes. Saccadic amplitudes are closely related to the perceptual span and therefore used as a measure for the information intake in an experiment. Studies on expertise have shown that experts...... experiment in which 68 participants made choices between four alternatives with three different between subject conditions varying in presentation format (verbal matrix, a pictorial matrix, and a realistic product representation). The results consistently demonstrate an increase of the saccade amplitude over...... the course of the experiment independent of condition. We conclude by discussing our results in the light of the possible increase of the perceptual span and its implications for the research procedure in eye-tracking experiments with a repeated measurement design....

  17. Do closed universes recollapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    The conditions for recollapse in universes with compact maximal hypersurfaces are investigated theoretically, reviewing the results of recent investigations. The importance of recollapse for observational astrophysics is briefly discussed, and particular attention is given to the implications of maximal hypersurfaces and to recollapse in S3 Friedmann universes. It is conjectured that all globally hyperbolic C2 maximally extended spatially homogeneous closed universes with S3 or S2 x S1 topology and with stress-energy tensors obeying the strong-energy, positive-pressure, dominant-energy, and matter-regularity conditions do expand from an all-encompassing initial singularity to a maximal hypersurface and then recollapse to an all-encompassing final singularity.

  18. Science policy up close

    CERN Document Server

    Marburger, John H

    2015-01-01

    In a career that included tenures as president of Stony Brook University, director of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and science advisor to President George W. Bush, John Marburger (1941 2011) found himself on the front line of battles that pulled science ever deeper into the political arena. From nuclear power to global warming and stem cell research, science controversies, he discovered, are never just about science. Science Policy Up Close" presents Marburger s reflections on the challenges science administrators face in the twenty-first century. In each phase of public service Marburger came into contact with a new dimension of science policy. The Shoreham Commission exposed him to the problem of handling a volatile public controversy over nuclear power. The Superconducting Super Collider episode gave him insights into the collision between government requirements and scientists expectations and feelings of entitlement. The Directorship of Brookhaven taught him how to talk to the public about the risks ...

  19. Jealousy and Relationship Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Attridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study confirmed a hypothesis from the Emotion-in-Relationships conceptual model, which predicts that greater interdependence between relationship partners—or closeness—creates the potential for jealousy. The study also sought to better define the positive side of romantic jealousy in addition to its more negative attributes. College students in premarital relationships (N = 229 completed a questionnaire, including 27 different measures and the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale. Select data were obtained from 122 cases at 3-month follow-up. Each jealousy scale was tested for associations with demographic (age, sex, and race, person (life satisfaction, loneliness, romantic attachment styles, love styles, and romantic beliefs, and relationship (affective, closeness, and social exchange theory constructs. Results clearly distinguished emotional/reactive jealousy as mostly “good” and cognitive/suspicious jealousy as “bad.” Behavioral jealousy was associated with few measures. Implications are discussed for the interdependence model of relationships and the transactional model of jealousy.

  20. Novel mutational mechanism in man: Expansion of trinucleotide repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilarioshkin, S.N.; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I.A.; Markova, E.D. [Research Institute of Neurology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    An analysis of a novel, recently discovered class of mutations in man - an expansion, i.e., an increase of the copy number of intragenic unstable trinucleotide repeats - is presented. The expansion of trinucleotide X chromosome syndrome (two separate variants of the disease - FRAXA and FRAXE), myotonic dystrophy, spinal and bulbar Kennedy`s amyotrophy, Huntington`s chorea, type 1 spinocerebellar ataxia, and dentatorubral-pallidolyusian atrophy. The discovery of triplet expansion allows a satisfactory explanation on the molecular level of a series of unusual clinical genetic phenomena, such as anticipation, the {open_quotes}paternal transmission{close_quotes} effect, the {open_quotes}Sherman paradox,{close_quotes} and others. The common properties and the distinctions of unstable trinucleotide mutations in the nosologic forms mentioned above are analyzed comprehensively. These features include the mechanism by which these mutations cause disease, the time of their appearance in ontogenesis, and various clinical genetic correlations. The evolutionary origin of this class of mutations and, in particular, the role of alleles with an {open_quotes}intermediate{close_quotes} triplet number, which are the persistent reservoir of mutations arising de novo in a population, are also discussed. The possible implication of unstable trinucleotide repeats for a series of other hereditary diseases, such as type 2, spinocerebellar ataxia, Machado-Joseph disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia, essential tremor, schizophrenia, and others, is also suggested. 108 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Analysis of laboratory repeat critical values at a large tertiary teaching hospital in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagan Yang

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: As a patient safety measure, laboratories are required to have a critical values policy by regulatory agencies. Unfortunately, little information is available on repeat critical values for the same analyte(s on the same patient. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence and distribution of repeat critical values and the relationship between the frequency of such values and patient outcome to provide information for hospitals on improving reporting policies. METHODS: Eleven laboratory critical value lists, including chemistry and hematology analytes, were selected from a tertiary hospital in China in the year 2010. The distribution and interval time for each repeat critical value were calculated. Serum potassium and platelet count were used as examples to illustrate the relationship between the frequency of the repeat critical values and patient outcome. RESULTS: All test items on the critical value list were prone to the occurrence of repeat critical values. On average, each patient who experienced critical values had 2.10 occurrences. The median interval time for each repeat critical value varied, with most being longer than 8 hours. For those patients who had repeat critical values of serum potassium and platelet count, along with the increased frequency, the patients had a longer hospital stay and a generally worse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Patient can have a number of repeat critical values and the frequency of these values is closely related to patient outcome. A careful evaluation is warranted if a laboratory chooses to adopt a policy of not reporting each repeat critical value.

  2. Repeated Lexical Comprehension in Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑾

    2009-01-01

    in the understanding of word meaning, two current semantic theories are popular: one is the referential approach, the other is the representational approach. Logogcn model is one of the models used to comprehend lexicon both by sensory input and by contextual information. Under certain context, four types of lexical repe-tition exist: simple lexical repetition, complex lexical repetition, simple paraphrase, complex paraphrase. How these different repetition patterns are comprehended is our main concern. According to our analysis, they go under different process in the course of comprehension.

  3. Closed-loop control of magnetotactic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Pichel, M.P.; Abelmann, L.; Misra, S.

    2013-01-01

    Realization of point-to-point positioning of a magnetotactic bacterium (MTB) necessitates the application of a relatively large magnetic field gradients to decrease its velocity in the vicinity of a reference position. We investigate an alternative closed-loop control approach to position the MTB. T

  4. Closed-loop control of magnetotactic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Pichel, Marc Philippe; Pichel, M.P.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    Realization of point-to-point positioning of a magnetotactic bacterium (MTB) necessitates the application of a relatively large magnetic field gradients to decrease its velocity in the vicinity of a reference position. We investigate an alternative closed-loop control approach to position the MTB.

  5. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  6. Closing the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Kobiella, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    The e4d design series is looking for an innovative use of digital technology in architectural education to overcome the gap between design development and the acquisition of digital skills. Digital design approaches include multimedia technology, the crossover of analogue and digital techniques......, rapid-prototyping, visualization, and the presentation in artistic movies. Over the past two years a problem- based design approach was developed, which enabled students to learn digital and architectural skills simultaneously and efficiently. The educational concept consisted generally of four steps......, which, though independent of each other, are determined by questions of the ongoing design process. The first step consists of an abstract or subjective research phase; in the second step the findings are transferred into dynamic spatial structures. Later, the detected qualities are used to develop...

  7. Closing the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Kobiella, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    The e4d design series is looking for an innovative use of digital technology in architectural education to overcome the gap between design development and the acquisition of digital skills. Digital design approaches include multimedia technology, the crossover of analogue and digital techniques......, rapid-prototyping, visualization, and the presentation in artistic movies. Over the past two years a problem- based design approach was developed, which enabled students to learn digital and architectural skills simultaneously and efficiently. The educational concept consisted generally of four steps...... architectural projects can be discussed; in addition, a competent monitoring of the process and outcome of innovative and efficient design strategies in architectural and pedagogical aspect is included....

  8. Closing the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Kobiella, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    The e4d design series is looking for an innovative use of digital technology in architectural education to overcome the gap between design development and the acquisition of digital skills. Digital design approaches include multimedia technology, the crossover of analogue and digital techniques...... architectural projects can be discussed; in addition, a competent monitoring of the process and outcome of innovative and efficient design strategies in architectural and pedagogical aspect is included......., rapid-prototyping, visualization, and the presentation in artistic movies. Over the past two years a problem- based design approach was developed, which enabled students to learn digital and architectural skills simultaneously and efficiently. The educational concept consisted generally of four steps...

  9. Repeatability in Redundant Manipulator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-22

    IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation...34Nonholonomic Motion Planning of Space Robots via a Bi-Directional Approach", IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 500-514. [12...Nakamura, Y., and Mukherjee, R., 1993, "Exploiting Nonholonomic Redundancy in Free-Flying Space Robots", IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation,

  10. How damaged brains repeat words: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, Nazbanou; Dell, Gary S

    2013-09-01

    Two routes have been proposed for auditory repetition: a lexical route which activates a lexical item and retrieves its phonology, and a nonlexical route which maps input phonology directly onto output phonology. But when is the nonlexical route recruited? In a sample of 103 aphasic patients, we use computational models to select patients who do and do not recruit the nonlexical route, and compare them in light of three hypotheses: 1 - Lexical-phonological hypothesis: when the lexical route is weak, the nonlexical route is recruited. 2 - Nonlexical hypothesis: when the nonlexical route is weak, it is abandoned. 3 - Semantic-access hypothesis: when access to meaning fails, the nonlexical route is recruited. In neurocognitive terms, hypotheses 1 and 2 identify different aspects of the intactness of the dorsal stream, while the third hypothesis focuses on the ventral stream. Our findings (and a subsequent meta-analysis of four studies) support hypotheses 2 and 3. Ultimately, we claim that the choice about whether to recruit the nonlexical route is guided, not by assessment of production abilities that support repetition, but instead by relying on accessible cues, namely whether the speaker understands the word, or can remember its sequence of phonemes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  12. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  13. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  14. Smoke filtration in the glass industry. Thomson Videoglass` global approach with closed loop recycling; Fitration des fumees dans l`industrie du verre. L`approche globale avec recyclage en boucle fermee de thomson videoglass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocek, L. [Thomson Videoglass, 77 - Bagneaux-sur-Loing (France)

    1996-12-31

    Thomson Videoglass, an ISO 9002 certified manufacturer of glass components for Tv sets in France, has introduced a global closed-loop recycling dust filtration system for glass kilns; electrostatic filters and bag filters (for the lead-containing flat glass kiln) have been selected and collected dusts are recycled in the cone glass kiln. Energy savings, operating conditions, investment and operating costs are discussed together with filter corrosion, clogging-up and service life issues and dust extraction performances

  15. Detection of dispersed short tandem repeats using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tong; Fan, Xiaodan; Li, Qiwei; Li, Shuo-Yen R

    2012-10-01

    Tandem repeats occur frequently in biological sequences. They are important for studying genome evolution and human disease. A number of methods have been designed to detect a single tandem repeat in a sliding window. In this article, we focus on the case that an unknown number of tandem repeat segments of the same pattern are dispersively distributed in a sequence. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the tandem repeats, where the sequence pattern is represented by a motif matrix. A Bayesian approach is adopted to compute this model. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms are used to explore the posterior distribution as an effort to infer both the motif matrix of tandem repeats and the location of repeat segments. Reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) algorithms are used to address the transdimensional model selection problem raised by the variable number of repeat segments. Experiments on both synthetic data and real data show that this new approach is powerful in detecting dispersed short tandem repeats. As far as we know, it is the first work to adopt RJMCMC algorithms in the detection of tandem repeats.

  16. Reducing impaired driving through the identification of Repeat Target Vehicles: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James

    2012-02-01

    One of the most persistent groups of impaired drivers that are seemingly unaffected by social pressure, moral appeals, and the fear of arrest is that of the repeat impaired driver. This smaller group accounts for a disproportionate number of all impaired driving trips, often with high blood alcohol contents. New approaches are needed to identify and deal with the repeat impaired driver. We propose a method based on the discovery that almost 10% of all impaired driving calls for service involve repeat vehicles. Using the number of times a vehicle appears in our data, the average time to repeat, and the personality characteristics of the repeat impaired driver, we are able to create a comprehensive and predictive description of a Repeat Target Vehicle (RTV). Our method provides an opportunity to explore new and innovative crime reduction strategies that were never before possible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Closing the generation gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, E.

    1997-09-01

    The author has explained how the naive obstructions to unifying vacua with different net generation numbers can be overcome, and she gave a class of examples of chirality-changing phase transitions in four dimensions. The phenomenon exhibited here presumably occurs quite generally; it would be very interesting to understand whether in fact one can connect all vacua with N {le} 1 supersymmetry at low energies. For this an F-theory analysis could be quite instructive, once that approach is developed more fully for four-folds. Perhaps the next in principle question to ask along these lines is whether there could be any physical process which changes the number of supersymmetries.

  18. Cloning, characterization, and properties of seven triplet repeat DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, K; Kang, S; Larson, J E; Wells, R D

    1996-07-12

    Several neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases are caused by genetically unstable triplet repeat sequences (CTG.CAG, CGG.CCG, or AAG.CTT) in or near the responsible genes. We implemented novel cloning strategies with chemically synthesized oligonucleotides to clone seven of the triplet repeat sequences (GTA.TAC, GAT.ATC, GTT.AAC, CAC.GTG, AGG.CCT, TCG.CGA, and AAG.CTT), and the adjoining paper (Ohshima, K., Kang, S., Larson, J. E., and Wells, R. D.(1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16784-16791) describes studies on TTA.TAA. This approach in conjunction with in vivo expansion studies in Escherichia coli enabled the preparation of at least 81 plasmids containing the repeat sequences with lengths of approximately 16 up to 158 triplets in both orientations with varying extents of polymorphisms. The inserts were characterized by DNA sequencing as well as DNA polymerase pausings, two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, and chemical probe analyses to evaluate the capacity to adopt negative supercoil induced non-B DNA conformations. AAG.CTT and AGG.CCT form intramolecular triplexes, and the other five repeat sequences do not form any previously characterized non-B structures. However, long tracts of TCG.CGA showed strong inhibition of DNA synthesis at specific loci in the repeats as seen in the cases of CTG.CAG and CGG.CCG (Kang, S., Ohshima, K., Shimizu, M., Amirhaeri, S., and Wells, R. D.(1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27014-27021). This work along with other studies (Wells, R. D.(1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 2875-2878) on CTG.CAG, CGG.CCG, and TTA.TAA makes available long inserts of all 10 triplet repeat sequences for a variety of physical, molecular biological, genetic, and medical investigations. A model to explain the reduction in mRNA abundance in Friedreich's ataxia based on intermolecular triplex formation is proposed.

  19. Identification of polymorphic tandem repeats by direct comparison of genome sequence from different bacterial strains : a web-based resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnaud Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphic tandem repeat typing is a new generic technology which has been proved to be very efficient for bacterial pathogens such as B. anthracis, M. tuberculosis, P. aeruginosa, L. pneumophila, Y. pestis. The previously developed tandem repeats database takes advantage of the release of genome sequence data for a growing number of bacteria to facilitate the identification of tandem repeats. The development of an assay then requires the evaluation of tandem repeat polymorphism on well-selected sets of isolates. In the case of major human pathogens, such as S. aureus, more than one strain is being sequenced, so that tandem repeats most likely to be polymorphic can now be selected in silico based on genome sequence comparison. Results In addition to the previously described general Tandem Repeats Database, we have developed a tool to automatically identify tandem repeats of a different length in the genome sequence of two (or more closely related bacterial strains. Genome comparisons are pre-computed. The results of the comparisons are parsed in a database, which can be conveniently queried over the internet according to criteria of practical value, including repeat unit length, predicted size difference, etc. Comparisons are available for 16 bacterial species, and the orthopox viruses, including the variola virus and three of its close neighbors. Conclusions We are presenting an internet-based resource to help develop and perform tandem repeats based bacterial strain typing. The tools accessible at http://minisatellites.u-psud.fr now comprise four parts. The Tandem Repeats Database enables the identification of tandem repeats across entire genomes. The Strain Comparison Page identifies tandem repeats differing between different genome sequences from the same species. The "Blast in the Tandem Repeats Database" facilitates the search for a known tandem repeat and the prediction of amplification product sizes. The "Bacterial

  20. Close to the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile

  1. A comparison of pairs figure skaters in repeated jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, William A; Kimmel, Wendy L; McNeal, Jeni R; Murray, Steven Ross; Stone, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg) calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA) showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare. Key pointsThe repeated jumps test can account for about 50% of the variance in pairs ranks.Changes in technique are largely due to fatigue, but the athletes were able to maintain a maximum flexion knee angle very close to the desired 90 degrees. Changes in angular velocity and jump heights occurred as expected, again probably due to fatigue.As expected from metabolic information, the athletes' power indexes peak around 20s and decline thereafter. Coaches should be aware of this time as a boundary beyond which fatigue becomes more manifest, and use careful choreographic choices to provide rest periods that are disguised as less demanding skating elements to afford recovery.The repeated jumps test may be a helpful off-ice test of power-endurance for figure skaters.

  2. What is a microsatellite: a computational and experimental definition based upon repeat mutational behavior at A/T and GT/AC repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Yogeshwar D; Strubczewski, Noelle; Hile, Suzanne E; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Eckert, Kristin A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellites are abundant in eukaryotic genomes and have high rates of strand slippage-induced repeat number alterations. They are popular genetic markers, and their mutations are associated with numerous neurological diseases. However, the minimal number of repeats required to constitute a microsatellite has been debated, and a definition of a microsatellite that considers its mutational behavior has been lacking. To define a microsatellite, we investigated slippage dynamics for a range of repeat sizes, utilizing two approaches. Computationally, we assessed length polymorphism at repeat loci in ten ENCODE regions resequenced in four human populations, assuming that the occurrence of polymorphism reflects strand slippage rates. Experimentally, we determined the in vitro DNA polymerase-mediated strand slippage error rates as a function of repeat number. In both approaches, we compared strand slippage rates at tandem repeats with the background slippage rates. We observed two distinct modes of mutational behavior. At small repeat numbers, slippage rates were low and indistinguishable from background measurements. A marked transition in mutability was observed as the repeat array lengthened, such that slippage rates at large repeat numbers were significantly higher than the background rates. For both mononucleotide and dinucleotide microsatellites studied, the transition length corresponded to a similar number of nucleotides (approximately 10). Thus, microsatellite threshold is determined not by the presence/absence of strand slippage at repeats but by an abrupt alteration in slippage rates relative to background. These findings have implications for understanding microsatellite mutagenesis, standardization of genome-wide microsatellite analyses, and predicting polymorphism levels of individual microsatellite loci.

  3. Closed suction drain with bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000039.htm Closed suction drain with bulb To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A closed suction drain is used to remove fluids that build ...

  4. Repeated use of request for confirmation in atypical interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigates a specific method for making possible the participation of participants with cognitive and communicative impairments in social face-to-face interaction. Non-impaired co-participants design close-ended questions that project who the next speaker is, i.e. the impaired co-participant. The questions also project what kind of response amongst alternatives the impaired co-participant is supposed to produce. Upon answers to these questions, the non-impaired co-participant requests the impaired participant to confirm the answer twice. Using conversation analytic (CA) methods, the study scrutinises what is achieved by requesting a confirmation of the provided answer – repeatedly so. The study argues that the practice may put the (deficit) competence of the participant with impairments in focus if the initial close-ended question works to establish an understanding of a prior action by the participant with impairments. PMID:27610755

  5. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  6. Suboptimal Strategies of Linear Quadratic Closed-loop Differential Games: An BMI Approach%线性二次闭环微分对策次优对策的双线性矩阵不等式方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年晓红

    2005-01-01

    The suboptimal control program via memoryless state feedback strategies for LQ differential games with multiple players is studied in this paper. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the suboptimal strategies for LQ differential games are presented. It is shown that the suboptimal strategies of LQ differential games are associated with a coupled algebraic Riccati inequality. Furthermore, the problem of designing suboptimal strategies is considered. A non-convex optimization problem with BMI constrains is formulated to design the suboptimal strategies which minimizes the performance indices of the closed-loop LQ differential games and can be solved by using LMI Toolbox of MATLAB. An example is given to illustrate the proposed results.

  7. Closed World Assumption for Disjunctive Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kewen; ZHOU Lizhu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between argumentation and closed world reasoning for disjunctive information is studied. In particular, the authors propose a simple and intuitive generalization of the closed world assumption (CWA) for general disjunctive deductive databases (with default negation). This semantics,called DCWA, allows a natural argumentation-based interpretation and can be used to represent reasoning for disjunctive information. We compare DCWA with GCWA and prove that DCWA extends Minker's GCWA to the class of disjunctive databases with default negation. Also we compare our semantics with some related approaches.In addition, the computational complexity of DCWA is investigated.

  8. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  9. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  10. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  11. Closing photoconductive semiconductor switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; O' Malley, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most important limitations of Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS) for pulsed power applications is the high laser powers required to activate the switches. In this paper, we discuss recent developments on two different aspects of GaAs PCSS that result in reductions in laser power by a factor of nearly 1000. The advantages of using GaAs over Si are many. First of all, the resistivity of GaAs can be orders of magnitude higher than that of the highest resistivity Si material, thus allowing GaAs switches to withstand dc voltages without thermal runaway. Secondly, GaAs has a higher carrier mobility than Si and, thus, is more efficient (per carrier). Finally, GaAs switches can have naturally fast (ns) opening times at room temperature and low fields, microsecond opening times at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K, or, on demand, closing and opening at high fields and room temperature by a mechanism called lock-on (see Ref. 1). By contrast, Si switches typically opening times of milliseconds. The amount of laser light required to trigger GaAs for lock-on, or at 77 K, is about three orders of magnitude lower than at room temperature. In this paper we describe the study of lock-on in GaAs and InP, as well as switching of GaAs at 77 K. We shall show that when GaAs is switched at 77 K, the carrier lifetime is about three orders of magnitude longer than it is at room temperature. We shall explain the change in lifetime in terms of the change in electron capture cross section of the deep levels in GaAs (these are defect or impurity levels in the band gap). In the second section, we describe the lock-on effect, now seen in GaAs and InP, and at fields as high as 70 kV/cm. We show how lock-on can be tailored by changing the GaAs temperature or by neutron bombardment. In the third section, we discuss possible lock-on mechanisms. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  12. In-depth motivic analysis based on multiparametric closed pattern and cyclic sequence mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    presents a much simpler description and justification of this general strategy, as well as significant simplifications of the model, in particular concerning the management of pattern cyclicity. A new method for automated bundling of patterns belonging to same motivic or thematic classes is also presented......The paper describes a computational system for exhaustive but compact description of repeated motivic patterns in symbolic representations of music. The approach follows a method based on closed heterogeneous pattern mining in multiparametrical space with control of pattern cyclicity. This paper....... The good performance of the method is shown through the analysis of a piece from the JKUPDD database. Ground-truth motives are detected, while additional relevant information completes the ground-truth musicological analysis. The system, implemented in Matlab, is made publicly available as part of Mining...

  13. Measurement of repeat effects in Chicago’s criminal social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kump

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The “near-repeat” effect is a well-known criminological phenomenon in which the occurrence of a crime incident gives rise to a temporary elevation of crime risk within close physical proximity to an initial incident. Adopting a social network perspective, we instead define a near repeat in terms of geodesic distance within a criminal social network, rather than spatial distance. Specifically, we report a statistical analysis of repeat effects in arrest data for Chicago during the years 2003–2012. We divide the arrest data into two sets (violent crimes and other crimes and, for each set, we compare the distributions of time intervals between repeat incidents to theoretical distributions in which repeat incidents occur only by chance. We first consider the case of the same arrestee participating in repeat incidents (“exact repeats” and then extend the analysis to evaluate repeat risks of those arrestees near one another in the social network. We observe repeat effects that diminish as a function of geodesic distance and time interval, and we estimate typical time scales for repeat crimes in Chicago.

  14. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Diaz-Real

    Full Text Available Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity. The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj = 0.32-0.57; smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj = 0.18-0.30. These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.

  15. Evolution of ribosomal DNA-derived satellite repeat in tomato genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hur Cheol-Goo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandemly repeated DNA, also called as satellite DNA, is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes. Satellite repeats can expand and contract dramatically, which may cause genome size variation among genetically-related species. However, the origin and expansion mechanism are not clear yet and needed to be elucidated. Results FISH analysis revealed that the satellite repeat showing homology with intergenic spacer (IGS of rDNA present in the tomato genome. By comparing the sequences representing distinct stages in the divergence of rDNA repeat with those of canonical rDNA arrays, the molecular mechanism of the evolution of satellite repeat is described. Comprehensive sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that a long terminal repeat retrotransposon was interrupted into each copy of the 18S rDNA and polymerized by recombination rather than transposition via an RNA intermediate. The repeat was expanded through doubling the number of IGS into the 25S rRNA gene, and also greatly increasing the copy number of type I subrepeat in the IGS of 25-18S rDNA by segmental duplication. Homogenization to a single type of subrepeat in the satellite repeat was achieved as the result of amplifying copy number of the type I subrepeat but eliminating neighboring sequences including the type II subrepeat and rRNA coding sequence from the array. FISH analysis revealed that the satellite repeats are commonly present in closely-related Solanum species, but vary in their distribution and abundance among species. Conclusion These results represent that the dynamic satellite repeats were originated from intergenic spacer of rDNA unit in the tomato genome. This result could serve as an example towards understanding the initiation and the expansion of the satellite repeats in complex eukaryotic genome.

  16. Measuring Repeatability of the Focus-variable Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Řezníček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of photogrammetry, the optical system, usually represented by the glass lens, is used for metric purposes. Therefore, the aberration characteristics of such a lens, inducing deviations from projective imaging, has to be well known. However, the most important property of the metric lens is the stability of its glass and mechanical elements, ensuring long-term reliability of the measured parameters. In case of a focus-variable lens, the repeatability of the lens setup is important as well. Lenses with a fixed focal length are usually considered as “fixed” though, in fact, most of them contain one or more movable glass elements, providing the focusing function. In cases where the lens is not equipped with fixing screws, the repeatability of the calibration parameters should be known. This paper derives simple mathematical formulas that can be used for measuring the repeatability of the focus-variable lenses, and gives a demonstrative example of such measuring. The given procedure has the advantage that only demanded parameters are estimated, hence, no unwanted correlations with the additional parameters exist. The test arrangement enables us to measure each demanded magnification of the optical system, which is important in close-range photogrammetry.

  17. Simulations of Closed Timelike Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd A.; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-03-01

    Proposed models of closed timelike curves (CTCs) have been shown to enable powerful information-processing protocols. We examine the simulation of models of CTCs both by other models of CTCs and by physical systems without access to CTCs. We prove that the recently proposed transition probability CTCs (T-CTCs) are physically equivalent to postselection CTCs (P-CTCs), in the sense that one model can simulate the other with reasonable overhead. As a consequence, their information-processing capabilities are equivalent. We also describe a method for quantum computers to simulate Deutschian CTCs (but with a reasonable overhead only in some cases). In cases for which the overhead is reasonable, it might be possible to perform the simulation in a table-top experiment. This approach has the benefit of resolving some ambiguities associated with the equivalent circuit model of Ralph et al. Furthermore, we provide an explicit form for the state of the CTC system such that it is a maximum-entropy state, as prescribed by Deutsch.

  18. Centaur's ring system formation by close encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santana, Thamiris; Winter, Othon

    2016-10-01

    Rupture of small bodies due to close approach to a massive body is a frequent event in the Solar System. Some of these small bodies can just disintegrate completely or suffer a material loss.In this work we study the gravitational interaction between a giant planet and a small body in close encounters in order to simulate the formation of a planetary ring system around a centaur by the partial rupture of the small body.Considering the current Chariklo's body and a disk of particles around it, we simulated the system under close encounters with one of giant planets.Another motivation for the study is also the centaur Chiron, that is a candidate to have a ring system like Chariklo. The characteristics of the encounters are defined by the impact parameter and the velocity at infinity.The results are presented in terms of conditions that could lead to a rupture that could generate a ring like system.

  19. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Gollaz Morales, Jose Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  20. Isolation and characterization of human brain genes with (CCA){sub n} trinucleotide repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longshore, J.W.; Finley, W.H.; Descartes, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Expansion of trinucleotide repeats has been described as a new form of mutation. To date, only the expansion of (CGG){sub n} and (CAG){sub n} repeats have been associated with disease. Expansion of (CAG){sub n} repeats has been found to cause Huntington`s disease, Kennedy`s disease, myotonic dystrophy, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, and dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy. (CGG){sub n} repeat expansion has been implicated in the fragile X syndrome and FRAXE mental retardation. In an effort to identify other potential repeats as candidates for expansion, a DNA linguistics approach was used to study 10 Mb of human DNA sequences in GenBank. Our study found the (CCA){sub n} repeat and the disease-associated (CGG){sub n} and (CAG){sub n} repeats to be over-represented in the human genome. The (CCA){sub n} repeat also shares other characteristics with (CGG){sub n} and (CAG){sub n}, making it a good candidate for expansion. Trinucleotide repeat numbers in disease-associated genes are normally polymorphic in a population. Therefore, by studying genes for polymorphisms, candidate genes may be identified. Twelve sequences previously deposited in GenBank with at least five tandem copies of (CCA) were studied and no polymorphisms were found. To identify other candidate genes, a human hippocampus cDNA library was screened with a (CCA){sub 8} probe. This approach identified 19 novel expressed sequences having long tandem (CCA){sub n} repeats which are currently under investigation for polymorphisms. Genes with polymorphic repeats may serve as markers for linkage studies or as candidate genes for genetic diseases showing anticipation.

  1. Characterization of conservative somatic instability of the CAG repeat region in Huntington`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, F.V.; Calikoglu, A.S.; Whetsell, L.H. [H.A. Chapman Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Instability and enlargement of a CAG repeat region at the beginning of the huntingtin gene (IT-15) has been linked with Huntington`s disease. The CAG repeat size shows a highly significant correlation with age-of-onset of clinicial features in individuals with 40 or more repeats who have Huntington disease. The clinical status of nonsymptomatic individuals with 30 to 39 CAG repeats is considered ambiguous. In order to define more carefully the nature of the HD expansion instability, we examined patients in our HD population using a discriminating fluorescence-based PCR approach. The degree of somatic mutation increases with both earlier age of onset and the size of the inherited allele. A single prominent band one repeat larger than the index peak was typical in individuals with 40-41 CAG repeats. Three to four larger bands are typically discerned in individuals with 50 or more repeats. In an extreme example, an individual with approximately 95 repeats had at least 8 prominent bands. Plotting the degree of somatic mutation relative to the size of the HD allele shows somatic mutation activity increases with size. By this approach 40-60% of the alleles in a 40-41 CAG repeat HD loci is represented in the primary allele. In contrast, the primary allele represents a relatively minor proportion of the total alleles for expansions greater than 50 CAG repeats (10-20%). The limited range of somatic mutation suggest that the instability is restricted to very early stages of embryogenesis before tissue development diverges or that persistent somatic instability occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, the properties of somatic instability in Huntington`s disease have aspects that are both in common but also different from that found in other trinucleotide repeat expanding diseases such as myotonic muscular dystrophy and fragile X syndrome.

  2. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  3. Periodicity and repeatability in data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, D.

    Using magnetic data from the first two years in Saturn orbit, the basic periodicity of apparent is examined with the aim of elucidating the `cam' shaft model of Espinosa et al. (2003) identifying the nature of the `cam' and giving a definitive period for its rotation. An initial hypothesis, supported by the spectral analysis of analysis of the first 8 months in orbit Gianpieri et al. (2006), is made that the source of the period is linked to something inside the planet and therefore that the source inertia means that the period effectively does not change over the 2 years. Moreover one expects that the source phase is fixed. Using this approach, not only can the period identified by spectral analysis (647.1 + 0.6 min.) be verified but also by phase analysis between successive passes over the 2 years the period can be refined to 647.6 + 0.1 min. The signal itself is remarkably reproducible from pass to pass. It appears in all three components of the field and its polarisation is unambiguously not attributable to direct detection of an internal field. Not only does the signal not decay rapidly with distance from the planet, but although it has the m=1 symmetry of a tilted dipole, the field lines diverge from the planet indicating an exterior source. This feature led to the `cam' model. The polarisation and comparisons of passes with different latitude profiles show a surprising north-south symmetry in the azimuthal field. The absence of asymmetry with respect to the magnetic equator rules out a direct magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction source. Accordingly, it is proposed that the basic `cam' effect is generated by a single hemisphere anomaly which creates hemisphere to hemisphere field aligned currents. The existence of Saturn phase related anomaly appears to produce a basic asymmetry in the inner magnetosphere that sets the phase of both an inflowing and outflowing sector in a rotating circulation system.

  4. Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ballantyne (Kaye); A. Ralf (Arwin); R. Aboukhalid (Rachid); N.M. Achakzai (Niaz); T. Anjos (Tania); Q. Ayub (Qasim); J. Balažic (Jože); J. Ballantyne (Jack); D.J. Ballard (David); B. Berger (Burkhard); C. Bobillo (Cecilia); M. Bouabdellah (Mehdi); H. Burri (Helen); T. Capal (Tomas); S. Caratti (Stefano); J. Cárdenas (Jorge); F. Cartault (François); E.F. Carvalho (Elizeu); M. de Carvalho (Margarete); B. Cheng (Baowen); M.D. Coble (Michael); D. Comas (David); D. Corach (Daniel); M. D'Amato (Mauro); S. Davison (Sean); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.C.A. de Ungria (Maria Corazon); R. Decorte (Ronny); T. Dobosz (Tadeusz); B.M. Dupuy (Berit); S. Elmrghni (Samir); M. Gliwiński (Mateusz); S.C. Gomes (Sara); L. Grol (Laurens); C. Haas (Cordula); E. Hanson (Erin); J. Henke (Jürgen); L. Henke (Lotte); F. Herrera-Rodríguez (Fabiola); C.R. Hill (Carolyn); G. Holmlund (Gunilla); K. Honda (Katsuya); U.-D. Immel (Uta-Dorothee); S. Inokuchi (Shota); R. Jobling; M. Kaddura (Mahmoud); J.S. Kim (Jong); S.H. Kim (Soon); W. Kim (Wook); T.E. King (Turi); E. Klausriegler (Eva); D. Kling (Daniel); L. Kovačević (Lejla); L. Kovatsi (Leda); P. Krajewski (Paweł); S. Kravchenko (Sergey); M.H.D. Larmuseau (Maarten); E.Y. Lee (Eun Young); R. Lessig (Rüdiger); L.A. Livshits (Ludmila); D. Marjanović (Damir); M. Minarik (Marek); N. Mizuno (Natsuko); H. Moreira (Helena); N. Morling (Niels); M. Mukherjee (Meeta); P. Munier (Patrick); J. Nagaraju (Javaregowda); F. Neuhuber (Franz); S. Nie (Shengjie); P. Nilasitsataporn (Premlaphat); T. Nishi (Takeki); H.H. Oh (Hye); S. Olofsson (Sylvia); V. Onofri (Valerio); J. Palo (Jukka); H. Pamjav (Horolma); W. Parson (Walther); M. Petlach (Michal); C. Phillips (Christopher); R. Ploski (Rafal); S.P.R. Prasad (Samayamantri P.); D. Primorac (Dragan); G.A. Purnomo (Gludhug); J. Purps (Josephine); H. Rangel-Villalobos (Hector); K. Reogonekbała (Krzysztof); B. Rerkamnuaychoke (Budsaba); D.R. Gonzalez (Danel Rey); C. Robino (Carlo); L. Roewer (Lutz); A. de Rosa (Anna); A. Sajantila (Antti); A. Sala (Andrea); J.M. Salvador (Jazelyn); P. Sanz (Paula); C. Schmitt (Christian); A.K. Sharma (Anisha K.); D.A. Silva (Dayse); K.-J. Shin (Kyoung-Jin); T. Sijen (Titia); M. Sirker (Miriam); D. Siváková (Daniela); V. Škaro (Vedrana); C. Solano-Matamoros (Carlos); L. Souto (L.); V. Stenzl (Vlastimil); H. Sudoyo (Herawati); D. Syndercombe-Court (Denise); A. Tagliabracci (Adriano); D. Taylor (Duncan); A. Tillmar (Andreas); I.S. Tsybovsky (Iosif); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); D. Vanek (Daniel); A. Völgyi (Antónia); D. Ward (Denise); P. Willemse (Patricia); E.P.H. Yap (Eric); Z-Y. Yong (Ze-Yie); I.Z. Pajnič (Irena Zupanič); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRelevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve

  5. Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ballantyne (Kaye); A. Ralf (Arwin); R. Aboukhalid (Rachid); N.M. Achakzai (Niaz); T. Anjos (Tania); Q. Ayub (Qasim); J. Balažic (Jože); J. Ballantyne (Jack); D.J. Ballard (David); B. Berger (Burkhard); C. Bobillo (Cecilia); M. Bouabdellah (Mehdi); H. Burri (Helen); T. Capal (Tomas); S. Caratti (Stefano); J. Cárdenas (Jorge); F. Cartault (François); E.F. Carvalho (Elizeu); M. de Carvalho (Margarete); B. Cheng (Baowen); M.D. Coble (Michael); D. Comas (David); D. Corach (Daniel); M. D'Amato (Mauro); S. Davison (Sean); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.C.A. de Ungria (Maria Corazon); R. Decorte (Ronny); T. Dobosz (Tadeusz); B.M. Dupuy (Berit); S. Elmrghni (Samir); M. Gliwiński (Mateusz); S.C. Gomes (Sara); L. Grol (Laurens); C. Haas (Cordula); E. Hanson (Erin); J. Henke (Jürgen); L. Henke (Lotte); F. Herrera-Rodríguez (Fabiola); C.R. Hill (Carolyn); G. Holmlund (Gunilla); K. Honda (Katsuya); U.-D. Immel (Uta-Dorothee); S. Inokuchi (Shota); R. Jobling; M. Kaddura (Mahmoud); J.S. Kim (Jong); S.H. Kim (Soon); W. Kim (Wook); T.E. King (Turi); E. Klausriegler (Eva); D. Kling (Daniel); L. Kovačević (Lejla); L. Kovatsi (Leda); P. Krajewski (Paweł); S. Kravchenko (Sergey); M.H.D. Larmuseau (Maarten); E.Y. Lee (Eun Young); R. Lessig (Rüdiger); L.A. Livshits (Ludmila); D. Marjanović (Damir); M. Minarik (Marek); N. Mizuno (Natsuko); H. Moreira (Helena); N. Morling (Niels); M. Mukherjee (Meeta); P. Munier (Patrick); J. Nagaraju (Javaregowda); F. Neuhuber (Franz); S. Nie (Shengjie); P. Nilasitsataporn (Premlaphat); T. Nishi (Takeki); H.H. Oh (Hye); S. Olofsson (Sylvia); V. Onofri (Valerio); J. Palo (Jukka); H. Pamjav (Horolma); W. Parson (Walther); M. Petlach (Michal); C. Phillips (Christopher); R. Ploski (Rafal); S.P.R. Prasad (Samayamantri P.); D. Primorac (Dragan); G.A. Purnomo (Gludhug); J. Purps (Josephine); H. Rangel-Villalobos (Hector); K. Reogonekbała (Krzysztof); B. Rerkamnuaychoke (Budsaba); D.R. Gonzalez (Danel Rey); C. Robino (Carlo); L. Roewer (Lutz); A. de Rosa (Anna); A. Sajantila (Antti); A. Sala (Andrea); J.M. Salvador (Jazelyn); P. Sanz (Paula); C. Schmitt (Christian); A.K. Sharma (Anisha K.); D.A. Silva (Dayse); K.-J. Shin (Kyoung-Jin); T. Sijen (Titia); M. Sirker (Miriam); D. Siváková (Daniela); V. Škaro (Vedrana); C. Solano-Matamoros (Carlos); L. Souto (L.); V. Stenzl (Vlastimil); H. Sudoyo (Herawati); D. Syndercombe-Court (Denise); A. Tagliabracci (Adriano); D. Taylor (Duncan); A. Tillmar (Andreas); I.S. Tsybovsky (Iosif); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); D. Vanek (Daniel); A. Völgyi (Antónia); D. Ward (Denise); P. Willemse (Patricia); E.P.H. Yap (Eric); Z-Y. Yong (Ze-Yie); I.Z. Pajnič (Irena Zupanič); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRelevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve ind

  6. Repeated games and direct reciprocity under active linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Traulsen, Arne; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A

    2008-02-21

    Direct reciprocity relies on repeated encounters between the same two individuals. Here we examine the evolution of cooperation under direct reciprocity in dynamically structured populations. Individuals occupy the vertices of a graph, undergoing repeated interactions with their partners via the edges of the graph. Unlike the traditional approach to evolutionary game theory, where individuals meet at random and have no control over the frequency or duration of interactions, we consider a model in which individuals differ in the rate at which they seek new interactions. Moreover, once a link between two individuals has formed, the productivity of this link is evaluated. Links can be broken off at different rates. Whenever the active dynamics of links is sufficiently fast, population structure leads to a simple transformation of the payoff matrix, effectively changing the game under consideration, and hence paving the way for reciprocators to dominate defectors. We derive analytical conditions for evolutionary stability.

  7. Music snippet extraction via melody-based repeated pattern discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU JiePing; ZHAO Yang; CHEN Zhe; LIU ZiLi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a complete set of procedures to automatically extract a music snippet, defined as the most representative or the highlighted excerpt of a music clip. We first generate a modified and compact similarity matrix based on selected features and distance metrics, and then several improved techniques for music repeated pattern discovery are utilized because a music snippet is usually a part of the repeated melody, main theme or chorus. During the process, redundant and wrongly detected patterns are discarded, boundaries are corrected using beat information, and final clusters are also further sorted according to the occurrence frequency and energy information. Subsequently, following our methods, we designed a music snippet extraction system which allows users to detect snippets. Experiments performed on the system show the superiority of our proposed approach.

  8. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field are reviewed. The potentials of different approaches are compared quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  9. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here we review the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field. We compare the potential of different approaches quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  10. Protocols and prospects for building a quantum repeater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loock, Peter van [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    An overview will be given of various approaches to implementing a quantum repeater for quantum communication over large distances. This includes a discussion of systems and protocols that are experimentally feasible and thus realizable in the midterm in order to go beyond the current limit of a few hundred km given by direct quantum-state transmissions. At the same time, these schemes should be, in principle, scalable to arbitrary distances. In this context, the influence of various elements and strategies in a quantum repeater protocol on the final fidelities and rates are addressed: initial entanglement distribution, Bell measurements, multiplexing, postselection, quantum memories, and quantum error detection/correction. Solely on the hardware side, the differences in using just single quanta or instead employing many quanta for the flying (photons) and the stationary (atoms) qubits are pointed out.

  11. [Simulation of repeated local hemorrhagic stroke in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, A N; Morozov, S G; Savosko, S I; Vasil'eva, I G

    2013-01-01

    The processes of developed in CNS the complicated stroke and developments of fittings for their pharmaceutical therapy were developed and offering by standardized method of the experimental secondary stroke in rats, suitable for the use in sharp and chronic researches. Variant of repeated hemorrhagic stroke consist of autohemorrhagic right hemisphere stroke by the mechanical damage of brain tissue after 10-daily occlusion of right common carotid artery was studied. A model is comfortable for reproducing of the repeated standardized local damage of brain, is more adequate form of design of transient and chronic cerebrovascular pathology, than the independent use of local hemorrhage of autoblood in the brain of animals. The morphological description of model approaches the clinical variants of development and flow of sharp hemorrhagic stroke after a previous chronic cerebral insufficiency on an ischemic type.

  12. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  13. A Gibbs Sampling Approach to Closely Spaced Objects Resolution via IR Focal Plane%基于Gibbs抽样的红外成像小间距目标分辨方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 陈豪; 姜卫东; 黎湘

    2010-01-01

    利用红外成像系统跟踪多个相距很近的点目标时,目标在成像面上的弥散像会发生交叠,导致成像系统无法有效分辨这些目标.本文提出了一种分辨这类小间距目标(Closely Spaced Objects,CSO)的新方法,通过建立小间距目标的成像模型,采用Gibbs抽样方法对小间距目标在焦平面上的中心位置和响应幅度进行估计,并利用贝叶斯信息准则(Bayesian Information Criterion,BIC)检测目标数目.针对仿真生成的红外图像进行了仿真实验,实验结果表明本文方法对小间距目标的分辨是有效的.

  14. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  15. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, Mathieu [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU MORVAN, LaTIM, INSERM U650, Brest (France); Cheze-le Rest, Catherine [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU, Academic Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brest (France); Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France); CHU, Institute of Oncology, Brest (France); Visvikis, Dimitris [CHU Morvan, INSERM, U650, LaTIM, Brest (France)

    2011-04-15

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  16. Transformation-associated recombination between diverged and homologous DNA repeats is induced by strand breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larionov, V.; Kouprina, N. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)]|[Institute of Cytology, St. Petersburg, (Russian Federation); Edlarov, M. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)]|[Center of Bioengineering, Moscow, (Russian Federation); Perkins, E.; Porter, G.; Resnick, M.A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Rearrangement and deletion within plasmid DNA is commonly observed during transformation. We have examined the mechanisms of transformation-associated recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a plasmid system which allowed the effects of physical state and/or extent of homology on recombination to be studied. The plasmid contains homologous or diverged (19%) DNA repeats separated by a genetically detectable color marker. Recombination during transformation for covalently closed circular plasmids was over 100-fold more frequent than during mitotic growth. The frequency of recombination is partly dependent on the method of transformation in that procedures involving lithium acetate or spheroplasting yield higher frequencies than electroporation. When present in the repeats, unique single-strand breaks that are ligatable, as well as double-strand breaks, lead to high levels of recombination between diverged and identical repeats. The transformation-associated recombination between repeat DNA`s is under the influence of the RADS2, RADI and the RNCI genes,

  17. Safety of Repeated-Dose Intratympanic Injections with AM-101 in Acute Inner Ear Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staecker, Hinrich; Morelock, Michael; Kramer, Timothy; Chrbolka, Pavel; Ahn, Joong Ho; Meyer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and tolerability of repeated intratympanic administration of the gel-formulated NMDA receptor antagonist AM-101 in acute patients with inner ear tinnitus. Study Design Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Setting Sixty-nine secondary and tertiary sites in North America, Europe, and Asia. Subjects and Methods In total, 343 subjects with persistent acute tinnitus after traumatic cochlear injury or otitis media were randomized to receive 3 intratympanic doses of either AM-101 0.87 mg/mL or placebo over 3 to 5 days. They were followed for 84 days. The primary safety end point was the incidence of a clinically meaningful hearing deterioration from baseline to study day 35. Further safety assessments included tympanic membrane closure rates, analysis of adverse events, hematology, blood chemistry, and vital signs. In addition, data were collected on applied anesthetics and injection techniques. Results The treatment was well tolerated, with no intervention-related serious adverse events. The incidence of clinically meaningful hearing deterioration was low, comparable between treatment groups ( P = .82 for the primary safety end point) and not different between treated and untreated ears in unilaterally treated subjects. The rate of treatment and procedure-related adverse events was similar among treatment groups. The tympanic membrane was closed in 92% of subjects within 1 week and in all subjects by study day 84. Blood values and vital signs were inconspicuous. Conclusion Repeated intratympanic injections of AM-101 over a 3- to 5-day period appear to be safe and well tolerated, demonstrating the ability to potentially use this delivery approach over longer time periods.

  18. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  19. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  20. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  2. Hearing the Transformation of Conical to Closed-Pipe Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The harmonics for an open cone with slant length "L" are the same as the harmonics for an open pipe with length "L." When the cone is transformed through phases of closed-open conical frusta into a cylinder of length "L" closed at one end, the fundamental halves and only odd harmonics remain. A simple approach using…

  3. Long-term disability and prognosis in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy: a correlation with CAG repeat length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Arika; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Koike, Ryoko; Matsubara, Nae; Tsuchiya, Miyuki; Nozaki, Hiroaki; Homma, Atsushi; Idezuka, Jiro; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Onodera, Osamu

    2010-08-15

    Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion. Previous studies demonstrated that the onset of DRPLA is closely associated with CAG repeat length. However, the natural history of DRPLA has not yet been evaluated. We here retrospectively investigated the factors that determine the disease milestones and prognosis in 183 Japanese patients genetically diagnosed with DRPLA. We determined the age at onset, age at which each of the subsequent clinical manifestations appeared, age at becoming wheelchair-bound, and age at death. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the patients with CAG repeats larger than the median length of 65 repeats developed each of the clinical features of DRPLA at a younger age than those with repeats. The patients became wheelchair-bound at a median age of 33 years (n = 61; range, 3-77 years) and died at a median age of 49 years (n = 23; range, 18-80 years). The ages at becoming wheelchair-bound and at death strongly correlated with the expanded CAG repeat length. Moreover, the patients with >or=65 CAG repeats showed a more severe long-term disability and a poorer prognosis. In contrast, the rate of progression after the onset did not correlate with CAG repeat length. The CAG repeat length may have a considerable effect on not only the disease onset but also the disease milestones and prognosis in DRPLA patients. These effects of CAG repeat length may be relevant in designing future clinical therapeutic trials.

  4. In Vitro Expansion of CAG, CAA, and Mixed CAG/CAA Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Figura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyglutamine diseases, including Huntington’s disease and a number of spinocerebellar ataxias, are caused by expanded CAG repeats that are located in translated sequences of individual, functionally-unrelated genes. Only mutant proteins containing polyglutamine expansions have long been thought to be pathogenic, but recent evidence has implicated mutant transcripts containing long CAG repeats in pathogenic processes. The presence of two pathogenic factors prompted us to attempt to distinguish the effects triggered by mutant protein from those caused by mutant RNA in cellular models of polyglutamine diseases. We used the SLIP (Synthesis of Long Iterative Polynucleotide method to generate plasmids expressing long CAG repeats (forming a hairpin structure, CAA-interrupted CAG repeats (forming multiple unstable hairpins or pure CAA repeats (not forming any secondary structure. We successfully modified the original SLIP protocol to generate repeats of desired length starting from constructs containing short repeat tracts. We demonstrated that the SLIP method is a time- and cost-effective approach to manipulate the lengths of expanded repeat sequences.

  5. Identification of chloroplast genome loci suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic studies of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae) and closely related taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ibrar; Matthews, Peter J; Biggs, Patrick J; Naeem, Muhammad; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Recently, we reported the chloroplast genome-wide association of oligonucleotide repeats, indels and nucleotide substitutions in aroid chloroplast genomes. We hypothesized that the distribution of oligonucleotide repeat sequences in a single representative genome can be used to identify mutational hotspots and loci suitable for population genetic, phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Using information on the location of oligonucleotide repeats in the chloroplast genome of taro (Colocasia esculenta), we designed 30 primer pairs to amplify and sequence polymorphic loci. The primers have been tested in a range of intra-specific to intergeneric comparisons, including ten taro samples (Colocasia esculenta) from diverse geographical locations, four other Colocasia species (C. affinis, C. fallax, C. formosana, C. gigantea) and three other aroid genera (represented by Remusatia vivipara, Alocasia brisbanensis and Amorphophallus konjac). Multiple sequence alignments for the intra-specific comparison revealed nucleotide substitutions (point mutations) at all 30 loci and microsatellite polymorphisms at 14 loci. The primer pairs reported here reveal levels of genetic variation suitable for high-resolution phylogeographic and evolutionary studies of taro and other closely related aroids. Our results confirm that information on repeat distribution can be used to identify loci suitable for such studies, and we expect that this approach can be used in other plant groups.

  6. Successive failure, repeat entrepreneurship and no learning: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Current theories of repeat entrepreneurship provide little explanation for the effect of failure as a ‘trigger’ for creating successive ventures or learning from repeated failures. Research purpose: This study attempts to establish the role of previous failures on the ventures that follow them and to determine the process of learning from successive failures.Motivation for the study: Successive failures offer potentially valuable insights into the relationship between failures on the ventures that follow and the process of learning from failure.Research design, approach and method: The researchers investigated a single case study of one entrepreneur’s successive failures over 20 years.Main findings: Although the causes varied, all the failures had fundamental similarities. This suggested that the entrepreneur had not learnt from them. The previous failures did not trigger the subsequent ventures. Instead, they played a role in causing the failures. Learning from failure does not happen immediately but requires deliberate reflection. Deliberate reflection is a prerequisite for learning from failure as the entrepreneur repeated similar mistakes time after time until he reflected on each failure.Practical/managerial implications: It confirms that failure is a part of entrepreneurial endeavours. However, learning from it requires deliberate reflection. Failure does not ‘trigger’ the next venture and educators should note this.Contribution/value-add: Knowing the effect of failure on consecutive ventures may help us to understand the development of prototypes (mental frameworks and expand the theory about entrepreneurial prototype categories.

  7. Semihierarchical quantum repeaters based on moderate lifetime quantum memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Zong-Quan; Hua, Yi-Lin; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    The construction of large-scale quantum networks relies on the development of practical quantum repeaters. Many approaches have been proposed with the goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons, but most of them are inefficient or difficult to implement with current technology. Here, we present a protocol that uses a semihierarchical structure to improve the entanglement distribution rate while reducing the requirement of memory time to a range of tens of milliseconds. This protocol can be implemented with a fixed distance of elementary links and fixed requirements on quantum memories, which are independent of the total distance. This configuration is especially suitable for scalable applications in large-scale quantum networks.

  8. On fuzzy weakly-closed sets

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, J.; P. K. Das

    2012-01-01

    A new class of fuzzy closed sets, namely fuzzy weakly closed set in a fuzzy topological space is introduced and it is established that this class of fuzzy closed sets lies between fuzzy closed sets and fuzzy generalized closed sets. Alongwith the study of fundamental results of such closed sets, we define and characterize fuzzy weakly compact space and fuzzy weakly closed space.

  9. Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    first generation of a turnkey approach to short tandem repeat profiling and has the potential for use in both the field (for example, police booking stations, the battlefield, borders and ports) and the forensic laboratory. PMID:23915594

  10. Rotational mixing in close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Yoon, S -Ch; Brott, I; Glebbeek, E; Verkoulen, M; Pols, O R

    2008-01-01

    Rotational mixing is a very important but uncertain process in the evolution of massive stars. We propose to use close binaries to test its efficiency. Based on rotating single stellar models we predict nitrogen surface enhancements for tidally locked binaries. Furthermore we demonstrate the possibility of a new evolutionary scenario for very massive (M > 40 solar mass) close (P < 3 days) binaries: Case M, in which mixing is so efficient that the stars evolve quasi-chemically homogeneously, stay compact and avoid any Roche-lobe overflow, leading to very close (double) WR binaries.

  11. Closed planar curves without inflections

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Shuntaro; Umehara, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    We define a computable topological invariant $\\mu(\\gamma)$ for generic closed planar regular curves $\\gamma$, which gives an effective lower bound for the number of inflection points on a given generic closed planar curve. Using it, we classify the topological types of locally convex curves (i.e. closed planar regular curves without inflections) whose numbers of crossings are less than or equal to five. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between the number of double tangents and the invariant $\\mu(\\gamma)$ on a given $\\gamma$.

  12. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  13. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  14. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia

    2017-01-01

    Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in

  15. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  16. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  17. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  18. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  19. Proposed Closing Order : St. Vincent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The attached letter directed to Secretary Morton from the Florida Chapter of The Nature Conservancy recommends the establishment of a Secretarial closing order on...

  20. Pollution hazard closes neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    "A leading astrophysics laboratory in Italy has closed down all but one of its experiments over concerns that toxic polluants could leak form the underground lab into the local water supply" (0.5 page)

  1. The repeat viewing in the context of metacinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Chinita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeat viewing is a very specific activity practiced foremost by the cinephiliac spectator. Latelly it has become connected with the use of new technologies and the existence of metanarrative or hybrid films. The more complex the moving pictures turn out to be and the more available the technologies of reproduction become, the more chances the metacinema has of satisfying one of the basic needs of the meta-spectator: to get close to the creator by way of the film. Whatever the degree and type of this filmic attraction, one thing is for sure: these spectators have a strong urge to feel that the creation belongs partially to them. Some creators, such as David Lynch, happily oblige.

  2. An efficient algorithm for mining closed itemsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-qiang; Pan, Yun-he

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new efficient algorithm for mining frequent closed itemsets. It enumerates the closed set of frequent itemsets by using a novel compound frequent itemset tree that facilitates fast growth and efficient pruning of search space. It also employs a hybrid approach that adapts search strategies, representations of projected transaction subsets, and projecting methods to the characteristics of the dataset. Efficient local pruning, global subsumption checking, and fast hashing methods are detailed in this paper. The principle that balances the overhead of search space growth and pruning is also discussed. Extensive experimental evaluations on real world and artificial datasets showed that our algorithm outperforms CHARM by a factor of five and is one to three orders of magnitude more efficient than CLOSET and MAFIA.

  3. An efficient algorithm for mining closed itemsets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun-qiang (刘君强); PAN Yun-he (潘云鹤)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new efficient algorithm for mining frequent closed itemsets. It enumerates the closed set of frequent itemsets by using a novel compound frequent itemset tree that facilitates fast growth and efficient pruning of search space. It also employs a hybrid approach that adapts search strategies, representations of projected transaction subsets, and projecting methods to the characteristics of the dataset. Efficient local pruning, global subsumption checking, and fast hashing methods are detailed in this paper. The principle that balances the overheads of search space growth and pruning is also discussed. Extensive experimental evaluations on real world and artificial datasets showed that our algorithm outperforms CHARM by a factor of five and is one to three orders of magnitude more efficient than CLOSET and MAFIA.

  4. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  5. Labor union members play an OLG repeated game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Michihiro; Obayashi, Shinya

    2014-07-22

    Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong enough but individuals should also have the right incentives to provide rewards and punishments. Codes of conduct with such properties have been studied extensively in game theory (as repeated game equilibria), and the literature on the evolution of cooperation shows how equilibrium behavior might emerge and proliferate in society. We found that community unions, a subclass of labor unions that admits individual affiliations, are ideal to corroborate these theories with reality, because (i) their activities are simple and (ii) they have a structure that closely resembles a theoretical model, the overlapping generations repeated game. A detailed case study of a community union revealed a possible equilibrium that can function under the very limited observability in the union. The equilibrium code of conduct appears to be a natural focal point based on simple heuristic reasoning. The union we studied was created out of necessity for cooperation, without knowing or anticipating how cooperation might be sustained. The union has successfully resolved about 3,000 labor disputes and created a number of offspring.

  6. CAG repeat length does not associate with the rate of cerebellar degeneration in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shang-Ran; Wu, Yu-Te; Jao, Chii-Wen; Soong, Bing-wen; Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Wang, Po-Shan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the correlation between the CAG repeat length and the degeneration of cerebellum in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) patients based on neuroimaging approaches. Forty SCA3 patients were recruited and classified into two subgroups according to their CAG repeat lengths (≥ 74 and

  7. A longitudinal Model for repeated interval-observed data with informative dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huichao; Manatunga, Amita K

    2011-02-01

    We consider repeated measures interval-observed data with informative dropouts. We model the repeated outcomes via an unobserved random intercept and it is assumed that the probability of dropout during the study period is linearly related to the random intercept in a complementary log-log scale. Assuming the random effect follows the power variance function (PVF) family suggested by Hougaard (2000), we derive the marginal likelihood in a closed form. We evaluate the performance of the maximum likelihood estimation via simulation studies and apply the proposed method to a real data set.

  8. Repeatability of the modified Thorington card used to measure far heterophoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian, Jose Luis; Antona, Beatriz; Barrio, Ana; Gonzalez, Enrique; Gutierrez, Angel; Sanchez, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    To determine the interexaminer and intraexaminer repeatability of the modified Thorington test (TH) for distance vision in young adults and to compare these results with those observed for the heterophoria tests most commonly used in clinical practice. Agreement among tests was also assessed. Distance heterophoria was quantified on two separate occasions by two examiners in 110 subjects aged 18 to 32 years (mean, 19.74 years; SD, 2.5 years) using four different tests: cover test (CT) Von Graefe, Maddox rod, and modified TH. The repeatability of the tests and agreement between them was estimated by the Bland and Altman method whereby the mean difference and the 95% limits of agreement were determined as the coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement. The Thorington test showed best interexaminer repeatability (COR = ±1.43Δ), followed closely by CT (COR = ±1.65Δ), whereas best intraexaminer repeatability was observed for CT (COR = ±1.28Δ) followed by TH (COR = ±1.51Δ). Among the different combinations of tests, TH and CT showed best agreement indicated by the lowest coefficient of agreement (±2.23Δ) and a low mean difference (-0.63Δ) between measurements. Good interexaminer and intraexaminer repeatability was observed for both TH and CT, and agreement between the two tests was also good. Given the simple administration of the TH, we recommend its clinical use to quantify distance horizontal heterophoria.

  9. Spatio-temporal Variations of Characteristic Repeating Earthquake Sequences along the Middle America Trench in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, L. A.; Taira, T.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Santoyo, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Repeating earthquake sequences are sets of events that are thought to rupture the same area on the plate interface and thus provide nearly identical waveforms. We systematically analyzed seismic records from 2001 through 2014 to identify repeating earthquakes with highly correlated waveforms occurring along the subduction zone of the Cocos plate. Using the correlation coefficient (cc) and spectral coherency (coh) of the vertical components as selection criteria, we found a set of 214 sequences whose waveforms exceed cc≥95% and coh≥95%. Spatial clustering along the trench shows large variations in repeating earthquakes activity. Particularly, the rupture zone of the M8.1, 1985 earthquake shows an almost absence of characteristic repeating earthquakes, whereas the Guerrero Gap zone and the segment of the trench close to the Guerrero-Oaxaca border shows a significantly larger number of repeating earthquakes sequences. Furthermore, temporal variations associated to stress changes due to major shows episodes of unlocking and healing of the interface. Understanding the different components that control the location and recurrence time of characteristic repeating sequences is a key factor to pinpoint areas where large megathrust earthquakes may nucleate and consequently to improve the seismic hazard assessment.

  10. Polymorphic CAG Repeat and Protein Expression of Androgen Receptor Gene in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Wang, Guiyu; Song, Yanni; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Bing; Tang, Qingchao; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Yinggang; Zhang, Qian; Muhammad, Shan; Wang, Xishan

    2015-04-01

    Although somatic alterations in CAG repeats in the androgen receptor (AR) gene have been suggested to predispose to colorectal cancer, less is known about AR in colorectal cancer carcinogenesis. Because of lack of relevant analysis on CAG repeat length and AR expression in colorectal cancer, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of polymorphic CAG and protein expression of the AR gene in patients with colorectal cancer. A case-control study was carried out on 550 patients with colorectal cancer and 540 healthy controls to investigate whether polymorphic CAG within the AR gene is linked to increased risk for colorectal cancer. Polymorphic CAG and AR expression were analyzed to clarify their relationship with clinicopathologic and prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer. The study showed that the AR gene in patients with colorectal cancer had a longer CAG repeat sequence than those in the control group, as well as increased risk for colorectal cancer among females (P = 0.013), males (P = 0.002), and total colorectal cancer population (P CAG repeat sequence among males (P CAG repeat sequence and negative AR expression were associated with a short 5-year overall survival (OS) rate in colorectal cancer. Long CAG repeat sequences and the absence of AR expression were closely related to the development of colorectal cancer. Both long CAG and decreased AR expression were correlated with the poor 5-year OS in patients with colorectal cancer.

  11. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  12. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  13. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  14. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, prepeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  15. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  16. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  17. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  18. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  19. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  20. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  1. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiji eNageshwaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasised following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA in 1991. In this review we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  2. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  3. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species

  4. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  5. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  6. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  7. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...

  8. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  9. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  10. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  11. Radiative transfer in closely packed realistic regoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vahidinia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a regolith radiative transfer model (RRT based on a first-principles approach to regolith modeling that is essential for near-to-far infrared observations of grainy surfaces, and is readily configured to answer fundamental questions about popular models with which all remote observations of all airless solar system bodies with granular surfaces are currently interpreted. Our model accounts for wavelength-size regolith particles which are closely packed and can be heterogeneous in composition and arbitrarily shaped. Here we present preliminary results showing the role of porosity on layer reflectivity.

  12. Crafting Creative Nonfiction: From Close Reading to Close Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollins, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    A process writing project in a third-grade classroom explored the idea of using nonfiction mentor texts to assist students in writing their own creative informational texts about animals. By looking at author craft and structure during close reading activities with nonfiction Twin Texts, students were taught how to emulate these techniques in…

  13. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  14. A Novel Signal Processing Measure to Identify Exact and Inexact Tandem Repeat Patterns in DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification and analysis of repetitive patterns are active areas of biological and computational research. Tandem repeats in telomeres play a role in cancer and hypervariable trinucleotide tandem repeats are linked to over a dozen major neurodegenerative genetic disorders. In this paper, we present an algorithm to identify the exact and inexact repeat patterns in DNA sequences based on orthogonal exactly periodic subspace decomposition technique. Using the new measure our algorithm resolves the problems like whether the repeat pattern is of period P or its multiple (i.e., 2P, 3P, etc., and several other problems that were present in previous signal-processing-based algorithms. We present an efficient algorithm of O(NLw logLw, where N is the length of DNA sequence and Lw is the window length, for identifying repeats. The algorithm operates in two stages. In the first stage, each nucleotide is analyzed separately for periodicity, and in the second stage, the periodic information of each nucleotide is combined together to identify the tandem repeats. Datasets having exact and inexact repeats were taken up for the experimental purpose. The experimental result shows the effectiveness of the approach.

  15. Thermal stability of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin repeat 17: a spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Annette K. [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Kieffer, Bruno [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, IGBMC Biomolecular NMR Group, CNRS UMR 7104 (France); Trave, Gilles [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Equipe Oncoproteines, IREBS, UMR 7242 (France); Froystein, Nils Age [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Raae, Arnt J., E-mail: arnt.raae@mbi.uib.no [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    Spectrin is a rod-like multi-modular protein that is mainly composed of triple-helical repeats. These repeats show very similar 3D-structures but variable conformational and thermodynamical stabilities, which may be of great importance for the flexibility and dynamic behaviour of spectrin in the cell. For instance, repeat 17 (R17) of the chicken brain spectrin {alpha}-chain is four times less stable than neighbouring repeat 16 (R16) in terms of Increment G. The structure of spectrin repeats has mainly been investigated by X-ray crystallography, but the structures of a few repeats, e.g. R16, have also been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Here, we undertook a detailed characterization of the neighbouring R17 by NMR spectroscopy. We assigned most backbone resonances and observed NOE restraints, relaxation values and coupling constants that all indicated that the fold of R17 is highly similar to that of R16, in agreement with previous X-ray analysis of a tandem repeat of the two domains. However, {sup 15}N heteronuclear NMR spectra measured at different temperatures revealed particular features of the R17 domain that might contribute to its lower stability. Conformational exchange appeared to alter the linker connecting R17 to R16 as well as the BC-loop in close proximity. In addition, heat-induced splitting was observed for backbone resonances of a few spatially related residues including V99 of helix C, which in R16 is replaced by the larger hydrophobic tryptophan residue that is relatively conserved among other spectrin repeats. These data support the view that the substitution of tryptophan by valine at this position may contribute to the lower stability of R17.

  16. Cold atoms close to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Wildermuth, Stephan; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    Microscopic atom optical devices integrated on atom chips allow to precisely control and manipulate ultra-cold (T atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) close to surfaces. The relevant energy scale of a BEC is extremely small (down to ... be utilized as a sensor for variations of the potential energy of the atoms close to the surface. Here we describe how to use trapped atoms as a measurement device and analyze the performance and flexibility of the field sensor. We demonstrate microscopic magnetic imaging with simultaneous high spatial...

  17. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  18. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  19. Water limits to closing yield gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Garrassino, Francesco; Chiarelli, Davide; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is often seen as a suitable approach to meet the growing demand for agricultural products and improve food security. It typically entails the use of fertilizers, new cultivars, irrigation, and other modern technology. In regions of the world affected by seasonal or chronic water scarcity, yield gap closure is strongly dependent on irrigation (blue water). Global yield gap assessments have often ignored whether the water required to close the yield gap is locally available. Here we perform a gridded global analysis (10 km resolution) of the blue water consumption that is needed annually to close the yield gap worldwide and evaluate the associated pressure on renewable freshwater resources. We find that, to close the yield gap, human appropriation of freshwater resources for irrigation would have to increase at least by 146%. Most study countries would experience at least a doubling in blue water requirement, with 71% of the additional blue water being required by only four crops - maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat. Further, in some countries (e.g., Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen) the total volume of blue water required for yield gap closure would exceed sustainable levels of freshwater consumption (i.e., 40% of total renewable surface and groundwater resources).

  20. Works close to gate B

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    In connection to the TRAM project, drainage works will be carried out close to gate B until the end of next week. In order to avoid access problems, if arriving by car, please use gates A and E. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SE Group

  1. Changing closed agricultural policy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic examples of closed policy communities facing pressure to open up. However, attempts to change them are slowly moving forward. The dialogues on Common Agricultural Policy reforms in which the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is engaged with a range of

  2. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  3. Chuck Close: "Off the Wall."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes the planning and design process of "Off the Wall," a student-developed CD-ROM multimedia project about the life and work of artist Chuck Close-the product of a studio-based course in Learning Experiments Design at the University of Georgia. The design includes an element of gaming; text is kept sparse; navigational elements are rendered…

  4. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  5. Design approach of closed loop food systems in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas, J.L.; Vanrobaeys, X.; Hagenbeek, D.; Chaerle, L.; Straeten, D. van der; Kassel, R.; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Hovland, S.

    2005-01-01

    Interest on food production systems based on the cultivation of vegetables for future planetary exploration missions is increasing as these units can help overcoming difficult and costly re-supply logistics. In addition to producing edible biomass by growing vegetable species, these systems can be

  6. Determining the Probability of Close Approach between Two Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    between any two satellite, with eccentricities leos than I.U, but it can be computational!) g ."-• 5* I s expensive. For two...Bate» R.R., Mueller, D.D., and White, J.B., Fundamentals of Astrodynamics, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1971. 2. Brouwer D., and Clemence

  7. Design approach of closed loop food systems in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas, J.L.; Vanrobaeys, X.; Hagenbeek, D.; Chaerle, L.; Straeten, D. van der; Kassel, R.; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Hovland, S.

    2005-01-01

    Interest on food production systems based on the cultivation of vegetables for future planetary exploration missions is increasing as these units can help overcoming difficult and costly re-supply logistics. In addition to producing edible biomass by growing vegetable species, these systems can be u

  8. Design approach of closed loop food systems in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas, J.L.; Vanrobaeys, X.; Hagenbeek, D.; Chaerle, L.; Straeten, D. van der; Kassel, R.; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Hovland, S.

    2005-01-01

    Interest on food production systems based on the cultivation of vegetables for future planetary exploration missions is increasing as these units can help overcoming difficult and costly re-supply logistics. In addition to producing edible biomass by growing vegetable species, these systems can be u

  9. Genes and pathways affected by CAG-repeat RNA-based toxicity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Shin-Yi; Bonini, Nancy M

    2011-12-15

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 is one of the polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, which are caused by a CAG-repeat expansion within the coding region of the associated genes. The CAG repeat specifies glutamine, and the expanded polyQ domain mutation confers dominant toxicity on the protein. Traditionally, studies have focused on protein toxicity in polyQ disease mechanisms. Recent findings, however, demonstrate that the CAG-repeat RNA, which encodes the toxic polyQ protein, also contributes to the disease in Drosophila. To provide insights into the nature of the RNA toxicity, we extracted brain-enriched RNA from flies expressing a toxic CAG-repeat mRNA (CAG100) and a non-toxic interrupted CAA/G mRNA repeat (CAA/G105) for microarray analysis. This approach identified 160 genes that are differentially expressed specifically in CAG100 flies. Functional annotation clustering analysis revealed several broad ontologies enriched in the CAG100 gene list, including iron ion binding and nucleotide binding. Intriguingly, transcripts for the Hsp70 genes, a powerful suppressor of polyQ and other human neurodegenerative diseases, were also upregulated. We therefore tested and showed that upregulation of heat shock protein 70 mitigates CAG-repeat RNA toxicity. We then assessed whether other modifiers of the pathogenic, expanded Ataxin-3 polyQ protein could also modify the CAG-repeat RNA toxicity. This approach identified the co-chaperone Tpr2, the transcriptional regulator Dpld, and the RNA-binding protein Orb2 as modifiers of both polyQ protein toxicity and CAG-repeat RNA-based toxicity. These findings suggest an overlap in the mechanisms of RNA and protein-based toxicity, providing insights into the pathogenicity of the RNA in polyQ disease.

  10. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  11. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  12. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  13. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  14. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  15. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  16. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  17. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  18. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  19. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  20. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  1. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  2. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  3. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  4. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  5. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions f...

  6. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiji eNageshwaran; Richard eFestenstein

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions fr...

  7. Why prevention of repeat abortion is so challenging: psychosocial characteristics of women at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Bieli, Simone; Huang, Dorothy; Tschudin, Sibil

    2017-02-01

    Abortion rates have declined in recent decades; however, the rate of repeat abortion remains high. In order to identify keys to making efficient interventions against repeat abortion, our objectives were: to assess the percentage of repeat abortions in women opting for termination of pregnancy over a period of 1 year; to identify the risk factors for repeat abortion; and to assess the characteristics of women who opted for a further pregnancy termination despite having received standard post-abortion care. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was carried out among 362 women who underwent pregnancy termination during a 1-year period. Women with and without repeat abortion were compared with regard to age, nationality, marital status, parity and use of contraception. In a subsample of 160 women who were available for follow-up over 4 years, those who underwent a further pregnancy termination during the observation period were also analysed qualitatively. The rate of repeat abortion was 30.1% in the survey population. Age and immigrant status were identified as risk factors. The use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) was significantly higher after repeat abortion than after a first termination of pregnancy. Among women with repeat abortion in the follow-up group, those with psychological problems tended to discontinue contraception and those with partnership conflicts were prone to using unreliable contraceptive methods. Aside from promoting LARC methods, strategies to reduce repeat abortion should consider the psychosocial risk factors and characteristics of women at risk identified in this study. An interdisciplinary approach including social care and counselling would be the most appropriate means to enable this.

  8. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  9. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  10. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  11. Crystallographic and Computational Analyses of AUUCU Repeating RNA That Causes Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 10 (SCA10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, HaJeung; González, Àlex L; Yildirim, Ilyas; Tran, Tuan; Lohman, Jeremy R; Fang, Pengfei; Guo, Min; Disney, Matthew D

    2015-06-23

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is caused by a pentanucleotide repeat expansion of r(AUUCU) within intron 9 of the ATXN10 pre-mRNA. The RNA causes disease by a gain-of-function mechanism in which it inactivates proteins involved in RNA biogenesis. Spectroscopic studies showed that r(AUUCU) repeats form a hairpin structure; however, there were no high-resolution structural models prior to this work. Herein, we report the first crystal structure of model r(AUUCU) repeats refined to 2.8 Å and analysis of the structure via molecular dynamics simulations. The r(AUUCU) tracts adopt an overall A-form geometry in which 3 × 3 nucleotide (5')UCU(3')/(3')UCU(5') internal loops are closed by AU pairs. Helical parameters of the refined structure as well as the corresponding electron density map on the crystallographic model reflect dynamic features of the internal loop. The computational analyses captured dynamic motion of the loop closing pairs, which can form single-stranded conformations with relatively low energies. Overall, the results presented here suggest the possibility for r(AUUCU) repeats to form metastable A-from structures, which can rearrange into single-stranded conformations and attract proteins such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). The information presented here may aid in the rational design of therapeutics targeting this RNA.

  12. Site and Orbit Repeatabilities using Adaptive Mapping Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Camille; Gegout, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent; Biancale, Richard; Perosanz, Felix

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic signals emitted by the satellite positioning systems travel at the speed of light in a straight line in a vacuum but are modified in their propagation through the neutral atmosphere by temporal and spatial changes of density, and composition and refractivity. These waves are slowed down and their trajectories are bent. This presentation summarizes the performances of the modeling of the tropospheric propagation by the ray tracing technique through the assimilations of the European Meteorological Centre (ECMWF) in the framework of realizing the geodetic reference frame. This goal is achieved by modeling the spatial variability of the propagation using the time variable three-dimensional physical parameters of the atmosphere. The tropospheric delays obtained by ray tracing in all directions throughout the meteorological model surrounding the geodetic site, are fitted by Adaptive Mapping Functions (AMF) parameterized by several tens of coefficients. The delays produced by the Horizon software are then experimented, kept unchanged or adjusted, when recovering a reference frame based on hundred sites using the GINS software. Without any adjustments of the tropospheric modeling, the subcentimetric performances of the AMF are demonstrated by the repeatability of sites positions and GPS satellites orbits. When some AMF coefficients are adjusted, the accuracy of orbits recovery in term of quadratic mean is 7 to 8 millimeters. This limit is imposed by the lack or deficiency of other models, such as non-tidal and tidal loading respectively. Hence the repeatability of the vertical position is not enhanced by changing the propagation model. At the contrary, the repeatability of the horizontal position of geodetic sites is greatly enhanced by accounting for the azimuthal variability provided by the realistic 3D shapes of the Atmosphere and the Earth and the rigorous interpolations of atmospheric parameters included in Adaptive Mapping Functions with respect

  13. Closed Orbits in Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrew; Haestad, Jace; Morgan, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We report characteristics of closed classical orbits in an electric field in phase space produced in photoabsorption. Rydberg states of atomic and molecular hydrogen and helium are considered. The core potential used for the hydrogen molecule is an effective one electron one center core potential evaluated at the internuclear equilibrium distance. Poincare surfaces of section in phase space are generated by integrating the equations of motion in semiparabolic coordinates u = (r + z) 1 / 2 and v = (r - z) 1 / 2, and plotting the location in phase space (pv versus v) whenever u = 0, with the electric field in the z direction. Combination orbits produced by Rydberg electron core scattering are studied and the evolution in phase space of these combination orbits due to scattering from one closed orbit into another is investigated. Connections are made to measured laser photoabsorption experiments that excite Rydberg states (20 recurrence spectra. The phase space structures responsible for the spectra are identified.

  14. Tandem repeat DNA localizing on the proximal DAPI bands of chromosomes in Larix, Pinaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizume, Masahiro; Shibata, Fukashi; Matsumoto, Ayako; Maruyama, Yukie; Hayashi, Eiji; Kondo, Teiji; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Shozo; Hong, Deyuan

    2002-08-01

    Repetitive DNA was cloned from HindIII-digested genomic DNA of Larix leptolepis. The repetitive DNA was about 170 bp long, had an AT content of 67%, and was organized tandemly in the genome. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization and subsequent DAPI banding, the repetitive DNA was localized in DAPI bands at the proximal region of one arm of chromosomes in L. leptolepis and Larix chinensis. Southern blot hybridization to genomic DNA of seven species and five varieties probed with cloned repetitive DNA showed that the repetitive DNA family was present in a tandem organization in genomes of all Larix taxa examined. In addition to the 170-bp sequence, a 220-bp sequence belonging to the same DNA family was also present in 10 taxa. The 220-bp repeat unit was a partial duplication of the 170-bp repeat unit. The 220-bp repeat unit was more abundant in L. chinensis and Larix potaninii var. macrocarpa than in other taxa. The repetitive DNA composed 2.0-3.4% of the genome in most taxa and 0.3 and 0.5% of the genome in L. chinensis and L. potaninii var. macrocarpa, respectively. The unique distribution of the 220-bp repeat unit in Larix indicates the close relationship of these two species. In the family Pinaceae, the LPD (Larix proximal DAPI band specific repeat sequence family) family sequence is widely distributed, but their amount is very small except in the genus Larix. The abundant LPD family in Larix will occur after its speciation.

  15. Control of PHERES1 Imprinting in Arabidopsis by Direct Tandem Repeats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Corina Belle R.Villar; Aleksandra Erilova; Grigory Makarevich; Raphael Tr(o)sch; Claudia K(o)hler

    2009-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes monoallelic expression of specific genes dependent on the parent-of-origin.Imprinting of the Arabiclopsis gene PHERES1 requires the function of the FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS) Polycomb group complex as well as a distally located methylated region containing a tandem triple repeat sequence.In this study,we investigated the regulation of the close PHERES1 homolog PHERES2.We found that PHERES2 is also a direct target gene of the FIS Polycomb group complex,but,in contrast to PHERES1,PHERES2 is equally expressed from maternal and paternal alleles.Thus,PHERES2 is not regulated by genomic imprinting,correlating with the lack of tandem repeats at PHERES2.Eliminating tandem repeats from the PHERES1 locus abolishes PHERES1 imprinting,demonstrating that tandem repeats are essential for PHERES1 imprinting.Taking these results together,our study shows that the recently duplicated genes PHERES1 and PHERES2 are both target genes of the FIS Polycomb group complex but only PHERES1 is regulated by genomic imprinting,which is likely caused by the presence of repeat sequences in the proximity of the PHERES1 locus.

  16. Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI LongFei; WANG XueSong; XIAO ShunPing

    2009-01-01

    High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system's detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain, or space-domain. The technique using polarization information to discriminate the target and false-target is discussed in this paper. With the difference that false-target signal vector's polarization ratio is fixed and target echo signal vector's polarization ratio is variational along with radar transmission signal's polarization, we transform the discrimination problem to beeline distinguish problem in the 2-dim complex space. The distributing characteristic expression of the false-target discrimination statistic is constructed, with which the discrimination ratio of false-target is analyzed. For the target case, the decomposed model of target scattering matrix and the concept of distinguish quantity are proposed. Then, the discrimination ratio of target can be forecasted according to target distinguish quantity. Thus, the performance of discrimination method has been analyzed integrally. The simulation results demonstrate the method in this paper is effective on the discrimination of target and false-target.

  17. A Novel Method for Repeatable Failure Testing of Annulus Fibrosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbner, Benjamin; Zhou, Minhao; O'Connell, Grace

    2017-11-01

    Tears in the annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disk can result in disk herniation and progressive degeneration. Understanding AF failure mechanics is important as research moves toward developing biological repair strategies for herniated disks. Unfortunately, failure mechanics of fiber-reinforced tissues, particularly tissues with fibers oriented off-axis from the applied load, is not well understood, partly due to the high variability in reported mechanical properties and a lack of standard techniques ensuring repeatable failure behavior. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of midlength (ML) notch geometries in producing repeatable and consistent tissue failure within the gauge region of AF mechanical test specimens. Finite element models (FEMs) representing several notch geometries were created to predict the location of bulk tissue failure using a local strain-based criterion. FEM results were validated by experimentally testing a subset of the modeled specimen geometries. Mechanical testing data agreed with model predictions (∼90% agreement), validating the model's predictive power. Two of the modified dog-bone geometries ("half" and "quarter") effectively ensured tissue failure at the ML for specimens oriented along the circumferential-radial and circumferential-axial directions. The variance of measured mechanical properties was significantly lower for notched samples that failed at the ML, suggesting that ML notch geometries result in more consistent and reliable data. In addition, the approach developed in this study provides a framework for evaluating failure properties of other fiber-reinforced tissues, such as tendons and meniscus.

  18. Towards highly multimode optical quantum memory for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Jobez, Pierre; Laplane, Cyril; Etesse, Jean; Ferrier, Alban; Goldner, Philippe; Gisin, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance quantum communication through optical fibers is currently limited to a few hundreds of kilometres due to fiber losses. Quantum repeaters could extend this limit to continental distances. Most approaches to quantum repeaters require highly multimode quantum memories in order to reach high communication rates. The atomic frequency comb memory scheme can in principle achieve high temporal multimode storage, without sacrificing memory efficiency. However, previous demonstrations have been hampered by the difficulty of creating high-resolution atomic combs, which reduces the efficiency for multimode storage. In this article we present a comb preparation method that allows one to increase the multimode capacity for a fixed memory bandwidth. We apply the method to a $^{151}$Eu$^{3+}$-doped Y$_2$SiO$_5$ crystal, in which we demonstrate storage of 100 modes for 51 $\\mu$s using the AFC echo scheme (a delay-line memory), and storage of 50 modes for 0.541 ms using the AFC spin-wave memory (an on-demand memo...

  19. Repeated-sprint ability - part II: recommendations for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David; Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    Short-duration sprints, interspersed with brief recoveries, are common during most team sports. The ability to produce the best possible average sprint performance over a series of sprints (≤10 seconds), separated by short (≤60 seconds) recovery periods has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). RSA is therefore an important fitness requirement of team-sport athletes, and it is important to better understand training strategies that can improve this fitness component. Surprisingly, however, there has been little research about the best training methods to improve RSA. In the absence of strong scientific evidence, two principal training theories have emerged. One is based on the concept of training specificity and maintains that the best way to train RSA is to perform repeated sprints. The second proposes that training interventions that target the main factors limiting RSA may be a more effective approach. The aim of this review (Part II) is to critically analyse training strategies to improve both RSA and the underlying factors responsible for fatigue during repeated sprints (see Part I of the preceding companion article). This review has highlighted that there is not one type of training that can be recommended to best improve RSA and all of the factors believed to be responsible for performance decrements during repeated-sprint tasks. This is not surprising, as RSA is a complex fitness component that depends on both metabolic (e.g. oxidative capacity, phosphocreatine recovery and H+ buffering) and neural factors (e.g. muscle activation and recruitment strategies) among others. While different training strategies can be used in order to improve each of these potential limiting factors, and in turn RSA, two key recommendations emerge from this review; it is important to include (i) some training to improve single-sprint performance (e.g. 'traditional' sprint training and strength/power training); and (ii) some high-intensity (80-90% maximal oxygen

  20. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  1. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (psprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LA REPITENCIA ESCOLAR EN ESCUELAS PRIMARIAS DE SAN MIGUEL DE TUCUMÁN. UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LAS REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES Y LAS RELACIONES ENTRE DOCENTES Y ESTUDIANTES REPITENTES (GRADE REPETITION IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS OF SAN MIGUEL DE TUCUMÁN. AN APPROACH FROM TEACHER´S AND GRADE REPEATING PUPIL´S SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalonga Penna María Micaela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo presenta resultados de investigación sobre las representaciones sociales de docentes y estudiantes repitentes acerca de la repitencia, y sus implicaciones en las relaciones entre estos actores educativos. La metodología utilizada fue de tipo cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a docentes y a estudiantes repitentes de primer grado, y observaciones participantes en escuelas de San Miguel de Tucumán. El análisis de los datos se efectuó acorde a la teoría fundamentada. Se identificaron categorías y temas en las entrevistas y observaciones participantes, y se triangularon los datos para elaborar una teoría explicativa del fenómeno. Los resultados mostraron que las representaciones docentes inciden en la conformación de las representaciones de los niños repitentes y en las relaciones áulicas. Las docentes, que definieron a la educación de manera unicausal, se manifestaron favorables a la repitencia. Los estudiantes repitentes se representaron negativamente a la repitencia y a los vínculos con docentes y pares. Las interacciones áulicas evidenciaron comunicaciones unidireccionales y una aplicación desigual de normas. Esto permitía a las docentes mantener una autoimagen satisfactoria, pero influía negativamente en la de los niños repitentes. Las docentes que consideraron a la educación como un proceso complejo, definieron a la repitencia como una situación desfavorable. Las representaciones de los alumnos repitentes sobre la repitencia y las relaciones con docentes y pares aunaron aspectos negativos y positivos. Las relaciones áulicas evidenciaron comunicaciones uni y multi-direccionales y una aplicación de normas más equitativa. La autoimagen de las docentes y de los niños repitentes contenía aspectos positivos y negativos.Abstract: This paper presents research results on teacher´s and grade repeating children’s representations of grade repetition, and its implications for the

  3. Concordance correlation coefficients estimated by generalized estimating equations and variance components for longitudinal repeated measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Miao-Yu

    2017-04-15

    The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a commonly accepted measure of agreement between two observers for continuous responses. This paper proposes a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach allowing dependency between repeated measurements over time to assess intra-agreement for each observer and inter- and total agreement among multiple observers simultaneously. Furthermore, the indices of intra-, inter-, and total agreement through variance components (VC) from an extended three-way linear mixed model (LMM) are also developed with consideration of the correlation structure of longitudinal repeated measurements. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the performance of the GEE and VC approaches for repeated measurements from longitudinal data. An application of optometric conformity study is used for illustration. In conclusion, the GEE approach allowing flexibility in model assumptions and correlation structures of repeated measurements gives satisfactory results with small mean square errors and nominal 95% coverage rates for large data sets, and when the assumption of the relationship between variances and covariances for the extended three-way LMM holds, the VC approach performs outstandingly well for all sample sizes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Allele-Selective Inhibition of Mutant Huntingtin Expression with Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting the Expanded CAG Repeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Keith T.; Pendergraff, Hannah M.; Deleavey, Glen F.; Swayze, Eric E.; Potier, Pierre; Randolph, John; Roesch, Eric B.; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Damha, Masad J.; Bennett, C. Frank; Montaillier, Christophe; Lemaitre, Marc; Corey, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat within the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Therapeutic approaches include selectively inhibiting the expression of the mutated HTT allele while conserving function of the normal allele. We have evaluated a series of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeted to the expanded CAG repeat within HTT mRNA for their ability to selectively inhibit expression of mutant HTT protein. Several ASOs incorporating a variety of modifications, including bridged nucleic acids and phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages, exhibited allele-selective silencing in patient-derived fibroblasts. Allele-selective ASOs did not affect the expression of other CAG repeat-containing genes and selectivity was observed in cell lines containing minimal CAG repeat lengths representative of most HD patients. Allele-selective ASOs left HTT mRNA intact and did not support ribonuclease H activity in vitro. We observed cooperative binding of multiple ASO molecules to CAG repeat-containing HTT mRNA transcripts in vitro. These results are consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition at the level of translation. ASOs targeted to the CAG repeat of HTT provide a starting point for the development of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics that can inhibit gene expression with allelic discrimination in patients with HD. PMID:21028906

  5. CRISPR Recognition Tool (CRT): a tool for automatic detection ofclustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Charles; Ramsey, Teresa L.; Sabree, Fareedah; Lowe,Micheal; Brown, Kyndall; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-05-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are a novel type of direct repeat found in a wide range of bacteria and archaea. CRISPRs are beginning to attract attention because of their proposed mechanism; that is, defending their hosts against invading extrachromosomal elements such as viruses. Existing repeat detection tools do a poor job of identifying CRISPRs due to the presence of unique spacer sequences separating the repeats. In this study, a new tool, CRT, is introduced that rapidly and accurately identifies CRISPRs in large DNA strings, such as genomes and metagenomes. CRT was compared to CRISPR detection tools, Patscan and Pilercr. In terms of correctness, CRT was shown to be very reliable, demonstrating significant improvements over Patscan for measures precision, recall and quality. When compared to Pilercr, CRT showed improved performance for recall and quality. In terms of speed, CRT also demonstrated superior performance, especially for genomes containing large numbers of repeats. In this paper a new tool was introduced for the automatic detection of CRISPR elements. This tool, CRT, was shown to be a significant improvement over the current techniques for CRISPR identification. CRT's approach to detecting repetitive sequences is straightforward. It uses a simple sequential scan of a DNA sequence and detects repeats directly without any major conversion or preprocessing of the input. This leads to a program that is easy to describe and understand; yet it is very accurate, fast and memory efficient, being O(n) in space and O(nm/l) in time.

  6. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  7. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  8. REPEAT facility. Report for May, June, July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, C. B.

    1981-08-01

    The construction of the REPEAT facility, a test facility for passive and hybrid solar heating systems is reported. The development of a simulation program for envelope type passive solar systems, constructing an envelope test cell, collecting data to validate the program, and application of the program to determine the best envelope type design are discussed. A low cost monitoring system using a dedicated microprocessor system, an inexpensive, high accuracy A/D converter, and minimum system hardware is developed. A method to determine the average temperature and the average daily temperature variation inside a passively heated solar building is presented.

  9. Cataractogenesis after Repeat Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been the unsubstantiated clinical impression that laser refractive surgery accelerates cataract development along with solid experimental data about the cataractogenic effects of excimer laser treatment. We present the first documented case of significant cataract formation in a young myope after repeat excimer laser ablation necessitating phacoemulsification with a posterior chamber implant. Proposed explanations include focusing of the ablation wave on the posterior capsule (acoustic wave lens epithelial damage, photooxidative stress of the lens (ultraviolet and inflammatory oxidative stress, and corticosteroid-induced cataract (lens toxicity.

  10. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  11. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Delhomel, Gregory; Brughelli, Matt; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effects of explosive strength (ExpS) vs. repeated shuttle sprint (RS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in young elite soccer players, 15 elite male adolescents (14.5 ± 0.5 years) performed, in addition to their soccer training program, RS (n = 7) or ExpS (n = 8) training once a week for a total of 10 weeks. RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 × 15- to 20-m repeated shuttle sprints interspersed with 14 seconds of passive or 23 seconds of active recovery (≈2 m·s⁻¹); ExpS training consisted of 4-6 series of 4-6 exercises (e.g., maximal unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs), calf and squat plyometric jumps, and short sprints). Before and after training, performance was assessed by 10 and 30 m (10 and 30 m) sprint times, best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test, a CMJ, and a hopping (Hop) test. After training, except for 10 m (p = 0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all p's repeated shuttle sprint test were only observed after RS training, whereas CMJ height was only increased after ExpS. Because RS and ExpS were equally efficient at enhancing maximal sprinting speed, RS training-induced improvements in RSA were likely more related to progresses in the ability to change direction.

  12. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  13. Comparative genomics and molecular dynamics of DNA repeats in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck; Kerrest, Alix; Dujon, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Repeated elements can be widely abundant in eukaryotic genomes, composing more than 50% of the human genome, for example. It is possible to classify repeated sequences into two large families, "tandem repeats" and "dispersed repeats." Each of these two families can be itself divided into subfamilies. Dispersed repeats contain transposons, tRNA genes, and gene paralogues, whereas tandem repeats contain gene tandems, ribosomal DNA repeat arrays, and satellite DNA, itself subdivided into satellites, minisatellites, and microsatellites. Remarkably, the molecular mechanisms that create and propagate dispersed and tandem repeats are specific to each class and usually do not overlap. In the present review, we have chosen in the first section to describe the nature and distribution of dispersed and tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes in the light of complete (or nearly complete) available genome sequences. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the fast evolution of two specific classes of tandem repeats: minisatellites and microsatellites. Given that a growing number of human neurological disorders involve the expansion of a particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, a large part of the recent experimental work on microsatellites has focused on these particular repeats, and thus we also review the current knowledge in this area. Finally, we propose a unified definition for mini- and microsatellites that takes into account their biological properties and try to point out new directions that should be explored in a near future on our road to understanding the genetics of repeated sequences.

  14. CAG repeat size correlates to electrophysiological motor and sensory phenotypes in SBMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Katsuno, Masahisa; Banno, Haruhiko; Takeuchi, Yu; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Mizuki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Yamashita, Fumitada; Hori, Norio; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2008-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset, lower motor neuron disease caused by an aberrant elongation of a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The main symptoms are weakness and atrophy of bulbar, facial and limb muscles, but sensory disturbances are frequently found in SBMA patients. Motor symptoms have been attributed to the accumulation of mutant AR in the nucleus of lower motor neurons, which is more profound in patients with a longer CAG repeat. We examined nerve conduction properties including F-waves in a total of 106 patients with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age at data collection = 53.8 years; range = 31-75 years) and 85 control subjects. Motor conduction velocities (MCV), compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), sensory conduction velocities (SCV) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) were significantly decreased in all nerves examined in the SBMA patients compared with that in the normal controls, indicating that axonal degeneration is the primary process in both motor and sensory nerves. More profound abnormalities were observed in the nerves of the upper limbs than in those of the lower limbs. F-waves in the median nerve were absent in 30 of 106 cases (28.3%), but no cases of absent F-waves were observed in the tibial nerve. From an analysis of the relationship between CMAPs and SNAPs, patients were identified with different electrophysiological phenotypes: motor-dominant, sensory-dominant and non-dominant phenotypes. The CAG repeat size and the age at onset were significantly different among the patients with motor- and sensory-dominant phenotypes, indicating that a longer CAG repeat is more closely linked to the motor-dominant phenotype and a shorter CAG repeat is more closely linked to the sensory-dominant phenotype. Furthermore, when we classified the patients by CAG repeat size, CMAP values showed a tendency to be decreased in patients with a longer CAG repeat (> or =47), while SNAPs were significantly

  15. Closed inductively coupled plasma cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Thomas J.; Palmer, Byron A.; Hof, Douglas E.

    1990-01-01

    A closed inductively coupled plasma cell generates a relatively high power, low noise plasma for use in spectroscopic studies. A variety of gases can be selected to form the plasma to minimize spectroscopic interference and to provide a electron density and temperature range for the sample to be analyzed. Grounded conductors are placed at the tube ends and axially displaced from the inductive coil, whereby the resulting electromagnetic field acts to elongate the plasma in the tube. Sample materials can be injected in the plasma to be excited for spectroscopy.

  16. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  17. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  18. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  19. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  20. Singularities and Closed String Tachyons

    CERN Document Server

    Silverstein, E

    2006-01-01

    A basic problem in gravitational physics is the resolution of spacetime singularities where general relativity breaks down. The simplest such singularities are conical singularities arising from orbifold identifications of flat space, and the most challenging are spacelike singularities inside black holes (and in cosmology). Topology changing processes also require evolution through classically singular spacetimes. I briefly review how a phase of closed string tachyon condensate replaces, and helps to resolve, basic singularities of each of these types. Finally I discuss some interesting features of singularities arising in the small volume limit of compact negatively curved spaces and the emerging zoology of spacelike singularities.

  1. Existentially closed locally finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Shelah, Saharon

    2011-01-01

    We investigate this class of groups originally called ulf (universal locally finite groups) of cardinality lambda . We prove that for every locally finite group G there is a canonical existentially closed extention of the same cardinality, unique up to isomorphism and increasing with G . Also we get, e.g. existence of complete members (i.e. with no non-inner automorphisms) in many cardinals (provably in ZFC). We also get a parallel to stability theory in the sense of investigating definable types.

  2. Closed-loop neuromorphic benchmarks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stewart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Benchmarks   Terrence C. Stewart 1* , Travis DeWolf 1 , Ashley Kleinhans 2 , Chris Eliasmith 1   1 University of Waterloo, Canada, 2 Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa   Submitted to Journal:   Frontiers in Neuroscience   Specialty... the study was exempt from ethical approval procedures.) Did the study presented in the manuscript involve human or animal subjects: No I v i w 1Closed-loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks Terrence C. Stewart 1,∗, Travis DeWolf 1, Ashley Kleinhans 2 and Chris...

  3. The Perpetual Repeater: an Educative Musical Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Skriagina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Music Undergraduate Program of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (National Pedagogic University, two musical events were planned: an original work written for choir, soloists and symphonic band, and an opera for children. As a result, the cantata ‘The Perpetual Repeater” has been created as an adaptation of a work named “50 Milions de Segons” (50 Millions of Seconds, staged by the CATANIA project of the Barcelona Servei Educatiu de L’Auditori. This work tells the story of those school teachers who, paradoxically enough repeat the same course year after year. After visiting L’Auditori of Barcelona to participate in the pedagogic musical work carried out with school children, we considered the possibility of developing an analogous project, in a similar sociocultural and educational environment, within our Music Undergraduate Program. So, this article deals with two fundamental moments which are essential to understand the educational work implemented with the ISPA students of sixth degree, as well as with a group of the program’s students: The Purpose, which describes in detail the planning of the musical work for children, and The Experience, in which the way the process of The Perpetual Repeater Cantatawas carried out is described.

  4. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  5. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  6. Repeat-induced gene silencing in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, D; Fiering, S; Martin, D I; Whitelaw, E

    1998-01-01

    In both plants and Drosophila melanogaster, expression from a transgenic locus may be silenced when repeated transgene copies are arranged as a concatameric array. This repeat-induced gene silencing is frequently manifested as a decrease in the proportion of cells that express the transgene, resulting in a variegated pattern of expression. There is also some indication that, in transgenic mammals, the number of transgene copies within an array can exert a repressive influence on expression, with several mouse studies reporting a decrease in the level of expression per copy as copy number increases. However, because these studies compare different sites of transgene integration as well as arrays with different numbers of copies, the expression levels observed may be subject to varying position effects as well as the influence of the multicopy array. Here we describe use of the lox/Cre system of site-specific recombination to generate transgenic mouse lines in which different numbers of a transgene are present at the same chromosomal location, thereby eliminating the contribution of position effects and allowing analysis of the effect of copy number alone on transgene silencing. Reduction in copy number results in a marked increase in expression of the transgene and is accompanied by decreased chromatin compaction and decreased methylation at the transgene locus. These findings establish that the presence of multiple homologous copies of a transgene within a concatameric array can have a repressive effect upon gene expression in mammalian systems.

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of Dionaea muscipula trap closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

    2008-02-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) possesses an active trapping mechanism to capture insects with one of the most rapid movements in the plant kingdom, as described by Darwin. This article presents a detailed experimental investigation of trap closure by mechanical and electrical stimuli and the mechanism of this process. Trap closure consists of three distinctive phases: a silent phase with no observable movement; an accelerated movement of the lobes; and the relaxation of the lobes in their closed state, resulting in a new equilibrium. Uncouplers and blockers of membrane channels were used to investigate the mechanisms of different phases of closing. Uncouplers increased trap closure delay and significantly decreased the speed of trap closure. Ion channel blockers and aquaporin inhibitors increased time of closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of electrical memory in the Venus flytrap. The observed fast movement can be explained by the hydroelastic curvature model without invoking buckling instability. The new hydroelastic curvature mechanism provides an accurate description of the authors' experimental data.

  8. Target genes of microsatellite sequences in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: mononucleotide repeats are not detected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Liu, Xuejuan; Li, Yulin

    2012-09-10

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is detected in a wide variety of tumors. It is thought that mismatch repair gene mutation or inactivation is the major cause of MSI. Microsatellite sequences are predominantly distributed in intergenic or intronic DNA. However, MSI is found in the exonic sequences of some genes, causing their inactivation. In this report, we searched GenBank for candidate genes containing potential MSI sequences in exonic regions. Twenty seven target genes were selected for MSI analysis. Instability was found in 70% of these genes (14/20) with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Interestingly, no instability was detected in mononucleotide repeats in genes or in intergenic sequences. We conclude that instability of mononucleotide repeats is a rare event in HNSCC. High MSI phenotype in young HNSCC patients is limited to noncoding regions only. MSI percentage in HNSCC tumor is closely related to the repeat type, repeat location and patient's age.

  9. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  10. On the design of closed recapture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni Fegatelli, Danilo; Farcomeni, Alessio

    2016-11-01

    We propose a method to plan the number of occasions of recapture experiments for population size estimation. We do so by fixing the smallest number of capture occasions so that the expected length of the profile confidence interval is less than or equal to a fixed threshold. In some cases, we solve the optimization problem in closed form. For more complex models we use numerical optimization. We detail models assuming homogeneous, time-varying, subject-specific capture probabilities, behavioral response to capture, and combining behavioral response with subject-specific effects. The principle we propose can be extended to plan any other model specification. We formally show the validity of the approach by proving distributional convergence. We illustrate with simulations and challenging examples in epidemiology and ecology. We report that in many cases adding as few as two sampling occasions may substantially reduce the length of confidence intervals.

  11. The primordial closed string gas is unstable

    CERN Document Server

    Cobas, M A; Suárez, M; Cobas, Manuel A.; Su\\'arez, Mar\\'{\\i}a

    2005-01-01

    We recast the study of a closed string gas in a toroidal container in the physical situation in which the single string density of states is independent of the volume because energy density is very high. This includes the gas for the well known Brandenberger-Vafa cosmological scenario. We describe the gas in the grandcanonical and microcanonical ensembles. In the microcanonical description, we find a result that clearly confronts the Brandenberger-Vafa calculation to get the specific heat of the system. The important point is that we use the same approach to the problem but a different regularization and we take into account all the necessary terms in the single string density of states.

  12. Closed Loop Requirements and Analysis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Michael; Verhoef, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Effective systems engineering involves the use of analysis in the derivation of requirements and verification of designs against those requirements. The initial development of requirements often depends on analysis for the technical definition of specific aspects of a product. Following the allocation of system-level requirements to a product's components, the closure of those requirements often involves analytical approaches to verify that the requirement criteria have been satisfied. Meanwhile, changes that occur in between these two processes need to be managed in order to achieve a closed-loop requirement derivation/verification process. Herein are presented concepts for employing emerging Team center capabilities to jointly manage requirements and analysis data such that analytical techniques are utilized to effectively derive and allocate requirements, analyses are consulted and updated during the change evaluation processes, and analyses are leveraged during the design verification process. Recommendations on concept validation case studies are also discussed.

  13. A Closed Universe Expanding Forever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N. P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, the expression a ( t = e H 0 T 0 [ ( t T 0 where = 0 : 5804, was proposed for the expansion factor of our Universe. According to it, gravity dominates the expan- sion ( matter era until the age of T ⋆ = 3 : 214 Gyr and, after that, dark energy dominates ( dark energy era leading to an eternal expansion, no matter if the Universe is closed, flat or open. In this paper we consider only the closed version and show that there is an upper limit for the size of the radial comoving coordinate, beyond which nothing is observed by our fundamental observer, on Earth. Our observable Universe may be only a tiny portion of a much bigger Universe most of it unobservable to us. This leads to the idea that an endless number of other fundamental observers may live on equal number of Universes similar to ours. Either we talk about many Universes — Multiverse — or about an unique Universe, only part of it observable to us.

  14. Intergenerational and striatal CAG repeat instability in Huntington's disease knock-in mice involve different DNA repair genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragileva, Ella; Hendricks, Audrey; Teed, Allison; Gillis, Tammy; Lopez, Edith T; Friedberg, Errol C; Kucherlapati, Raju; Edelmann, Winfried; Lunetta, Kathryn L; MacDonald, Marcy E; Wheeler, Vanessa C

    2009-01-01

    Modifying the length of the Huntington's disease (HD) CAG repeat, the major determinant of age of disease onset, is an attractive therapeutic approach. To explore this we are investigating mechanisms of intergenerational and somatic HD CAG repeat instability. Here, we have crossed HD CAG knock-in mice onto backgrounds deficient in mismatch repair genes, Msh3 and Msh6, to discern the effects on CAG repeat size and disease pathogenesis. We find that different mechanisms predominate in inherited and somatic instability, with Msh6 protecting against intergenerational contractions and Msh3 required both for increasing CAG length and for enhancing an early disease phenotype in striatum. Therefore, attempts to decrease inherited repeat size may entail a full understanding of Msh6 complexes, while attempts to block the age-dependent increases in CAG size in striatal neurons and to slow the disease process will require a full elucidation of Msh3 complexes and their function in CAG repeat instability.

  15. Population genetics and new insight into range of CAG repeats of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 in the Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shi-Rui; Ni, Wang; Dong, Yi; Wang, Ning; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also called Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is one of the most common SCAs worldwide and caused by a CAG repeat expansion located in ATXN3 gene. Based on the CAG repeat numbers, alleles of ATXN3 can be divided into normal alleles (ANs), intermediate alleles (AIs) and expanded alleles (AEs). It was controversial whether the frequency of large normal alleles (large ANs) is related to the prevalence of SCA3 or not. And there were huge chaos in the comprehension of the specific numbers of the range of CAG repeats which is fundamental for genetic analysis of SCA3. To illustrate these issues, we made a novel CAG repeat ladder to detect CAG repeats of ATXN3 in 1003 unrelated Chinese normal individuals and studied haplotypes defined by three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) closed to ATXN3. We found that the number of CAG repeats ranged from 13 to 49, among them, 14 was the most common number. Positive skew, the highest frequency of large ANs and 4 AIs which had never been reported before were found. Also, AEs and large ANs shared the same haplotypes defined by the SNPs. Based on these data and other related studies, we presumed that de novo mutations of ATXN3 emerging from large ANs are at least one survival mechanisms of mutational ATXN3 and we can redefine the range of CAG repeats as: ANs≤44, 45 ≤AIs ≤49 and AEs≥50.

  16. Analysis of the trinucleotide CAG repeat from the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene in healthy and diseased individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovio, A; Tiranti, V; Bednarz, A L; Suomalainen, A; Spelbrink, J N; Lecrenier, N; Melberg, A; Zeviani, M; Poulton, J; Foury, F; Jacobs, H T

    1999-01-01

    The human nuclear gene (POLG) for the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma) contains a trinucleotide CAG microsatellite repeat within the coding sequence. We have investigated the frequency of different repeat-length alleles in populations of diseased and healthy individuals. The predominant allele of 10 CAG repeats was found at a very similar frequency (approximately 88%) in both Finnish and ethnically mixed population samples, with homozygosity close to the equilibrium prediction. Other alleles of between 5 and 13 repeat units were detected, but no larger, expanded alleles were found. A series of 51 British myotonic dystrophy patients showed no significant variation from controls, indicating an absence of generalised CAG repeat instability. Patients with a variety of molecular lesions in mtDNA, including sporadic, clonal deletions, maternally inherited point mutations, autosomally transmitted mtDNA depletion and autosomal dominant multiple deletions showed no differences in POLG trinucleotide repeat-length distribution from controls. These findings rule out POLG repeat expansion as a common pathogenic mechanism in disorders characterised by mitochondrial genome instability.

  17. Population genetics and new insight into range of CAG repeats of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 in the Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Rui Gan

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, also called Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, is one of the most common SCAs worldwide and caused by a CAG repeat expansion located in ATXN3 gene. Based on the CAG repeat numbers, alleles of ATXN3 can be divided into normal alleles (ANs, intermediate alleles (AIs and expanded alleles (AEs. It was controversial whether the frequency of large normal alleles (large ANs is related to the prevalence of SCA3 or not. And there were huge chaos in the comprehension of the specific numbers of the range of CAG repeats which is fundamental for genetic analysis of SCA3. To illustrate these issues, we made a novel CAG repeat ladder to detect CAG repeats of ATXN3 in 1003 unrelated Chinese normal individuals and studied haplotypes defined by three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs closed to ATXN3. We found that the number of CAG repeats ranged from 13 to 49, among them, 14 was the most common number. Positive skew, the highest frequency of large ANs and 4 AIs which had never been reported before were found. Also, AEs and large ANs shared the same haplotypes defined by the SNPs. Based on these data and other related studies, we presumed that de novo mutations of ATXN3 emerging from large ANs are at least one survival mechanisms of mutational ATXN3 and we can redefine the range of CAG repeats as: ANs≤44, 45 ≤AIs ≤49 and AEs≥50.

  18. 47 CFR 90.247 - Mobile repeater stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile repeater stations. 90.247 Section 90.247... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.247 Mobile repeater stations. A... repeater to extend the communications range of hand-carried units subject to the following: (a)...

  19. Polymorphic GGC repeat differentially regulates human reelin gene expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, A M; Levitt, P; Pimenta, A F

    2006-10-01

    The human gene encoding Reelin (RELN), a pivotal protein in neurodevelopment, includes a polymorphic GGC repeat in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). CHO cells transfected with constructs encompassing the RELN 5'UTR with 4-to-13 GGC repeats upstream of the luciferase reporter gene show declining luciferase activity with increasing GGC repeat number (P autism.

  20. CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene: Size matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Willemsen (Ralph); G.J. Levenga (Josien); B.A. Oostra (Ben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe FMR1 gene contains a CGG repeat present in the 5'-untranslated region which can be unstable upon transmission to the next generation. The repeat is up to 55 CGGs long in the normal population. In patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a repeat length exceeding 200 CGGs (full

  1. Analysis of Tandem Repeat Patterns in Nlrc4 using a Motif Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim-Hui Tee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Exponential accumulation of biological data requires computer scientists and bioinformaticians to improve the efficiency of computer algorithms and databases. The recent advancement of computational tools has boosted the processing capacity of enormous volume of genetic data. This research applied a computational approach to analyze the tandem repeat patterns in Nlrc4 gene. Because the protein product of Nlrc4 gene is important in detecting pathogen and triggering subsequent immune responses, the results of this genetic analysis is essential for the understanding of the genetic characteristics of Nlrc4. The study on the distribution of tandem repeats may provide insights for drug design catered for the Nlrc4-implicated diseases.

  2. Repeated quantitative perfusion and contrast permeability measurement in the MRI examination of a CNS tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonken, E.P.A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Willems, P.W.A.; Zwan, A. van der; Bakker, C.J.G.; Viergever, M.A.; Mali, W.P.T.M. [University Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2000-09-01

    This study reports on the results of quantitative MRI perfusion and contrast permeability measurement on two occasions in one patient. The measurements were separated 81 days in time. The tumor grew considerably in this period, but no change was found with respect to perfusion and contrast permeability. Non-involved white matter values were reproduced to demonstrate repeatability. The presented approach to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI allows fast and repeatable quantitative assessment of perfusion and is easily integrated in a conventional brain tumor protocol. (orig.)

  3. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closed areas. 648.73 Section 648.73... Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.73 Closed areas. (a) Areas closed because of environmental degradation. Certain areas are closed to all surf clam and ocean quahog fishing because of...

  4. Pornography use and closeness with others in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Closeness/intimacy and pornography are sometimes linked and frequently presented as competing with each other. They have been the subject of some research but many issues in the area remain controversial and indeterminate. Objective. The aim of this pilot study was to establish whether female pornography users and non-users’ ratings in terms of socio-emotional closeness differed, i.e. to examine the association between pornography use and aspects of socio-emotional closeness in a non-clinical sample of females. Methods. Sixty-six females participated in the study. Their actual and ideal socioemotional closeness was measured by the Perceived Interpersonal Closeness Scale/PICS, while their pornography use was examined by the Background and Pornography Use Information Questionnaire. Potential links between the two variables and comparisons with the relevant results obtained by males are presented. Results. The results showed that there were no significant differences between self-reported female pornography users and non-users in terms of total closeness numbers and scores and also in specific socioemotional closeness with the most significant adults in their lives (i.e., partners, closest friends, mothers and fathers. Conclusion. The results confirmed that there were differences between females and males’ approaches to pornography and closeness; females had lower interest in pornography and their use of it had not been associated with higher total closeness numbers and scores. Due to the participant group’s size (N limitations, this sample was rather used for preliminary investigations that would enable some elementary insight into females’ relevant behaviours. Further investigations of pornography’s complex links with socio-emotional and sexual closeness on larger samples may allow more reliable comparisons between gender and pornography users groups.

  5. Pornography use and closeness with others in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Closeness/intimacy and pornography are sometimes linked and frequently presented as competing with each other. They have been the subject of some research but many issues in the area remain controversial and indeterminate. The aim of this pilot study was to establish whether female pornography users and non-users' ratings in terms of socio-emotional closeness differed, i.e. to examine the association between pornography use and aspects of socio-emotional closeness in a non-clinical sample of females. Sixty-six females participated in the study. Their actual and ideal socioemotional closeness was measured by the Perceived Interpersonal Closeness Scale/PICS, while their pornography use was examined by the Background and Pornography Use Information Questionnaire. Potential links between the two variables and comparisons with the relevant results obtained by males are presented. The results showed that there were no significant differences between self-reported female pornography users and non-users in terms of total closeness numbers and scores and also in specific socioemotional closeness with the most significant adults in their lives (i.e., partners, closest friends, mothers and fathers). The results confirmed that there were differences between females and males' approaches to pornography and closeness; females had lower interest in pornography and their use of it had not been associated with higher total closeness numbers and scores. Due to the participant group's size (N) limitations, this sample was rather used for preliminary investigations that would enable some elementary insight into females' relevant behaviours. Further investigations of pornography's complex links with socio-emotional and sexual closeness on larger samples may allow more reliable comparisons between gender and pornography users groups.

  6. Repeat Testing Effects on Credentialing Exams: Are Repeaters Misinformed or Uninformed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Raymond, Mark R.; Haist, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate security concerns and unfair score gains, credentialing programs routinely administer new test material to examinees retesting after an initial failing attempt. Counterintuitively, a small but growing body of recent research suggests that repeating the identical form does not create an unfair advantage. This study builds upon and…

  7. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  8. Transposed genes in Arabidopsis are often associated with flanking repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Woodhouse

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Much of the eukaryotic genome is known to be mobile, largely due to the movement of transposons and other parasitic elements. Recent work in plants and Drosophila suggests that mobility is also a feature of many nontransposon genes and gene families. Indeed, analysis of the Arabidopsis genome suggested that as many as half of all genes had moved to unlinked positions since Arabidopsis diverged from papaya roughly 72 million years ago, and that these mobile genes tend to fall into distinct gene families. However, the mechanism by which single gene transposition occurred was not deduced. By comparing two closely related species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, we sought to determine the nature of gene transposition in Arabidopsis. We found that certain categories of genes are much more likely to have transposed than others, and that many of these transposed genes are flanked by direct repeat sequence that was homologous to sequence within the orthologous target site in A. lyrata and which was predominantly genic in identity. We suggest that intrachromosomal recombination between tandemly duplicated sequences, and subsequent insertion of the circular product, is the predominant mechanism of gene transposition.

  9. Potential of repeated polymer well treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Munkacsi, I.; Troemboeczki, S.

    1993-11-01

    This paper analyzes field results obtained by routine application of a polymer/silicate well treatment technique at the Algyo-2 field in Hungary. First, the reservoir is described briefly; then, the basic concept of the method is outlined. Reference is made to the multifunctioning chemical mechanism of gelation and the favorable rheological properties of the treating fluids that jointly result in a highly selective placement and an efficient permeability reduction in the target reservoir space. Application of the method 17 times in 16 producing wells yielded more than 90,000 Mg of incremental oil production. Typical well behaviors also are illustrated. Finally, the potential of repeated treatments is discussed, taking laboratory and field results into account.

  10. Statistical Properties of repeating FRB 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals possibly occurring at cosmological distances. However the physical model of FRBs is mystery, many models have been proposed. Here we study the frequency distributions of peak flux, fluence, duration and waiting time for repeating FRB 121102. The cumulative distributions of peak flux, fluence and duration show power-law forms. The waiting time distribution also shows power-law distribution, and is consistent with a non-stationary Poisson process. We also use the statistical results to test the proposed models for FRBs. Comparing with the model predications, we find that the theoretical models proposed by Dai et al. (2016) and Katz (2016) are favored. These distributions are consistent with the predications from avalanche models of driven systems.

  11. Closed-universe recollapse conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, J.D.; Galloway, G.J.; Tipler, F.J.

    1986-12-15

    It is widely believed that all expanding S/sup 3/ closed universes that satisfy the standard energy conditions recollapse to a second singularity. It is shown that this is false even for Friedmann universes: an ever-expanding S/sup 3/ Friedmann universe is constructed in which the matter tensor satisfies the strong, weak and dominant energy conditions and the generic condition. A general recollapse theorem for Friedmann universes is proved if the positive pressure criterion, dominant enery condition and matter regularity condition hold, then an S/sup 3/ Friedmann universe must recollapse. It is shown that all known vacuum solutions with Cauchy surface topology S/sup 3/ or S/sup 2/XS/sup 1/ recollapse, and we conjecture that this is a property of all vacuum solutions of Einstein's equations with such Cauchy surfaces.

  12. Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vogel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.

  13. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vattipally B Sreenu; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are the repetitive nucleotide sequences of motifs of length 1–6 bp. They are scattered throughout the genomes of all the known organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. Microsatellites undergo mutations in the form of insertions and deletions (INDELS) of their repeat units with some bias towards insertions that lead to microsatellite tract expansion. Although prokaryotic genomes derive some plasticity due to microsatellite mutations they have in-built mechanisms to arrest undue expansions of microsatellites and one such mechanism is constituted by post-replicative DNA repair enzymes MutL, MutH and MutS. The mycobacterial genomes lack these enzymes and as a null hypothesis one could expect these genomes to harbour many long tracts. It is therefore interesting to analyse the mycobacterial genomes for distribution and abundance of microsatellites tracts and to look for potentially polymorphic microsatellites. Available mycobacterial genomes, Mycobacterium avium, M. leprae, M. bovis and the two strains of M. tuberculosis (CDC1551 and H37Rv) were analysed for frequencies and abundance of SSRs. Our analysis revealed that the SSRs are distributed throughout the mycobacterial genomes at an average of 220–230 SSR tracts per kb. All the mycobacterial genomes contain few regions that are conspicuously denser or poorer in microsatellites compared to their expected genome averages. The genomes distinctly show scarcity of long microsatellites despite the absence of a post-replicative DNA repair system. Such severe scarcity of long microsatellites could arise as a result of strong selection pressures operating against long and unstable sequences although influence of GC-content and role of point mutations in arresting microsatellite expansions can not be ruled out. Nonetheless, the long tracts occasionally found in coding as well as non-coding regions may account for limited genome plasticity in these genomes.

  14. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  15. Repeated Measurement of Divers’ Word Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    function (Fillskov & Boll, -V 1981). One type of test with clinical significance reflects Word Fluency (Borkowski, Benton & Spreen, 1967; Lezak, 1983). Word...Fluency is "the facility to produce words that fit one or more structural, phonetic , or orthographic restrictions that are not relevant to the meaning...toxic chemical exposure (Anger, 1984) and closed head injury (Borkowski et al, 1967). Word Fluency reflects mild linguistic deficits in expressive speech

  16. Iterative LQG Controller Design Through Closed-Loop Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Min-Hung; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Cox, David E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller design approach for a linear stochastic system with an uncertain open-loop model and unknown noise statistics. This approach consists of closed-loop identification and controller redesign cycles. In each cycle, the closed-loop identification method is used to identify an open-loop model and a steady-state Kalman filter gain from closed-loop input/output test data obtained by using a feedback LQG controller designed from the previous cycle. Then the identified open-loop model is used to redesign the state feedback. The state feedback and the identified Kalman filter gain are used to form an updated LQC controller for the next cycle. This iterative process continues until the updated controller converges. The proposed controller design is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments on a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system.

  17. A person in a closed environment as a psychological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuliyaV. Klochko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses an ethically weighted problem which is related to modern psychology: when a person lives in a closed environment. A new approach to solving this problem is being examined. It is based on the finding of substantial new functional aspects of the cognitive processes of making and losing meaning. The study of this sub-discipline started with O.K. Tikhomirov’s theory of thinking. The phenomenon of “adaptability to changes in lifestyle” is being analyzed. The substantial characteristics of the notion of a “closed environment” as well as the psychological manifestations which appear when one is forced to live in a closed environment or choses to live in one of his or her own volition are being revealed. According to the author, the new approach will allow us to come closer to understanding and being able to explain the psychological mechanisms of the mental upheaval which prisoners in solitary confinement experience.

  18. Efficient synthesis of enantiopure conduritols by ring-closing metathesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Iversen, Erik Høgh; Paulsen, Andreas Lundtang;

    2001-01-01

    Two short synthetic approaches to enantiopure conduritols are described starting from the chiral pool. In both cases, the cyclohexene ring is assembled via ring-closing olefin metathesis. The terminal diene precursers for the metathesis reaction are prepared either from octitols or from tartaric...

  19. The excess of small inverted repeats in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses have shown that there is a large excess of perfect inverted repeats in many prokaryotic genomes but not in eukaryotic ones. This difference could be due to a genuine difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes or to differences in the methods and types of data analyzed--full genome versus protein coding sequences. We used simulations to show that the method used previously tends to underestimate the expected number of inverted repeats. However, this bias is not large and cannot explain the excess of inverted repeats observed in real data. In contrast, our method is unbiased. When both methods are applied to bacterial protein coding sequences they both detect an excess of inverted repeats, which is much lower than previously reported in whole prokaryotic genomes. This suggests that the reported large excess of inverted repeats is due to repeats found in intergenic regions. These repeats could be due to transcription factor binding sites, or other types of repetitive DNA, on opposite strands of the DNA sequence. In contrast, the smaller, but significant, excess of inverted repeats that we report in protein coding sequences may be due to sequence-directed mutagenesis (SDM). SDM is a process where one copy of a small, imperfect, inverted repeat corrects the other copy via strand misalignment, resulting in a perfect repeat and a series of mutations. We show by simulation that even very low levels of SDM, relative to the rate of point mutation, can generate a substantial excess of inverted repeats.

  20. Genomic and polyploid evolution in genus Avena as revealed by RFLPs of repeated DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshinobu; Nishihara, Miho

    2009-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and genome affinities were investigated by utilizing all the biological Avena species consisting of 11 diploid species (15 accessions), 8 tetraploid species (9 accessions) and 4 hexaploid species (5 accessions). Genomic DNA regions of As120a, avenin, and globulin were amplified by PCR. A total of 130 polymorphic fragments were detected out of 156 fragments generated by digesting the PCR-amplified fragments with 11 restriction enzymes. The number of fragments generated by PCR-amplification followed by digestion with restriction enzymes was almost the same as those among the three repeated DNA sequences. A high level of genetic distance was detected between A. damascena (Ad) and A. canariensis (Ac) genomes, which reflected their different morphology and reproductive isolation. The A. longiglumis (Al) and A. prostrata (Ap) genomes were closely related to the As genome group. The AB genome species formed a cluster with the AsAs genome artificial autotetraploid and the As genome diploids indicating near-autotetraploid origin. The A. macrostachya is an outbreeding autotetraploid closely related with the C genome diploid and the AC genome tetraploid species. The differences of genetic distances estimated from the repeated DNA sequence divergence among the Avena species were consistent with genome divergences and it was possible to compare the genetic intra- and inter-ploidy relationships produced by RFLPs. These results suggested that the PCR-mediated analysis of repeated DNA polymorphism can be used as a tool to examine genomic relationships of polyploidy species.