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Sample records for repeated bj performance

  1. The Author on Stage Björn Ranelid as Performance Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn Forslid

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Media development has profoundly affected the literary public sphere. Authors as well as politicians may feel obliged to follow “the law of compulsory visibility” (John B. Thompson. All contemporary writers, be it bestselling authors or exclu-sive, high brow poets, must in one way or another reflect on their marketing and media strategies. Meeting and communicating with the audience, the potential readers, is of critical importance. In the article “The Author on Stage”, the authors consider how different literary performances by Swedish novelist Björn Ranelid (b. 1949 help establish his “brand name” on the literary market place.

  2. Effects of sodium phosphate and beetroot juice supplementation on repeated-sprint ability in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher L; Henry, Timothy; Guelfi, Kym; Dawson, Brian; McNaughton, Lars R; Wallman, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Sodium phosphate (SP) and beetroot juice (BJ) supplementation was assessed on repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Thirteen female team-sport participants completed four trials: (1) SP and BJ (SP + BJ), (2) SP and placebo (for BJ), (3) BJ and placebo (for SP) and (4) placebo (for SP + BJ), with ~21 days separating each trial. After each trial, participants performed a simulated team-game circuit (STGC) consisting of four 15 min quarters, with a 6 × 20-m repeated-sprint set performed at the start, half-time and end. Total sprint times were between 0.95-1.30 and 0.83-1.12 s faster for each RSA set and 3.25 and 3.12 s faster overall (~5% improvement) after SP compared with placebo and BJ, respectively (p = 0.02 for sets 1, 2 and overall; Cohen's effect size: d = -0.51 to -0.90 for all sets and overall). Additionally, total sprint times were 0.48 s faster after SP + BJ compared with placebo (set 2; p = 0.05, ~2% improvement). Furthermore, best sprints were 0.13-0.23 and 0.15-0.20 s faster (~6% improvement; p sprint times were faster after SP compared with placebo and BJ.

  3. Repeatability of locomotor performance and morphology-locomotor performance relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsen, Cara; Walker, Jeffrey A; Perna, Catherine; McGuigan, Katrina

    2016-09-15

    There is good evidence that natural selection drives the evolution of locomotor performance, but the processes that generate the among-individual variation for selection to act on are relatively poorly understood. We measured prolonged swimming performance, Ucrit, and morphology in a large cohort (n=461) of wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) at ∼6 months and again at ∼9 months. Using mixed-model analyses to estimate repeatability as the intraclass correlation coefficient, we determined that Ucrit was significantly repeatable (r=0.55; 95% CI: 0.45-0.64). Performance differences between the sexes (males 12% faster than females) and changes with age (decreasing 0.07% per day) both contributed to variation in Ucrit and, therefore, the repeatability estimate. Accounting for mean differences between sexes within the model decreased the estimate of Ucrit repeatability to 21% below the naïve estimate, while fitting age in the models increased the estimate to 14% above the naïve estimate. Greater consideration of factors such as age and sex is therefore necessary for the interpretation of performance repeatability in wild populations. Body shape significantly predicted Ucrit in both sexes in both assays, with the morphology-performance relationship significantly repeatable at the population level. However, morphology was more strongly predicative of performance in older fish, suggesting a change in the contribution of morphology relative to other factors such as physiology and behaviour. The morphology-performance relationship changed with age to a greater extent in males than females.

  4. Til julefrokost med Bjørn & Okay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Sivertsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    I denne artikel vises med udgangspunkt i en beskrivelse af et specifikt arrangement med det danske danseorkester Bjørn & Okay, hvordan man optræder inden for denne særlige musiktradition. Bjørn & Okays performative udgangspunkt er, at de, trods en status som landskendt orkester med mange hits, i ...... the audience and constantly telling them what to do. At the same time he and the other musicians actively bond with the audience, both onstage and offstage, which helps building the spirit of community, which is the clear goal of the musical performance....

  5. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  6. Complete Genome Sequences of the SARS-CoV: the BJ Group (Isolates BJ01-BJ04)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengli Bi; Yujun Han; Jing Xu; Yan Li; Yao Yi; Yongdong Zhou; Wei Lin; Jie Wen; Hong Xu; Ruan Li; Zizhang Zhang; Ede Qin; Haiyan Sun; Jingui Zhu; Man Yu; Baochang Fan; Qingfa Wu; Wei Lin; Lin Tang; Bao'an Yang; Guoqing Li; Wenming Peng; Zuyuan Xu; Wenjie Li; Tao Jiang; Yajun Deng; Bohua Liu; Jianping Shi; Yongqiang Deng; Wei Wei; Hong Liu; Zongzhong Tong; Feng Zhang; Wei Li; Yu Zhang; Cui'e Wang; Yuquan Li; Jia Ye; Yonghua Gan; Jia Ji; Xiaoyu Li; Xiangjun Tian; Fushuang Lu; Gang Tan; Jing Wang; Ruifu Yang; Bin Liu; Siqi Liu; Songgang Li; Jun Wang; Jian Wang; Wuchun Cao; Jun Yu; Xiaoping Dong; Huanming yang; Yongwu Hu; Yong Liu; Shumin Duan; Jianfei Hu

    2003-01-01

    Beijing has been one of the epicenters attacked most severely by the SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus) since the first patient was diagnosed in one of the city's hospitals. We now report complete genome sequences of the BJ Group, including four isolates (Isolates B J01, B J02, B J03,and B J04) of the SARS-CoV. It is remarkable that all members of the BJ Group share a common haplotype, consisting of seven loci that differentiate the group from other isolates published to date. Among 42 substitutions uniquely identifled from the BJ group, 32 are non-synonymous changes at the amino acid level.Rooted phylogenetic trees, proposed on the basis of haplotypes and other sequence variations of SARS-CoV isolates from Canada, USA, Singapore, and China, gave rise to different paradigms but positioned the BJ Group, together with the newly discovered GD01 (GD-Ins29) in the same clade, followed by the H-U Group (from Hong Kong to USA) and the H-T Group (from Hong Kong to Toronto), leaving the SP Group (Singapore) more distant. This result appears to suggest a possible transmission path from Guangdong to Beijing/Hong Kong, then to other countries and regions.

  7. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Olsen, Peter D; Marshall, Helen C; Lizamore, Catherine A; Elliot, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using "top-up" sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1-3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second "top-up" intervention (Post 4-5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: -1.8 ± 1.6%, -1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: -2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: -2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: -1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: -1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3-5 (-2.0 ± 2.4%, -2.2 ± 2.4%, -1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13-37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of "top-up" training after intervention 1, had little effect on either group. Repeat-sprint training in

  8. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Olsen, Peter D.; Marshall, Helen C.; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Elliot, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using “top-up” sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1–3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second “top-up” intervention (Post 4–5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: −1.8 ± 1.6%, −1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: −2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: −2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: −1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: −1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3–5 (−2.0 ± 2.4%, −2.2 ± 2.4%, −1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13–37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of “top-up” training after intervention 1, had little effect on either

  9. Archery performance level and repeatability of event-related EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, A R; Ertan, H; Korkusuz, F

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the repeatability of electromyographic linear envelopes (LE) of archery groups. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals of musculus flexor digitorum superficialis (MFDS) and extensor digitorum (MED) of 23 participants (seven skilled, six beginner archers and ten non-archers) were recorded during archery shooting. Two-second periods (clicker falls at first second) of 12 shots' EMG data were recorded, full-wave rectified and filtered (60 ms moving-average filter) for each participant's drawing arm. Repeatability was investigated by using a statistical criterion, variance ratio (VR). Archers' performances were evaluated in terms of FITA scores. The results showed that FITA scores were significantly correlated to the VRs of MFDS and MED. EMG LEs were more repeatable among archers than non-archers. Therefore, we inferred that VRs of MFDS and MED might be important variables for (a) assessing shooting techniques, (b) evaluation of archers' progress, and (c) selection of talented archers.

  10. Kæmpe-Bjørneklo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Ravn, Hans Peter; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    Hæftet fremlægger i kort form den aktuelle viden om alle relevante aspekter af Kæmpe-Bjørneklos biologi, økologi, taksonomi plus håndtering og bekæmpelse. Vi håber, det kan skabe forståelse blandt myndigheder på alle niveauer og private jordejere for nødvendigheden af overordnede strategier frem ...

  11. Effects of Hypohydration on Repeated 40-yd Sprint Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Joshua J; Green, James M; OʼNeal, Eric K; Renfroe, Lee G; Andre, Thomas L

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of hypohydration on repeated 40-yd sprint performance. Anaerobically fit current and former Division II male athletes (n = 12) completed 2 bouts of 10 × 40-yd sprints followed by an agility test, dehydrated (∼3% body weight [DT]), or hydrated trial (HT). Statistical analysis of group means indicated that hypohydration had little effect on sprint times for either the first (DT= 5.38 ± 0.37; HT = 5.35 ± 0.34) or second (DT = 5.47 ± 0.39; HT = 5.42 ± 0.39) bout of 10 sprints with only sprint number 2, 5, and 6 of bout 2 reaching statistical significance. However, when individual sprint performance was considered, a greater effect was seen. In all, 83% (10 of 12) of subjects experienced a meaningful change (≥0.1 seconds) (positive or negative) in mean sprint time (DT vs. HT) for one or more bout of 10 sprints. Ratings of perceived exertion was significantly higher (∼1 unit on a 10 point scale) for DT in all sprints during bout 1 and the first 2 sprints of bout 2. These results indicate that the effect of hypohydration on repeated sprint performance varies among individuals. Some improved performance with hypohydration, while others experienced detrimental effects. Hypohydration also resulted in a particularly notable negative impact on perceptual measures of exertion even when performance was similar.

  12. Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne-Lacasse, Martin; Nadon, Raymond; Goulet E, D B

    2011-12-01

    Jump height is a critical aspect of volleyball players' blocking and attacking performance. Although previous studies demonstrated that creatine monohydrate supplementation (CrMS) improves jumping performance, none have yet evaluated its effect among volleyball players with proficient jumping skills. We examined the effect of 4 wk of CrMS on 1 RM spike jump (SJ) and repeated block jump (BJ) performance among 12 elite males of the Sherbrooke University volleyball team. Using a parallel, randomized, double-blind protocol, participants were supplemented with a placebo or creatine solution for 28 d, at a dose of 20 g/d in days 1-4, 10 g/d on days 5-6, and 5 g/d on days 7-28. Pre- and postsupplementation, subjects performed the 1 RM SJ test, followed by the repeated BJ test (10 series of 10 BJs; 3 s interval between jumps; 2 min recovery between series). Due to injuries (N = 2) and outlier data (N = 2), results are reported for eight subjects. Following supplementation, both groups improved SJ and repeated BJ performance. The change in performance during the 1 RM SJ test and over the first two repeated BJ series was unclear between groups. For series 3-6 and 7-10, respectively, CrMS further improved repeated BJ performance by 2.8% (likely beneficial change) and 1.9% (possibly beneficial change), compared with the placebo. Percent repeated BJ decline in performance across the 10 series did not differ between groups pre- and postsupplementation. In conclusion, CrMS likely improved repeated BJ height capability without influencing the magnitude of muscular fatigue in these elite, university-level volleyball players.

  13. Estimating thermal performance curves from repeated field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Evan; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating thermal performance of organisms is critical for understanding population distributions and dynamics and predicting responses to climate change. Typically, performance curves are estimated using laboratory studies to isolate temperature effects, but other abiotic and biotic factors influence temperature-performance relationships in nature reducing these models' predictive ability. We present a model for estimating thermal performance curves from repeated field observations that includes environmental and individual variation. We fit the model in a Bayesian framework using MCMC sampling, which allowed for estimation of unobserved latent growth while propagating uncertainty. Fitting the model to simulated data varying in sampling design and parameter values demonstrated that the parameter estimates were accurate, precise, and unbiased. Fitting the model to individual growth data from wild trout revealed high out-of-sample predictive ability relative to laboratory-derived models, which produced more biased predictions for field performance. The field-based estimates of thermal maxima were lower than those based on laboratory studies. Under warming temperature scenarios, field-derived performance models predicted stronger declines in body size than laboratory-derived models, suggesting that laboratory-based models may underestimate climate change effects. The presented model estimates true, realized field performance, avoiding assumptions required for applying laboratory-based models to field performance, which should improve estimates of performance under climate change and advance thermal ecology.

  14. Estimating thermal performance curves from repeated field observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Evan S; Letcher, Benjamin H

    2017-03-08

    Estimating thermal performance of organisms is critical for understanding population distributions and dynamics and predicting responses to climate change. Typically, performance curves are estimated using laboratory studies to isolate temperature effects, but other abiotic and biotic factors influence temperature-performance relationships in nature reducing these models' predictive ability. We present a model for estimating thermal performance curves from repeated field observations that includes environmental and individual variation. We fit the model in a Bayesian framework using MCMC sampling, which allowed for estimation of unobserved latent growth while propagating uncertainty. Fitting the model to simulated data varying in sampling design and parameter values demonstrated that the parameter estimates were accurate, precise, and unbiased. Fitting the model to individual growth data from wild trout revealed high out-of-sample predictive ability relative to laboratory-derived models, which produced more biased predictions for field performance. The field-based estimates of thermal maxima were lower than those based on laboratory studies. Under warming temperature scenarios, field-derived performance models predicted stronger declines in body size than laboratory-derived models, suggesting that laboratory-based models may underestimate climate change effects. The presented model estimates true, realized field performance, avoiding assumptions required for applying laboratory-based models to field performance, which should improve estimates of performance under climate change and advance thermal ecology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Neck-cooling improves repeated sprint performance in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eSunderland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of neck-cooling during exercise on repeated sprint ability in a hot environment. Seven team-sport playing males completed two experimental trials involving repeated sprint exercise (5 x 6 s before and after two 45 min bouts of a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol in the heat (33.0  0.2 ºC; 53 ± 2% relative humidity. Participants wore a neck-cooling collar in one of the trials (CC. Mean power output and peak power output declined over time in both trials but were higher in CC (540 ± 99 v 507 ± 122W, d = 0.32; 719 ± 158 v 680 ± 182 W, d = 0.24 respectively. The improved power output was particularly pronounced (d = 0.51 – 0.88 after the 2nd 45 min bout but the CC had no effect on % fatigue. The collar lowered neck temperature and the thermal sensation of the neck (P 0.05. There were no trial differences but interaction effects were demonstrated for prolactin concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE. Prolactin concentration was initially higher in the collar cold trial and then was lower from 45 minutes onwards (interaction trial x time P=0.04. RPE was lower during the football intermittent treadmill protocol in the collar cold trial (interaction trial x time P = 0.01. Neck-cooling during exercise improves repeated sprint performance in a hot environment without altering physiological or neuroendocrinological responses. RPE is reduced and may partially explain the performance improvement.

  16. Carbohydrate mouth rinse does not improve repeated sprint performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ricardo Altimari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on the repeated sprint ability (RSA of young soccer players. Nine youth soccer players (15.0 ± 1.5 years; 60.7 ± 4.84 kg; 1.72 ± 0.05 m; 20.5 ± 1.25 kg/m2 were selected. The athletes were submitted to an RSA test consisting of six sprints of 40 m (going/return = 20 m + 20 m, separated by 20 s of passive recovery, under three experimental conditions: carbohydrate mouth rinse (CHO or placebo (PLA and control (CON. The mouth rinses containing CHO or PLA were administered 5 min and immediately before the beginning of the test in doses of 100 mL. The best sprint time (RSAbest, mean sprint time (RSAmean, and drop-off in sprint performance (fatigue index were determined for the different treatments. One-not identify significant differences (p> 0.05 in RSAbest (CHO way ANOVA for repeated measures did = 7.30 ± 0.31 s; PLA = 7.30 ± 0.30 s; CON = 7.26 ±0.16 s, RSA mean (CHO = 7.71 ± 0.30 s; PLA = 7.71 ± 0.25 s; CON = 7.66 ± 0.24s, or fatigue index (CHO = 5.58 ± 2.16%; PLA = 5.77 ± 3.04%; CON = 5.55 ±3.72%. The results suggest that a carbohydrate mouth rinse does not improve the repeated sprint performance of young soccer players.

  17. Elevations in core and muscle temperature impairs repeated sprint performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drust, B.; Rasmussen, P.; Mohr, Magni

    2005-01-01

    following the hyperthermic sprints compared to control. CONCLUSION: Although an elevated muscle temperature is expected to promote sprint performance, power output during the repeated sprints was reduced by hyperthermia. The impaired performance does not seem to relate to the accumulation of recognized...... on a cycle ergometer in normal (approximately 20 degrees C, control) and hot (40 degrees C, hyperthermia) environments. RESULTS: Completion of the intermittent protocol in the heat elevated core and muscle temperatures (39.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C; 40.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C), heart rate (178 +/- 11 beats min(-1......)), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (18 +/- 1) and noradrenaline (38.9 +/- 13.2 micromol l(-1)) (all P power output were similar across the environmental conditions. However, mean power over the last four sprints declined to a larger extent...

  18. Repeated training with augmentative vibrotactile feedback increases object manipulation performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara E Stepp

    Full Text Available Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies.

  19. Björk-Jarabak cephalometric analysis on CBCT synthesized cephalograms with different dentofacial sagittal skeletal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalil Augusto Rodriguez-Cardenas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the Björk and Jabarak cephalometric analysis generated from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT synthesized lateral cephalograms in adults with different sagittal skeletal patterns.METHODS: The sample consisted of 46 CBCT synthesized cephalograms obtained from patients between 16 and 40 years old. A Björk and Jarabak cephalometric analysis among different sagittal skeletal classes was performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, multiple range test of Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis test, and independent t-test were used as appropriate.RESULTS: In comparison to the standard values: Skeletal Class III had increased gonial and superior gonial angles (P < 0.001. This trend was also evident when sex was considered. For Class I males, the sella angle was decreased (P = 0.041, articular angle increased (P = 0.027 and gonial angle decreased (P = 0.002; whereas for Class III males, the gonial angle was increased (P = 0.012. For Class I females, the articular angle was increased (P = 0.029 and the gonial angle decreased (P = 0.004. Björk's sum and Björk and Jabarak polygon sum showed no significant differences. The facial biotype presented in the three sagittal classes was mainly hypodivergent and neutral.CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, skeletal Class III malocclusion was strongly differentiated from the other sagittal classes, specifically in the mandible, as calculated through Björk and Jarabak analysis.

  20. Flexibility of Expressive Timing in Repeated Musical Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pantelis Demos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Performances by soloists in the Western classical tradition are normally highly prepared, yet must sound fresh and spontaneous. How do musicians manage this? We tested the hypothesis that they achieve the necessary spontaneity by varying the musical gestures that express their interpretation of a piece. We examined the tempo arches produced by final slowing at the ends of phrases in performances of J.S. Bach’s No. 6 (Prelude for solo cello (12 performances and the Italian Concerto (Presto for solo piano (8 performances. The performances were given by two experienced concert soloists during a short time period (3½ months for the Prelude, 2 weeks for the Presto after completing their preparations for public performance. We measured the tempo of each bar or half-bar, and the stability of tempo across performances (difference of the tempo of each bar/half bar from each of the other performances. There were phrase arches for both tempo and stability with slower, less stable tempi at beginnings and ends of phrases and faster, more stable tempi mid-phrase. The effects of practice were complex. Tempo decreased overall with practice, while stability increased in some bars and decreased in others. One effect of practice may be to imbue well-learned, automatic motor sequences with freshness and spontaneity through cognitive control at phrase boundaries where slower tempi and decreased stability provide opportunities for slower cognitive processes to modulate rapid automatic motor sequences.

  1. Flexibility of Expressive Timing in Repeated Musical Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Alexander P.; Lisboa, Tânia; Chaffin, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Performances by soloists in the Western classical tradition are normally highly prepared, yet must sound fresh and spontaneous. How do musicians manage this? We tested the hypothesis that they achieve the necessary spontaneity by varying the musical gestures that express their interpretation of a piece. We examined the tempo arches produced by final slowing at the ends of phrases in performances of J. S. Bach’s No. 6 (Prelude) for solo cello (12 performances) and the Italian Concerto (Presto) for solo piano (eight performances). The performances were given by two experienced concert soloists during a short time period (3½ months for the Prelude, 2 weeks for the Presto) after completing their preparations for public performance. We measured the tempo of each bar or half-bar, and the stability of tempo across performances (difference of the tempo of each bar/half bar from each of the other performances). There were phrase arches for both tempo and stability with slower, less stable tempi at beginnings and ends of phrases and faster, more stable tempi mid-phrase. The effects of practice were complex. Tempo decreased overall with practice, while stability increased in some bars and decreased in others. One effect of practice may be to imbue well-learned, automatic motor sequences with freshness and spontaneity through cognitive control at phrase boundaries where slower tempi and decreased stability provide opportunities for slower cognitive processes to modulate rapid automatic motor sequences. PMID:27757089

  2. Performances of regenerative and non-regenerative satellite repeaters with MPSK signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K. T.

    1978-01-01

    Linear (translation), hard-limited, and demod/remod types of satellite repeaters are considered in this paper. Both uncoded and coded multiple phase shift keyed (MPSK) signals are assumed to be transmitted through these repeaters. Relative performances of these repeaters in the presence of uplink and downlink noises are then compared quantitatively. Probabilities of bit errors and the computational cutoff rates are computed for 2, 4, and 8 phases PSK signals, with uplink and downlink SNRs as parameters.

  3. Frequency of Repeated Courses Its Relation to Persistence and Performance in Lebanon's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Nauffal, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between the frequency of repeating courses and students' performance in college. The study uses cohort data from academic years 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004. We compared those who had repeated one, two and three courses on GPA and whether a relation exists of those who graduated/did not…

  4. EST Table: BJ987201 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ987201 E_FL_BmN-_03N12_R_0 10/09/28 90 %/136 aa ref|NP_001037470.1| protein ultra...spiracle homolog [Bombyx mori] sp|P49700.1|USP_BOMMO RecName: Full=Protein ultraspiracle homolog; AltName: F...1|gene:AGAP002095 10/09/10 43 %/130 aa gnl|Amel|GB16648-PA 10/09/10 41 %/124 aa gi|121308144|emb|CAL25729.1| ultraspiracle nuclear receptor [Tribolium castaneum] BJ988216 BmN- ...

  5. EST Table: BJ984640 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ984640 E_FL_mxg-_13B02_F_0 10/09/28 99 %/219 aa ref|NP_001103794.1| calcyphosphine... isoform 1 [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51310.1| calcyphosphine isoform 1 [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 57 %/191 aa FBpp017

  6. EST Table: BJ983716 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ983716 E_FL_mxg-_07M02_F_0 10/09/28 54 %/170 aa ref|XP_973768.1| PREDICTED: similar to orf 140; significa...0 aa gi|91088001|ref|XP_973768.1| PREDICTED: similar to orf 140; significant simi

  7. EST Table: BJ983504 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated adaptor for RNA export, putative [Aedes aegypti] gb|EAT46865.1| Phosphorylated adaptor for RNA export,...Amel|GB14984-PA 10/09/10 37 %/209 aa gi|91087311|ref|XP_975575.1| PREDICTED: similar to Phosphorylated adaptor for RNA export, putative [Tribolium castaneum] BJ983504 mxg- ...

  8. EST Table: BJ980940 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980940 E_FL_BmN-_03N12_F_0 10/09/28 71 %/105 aa ref|NP_001037470.1| protein ultra...spiracle homolog [Bombyx mori] sp|P49700.1|USP_BOMMO RecName: Full=Protein ultraspiracle homolog; AltName: F

  9. EST Table: BJ987299 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to Protein C12orf11 (Sarcoma antigen NY-SAR-95) [Apis mellifera] 10/08/28 37 %/123 aa FBpp0119601|DanaGF1...BJ987299 E_FL_BmN-_04C24_R_0 10/09/28 51 %/119 aa ref|XP_391996.3| PREDICTED: simil

  10. Anders Björkman - kas laevahuku don Quijote? / Ivari Vee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vee, Ivari

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas pidas loengu Rootsi laevainsener- ja arhitekt Anders Björkman. A. Björkman on Estonia hukkumist uurinud 14 aastat ja peab meresõiduohutuse huvides vajalikuks ametliku uurimise taasavamist

  11. File list: ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.BJ [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.BJ hg19 All antigens Epidermis BJ SRX490262,SRX017557,SRX490261,SR...1,SRX190018,SRX080433,SRX189990,SRX189987 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Epd.10.AllAg.BJ.bed ...

  12. Performance and physiological responses to repeated-sprint exercise: a novel multiple-set approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpiello, Fabio R; McKenna, Michael J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J; Aughey, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the acute and chronic responses to multiple sets of repeated-sprint exercise (RSE), focusing on changes in acceleration, intermittent running capacity and physiological responses. Ten healthy young adults (7 males, 3 females) performed an incremental test, a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level1 (Yo-Yo IR1), and one session of RSE. RSE comprised three sets of 5 × 4-s maximal sprints on a non-motorised treadmill, with 20 s of passive recovery between repetitions and 4.5 min of passive recovery between sets. After ten repeated-sprint training sessions, participants repeated all tests. During RSE, performance was determined by measuring acceleration, mean and peak power/velocity. Recovery heart rate (HR), HR variability, and finger-tip capillary lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]) were measured. Performance progressively decreased across the three sets of RSE, with the indices of repeated-sprint ability being impaired to a different extent before and after training. Training induced a significant increase (p RSE. There were strong correlations between Yo-Yo IR1 performance and indices of RSE performance, especially acceleration post-training (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). Repeated-sprint training, comprising only 10 min of exercise overall, effectively improved performance during multiple-set RSE. This exercise model better reflects team-sport activities than single-set RSE. The rapid training-induced improvement in acceleration, quantified here for the first time, has wide applications for professional and recreational sport activities.

  13. Uudised : Tõnso. Triibud. Björk. DVD

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Juuli lõpus ja augusti alguses Leigo järvel etenduvale Shakespeare'i näidendile "Suveöö muusika" kirjutab originaalmuusika Aivar Tõnso. Detroidi duot White Stripes soojendab Tallinna kontserdil 29. juunil klubis Hollywood ansambel Röövel Ööbik. Islandi lauljatar Björk annab juulis välja soundtrack-plaadi Matthew Barney viimasele filmile "Drawing Restraint 9". Piraat-DVDde arestimisest Suurbritannias

  14. EST Table: BJ983036 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ983036 E_FL_BmN-_11B02_F_0 10/09/28 80 %/126 aa ref|XP_001651215.1| vitellogenin,... putative [Aedes aegypti] gb|EAT42854.1| vitellogenin, putative [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 67 %/146 aa FBpp027...gi|91086835|ref|XP_974078.1| PREDICTED: similar to vitellogenin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS729194 BmN- ...

  15. EST Table: BJ981060 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ981060 E_FL_BmN-_04D03_F_0 10/09/28 83 %/155 aa ref|XP_001651215.1| vitellogenin,... putative [Aedes aegypti] gb|EAT42854.1| vitellogenin, putative [Aedes aegypti] 10/08/28 71 %/175 aa FBpp027...gi|91086835|ref|XP_974078.1| PREDICTED: similar to vitellogenin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS729194 BmN- ...

  16. EST Table: BJ982768 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ982768 E_FL_BmN-_10A10_F_0 10/09/28 73 %/119 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  17. EST Table: BJ981218 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ981218 E_FL_BmN-_04K16_F_0 10/09/28 80 %/173 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  18. EST Table: BJ980138 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980138 E_FL_BmN-_01H04_F_0 10/09/28 82 %/196 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  19. EST Table: BJ981682 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ981682 E_FL_BmN-_06B16_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/112 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  20. Uudised : Tõnso. Triibud. Björk. DVD

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Juuli lõpus ja augusti alguses Leigo järvel etenduvale Shakespeare'i näidendile "Suveöö muusika" kirjutab originaalmuusika Aivar Tõnso. Detroidi duot White Stripes soojendab Tallinna kontserdil 29. juunil klubis Hollywood ansambel Röövel Ööbik. Islandi lauljatar Björk annab juulis välja soundtrack-plaadi Matthew Barney viimasele filmile "Drawing Restraint 9". Piraat-DVDde arestimisest Suurbritannias

  1. EST Table: BJ986227 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |GO:0016020(membrane) 10/09/28 50 %/224 aa ref|XP_624752.2| PREDICTED: similar to Niemann-Pick Type C-1 CG57...10 50 %/224 aa gnl|Amel|GB17461-PA 10/09/10 47 %/223 aa gi|189241956|ref|XP_967619.2| PREDICTED: similar to niemann-pick C1 [Tribolium castaneum] BJ986227 mxg- ...

  2. EST Table: BJ985276 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ985276 E_FL_mxg-_16M12_F_0 10/09/28 41 %/185 aa ref|XP_971046.2| PREDICTED: similar to antolefin...0 low homology 10/09/10 39 %/139 aa gnl|Amel|GB16043-PA 10/09/10 41 %/185 aa gi|189240340|ref|XP_971046.2| PREDICTED: similar to antolefinin [Tribolium castaneum] FS921551 mxg- ...

  3. EST Table: BJ980278 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980278 E_FL_BmN-_01N18_F_0 10/09/28 69 %/100 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  4. EST Table: BJ980277 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980277 E_FL_BmN-_01N17_F_0 10/09/28 83 %/204 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  5. EST Table: BJ982756 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ982756 E_FL_BmN-_09P19_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/134 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  6. EST Table: BJ982513 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ982513 E_FL_BmN-_09B18_F_0 10/09/28 78 %/165 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  7. EST Table: BJ981517 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ981517 E_FL_BmN-_05I18_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/133 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  8. EST Table: BJ981782 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ981782 E_FL_BmN-_06H16_F_0 10/09/28 80 %/176 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  9. EST Table: BJ980646 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980646 E_FL_BmN-_02P17_F_0 10/09/28 81 %/192 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  10. EST Table: BJ982117 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ982117 E_FL_BmN-_07K06_F_0 10/09/28 96 %/112 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  11. EST Table: BJ982361 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ982361 E_FL_BmN-_08I07_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/102 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  12. EST Table: BJ981927 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ981927 E_FL_BmN-_06P13_F_0 10/09/28 80 %/174 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  13. EST Table: BJ982096 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ982096 E_FL_BmN-_07J05_F_0 10/09/28 81 %/188 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  14. EST Table: BJ980144 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980144 E_FL_BmN-_01H10_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/132 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  15. EST Table: BJ982191 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ982191 E_FL_BmN-_07N22_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/130 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  16. EST Table: BJ980860 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980860 E_FL_BmN-_03J18_F_0 10/09/28 82 %/195 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  17. EST Table: BJ982084 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ982084 E_FL_BmN-_07I14_F_0 10/09/28 71 %/110 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  18. EST Table: BJ983128 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ983128 E_FL_BmN-_11H08_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/130 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  19. EST Table: BJ981722 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ981722 E_FL_BmN-_06E04_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/112 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  20. EST Table: BJ980788 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980788 E_FL_BmN-_03G08_F_0 10/09/28 73 %/115 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  1. EST Table: BJ981756 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ981756 E_FL_BmN-_06G02_F_0 10/09/28 79 %/163 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  2. EST Table: BJ981552 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ981552 E_FL_BmN-_05K12_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/112 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  3. EST Table: BJ980927 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980927 E_FL_BmN-_03M22_F_0 10/09/28 80 %/174 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  4. EST Table: BJ982652 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ982652 E_FL_BmN-_09J19_F_0 10/09/28 72 %/113 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  5. EST Table: BJ980224 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980224 E_FL_BmN-_01L02_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/133 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  6. EST Table: BJ980633 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980633 E_FL_BmN-_02P02_F_0 10/09/28 97 %/132 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  7. EST Table: BJ980956 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ980956 E_FL_BmN-_03O06_F_0 10/09/28 83 %/204 aa dbj|BAD35018.1| coat protein [Bombyx mori Macula-like late...nt virus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AU002603 BmN- ...

  8. Ibsen, Bjørnson and the art of acting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keld Hyldig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article Henrik Ibsen’s and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson’s contribution to the development of acting in Norwegian theatre are discussed within the background of Danish romantic acting. In the 1850s and -60s both were active as theatre critics, directors and dramatists. Both had a view on theatre and acting marked by a mixture of romantic and realistic ideas, and both urged for the development of Norwegian acting in continuation of Danish and European traditions. It was, however, Bjørnson, who to begin with, came to be most influential with regard to what direction the acting style, among the Norwegian actors, developed. Through his inspiration and efforts a specific national coloured way of acting developed and came to dominate Norwegian theatre at least until the beginning of the 20th century. The influence from Ibsen – and the development of a Norwegian Ibsen tradition – has first of all come from his contemporary plays. A specific Ibsenian (i.e. psychological realistic acting style developed gradually from the 1880s and onwards, through the actors’ work with the characters in Ibsen’s contemporary plays.

  9. Repeatability of phasic muscle activity: performance of surface and intramuscular wire electrodes in gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaba, M P; Wootten, M E; Gainey, J; Cochran, G V

    1985-01-01

    Repeatability is an important consideration for gait analysis data that are being used as an adjunct to clinical decision making. An index of repeatability may be based on a statistical criterion (variance ratio) that reflects similarity of wave forms over a number of identical cycles. The purpose of this study was to use the variance ratio to assess the repeatability of phasic muscle activity recorded with surface and bipolar intramuscular wire electrodes during gait on 10 normal subjects. Variance ratios were calculated using rectified and smoothed electromyographic data recorded simultaneously from the two types of electrodes. Three measures of repeatability (reproducibility, reliability, and constancy--defined as the cycle-to-cycle, run-to-run, and day-to-day repeatability of phasic muscle activity) were used to compare the performance of the two electrode techniques. Results show that the reproducibility and reliability were better for surface electrodes than for intramuscular wire electrodes, and constancy was good for surface electrodes and poor for intramuscular wire electrodes. Repeatability improved with increasing smoothing window lengths but was better for surface electrodes than wire electrodes, irrespective of the smoothing window. This study indicates that surface electrode data represent a more consistent measure of activity of superficial muscles, if comparisons are to be made between gait data from different test days.

  10. Longitudinal study of repeated sprint performance in youth soccer players of contrasting skeletal maturity status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Severino, Vitor; Duarte, Joao; Martins, Raul S.; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Seabra, Andre T.; Philippaerts, Renaat M.; Cumming, Sean P.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Malina, Robert M.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11-13 years at baseline was assessed annually. Stature,

  11. Longitudinal study of repeated sprint performance in youth soccer players of contrasting maturity status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Duarte; A. Seabra; A. Figueiredo; S. Cumming; R. Martins; R. Philippaerts; M. Coelho e Silva; J. Valente dos Santos; V. Severino; Marije Elferink-Gemser

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11- 13 years at baseline was assessed annually.

  12. Does Repeating a Year Improve Performance? The Case of Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Keith; No, Anna Ieong On

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether having school students repeat a year improves their performance, focusing on learning English as a foreign language. It takes students' English examination results from five years from a Chinese-medium school, together with data on their learning styles and learning strategies. Drawing on local cultural and pedagogic…

  13. Importance of muscle power variables in repeated and single sprint performance in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Segovia, Manuel; Dellal, Alexandre; Chamari, Karim; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2014-03-27

    This study examined the relationship between lower body power and repeated as well as single sprint performance in soccer players. The performance of nineteen male soccer players was examined. The first testing session included the countermovement jump (CMJL) and the progressive full squat (FSL), both with external loads. Power in the CMJL and FSL was measured with each load that was lifted. The second session included a protocol of 40-m repeated sprints with a long recovery period (2 min). The number of sprints executed until there was a 3% decrease in performance for the best 40-m sprint time was recorded as a repeated sprint index (RSI). The RSI was moderately associated with power output relative to body mass in the CMJL and FSL (r = 0.53/0.54, p ≤ 0.05). The most and least powerful players (determined by FSL) showed significant differences in the RSI (9.1 ± 4.2 vs. 6.5 ± 1.6) and 10 m sprint time (p ± 0.01). Repeated and single sprints are associated with relatively lower body power in soccer players.

  14. Effect of training in hypoxia on repeated sprint performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Nobukazu; Mizuno, Sahiro; Ishimoto, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Etsuko; Maruta, Misato; Goto, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effect of repeated sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) in female athletes. Thirty-two college female athletes performed repeated cycling sprints of two sets of 10 × 7-s sprints with a 30-s rest between sprints twice per week for 4 weeks under either normoxic conditions (RSN group; FiO2, 20.9%; n = 16) or hypoxic conditions (RSH group; FiO2, 14.5%; n = 16). The repeated sprint ability (10 × 7-s sprints) and maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) were determined before and after the training period. After training, when compared to pre-values, the mean power output was higher in all sprints during the repeated sprint test in the RSH group but only for the second half of the sprints in the RSN group (P ≤ 0.05). The percentage increases in peak and mean power output between before and after the training period were significantly greater in the RSH group than in the RSN group (peak power output, 5.0 ± 0.7% vs. 1.5 ± 0.9%, respectively; mean power output, 9.7 ± 0.9% vs. 6.0 ± 0.8%, respectively; P repeated sprint test compared with RSN.

  15. Comparison of creatine monohydrate and carbohydrate supplementation on repeated jump height performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Chad A; Benardot, Dan; Cody, Mildred; Thompson, Walter R

    2008-07-01

    Creatine monohydrate (CrMH) supplementation aids the ability to maintain performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise, including jump performance. However, carbohydrate supplementation may also provide similar benefits and is less expensive. This study compared the effects of an energy-free placebo, 2 different caloric concentrations of carbohydrate drinks, and a CrMH supplement on repeated jump heights. Sixty active males (mean age, 22 +/- 3.2 years) performed 2 sets of countermovement static jump height tests (10 jumps over 60 seconds) separated by 5 days to determine the differential effects of the placebo, carbohydrate, and CrMH on jump height sustainability over 10 jumps. Subjects were randomly assigned to groups (15 subjects per group) to receive daily doses (x5 days) of carbohydrate drinks containing 100 or 250 kilocalories (kcal), a 25-g CrMH supplement, or an energy-free placebo. After 5 days, the CrMH group experienced a significant weight gain (+1.52; +/-0.89 kg, p energy-free placebo over the final 3-4 jumps. The 250-kcal carbohydrate-supplemented group experienced a level of benefit (p < 0.01) that was at least equal to that of the CrMH group (p < 0.05), suggesting that the higher dose of carbohydrate was as effective as CrMH in maintaining repeated bouts of high-intensity activity as measured by repeated static jumps. Given the equivalent performance improvement and the absence of weight gain, the carbohydrate supplementation could be considered the preferred option for weight-conscious power athletes involved in activities that require repeated- motion high-intensity activities.

  16. EST Table: BJ985366 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ985366 E_FL_mxg-_17F05_F_0 10/09/28 86 %/165 aa ref|NP_001040215.1| stathmin [Bom...byx mori] gb|ABD36259.1| stathmin [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 60 %/215 aa FBpp0166535|DmojGI17318-PA 10/08/28 n.h...|Amel|GB18507-PA 10/09/10 55 %/160 aa gi|91083957|ref|XP_975021.1| PREDICTED: similar to stathmin [Tribolium castaneum] FS915193 mxg- ...

  17. EST Table: BJ984095 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ984095 E_FL_mxg-_10A04_F_0 10/09/28 92 %/213 aa ref|NP_001040124.1| exuperantia [...Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36117.1| exuperantia [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 55 %/147 aa FBpp0277938|Dpseexu1-PA 10/08/28 ...nl|Amel|GB19360-PA 10/09/10 51 %/208 aa gi|91085815|ref|XP_974770.1| PREDICTED: similar to exuperantia [Tribolium castaneum] FS919769 mxg- ...

  18. EST Table: BJ984989 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ984989 E_FL_mxg-_15D09_F_0 10/09/28 96 %/147 aa ref|NP_731941.1| effete [Drosophi...la melanogaster] ref|NP_001119686.1| effete [Acyrthosiphon pisum] ref|XP_310998.2| AGAP000145-PA [Anopheles ...protein ligase) (Ubiquitin carrier protein) (Protein effete) [Tribolium castaneum...AltName: Full=Ubiquitin-protein ligase; AltName: Full=Ubiquitin carrier protein; AltName: Full=Protein effet...e emb|CAA44453.1| ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAF55093.1| effet

  19. Individual variation and repeatability in aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J; Nelson, J A

    2010-01-01

    Studies of inter-individual variation in fish swimming performance may provide insight into how selection has influenced diversity in phenotypic traits. We investigated individual variation and short-term repeatability of individual swimming performance by wild European sea bass in a constant acceleration test (CAT). Fish were challenged with four consecutive CATs with 5 min rest between trials. We measured maximum anaerobic speed at exhaustion (U(CAT)), gait transition speed from steady aerobic to unsteady anaerobic swimming (U(gt)), routine metabolic rate (RMR), post-CAT maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope and recovery time from the CATs. Fish achieved significantly higher speeds during the first CAT (U(CAT)=170 cm s(-1)), and had much more inter-individual variation in performance (coefficient of variation, CV=18.43%) than in the subsequent three tests (U(CAT)=134 cm s(-1); CV=7.3%), which were very repeatable among individuals. The individual variation in U(CAT) in the first trial could be accounted for almost exclusively by variation in anaerobic burst-and-coast performance beyond U(gt). The U(gt) itself varied substantially between individuals (CV=11.4%), but was significantly repeatable across all four trials. Individual RMR and MMR varied considerably, but the rank order of post-CAT MMR was highly repeatable. Recovery rate from the four CATs was highly variable and correlated positively with the first U(CAT) (longer recovery for higher speeds) but negatively with RMR and aerobic scope (shorter recovery for higher RMR and aerobic scope). This large variation in individual performance coupled with the strong correlations between some of the studied variables may reflect divergent selection favouring alternative strategies for foraging and avoiding predation.

  20. Een concentratieprobleem bij B.J. van der Walt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Griffioen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available B.J. van der Walt’s concentration problem This contribution probes the concept of secularism, a key notion of B.J. van der Walt’s “Transforming power” (2007. It is found that Van der Walt’s interpretation of secularism rests on a double assumption. The first assumption is that human nature is intrinsically religious. Humans cannot live without putting their trust in something. The second is that this religious nature manifests itself in “concentrated” ways, rather than dispersing itself over a plurality of objects. These assumptions in tandem explain why Van der Walt holds the view that atheism, agnosticism and even overt indifference in matters of faith are at heart propelled by convictions that share the main features of positive religions. It also explains why he assumes that all these convictions tend towards one and the same goal: to gain dominance in the public realm. This article is sympathetic towards the first assumption, and skeptical towards the second. It is argued that the “concentration- thesis” fails to do justice to world and life-views that obviously do not claim total allegiance. To illustrate this point it turns to the phenomenon of “multiple religious participation”, as well as to different strands within contemporary humanism. It concludes that the main problem may well be that secular culture has little to offer to satisfy the innate religious drive in humankind.

  1. The effect of heavy resistance exercise on repeated sprint performance in youth athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daniel; Harsley, Paul; Shaw, Matthew; Peart, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This investigation assessed whether prior heavy resistance exercise would improve the repeated sprint performance of 16 trained youth soccer players (Age 17.05 ± 0.65 years; height 182.6 ± 8.9 cm; body mass 77.8 ± 8.2 kg). In session 1, individual 1 repetition max was measured utilising a squat movement. In sessions 2 and 3, participants performed a running-based repeated anaerobic sprint test with and without prior heavy resistance exercise of 91% of their 1 repetition max. Times were recorded for each of the 6 sprints performed in the repeated sprint test and summed to provide total time. T-tests compared the two exercise conditions via differences in corresponding sprint times and total time. Analysis revealed significantly reduced total time with use of heavy resistance exercise (33.48 (±1.27) vs. 33.59 (±1.27); P = 0.01). Sprints 1 (P = 0.05) and 2 (P = 0.02) were also faster in the heavy resistance exercise condition (5.09 (±0.16) vs. 5.11 (±0.16) and 5.36 (±0.24) vs. 5.45 (±0.26) seconds respectively) although no other differences were shown. Findings demonstrate improved sprint times of trained adolescent soccer players after heavy resistance exercise although benefits appear not as sustained as in adult participants.

  2. The effect of a short practical warm-up protocol on repeated sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan M; Weston, Matthew; Portas, Matthew D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a short, practical, 2-phase warm-up on repeated sprint performance when compared with more traditional warm-up protocols that contain stretching activities. Eleven subelite male soccer players completed a warm-up protocol that commenced with 5 minutes jogging at approximately 65% of maximal heart rate, followed by no stretching, static stretching, or dynamic stretching and finishing with a task-specific high-intensity activity. Using a crossover design, the 3 warm-up protocols were performed in a counterbalanced order with at least 48 hours between sessions. Repeated sprint performance was measured using a repeated sprint test that consisted of 6 × 40-m maximal sprints interspersed with a 20-second recovery. There were trivial differences in mean sprint time (0.2%) and posttest blood lactate (3.1%) between the 2-phase warm-up and the 3-phase warm-up that included dynamic stretching, whereas the short warm-up had a possibly detrimental effect on fastest sprint time (0.7%). Fastest (-1.1%) and mean (-1.2%) sprint times were quicker and posttest blood lactates were higher (13.2%) after the 2-phase warm-up when compared with the 3-phase warm-up that included static stretching. Although it is not harmful to complete a traditional 3-phase warm-up that includes dynamic stretching, it appears practical for athletes preparing for activities dependent on repeated sprint ability to complete a 2-phase warm-up consisting of a cardiovascular and specific high-intensity activity.

  3. Effects of Carbohydrate Ingestion and Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Repeat Sprint Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Ben M; Peterson, Timothy J; Shepherd, Brandon D; McAllister, Matthew J; Smith, JohnEric W

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine to the influence of carbohydrate ingestion (CHOI) and carbohydrate mouth rinse (CHOR) on acute repeat maximal sprint performance. Fourteen healthy males (age: 21.7 ± 1.8 years, mass: 82.3 ± 12.3 kg) completed a total of five 15-s maximal repeat sprints on a cycle ergometer against 0.075 kg ・ kg(-1) body mass each separated by 4 min of active recovery. Subjects completed four experimental trials and were randomly assigned one of four treatments: (1) CHOI, (2) CHOR, (3) placebo mouth rinse (PLAR), (4) placebo ingestion (PLAI). Subjects rinsed or ingested six 50 mL 10% CHO solutions throughout each trial. Performance variables measured included rating of perceived exertion, peak heart rate, peak and mean power output, fatigue index, and total work. Significant treatment main effects were observed for mean power output (p = 0.026), total work (p = 0.020), fatigue index (p = 0.004), and heart rate (p = 0.013). Overall mean power output and total work were significantly greater with CHOI (659.3 ± 103.0 watts, 9849.8 ± 1598.8 joules) compared with CHOR (645.8 ± 99.7 watts, 9447.5 ± 1684.9 joules, p PLAI, and PLAR. Athletes required to complete repeat bouts of high intensity exercise may benefit from CHOI.

  4. Effects of red bull energy drink on repeated sprint performance in women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Matera, Angela J; Basinger, Jency; Evans, Mindy; Schurman, Taylor; Marquez, Rodney

    2012-05-01

    Energy drinks are frequently consumed by athletes prior to competition to improve performance. This study examined the effect of Red Bull™ on repeated sprint performance in women athletes. Fifteen collegiate soccer players participated, with mean age, height, and body mass equal to 19.5±1.1 year, 168.4±5.8 cm, and 63.4±6.1 kg, respectively. After performing a familiarization trial, subjects performed three sets of eight bouts of the modified t test after ingestion of 255 mL of placebo or Red Bull 1 h pre-exercise in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Throughout testing, sprint time, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were continuously obtained. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences in variables between drink conditions. Across athletes, t test time ranged from 10.4 to 12.7 s. Mean sprint time was similar (p>0.05) between Red Bull (11.31±0.61 s) and placebo (11.35±0.61 s). HR and RPE increased (p0.05) of Red Bull on either variable versus placebo. Findings indicate that 255 mL of Red Bull containing 1.3 mg/kg of caffeine and 1 g of taurine does not alter repeated sprint performance, RPE, or HR in women athletes versus placebo. One serving of this energy drink provides no ergogenic benefit for women athletes engaging in sprint-based exercise.

  5. Effects of sodium bicarbonate, caffeine, and their combination on repeated 200-m freestyle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruscino, Cathryn L; Ross, Megan L R; Gregory, John R; Savage, Bernard; Flanagan, Troy R

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)), caffeine, and their combination on repeated 200-m freestyle performance. Six elite male freestyle swimmers ingested NaHCO(3) (0.3 g/kg; B), caffeine (6.2 +/- 0.3 mg/kg; C), a combination of both (B+C), and placebo (P) on 4 separate occasions before completing 2 maximal 200-m freestyle time trials (TT1 and TT2) separated by 30 min. No significant differences (p = .06) were observed for performance in TT1 (B 2:03.01 +/- 0:03.68 min, C 2:02.42 +/- 0:03.17 min, B+C 2:01.69 +/- 0:03.19 min, P 2:03.77 +/- 0:03.21 min) or TT2 (B 2:02.62 +/- 0:04.16 min, C 2:03.90 +/- 0:03.58 min, B+C 2:01.70 +/- 0:02.84 min, P 2:04.22 +/- 0:03.75 min). The drop-off in performance time from TT1 to TT2, however, was significantly greater when C was ingested than with B (-1.5%, p = .002) or B+C (-1.2%, p = .024). This is likely because of the lower blood pH and slower recovery of blood HCO(3) post-TT1 after C ingestion. These findings suggest that the ergogenic benefit of taking C alone for repeated 200-m swimming performance appears limited. When combined with NaHCO(3), however, its negative impact on repeated maximal exercise performance is reversed.

  6. Relationship Between Repeated Sprint Performance and both Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardouri, Wajdi; Selmi, Mohamed Amin; Sassi, Radhouane Haj; Gharbi, Zied; Rebhi, Ahmed; Yahmed, Mohamed Haj; Moalla, Wassim

    2014-03-27

    The aims of this study were firstly, to examine the relationship between repeated sprint performance indices and anaerobic speed reserve (AnSR), aerobic fitness and anaerobic power and secondly, to identify the best predictors of sprinting ability among these parameters. Twenty nine subjects (age: 22.5 ± 1.6 years, body height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 68.8 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI): 22.2 ± 2.1 kg•m-2, fat mass: 11.3 ± 2.9 %) participated in this study. All participants performed a 30 m sprint test (T30) from which we calculated the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS), vertical and horizontal jumps, 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT) and repeated sprint test (10 × 15 m shuttle run). AnSR was calculated as the difference between MAnS and the maximal speed reached in the MSRT. Blood lactate sampling was performed 3 min after the RSA protocol. There was no significant correlation between repeated sprint indices (total time (TT); peak time (PT), fatigue index (FI)) and both estimated VO2max and vertical jump performance). TT and PT were significantly correlated with T30 (r=0.63, p=0.001 and r=0.62, p=0.001; respectively), horizontal jump performance (r = -0.47, p = 0.001 and r = -0.49, p = 0.006; respectively) and AnSR (r=-0.68, p= 0.001 and r=-0.70, p=0.001, respectively). Significant correlations were found between blood lactate concentration and TT, PT, and AnSR (r=-0.44, p=0.017; r=-0.43, p=0.018 and r=0.44, p=0.016; respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that AnSR was the only significant predictor of the TT and PT, explaining 47% and 50% of the shared variance, respectively. Our findings are of particular interest for coaches and fitness trainers in order to predict repeated sprint performance by using AnSR that can easily identify the respective upper performance limits supported by aerobic and anaerobic power of a player involved in multi-sprint team sports.

  7. Relationship Between Repeated Sprint Performance and both Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardouri, Wajdi; Selmi, Mohamed Amin; Sassi, Radhouane Haj; Gharbi, Zied; Rebhi, Ahmed; Yahmed, Mohamed Haj; Moalla, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were firstly, to examine the relationship between repeated sprint performance indices and anaerobic speed reserve (AnSR), aerobic fitness and anaerobic power and secondly, to identify the best predictors of sprinting ability among these parameters. Twenty nine subjects (age: 22.5 ± 1.6 years, body height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 68.8 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI): 22.2 ± 2.1 kg•m-2, fat mass: 11.3 ± 2.9 %) participated in this study. All participants performed a 30 m sprint test (T30) from which we calculated the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS), vertical and horizontal jumps, 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT) and repeated sprint test (10 × 15 m shuttle run). AnSR was calculated as the difference between MAnS and the maximal speed reached in the MSRT. Blood lactate sampling was performed 3 min after the RSA protocol. There was no significant correlation between repeated sprint indices (total time (TT); peak time (PT), fatigue index (FI)) and both estimated VO2max and vertical jump performance). TT and PT were significantly correlated with T30 (r=0.63, p=0.001 and r=0.62, p=0.001; respectively), horizontal jump performance (r = −0.47, p = 0.001 and r = −0.49, p = 0.006; respectively) and AnSR (r=−0.68, p= 0.001 and r=−0.70, p=0.001, respectively). Significant correlations were found between blood lactate concentration and TT, PT, and AnSR (r=−0.44, p=0.017; r=−0.43, p=0.018 and r=0.44, p=0.016; respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that AnSR was the only significant predictor of the TT and PT, explaining 47% and 50% of the shared variance, respectively. Our findings are of particular interest for coaches and fitness trainers in order to predict repeated sprint performance by using AnSR that can easily identify the respective upper performance limits supported by aerobic and anaerobic power of a player involved in multi-sprint team sports. PMID:25031682

  8. Repeated-sprint performance and vastus lateralis oxygenation: effect of limited O₂ availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, F; Buchheit, M

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the influence of muscle deoxygenation and reoxygenation on repeated-sprint performance via manipulation of O2 delivery. Fourteen team-sport players performed 10 10-s sprints (30-s recovery) under normoxic (NM: FI O2 0.21) and acute hypoxic (HY: FI O2 0.13) conditions in a randomized, single-blind fashion and crossover design. Mechanical work was calculated and arterial O2 saturation (Sp O2 ) was estimated via pulse oximetry for every sprint. Muscle deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HHb]) was monitored continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy. Differences between NM and HY data were analyzed for practical significance using magnitude-based inferences. HY reduced Sp O2 (-10.7 ± 1.9%, with chances to observe a higher/similar/lower value in HY of 0/0/100%) and mechanical work (-8.2 ± 2.1%; 0/0/100%). Muscle deoxygenation increased during sprints in both environments, but was almost certainly higher in HY (12.5 ± 3.1%, 100/0/0%). Between-sprint muscle reoxygenation was likely more attenuated in HY (-11.1 ± 11.9%; 2/7/91%). The impairment in mechanical work in HY was very largely correlated with HY-induced attenuation in muscle reoxygenation (r = 0.78, 90% confidence limits: 0.49; 0.91). Repeated-sprint performance is related, in part, to muscle reoxygenation capacity during recovery periods. These results extend previous findings that muscle O2 availability is important for prolonged repeated-sprint performance, in particular when the exercise is taken in hypoxia.

  9. Repeated-sprint performance, locomotor profile and muscle oxygen uptake recovery: effect of training background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufland, P; Ahmaidi, S; Buchheit, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the respective importance of locomotor profile and muscle oxygen uptake (mV(˙)O₂) recovery on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and overall repeated-sprint performance. 11 sprint- (STR) and 10 middle-distance-trained (MDTR) athletes (20.8±4.0 yr) performed an incremental test and a 40-to-50-m sprint to estimate their maximal aerobic (MAS) and sprinting (MSS) speeds. They also performed 6×30-m sprints, departing every 30 s, where mean (RS(mean)) sprint time was calculated. Muscle oxygenation (Near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, [Hb(diff)]) was measured for ~ 4 min post test. The mean response time of [Hb(diff)]-mV(˙)O₂ recovery (monoexponential curve fitting, MRT[Hb(diff)]-mV(˙)O₂) was calculated. Compared with MDTR, STR presented faster MSS (+11.4±6.7%, with 99% chances to observe a substantially greater value) and RS(mean) (-3.7±5.4%, 78%), but slower MAS (-15.8±8.0%, 100%) and MRT[Hb(diff)]-mV(˙)O₂ (+46.2±31.7%, 96%). RS(mean) was largely correlated with MSS [r=-0.83 (90%CL, -0.92;-0.67)], but neither with MAS [r=-0.12 (-0.47;0.25)] nor MRT[Hb(diff)]-mV(˙)O₂ [r=-0.27(-0.58;0.11)]. RS(mean) adjusted for MSS (which indirectly reflects RSA) was largely correlated with both MAS [r=0.51(0.18;0.74)] and MRT[Hb(diff)]-mV(˙)O₂ [r=0.53(0.20;0.75)]. While a fast mV(˙)O₂ recovery is associated with an improved RSA, MSS remains of primary importance for overall repeated-sprint performance (i.e., RS(mean)).

  10. The relationship between short- and long-distance swimming performance and repeated sprint ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Yoav; Bishop, David J; Rabinovich, Moran; Kaufman, Leonid; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine indices of repeated sprint ability (RSA) during a repeated sprint swimming test (RST), to compare these with previous similar running and cycling RST, and to correlate these indices with the best short (100 m, as an index of anaerobic performance) and long (2,000 m, as an index of aerobic performance) distance swimming times in 20 elite, national team level, male swimmers. Indices of RSA included the ideal sprint time (IS), the total sprint time (TS), and the performance decrement (PD) recorded during an 8 × 15-m swimming RST. The PD during the present swimming RST (4.7 ± 2.3%) was similar to that in previous running or cycling RSTs. However, the physiological responses after the swimming RST (heart rate 168 ± 7 b·min(-1) and blood lactate concentration 5.5 ± 2.0 mmol·L(-1)) were lower than typical responses after running or cycling RSTs. There was no significant relationship between any of the RST performance indices and either the 100-m or 2,000-m swimming results. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the 3 RST indices (IS, TS, and PD), contributed 36% of the variance of the 2,000-m, but not the 100-m, swimming time. A strong correlation was found between the 100- and 2,000-m swim times (r = 0.74, p 100- and 2,000-m swim times is unique for swimming.

  11. Improvement of Repeated-Sprint Ability and Horizontal-Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players With Low-Volume Repeated-Maximal-Power Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Casajús, José Antonio; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and change-of- direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs. Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs, suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94). Six weeks of lowvolume (4-14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players.

  12. InterProScan Result: BJ983196 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ983196 BJ983196_2_ORF2 31BCC9FD38D35B77 PANTHER PTHR10315 SEVEN IN ABSENTIA HOMOL...OG 3.6e-73 T IPR004162 Seven-in-absentia protein, sina Cellular Component: nucleus (GO:0005634)|Biological P

  13. InterProScan Result: BJ983378 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ983378 BJ983378_3_ORF2 33295D521FB2B648 PFAM PF00067 p450 6.4e-25 T IPR001128 Cytochrome P450 Molecular... Function: monooxygenase activity (GO:0004497)|Molecular Function: iron ion binding (GO:0005506)|Molecular... Function: electron carrier activity (GO:0009055)|Molecular Function: heme binding (GO:0020037) ...

  14. InterProScan Result: BJ983539 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ983539 BJ983539_3_ORF2 2958F2EC8D8B53AA PANTHER PTHR12598 COPPER HOMEOSTASIS PROT...EIN 5.1e-41 T IPR005627 CutC Molecular Function: copper ion binding (GO:0005507)|Biological Process: copper ion homeostasis (GO:0055070) ...

  15. InterProScan Result: BJ985269 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BJ985269 BJ985269_3_ORF1 47BB904CDF209F05 PANTHER PTHR13864 T-CELL ACUTE LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA/STEM CELL LEUK...EMIA-RELATED 8.8e-26 T IPR011598 unintegrated Cellular Component: nucleus (GO:00056

  16. The effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance in single and repeated sprint swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrebrune, M C; Nevill, M E; Donaldson, F J; Cosford, D J

    1998-04-01

    We studied the effects of oral creatine supplementation on sprint swimming performance in 14 elite competitive male swimmers. The subjects performed a single sprint (1 x 50 yards [45.72 m]) and repeated sprint set (8 x 50 yards at intervals of 1 min 30 s) before and after a 5 day period of either creatine (9 g creatine + 4.5 g maltodextrin + 4.5 g glucose day(-1)) or placebo (18 g glucose day(-1); double-blind protocol) supplementation. Venous and capillary blood samples were taken for the determination of plasma ammonia, blood pH and lactate. Mean times recorded for the single 50 yard sprint were unchanged as a result of supplementation (creatine vs control, N.S.). During the repeated sprint test, mean times increased (Pcreatine supplementation (sprints 1-8: control pre-, 23.35+/-0.68 to 26.32+/-1.34 s; control post-, 23.59+/-0.66 to 26.19+/-1.48 s; creatine pre-, 23.20+/-0.67 to 26.85+/-0.42 s; creatine post-, 23.39+/-0.54 to 25.73+/-0.26 s; P creatine supplementation (control, 12.7+/-5.7% vs 11.0+/-5.5%; creatine, 15.7+/-4.3% vs 10.0+/-2.5%; Pcreatine in this group of swimmers after an identical supplementation regimen. In summary, our results suggest that ingesting 9 g creatine per day for 5 days can improve swimming performance in elite competitors during repeated sprints, but appears to have no effect on a single 50 yard sprint.

  17. Effect of Beta alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducker, Kagan J; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen E

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate if combining beta alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation could lead to enhanced repeated-sprint performance in team-sport athletes, beyond what is possible with either supplement alone. Participants (n = 24) completed duplicate trials of a repeated-sprint test (3 sets; 6 × 20 m departing every 25 seconds, 4 minutes active recovery between sets) and were then allocated into 4 groups as follows: BA only (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute sodium chloride placebo); NaHCO3 only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute NaHCO3); BA/NaHCO3 (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute NaHCO3); placebo only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute sodium chloride placebo), then completed duplicate trials postsupplementation. Sodium bicarbonate alone resulted in moderate effect size (d = 0.40-0.71) and "likely" and "very likely" benefit for overall total sprint times (TST) and for each individual set and for first sprint (sets 2 and 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3). Combining BA and NaHCO3 resulted in "possible" to "likely" benefits for overall TST and for sets 2 and 3. First sprint (set 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3) also showed "likely" benefit after this trial. The BA and placebo groups showed no differences in performance after supplementation. In conclusion, these results indicate that supplementation with acute NaHCO3 improved repeated-sprint performance more than either a combination of NaHCO3 and BA or BA alone.

  18. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei Dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C A

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event.

  19. Performance and physiological responses to repeated-sprint and jump sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the performance and selected physiological responses to team-sport specific repeated-sprint and jump sequence were investigated. On four occasions, 13 team-sport players (22 ± 3 year) performed alternatively six repeated maximal straight-line or shuttle-sprints interspersed with a jump ([RS(+j), 6 × 25 m] or [RSS(+j), 6 × (2 × 12.5 m)]) or not ([RS, 6 × 25 m] or [RSS, 6 × (2 × 12.5 m)]) within each recovery period. Mean running time, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), pulmonary oxygen uptake (V(O)₂), blood lactate ([La](b)), and vastus lateralis deoxygenation ([HHb]) were obtained for each condition. Mean sprint times were greater for RS(+j) versus RS (4.14 ± 0.17 vs. 4.09 ± 0.16 s, with the qualitative analysis revealing a 82% chance of RS(+j) times to be greater than RS) and for RSS(+j) versus RSS (5.43 ± 0.18 vs. 5.29 ± 0.17 s; 99% chance of RSS(+j) to be >RSS). The correlation between sprint and jump abilities were large-to-very-large, but below 0.71 for RSSs. Jumps increased RPE (Cohen's d ± 90% CL: +0.7 ± 0.5; 95% chance for RS(+j) > RS and +0.7 ± 0.5; 96% for RSS(+j) > RSS), V(O)₂(+0.4 ± 0.5; 80% for RS(+j) > RS and +0.5 ± 0.5; 86% for RSS(+j) > RSS), [La](b) (+0.5 ± 0.5; 59% for RS(+j) > RS and +0.2 ± 0.5; unclear for RSS(+j) > RSS), and [HHb] (+0.5 ± 0.5; 86% for RS(+j) > RS and +0.5 ± 0.5; 85% for RSS(+j) > RSS). To conclude, repeated- sprint and jump abilities could be considered as specific qualities. The addition of a jump within the recovery periods during repeated-sprint running sequences impairs sprinting performance and might be an effective training practice for eliciting both greater systemic and vastus lateralis physiological loads.

  20. Effect of endurance training on performance and muscle reoxygenation rate during repeated-sprint running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Ufland, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of an 8-week endurance training program on repeated-sprint (RS) performance and post-sprints muscle reoxygenation rate in 18 moderately trained males (34 ± 5 years). Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), 10 km running and RS (2 × 15-s shuttle-sprints, interspersed with 15 s of passive recovery) performance were assessed before and after the training intervention. Total distance covered (TD) and the percentage of distance decrement (%Dec) were calculated for RS. Between-sprints muscle reoxygenation rate (Reoxy rate) was assessed with near-infrared spectroscopy during RS before and after training. After training, MAS (+9.8 ± 5.8%, with 100% chances to observe a substantial improvement), 10 km time (-6.2 ± 5.3%, 99%), TD (+9.6 ± 7.7%, 98%), %Dec (-25.6 ± 73.6%, 93%) and Reoxy rate (+152.4 ± 308.1%, 95%) were improved. The improvement of Reoxy rate was largely correlated with improvements in MAS [r = 0.63 (90% CL, 0.31;-0.82)] and %Dec [r = -0.52 (-0.15;-0.76)]. Present findings confirm the beneficial effect of endurance training on post-sprint muscle reoxygenation rate, which is likely to participate in the improvement of repeated-sprint ability after training. These data also confirm the importance of aerobic conditioning in sports, where repeating high-intensity/maximal efforts within a short time-period are required.

  1. Effect of cold water immersion on repeated cycling performance and limb blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaile, J; O'Hagan, C; Stefanovic, B; Walker, M; Gill, N; Askew, C D

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) and active recovery (ACT) on resting limb blood flow, rectal temperature and repeated cycling performance in the heat. Ten subjects completed two testing sessions separated by 1 week; each trial consisted of an initial all-out 35-min exercise bout, one of two 15-min recovery interventions (randomised: CWI or ACT), followed by a 40-min passive recovery period before repeating the 35-min exercise bout. Performance was measured as the change in total work completed during the exercise bouts. Resting limb blood flow, heart rate, rectal temperature and blood lactate were recorded throughout the testing sessions. There was a significant decline in performance after ACT (mean (SD) -1.81% (1.05%)) compared with CWI where performance remained unchanged (0.10% (0.71%)). Rectal temperature was reduced after CWI (36.8°C (1.0°C)) compared with ACT (38.3°C (0.4°C)), as was blood flow to the arms (CWI 3.64 (1.47) ml/100 ml/min; ACT 16.85 (3.57) ml/100 ml/min) and legs (CW 4.83 (2.49) ml/100 ml/min; ACT 4.83 (2.49) ml/100 ml/min). Leg blood flow at the end of the second exercise bout was not different between the active (15.25 (4.33) ml/100 ml/min) and cold trials (14.99 (4.96) ml/100 ml/min), whereas rectal temperature (CWI 38.1°C (0.3°C); ACT 38.8°C (0.2°C)) and arm blood flow (CWI 20.55 (3.78) ml/100 ml/min; ACT 23.83 (5.32) ml/100 ml/min) remained depressed until the end of the cold trial. These findings indicate that CWI is an effective intervention for maintaining repeat cycling performance in the heat and this performance benefit is associated with alterations in core temperature and limb blood flow.

  2. Data driven models of the performance and repeatability of NIF high foot implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Jim; Casey, Dan; Callahan, Debbie; Hartouni, Ed; Ma, Tammy; Spears, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Recent high foot (HF) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments performed at the national ignition facility (NIF) have consisted of enough laser shots that a data-driven analysis of capsule performance is feasible. In this work we use 20-30 individual implosions of similar design, spanning laser drive energies from 1.2 to 1.8 MJ, to quantify our current understanding of the behavior of HF ICF implosions. We develop a probabilistic model for the projected performance of a given implosion and use it to quantify uncertainties in predicted performance including shot-shot variations and observation uncertainties. We investigate the statistical significance of the observed performance differences between different laser pulse shapes, ablator materials, and capsule designs. Finally, using a cross-validation technique, we demonstrate that 5-10 repeated shots of a similar design are required before real trends in the data can be distinguished from shot-shot variations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-674957.

  3. Repeated acquisition and performance chamber for mice: a paradigm for assessment of spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A I; Cory-Slechta, D A; Murg, S L; Federoff, H J

    2000-11-01

    Molecular genetic manipulation of the mouse offers the possibility of elucidating the function of individual gene products in neural systems underlying learning and memory. Many extant learning paradigms for mice rely on negative reinforcement, involve simple problems that are relatively rapidly acquired and thus preclude time-course assessment, and may impose the need to undertake additional experiments to determine the extent to which noncognitive behaviors influence the measures of learning. To overcome such limitations, a multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance was behaviorally engineered to assess learning vs rote performance within-behavioral test session and within-subject utilizing an apparatus modified from the rat (the repeated acquisition and performance chamber; RAPC). The multiple schedule required mice to learn a new sequence of door openings leading to saccharin availability in the learning component during each session, while the sequence of door openings for the performance component remained constant across sessions. The learning and performance components alternated over the course of each test session, with different auditory stimuli signaling which component was currently in effect. To validate this paradigm, learning vs performance was evaluated in two inbred strains of mice: C57BL/6J and 129/SvJ. The hippocampal dependence of this measure was examined in lesioned C57BL/6J mice. Both strains exhibited longer latencies and higher errors in the learning compared to the performance component and evidenced declines in both measures across the trials of each session, consistent with an acquisition phenomenon. These same measures showed little or no evidence of change in the performance component. Whereas three trials per session were utilized with C57BL/65 mice in each component, behavior of 129/SvJ mice could only be sustained for two trials per component per session, demonstrating differences in testing capabilities between

  4. Assessing the performance of quantum repeaters for all phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.

    2016-06-01

    One of the most sought-after goals in experimental quantum communication is the implementation of a quantum repeater. The performance of quantum repeaters can be assessed by comparing the attained rate with the quantum and private capacity of direct transmission, assisted by unlimited classical two-way communication. However, these quantities are hard to compute, motivating the search for upper bounds. Takeoka, Guha and Wilde found the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel to be an upper bound on both these capacities. In general it is still hard to find the exact value of the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel, but clever sub-optimal squashing channels allow one to upper bound this quantity, and thus also the corresponding capacities. Here, we exploit this idea to obtain bounds for any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. This bound allows one to benchmark the implementation of quantum repeaters for a large class of channels used to model communication across fibers. In particular, our bound is applicable to the realistic scenario when there is a restriction on the mean photon number on the input. Furthermore, we show that the squashed entanglement of a channel is convex in the set of channels, and we use a connection between the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel and its entanglement assisted classical capacity. Building on this connection, we obtain the exact squashed entanglement and two-way assisted capacities of the d-dimensional erasure channel and bounds on the amplitude-damping channel and all qubit Pauli channels. In particular, our bound improves on the previous best known squashed entanglement upper bound of the depolarizing channel.

  5. Effects of Learning on Performance When Computerized Dynamic Posturography Assessments Are Repeated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Paloski, William H.; Wood, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Computerized dynamic posturography is widely used to measure balance control performance. Clinically, performance is assessed by comparing individual data against standards obtained from a normative population. When performing repeated assessments to track performance changes, one must be concerned with the influence of learning effects. Subjects do not have the opportunity to practice before the first session, and often a second session is not performed prior to an experiment. Thus, the objective of this activity was to examine learning effects on balance control performance. We hypothesize that subjects will perform better on the second session when compared to the first, and that the difference will be greater for more difficult conditions. Methods: Data were collected from 204 subjects using the NeuroCom Equitest system during quiet stance with arms crossed at the chest on up to two sessions. All subjects performed standard sensory organization tests (SOTs) including 1) normal vision, fixed support; 2) absent vision, fixed support; 3) sway-referenced vision, fixed support; 4) normal vision, swayreferenced support; 5) absent vision, sway-referenced support; and 6) sway-referenced vision, sway-referenced support. 120 of these subjects performed modified sensory organization tests (mSOTs 2 and 5) which included static (20 back) and dynamic (20, 0.33Hz) head tilts. Median equilibrium scores (mEQ) were calculated from peak-to-peak anterior-posterior sway across trials. Data collected on the first session were then compared with the second to examine learning effect. Results: There were no differences in mEQ scores between the first and second sessions for SOTs 1, 2, and 4, while mEQ scores were higher for the second session when compared to the first for SOTs 3, 5, and 6 and for all mSOTs. Discussion: An additional familiarization session or practice trials prior to the first session may be necessary for more challenging SOT and mSOT conditions to

  6. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  7. Repeated sprint swimming performance after low- or high-intensity active and passive recoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubekis, Argyris G; Adam, Georgios V; Douda, Helen T; Antoniou, Panagiotis D; Douroundos, Ioannis I; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects on sprint swimming performance after low- and high-intensity active recovery (AR) as compared to passive recovery. Ten male competitive swimmers (age: 17.9 ± 2.3 years; body mass: 73.2 ± 4.0 kg; height: 1.81 ± 0.04 m, 100-m best time: 54.90 ± 1.96 seconds) performed 8 × 25-m sprints with 120-second rest intervals followed by a 50-m sprint 6 minutes later. During the 120-second and the 6-minute interval periods swimmers rested passively (PAS) or swam at an intensity of 40% (ACT40; 36 ± 8% of the V(O2)max) and 60% (ACT60; 59 ± 7% of the V(O2)max) of their individual 100-m velocity. Performance time of the 8 × 25-m after ACT60 was slower compared with PAS and ACT40, but no difference was observed between ACT40 and PAS conditions (PAS: 12.15 ± 0.48, ACT40: 12.23 ± 0.54, ACT60: 12.35 ± 0.57 seconds, p sprint was no different between conditions (PAS: 26.45 ± 0.91; ACT40: 26.30 ± 1.18; ACT60: 26.21 ± 1.19 seconds; p > 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was not different between PAS, ACT40, and ACT60 after the 8 × 25-m and the 50-m sprints (p > 0.05). Passive recovery, or low intensity of AR (40% of the 100-m velocity), is advised to maintain repeated 25-m sprint swimming performance when a 2-minute interval period is provided. Active recovery at an intensity corresponding to 60% of the 100-m velocity decreases performance during the 25-m repeated sprints without affecting the performance time on a subsequent longer duration sprint (i.e., 50 m).

  8. The effect of temperature on repeat swimming performance in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xu; Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Zhang, Yao-Guang; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of temperature on the repeat constant acceleration swimming performance and on the metabolic recovery capacity in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis), their constant acceleration test speed (U(CAT)) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) recovery process were measured twice with 1-h intervals at different acclimation temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C). Temperature significantly affected U(CAT), the pre-exercise metabolic rate (MO(2)), metabolic peak values (MO(2peak)), the metabolic scope (MS, MO(2peak)--pre-exercise MO(2)) and the magnitude of the EPOC (P EPOC magnitude) or did not change (MO(2peak) and MS) when the temperature increased from 25 to 30 °C in the first test (P EPOC magnitude) in the first test were as follows: U(CAT) = 62.14/{1 + [(T - 25.1)/21.1](2)} (r = 0.847, P EPOC = 195.42/{1 + [(T - 25.6)/8.7](2)} (r = 0.752, P EPOC magnitude in juvenile qingbo were 25.1, 29.2, 27.1 and 28.6 °C, respectively. Repeat exercise had different effect on U(CAT) and EPOC magnitude at different temperature (interaction effect, P EPOC magnitude between the first and second tests at low temperatures (10-20 °C). However, both U(CAT) and EPOC magnitude decreased significantly during the second test compared with the first test at high temperatures (25 and 30 °C) (P < 0.05). The present study showed that the recovery of the constant acceleration swimming performance was poorer at higher temperatures than at low temperatures in juvenile qingbo. These differences may be related to larger anaerobic metabolism, a lower pH value in the blood, larger ionic fluids and/or higher levels of hormones present at high temperatures.

  9. Performance Degradation of the Repeated Recycled Aggregate Concrete with 70% Replacement of Three-generation Recycled Coarse Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Pinghua; ZHANG Xinxin; WU Junyong; WANG Xinjie

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using different generations recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) on structural concrete was fully evaluated by studying the performance of the recycled coarse aggregates and their corresponding concretes, the different generations of RCA were recycled by following the repeated mode of ‘concrete-waste concrete-coarse aggregate-concrete’. Moreover, the focus was on ‘three generations’ of repeated RCAs, the RCA was produced by crushing and regenerating the artiifcial accelerated degraded concrete, the process was designed to follow the nature degradation of the concrete with a coupling action of accelerated carbonation and bending load. The properties ofx-generation (x=1, 2 or 3) of repeated RCA were systematically investigated and the compressive and splitting tensile strengths of relating structural concretes(with 70% replacement ofx-generation of RCA) were studied accordingly. The results show a competent compressive and splitting tensile strength of 30 MPa at 28th day of structural concretes with all generations of repeated RAC. And the gradual degraded performance of the repeated RCAs was observed with an increased numbers of repetition (1﹥2﹥3 generations), the overall performances of all repeated RCAs fulifll the ClassⅢaccording to Chinese Standards GB25177-2010. Our gained insight demonstrates a feasibility of using at least 3 generations of repeated RCA for the production of normal structural concrete.

  10. Effect of Repeated Stress Treatments During the Follicular Phase and Early Pregnancy on Reproductive Performance of Gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede, N.M.; Roelofs, J.B.; Verheijen, R.J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Hazeleger, W.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    In pig husbandry, stress is being considered an important cause of impaired reproductive performance. Therefore, an experiment was performed to quantify effects of repeated stressors during the follicular phase and/or during early pregnancy on reproductive performance of gilts. Eighty-one cyclic

  11. Repeated sprint performance and metabolic recovery curves: effects of aerobic and anaerobic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Turnes, Tiago; Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Rogério; Salvador, Amadeo Félix; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    To examine the influence of aerobic and anaerobic indices on repeated sprint (RS) performance and ability (RSA), 8 sprinters (SPR), 8 endurance runners (END), and 8 active participants (ACT) performed the following tests: (i) incremental test; (ii) 1-min test to determine first decay time constant of pulmonary oxygen uptake off-kinetics and parameters related to anaerobic energy supply, lactate exchange, and removal abilities from blood lactate kinetics; and (iii) RS test (ten 35-m sprints, departing every 20 s) to determine best (RSbest) and mean (RSmean) sprint times and percentage of sprint decrement (%Dec). While SPR had a 98%-100% likelihood of having the fastest RSbest (Cohen's d of 1.8 and 1.4 for ACT and END, respectively) and RSmean (2.1 and 0.9 for ACT and END, respectively), END presented a 97%-100% likelihood of having the lowest %Dec (0.9 and 2.2 for ACT and SPR, respectively). RSmean was very largely correlated with RSbest (r=0.85) and moderately correlated with estimates of anaerobic energy supply (r=-0.40 to -0.49). RSmean adjusted for RSbest (which indirectly reflects RSA) was largely correlated with lactate exchange ability (r=0.55). Our results confirm the importance of locomotor- and anaerobic-related variables to RS performance, and highlight the importance of disposal of selected metabolic by-products to RSA.

  12. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition and performance during repeated bouts of maximal, concentric contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, E. B.; Dudley, G. A.; Tesch, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Force output and fatigue and recovery patterns were studied during intermittent short-term exercise. 27 men performed three bouts of 30 maximal unilateral knee extensions on 2 different occasions. Blood flow was maintained or occluded during recovery periods (60 s). Blood flow was restricted by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around the proximal thigh. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were analyzed for identification of fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and relative FT area. Peak torque decreased during each bout of exercise and more when blood flow was restricted during recovery. Initial peak torque (IPT) and average peak torque (APT) decreased over the three exercise bouts. This response was 3 fold greater without than with blood flow during recovery. IPT and APT decreased more in individuals with mainly FT fibers than in those with mainly ST fibers. It is suggested that performance during repeated bouts of maximal concentric contractions differs between individuals with different fiber type composition. Specifically, in high intensity, intermittent exercise with emphasis on anaerobic energy release a high FT composition may not necessarily be advantageous for performance.

  13. Repeating Knowledge Application Practice to Improve Student Performance in a Large, Introductory Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinuma, Ryosuke; Wendling, Laura A.

    2015-11-01

    There is a tendency for lecture-based instruction in large introductory science courses to strongly focus on the delivery of discipline-specific technical terminology and fundamental concepts, sometimes to the detriment of opportunities for application of learned knowledge in evidence-based critical-thinking activities. We sought to improve student performance on evidence-based critical-thinking tasks through the implementation of peer learning and problem-based learning tutorial activities. Small-group discussions and associated learning activities were used to facilitate deeper learning through the application of new knowledge. Student performance was assessed using critical-thinking essay assignments and a final course exam, and student satisfaction with tutorial activities was monitored using online surveys. Overall, students expressed satisfaction with the small-group-discussion-based tutorial activities (mean score 7.5/10). Improved critical thinking was evidenced by improved student performance on essay assignments during the semester, as well as a 25% increase in mean student scores on the final course exam compared to previous years. These results demonstrate that repeated knowledge application practice can improve student learning in large introductory-level science courses.

  14. Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate mouth rinses on repeated sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, C Martyn; Maulder, Peter; Pooley, Adrian; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinses in enhancing repeated sprint ability. Previously, studies have shown that a carbohydrate mouth rinse (without ingestion) has beneficial effects on endurance performance that are related to changes in brain activity. Caffeine ingestion has also demonstrated positive effects on sprint performance. However, the effects of carbohydrate or caffeine mouth rinses on intermittent sprints have not been examined previously. Twelve males performed 5 × 6-s sprints interspersed with 24 s of active recovery on a cycle ergometer. Twenty-five milliliters of either a noncaloric placebo, a 6% glucose, or a 1.2% caffeine solution was rinsed in the mouth for 5 s prior to each sprint in a double-blinded and balanced cross-over design. Postexercise maximal heart rate and perceived exertion were recorded, along with power measures. A second experiment compared a combined caffeine-carbohydrate rinse with carbohydrate only. Compared with the placebo mouth rinse, carbohydrate substantially increased peak power in sprint 1 (22.1 ± 19.5 W; Cohen's effect size (ES), 0.81), and both caffeine (26.9 ± 26.9 W; ES, 0.71) and carbohydrate (39.1 ± 25.8 W; ES, 1.08) improved mean power in sprint 1. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a combination of caffeine and carbohydrate improved sprint 1 power production compared with carbohydrate alone (36.0 ± 37.3 W; ES, 0.81). We conclude that carbohydrate and (or) caffeine mouth rinses may rapidly enhance power production, which could have benefits for specific short sprint exercise performance. The ability of a mouth-rinse intervention to rapidly improve maximal exercise performance in the absence of fatigue suggests a central mechanism.

  15. The repeated bout effect of traditional resistance exercises on running performance across 3 bouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Leicht, Anthony Scott; Heilbronn, Brian Edward; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the repeated bout effect of 3 typical lower body resistance-training sessions on maximal and submaximal effort running performance. Twelve resistance-untrained men (age, 24 ± 4 years; height, 1.81 ± 0.10 m; body mass, 79.3 ± 10.9 kg; peak oxygen uptake, 48.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 6-repetition maximum squat, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg) undertook 3 bouts of resistance-training sessions at 6-repetitions maximum. Countermovement jump (CMJ), lower-body range of motion (ROM), muscle soreness, and creatine kinase (CK) were examined prior to and immediately, 24 h (T24), and 48 h (T48) after each resistance-training bout. Submaximal (i.e., below anaerobic threshold (AT)) and maximal (i.e., above AT) running performances were also conducted at T24 and T48. Most indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., CMJ, ROM, and muscle soreness) and submaximal running performance were significantly improved (P resistance-training bout compared with the second bout. Whilst maximal running performance was also improved following the third bout (P 0.05). In conclusion, the initial bout induced the greatest change in CK; however, at least 2 bouts were required to produce protective effects on other indirect muscle damage markers and submaximal running performance measures. This suggests that submaximal running sessions should be avoided for at least 48 h after resistance training until the third bout, although a greater recovery period may be required for maximal running sessions.

  16. Mental fatigue negatively influences manual dexterity and anticipation timing but not repeated high-intensity exercise performance in trained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Fowler, Nicholas; George, Oliver; Joyce, Samuel; Hankey, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a period of mental fatigue on manual dexterity, anticipation timing and repeated high intensity exercise performance. Using a randomised, repeated measures experimental design, eight physically trained adults (mean age = 24.8 ± 4.1 years) undertook a 40 minute vigilance task to elicit mental fatigue or a control condition followed by four repeated Wingate anaerobic performance tests. Pre, post fatigue/control and post each Wingate test, manual dexterity (Seconds), coincidence anticipation (absolute error) were assessed. A series of two (condition) by six (time) ways repeated measures ANOVAs indicated a significant condition by time interactions for manual dexterity time (p = 0.021) and absolute error (p = 0.028). Manual dexterity and coincidence anticipation were significantly poorer post mental fatigue compared with control. There were no significant differences in mean power between conditions or across trials (all p > 0.05).

  17. Who Repeats Algebra I, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated? REL 2015-059

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony B.; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This REL West study explores the prevalence of students repeating Algebra I, who is most likely to repeat the course, and the level of improvement for students who repeat. Using six years of data from a cohort of 3,400 first-time seventh grade students in a California school district, authors found that 44 percent of students repeated algebra I.…

  18. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morrison, Chris McLellan, Clare Minahan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444 in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH. Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45, set 2 (p = 0.26, or set 3 (p = 0.23 between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01. Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02. Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %, post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 % and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01. In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140 conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution.

  19. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF REPEATED SPRINT PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS OF CONTRASTING SKELETAL MATURITY STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Valente-dos-Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the developmental changes in performance in a repeated-sprint ability (RSA test in young soccer players of contrasting maturity status. A total of 83 regional level Portuguese youth soccer players, aged 11- 13 years at baseline was assessed annually. Stature, body mass, 7x34.2-m sprint protocol (25-s active recovery, 20-m multi-stage continuous shuttle endurance run and counter-movement jump (CMJ without the use of the arms were measured. Fat-free mass (FFM was determined by age and gender- specific formulas. Developmental changes in total sprint time across ages were predicted using multilevel modeling. Corresponding measurements were performed on an independent cross-sectional subsample of 52 youth soccer players 11-17 years to evaluate the predictive model. CA, CA2, maturational status (SA-CA, body size (mass and stature, FFM, aerobic endurance, lower limb explosive strength and annual volume training significantly improved the statistical fit of the RSA multilevel model. In 'late' maturing athletes, the best model for predicting change in RSA was expressed by the following equation: 86.54 - 2.87 x CA + 0.05 x CA2 - 0.25 x FFM + 0.15 x body mass + 0.05 x stature - 0.05 x aerobic endurance - 0.09 x lower limb explosive strength - 0.01 x annual volume training. The best fitting models for players who were 'on time' and 'early' maturing were identical to the best model for late maturing players, less 0.64 seconds and 1.74 seconds, respectively. Multilevel modeling provided performance curves that permitted the prediction of individual RSA performance across adolescent years in regional level soccer players

  20. The Effect of Caffeine on Repeat-High-Intensity-Effort Performance in Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Brandon M; Leveritt, Michael D; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-02-01

    Repeat-high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) have recently been shown to occur at critical periods of rugby league matches. To examine the effect that caffeine has on RHIE performance in rugby league players. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 11 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 19.0 ± 0.5 y, body mass 87.4 ± 12.9 kg, height 178.9 ± 2.6 cm) completed 2 experimental trials that involved completing an RHIE test after either caffeine (300 mg caffeine) or placebo (vitamin H) ingestion. Each trial consisted of 3 sets of 20-m sprints interspersed with bouts of tackling. During the RHIE test, 20-m-sprint time, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate were measured. Total time to complete the nine 20-m sprints during the caffeine condition was 1.0% faster (28.46 ± 1.4 s) than during the placebo condition (28.77 ± 1.7 s) (ES = 0.18, 90%CI -0.7 to 0.1 s). This resulted in a very likely chance of caffeine being of benefit to RHIE performance (99% likely to be beneficial). These improvements were more pronounced in the early stages of the test, with a 1.3%, 1.0%, and 0.9% improvement in sprint performance during sets 1, 2, and 3 respectively. There was no significant difference in RPE across the 3 sets (P = .47, 0.48, 1.00) or mean HR (P = .36), maximal HR (P = .74), or blood lactate (P = .50) between treatment conditions. Preexercise ingestion of 300 mg caffeine produced practically meaningful improvements in RHIE performance in rugby league players.

  1. Repeat Effort Performance is Reduced 24 h following Acute Dehydration in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Iredale, Fiona; Chapman, Dale W; Hopper, Amanda; Abbiss, Chris

    2017-09-11

    This study sought to determine the influence of acute dehydration on physical performance and physiology in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). MMA athletes (n=14; age: 23±4 years), completed in a randomised counterbalanced order a dehydration protocol, (DHY: 3 h cycling at 60 W in 40°C to induce 5% dehydration) or thermoneutral control (25°C: CONT) exercise, followed by ad libitum fluid/food intake. Performance testing (a repeat sled push test, medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump) was completed 3 and 24 h following the intervention, while urine and blood samples were collected before, 20 min, 3 and 24 h following the intervention. Body mass was reduced (4.8±0.8%) following DHY (p<0.001) and remained lower than CONT at 3 and 24 h post (p=0.003 and p=0.024, respectively). Compared to CONT average sled push times were slower 3 and 24 h following DHY (19±15%; p=0.001; g=1.229 and 14±15%; p=0.012; g=0.671, respectively). When compared to the CONT hand grip was weaker 3 h following DHY (53±8 and 51±8 kg; p=0.044, g=0.243 respectively) and medicine ball chest throw distances were shorter 24 h following DHY (474±52 and 449±44 cm; p=0.016, g=0.253 respectively). No significant differences were observed in vertical jump (p=0.467). Urine specific gravity was higher than CONT 20 min (p=0.035) and 24 h (p=0.035) following DHY. Acute dehydration of 4.8% body mass results in reduced physical performance 3 and 24 h following. There is need for caution when athletes use dehydration for weight loss 24 h prior to competition.

  2. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jaime; McLellan, Chris; Minahan, Clare

    2015-12-01

    The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration) of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets) repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444) in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN) with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH). Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order) between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La(-)] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively) were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45), set 2 (p = 0.26), or set 3 (p = 0.23) between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02). Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %), post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 %) and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140) conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed) to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution. Key pointsThe RSR444 is a practical, multiple-set repeated-sprint running protocol designed for team-sport athletes.During performance of the RSR444 in hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140), amateur team-sport athletes were unable to replicate the peak speed, distance covered or

  3. The enigma of capitalism - Beyond human power II and John Gabriel Borkman. Bjørnstjere Bjørnson and Henrik Ibsen as critics of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Engelstad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mid-1890s saw the publication of two seminal critiques of capitalism in Norwegian drama: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson’s Beyond Human Power – Second Play (1895, and Henrik Ibsen’s John Gabriel Borkman (1896. The obvious differences, as well as the similarities of these plays, invite a comparative analysis. Bjørnson’s play is a sociological depiction of class differences and class struggles, expressed in collective action strategies by employers, and a strange mixture of powerlessness and terrorism by the working class.  The main references are work relations and social and political collectivities. Nevertheless, identities and close social relations are a necessary part of social structures as well as dramatic plots. The analysis of Bjørnson’s play focuses on the relationships between individual lives and individual action on the one hand, and the broad social landscape on the other. John Gabriel Borkman is about a stagnated universe, where all of the main characters are trying to revive the past. Borkman is not about work and collectivities, but about financial capital. To Ibsen, financial capital is the ideal environment for research on the ambitions and shortcomings of individuals. Finance in one sense leads to the aggrandizement of individual power; it makes possible the idea that one man can rule the world. At the same time, there is a world of production in the Ibsenesque universe, as there is a world of social identities in Bjørnson. The inspiration for both plays may be found in the developments of capitalism during the latter half of the nineteenth century, but also in their intertextual relationships with Nietzsche and Goethe’s Faust.

  4. Review of tandem repeat search tools: a systematic approach to evaluating algorithmic performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Kian Guan; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Hsu, Li Yang; Wirawan, Adrianto

    2013-01-01

    .... Over the last 10-15 years, numerous tools have been developed for searching tandem repeats, but differences in the search algorithms adopted and difficulties with parameter settings have confounded...

  5. Isolation and 2,4-D-degrading characteristics of Cupriavidus campinensis BJ71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhen Han

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An indigenous bacterial strain capable of utilizing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a soil used for grown wheat with a long-term history of herbicide use in Beijing, China. The strain BJ71 was identified as Cupriavidus campinensis based on its 16S rRNA sequence analysis and morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. The degradation characteristics of strain BJ71 were evaluated. The optimal conditions for 2,4-D degradation were as follows: pH 7.0, 30 °C, 3% (v/v inoculum size, and an initial 2,4-D concentration of 350 mg L−1. Up to 99.57% of the 2,4-D was degraded under optimal conditions after 6 days of incubation. Strain BJ71 was also able to degrade quizalofop and fluroxypyr. This is the first report of a 2,4-D-degrader containing tfdA gene that can utilize these two herbicides. In a biodegradation experiment, 87.13% and 42.53% of 2,4-D (initial concentration, 350 mg kg−1 was degraded in non-sterile and sterilized soil inoculated with BJ71, respectively, after 14 days. The 2,4-D degradation was more rapid in a soil microcosm including BJ71 than in a soil microcosm without BJ71. These results indicate that strain BJ71 is a potential candidate for the bioremediation of soil contaminated with the herbicide 2,4-D.

  6. Isolation and 2,4-D-degrading characteristics of Cupriavidus campinensis BJ71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lizhen; Zhao, Degang; Li, Cuicui

    2015-06-01

    An indigenous bacterial strain capable of utilizing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a soil used for grown wheat with a long-term history of herbicide use in Beijing, China. The strain BJ71 was identified as Cupriavidus campinensis based on its 16S rRNA sequence analysis and morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. The degradation characteristics of strain BJ71 were evaluated. The optimal conditions for 2,4-D degradation were as follows: pH 7.0, 30 °C, 3% (v/v) inoculum size, and an initial 2,4-D concentration of 350 mg L(-1). Up to 99.57% of the 2,4-D was degraded under optimal conditions after 6 days of incubation. Strain BJ71 was also able to degrade quizalofop and fluroxypyr. This is the first report of a 2,4-D-degrader containing tfdA gene that can utilize these two herbicides. In a biodegradation experiment, 87.13% and 42.53% of 2,4-D (initial concentration, 350 mg kg(-1)) was degraded in non-sterile and sterilized soil inoculated with BJ71, respectively, after 14 days. The 2,4-D degradation was more rapid in a soil microcosm including BJ71 than in a soil microcosm without BJ71. These results indicate that strain BJ71 is a potential candidate for the bioremediation of soil contaminated with the herbicide 2,4-D.

  7. K-ABC/McCarthy Performance for Repeating and Nonrepeating Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas K.; Lyon, Mark A.

    This study compares the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) profiles of successful and unsuccessful preschoolers with learning disabilities. Subjects, 40 preschool students, were tested at the beginning and at the end of the preschool year and were placed into repeating or…

  8. Examination of dioxin degradation conditions for geobacillus midousuji SH2B-J2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshina, S. [Jikei Univ., School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ohtsuka, Y. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Instiute; Goda, H. [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd.

    2004-09-15

    Cellular membrane degradation capability of SH2B-J2 strains for dioxin mixtures that are greater than tetra-chlorinated have been examined. Optimal temperature, reaction time, optimal pH, and heavy metal resistance of cellular membrane enzyme were investigated, to examine dioxin degradation characteristics of SH2B-J2 strains. For chlorinated dioxins, a mixture (PCDD/PCDF mix) containing 7 species of dibenzo-p-dioxins greater than tetra-chlorinated, as well as 10 isomers of dibenzofurans, was used. Using GC/MS, decrease of 17 species of dioxin isomer/congener was measured.

  9. On Geometric Correction Method of BJ-1 Panchromatic Image Covering Kingdom of Lesotho

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunxi; LIU; Zhongwu; WANG; Wei; HAO; Rongbin; WANG

    2014-01-01

    The purpose is to find a suitable geometric correction method of BJ-1 panchromatic image covering Kingdom of Lesotho.The methods are carrying out two geo-correction experiments based on the push-broom model and the projective transform model for BJ-1 small satellite real panchromatic covering flat and mountain area of Lesotho.Results show that the projective transform model has equal or higher accuracy compared to the push-broom model.Conclusion is the projective transform model can be used in producing land use image map.

  10. Band gap engineering and optical response of the ACr2S4 (A=Fe, Co) normal spinels using PBE+U and TB-mBJ potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Saurabh; Saini, Sapan Mohan

    2017-03-01

    The electronic and optical properties of the ACr2S4 (A=Fe, Co) normal spinels have been studied by use of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). The calculations were performed by two methods, namely, PBE+U and TB-mBJ, with the addition of spin-orbit coupling in both the schemes. The lattice constant and internal parameter of unit cell were optimized. Band structure obtained are analysed based on Density of States (DOS). We found that more pronounced splitting of A-d and Cr-d states in TB-mBJ scheme is responsible for the larger band gaps. The octahedral field surrounding Cr-atoms splits the Cr-d levels into t2g and eg states with some mixing between the two states. The calculated values of spin magnetic moment per formula unit are consistent with earlier report. Optical properties are calculated along the directions of lattice constants to analyze their anisotropic nature based on energy level transitions. We also studied the refractive index, n (ω), and the extinction coefficient, k (ω), by PBE+U and TB-mBJ scheme.

  11. Repeated dose liver micronucleus assay using adult mice with multiple genotoxicity assays concurrently performed as a combination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagio, Soichiro; Furukawa, Satoshi; Abe, Masayoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Hayashi, Seigo; Ogawa, Izumi

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the liver micronucleus (MN) assay using young adult rats with repeated administrations has been investigated by employing a new method without partial hepatectomy or in situcollagenase perfusion as the repeated dose liver MN (RDLMN) assay by Narumi et al. (2012). In our study, in order to investigate the possibility of the RDLMN assay using young adult mice instead of rats and the feasibility of employing some genotoxicity assays along with the RDLMN assay as a combination test, two genotoxic carcinogens (N,N-diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) and cisplatin (CIS)) and a nongenotoxic carcinogen (phenobarbital sodium (PHE)) were administered to mice for 15 or 29 days. Then, the liver MN assay, peripheral blood (PB) MN assay and comet assay using the liver and kidney were concurrently performed as a combination test. DEN showed positive responses to all endpoints except MN induction in PB after 15 days of repeat administration. A cross-linking agent, CIS, showed MN induction in liver after 29 days of repeat administration, and in PB after 15 and 29 days of repeat administration, although the comet assay yielded negative responses for both organs at both sampling times. PHE yielded negative responses for all endpoints. In conclusion, it is suggested that the RDLMN assay using mice is a feasible method to be integrated into the general repeated toxicity test along with the combination assays, i.e., comet assay or PB MN assay, which would help in risk assessment for carcinogenicity by comparing the results of combination assays with each other.

  12. No Improved Performance With Repeated-Sprint Training in Hypoxia Versus Normoxia: A Double-Blind and Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, David; Lundby, Carsten

    2017-02-01

    Few recent studies indicate that short-term repeated-sprint (RS) training in hypoxia (RSH) improves RS performance compared with identical training under normoxic conditions (RSN) in endurance-trained subjects. To determine the effects of RSH against RSN on RS performance under normoxic and moderate hypoxic conditions, using a randomized, doubleblind, crossover experimental design. Fifteen endurance-trained male subjects (age 25 ± 4 y) performed 4 wk of RS training (3 sessions/wk) in normobaric hypoxia (RSH, FiO2 = 13.8%) and normoxia (RSN, FiO2 = 20.9%) in a crossover manner. Before and after completion of training, RS tests were performed on a cycle ergometer with no prior exercise (RSNE), after an incremental exercise test (RSIE), and after a time-trial test (RSTT) in normoxia and hypoxia. Peak power outputs at the incremental exercise test and time-trial performance were unaltered by RSH in normoxia and hypoxia. RS performance was generally enhanced by RSH, as well as RSN, but there were no additional effects of RSH over RSN on peak and mean sprint power output and the number of repeated sprints performed in the RSNE, RSIE, and RSTT trials under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The present double-blind crossover study indicates that RSH does not improve RS performance compared with RSN in normoxic and hypoxic conditions in endurance-trained subjects. Therefore, caution should be exercised when proposing RSH as an advantageous method to improve exercise performance.

  13. Comparison of Two Types of Warm-Up Upon Repeated-Sprint Performance in Experienced Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; von Heimburg, Erna

    2016-08-01

    van den Tillaar, R and von Heimburg, E. Comparison of two types of warm-up upon repeated-sprint performance in experienced soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2258-2265, 2016-The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a long warm-up and a short warm-up upon repeated-sprint performance in soccer players. Ten male soccer players (age, 21.9 ± 1.9 years; body mass, 77.7 ± 8.3 kg; body height, 1.85 ± 0.03 m) conducted 2 types of warm-ups with 1 week in between: a long warm-up (20 minutes: LWup) and a short warm-up (10 minutes: SWup). Each warm-up was followed by a repeated-sprint test consisting of 8 × 30 m sprints with a new start every 30th second. The best sprint time, total sprinting time, and % decrease in time together with heart rate, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. No significant differences in performance were found for the repeated-sprint test parameters (total sprint time: 35.99 ± 1.32 seconds [LWup] and 36.12 ± 0.96 seconds [SWup]; best sprint time: 4.32 ± 0.13 seconds [LWup] and 4.30 ± 0.10 seconds [SWup]; and % sprint decrease: 4.16 ± 2.15% [LWup] and 5.02 ± 2.07% [SWup]). No differences in lactate concentration after the warm-up and after the repeated-sprint test were found. However, RPE and heart rate were significantly higher after the long warm-up and the repeated-sprint test compared with the short warm-up. It was concluded that a short warm-up is as effective as a long warm-up for repeated sprints in soccer. Therefore, in regular training, less warm-up time is needed; the extra time could be used for important soccer skill training.

  14. 基于BJ -1小卫星遥感数据的矿区土地覆盖变化检测%Land Cover Change Detection in Coal Mining Area Using BJ -1 Small Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 杜培军; 唐伟成; 柳思聪

    2011-01-01

    为了评价利用北京一号小卫星(BJ-I)遥感数据监测煤矿区土地利用/地表覆盖变化的效果,针对其数据特点,选择基于图像信息运算和图像信息变换的直接变化检洲法以及分类后比较法,对徐州东矿区2007~2008年土地利用/地表覆盖变化情况进行检测,以对比、评价各种方法在土地利用/地表覆盖变化检测中的应用效果和BJ -1数据的适用性:结果显示,变化矢量分析法的检测精度最高,其后依次为图像比值法、图像差值法和多波段主成分分析法.通过变化检测,确定徐州市东矿区土地利用/地表覆盖变化较为集中的几个区域,包括东矿区北部的青山泉矿、韩桥矿、董庄矿和南部的大黄山矿等地区.%In order to evaluate the performance of monitoring land cover change in mining areas by BJ - 1 small satellite remote sensing data, the authors made an experimental and comparative study of several change detection methods, with the east coal mining district of Xuzhou City in Jiangsu Province as the study area. Direct change detection methods based on image information operation and image information transformation as well as the post -classification comparison method were adopted in the experiment. The results show that the change vector analysis can attain the highest accuracy, followed by the method of image ratio method, image differencing and multi - band principal component analysis. Through the change detection process, several areas with great land cover change were detected, such as Qingshanquan, Hanqiao and Dongzhuang mining areas in northern east mining district and Dahuangshan mining area in southern east mining district.

  15. Uscire di minorità: una proposta radicale di Björn Brembs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Björn Brembs, in un articolo importante, si chiede se i ricercatori possano davvero considerarsi soltanto vittime dell’attuale malattia della comunicazione scientifica – la privatizzazione dei suoi archivi e del suo sistema di valutazione – o se non ci sia anche...

  16. Björk aitab põhjamaades õppida / Epp Adler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Epp

    2008-01-01

    Põhjamaade Ministrite Nõukogu ja põhjamaade saatkondade koostöös on teoks saanud laiahaardeline ja mitmekülgne hariduse ja karjäärivalikute teavitusprogramm "Björk - õpi Põhjamaades". Teavitusprogrammi fookuses on kutseõpe, e-õpe ja elukestev õpe

  17. Frankfurt ja tema mitu külge / Björn Koop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koop, Björn, 1982-

    2012-01-01

    2007. aastast Kia Euroopa disainikeskuses töötav Eesti Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud autodisainer Björn Koop Frankfurdist, linna ja lähiümbrusesse koondunud autodisaini büroodest. Autodisaini stuudiote funktsioonidest. Eesti disainist Frankfurdis

  18. Frankfurt ja tema mitu külge / Björn Koop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koop, Björn, 1982-

    2012-01-01

    2007. aastast Kia Euroopa disainikeskuses töötav Eesti Kunstiakadeemia lõpetanud autodisainer Björn Koop Frankfurdist, linna ja lähiümbrusesse koondunud autodisaini büroodest. Autodisaini stuudiote funktsioonidest. Eesti disainist Frankfurdis

  19. Variability and repeatability in gestation length related to litter performance in female pigs on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Koketsu, Y

    2007-07-15

    Forecasting gestation length (GL) in sows enables producers to be prepared to provide assistance at farrowing, or for timely treatment to induce parturition. The objectives of the present study were to determine GL across parities, the repeatability and correlation of the GL, and associations of GL with the three litter size variables (total pigs born, pigs born alive, and dead piglets) and longevity. This study was conducted on 94 farms and encompassed 66,254 farrowing records of 13,715 sows born during 1999. Variance components and correlation analyses were used to determine the repeatability and the correlations of GL. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze associations of GL with litter size variables and longevity. The mean of GL across parities was from 115.2 to 115.4 d. The proportions of GL 114, 115, and 116 d for all farrowing events were 19.2, 30.8, and 22.2%, respectively. The GL between parities were correlated (0.40/=117 d (P<0.01). Sows with GL

  20. Endurance, aerobic high-intensity, and repeated sprint cycling performance is unaffected by normobaric "Live High-Train Low"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Buchardt, Rie

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether 6 weeks of normobaric "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) using altitude tents affect highly trained athletes incremental peak power, 26-km time-trial cycling performance, 3-min all-out performance, and 30-s repeated sprint ability. In a double-blinded, placebo...... conducted in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design do not affect power output during an incremental test, a ~26-km time-trial test, or 3-min all-out exercise in highly trained triathletes. Furthermore, 30 s of repeated sprint ability was unaltered.......-out exercise, and 8 × 30 s of all-out sprint was evaluated before and after the intervention. Following at least 8 weeks of wash-out, the subjects crossed over and repeated the procedure. Incremental peak power output was similar after both interventions [LHTL: 375 ± 74 vs. 369 ± 70 W (pre-vs-post), placebo...

  1. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in pelvic floor ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Dresler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implants used to treat patients with urogynecological conditions are well visible in US examination. The position of the suburethral tape (sling is determined in relation to the urethra or the pubic symphysis. Aim of the study: The study was aimed at assessing the accuracy of measurements determining suburethral tape location obtained in pelvic US examination performed with a transvaginal probe. Material and methods: The analysis covered the results of sonographic measurements obtained according to a standardized technique in women referred for urogynecological diagnostics. Data from a total of 68 patients were used to analyse the repeatability and reproducibility of results obtained on the same day. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient for the repeatability and reproducibility of the sonographic measurements of suburethral tape location obtained with a transvaginal probe ranged from 0.6665 to 0.9911. The analysis of the measurements confirmed their consistency to be excellent or good. Conclusions: Excellent and good repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in a pelvic ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe confirm the test’s validity and usefulness for clinical and academic purposes.

  2. Effects of Beetroot Juice on Recovery of Muscle Function and Performance between Bouts of Repeated Sprint Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of beetroot juice (BTJ on recovery between two repeated-sprint tests. In an independent groups design, 20 male, team-sports players were randomized to receive either BTJ or a placebo (PLA (2 × 250 mL for 3 days after an initial repeated sprint test (20 × 30 m; RST1 and after a second repeated sprint test (RST2, performed 72 h later. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC, countermovement jumps (CMJ, reactive strength index (RI, pressure-pain threshold (PPT, creatine kinase (CK, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, protein carbonyls (PC, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH and the ascorbyl free radical (A•− were measured before, after, and at set times between RST1 and RST2. CMJ and RI recovered quicker in BTJ compared to PLA after RST1: at 72 h post, CMJ and RI were 7.6% and 13.8% higher in BTJ vs. PLA, respectively (p < 0.05. PPT was 10.4% higher in BTJ compared to PLA 24 h post RST2 (p = 0.012 but similar at other time points. No group differences were detected for mean and fastest sprint time or fatigue index. MIVC, or the biochemical markers measured (p > 0.05. BTJ reduced the decrement in CMJ and RI following and RST but had no effect on sprint performance or oxidative stress.

  3. Effects of Beetroot Juice on Recovery of Muscle Function and Performance between Bouts of Repeated Sprint Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Tom; Berntzen, Bram; Davison, Gareth W; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-08-18

    This study examined the effects of beetroot juice (BTJ) on recovery between two repeated-sprint tests. In an independent groups design, 20 male, team-sports players were randomized to receive either BTJ or a placebo (PLA) (2 × 250 mL) for 3 days after an initial repeated sprint test (20 × 30 m; RST1) and after a second repeated sprint test (RST2), performed 72 h later. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), reactive strength index (RI), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), protein carbonyls (PC), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and the ascorbyl free radical (A(•-)) were measured before, after, and at set times between RST1 and RST2. CMJ and RI recovered quicker in BTJ compared to PLA after RST1: at 72 h post, CMJ and RI were 7.6% and 13.8% higher in BTJ vs. PLA, respectively (p sprint time or fatigue index. MIVC, or the biochemical markers measured (p > 0.05). BTJ reduced the decrement in CMJ and RI following and RST but had no effect on sprint performance or oxidative stress.

  4. Dynamic damage and stress-strain relations of ultra-high performance cementitious composites subjected to repeated impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-high performance cementitious composites (UHPCC) were prepared by replacing 60% of cement with ultra-fine industrial waste powders.The dynamic damage and compressive stress-strain relations of UHPCC were studied using split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB).The damage of UHPCC subjected to repeated impact was measured by the ultrasonic pulse velocity method.Results show that the dynamic damage of UHPCC increases linearly with impact times and the abilities of repeated impact resistance of UHPCC are improved with increasing fiber volume fraction.The stress waves on impact were recorded and the average stress,strain and strain rate of UHPCC were calculated based on the wave propagation theory.The effects of strain rate,fibers volume fraction and impact times on the stress-strain relations of UHPCC were studied.Results show that the peak stress and elastic modulus decrease while the strain rate and peak strain increase gradually with increasing impact times.

  5. OPERA-LG: efficient and exact scaffolding of large, repeat-rich eukaryotic genomes with performance guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Bertrand, Denis; Chia, Burton K H; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2016-05-11

    The assembly of large, repeat-rich eukaryotic genomes represents a significant challenge in genomics. While long-read technologies have made the high-quality assembly of small, microbial genomes increasingly feasible, data generation can be expensive for larger genomes. OPERA-LG is a scalable, exact algorithm for the scaffold assembly of large, repeat-rich genomes, out-performing state-of-the-art programs for scaffold correctness and contiguity. It provides a rigorous framework for scaffolding of repetitive sequences and a systematic approach for combining data from different second-generation and third-generation sequencing technologies. OPERA-LG provides an avenue for systematic augmentation and improvement of thousands of existing draft eukaryotic genome assemblies.

  6. Una complicación inusual del colgajo de Björk en la traqueotomía electiva An unusual complication of Björk flap in elective tracheotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Villalaín Álvarez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La traqueotomía temporal electiva se emplea con frecuencia en intervenciones realizadas en el territorio cervicofacial. El colgajo de pared traqueal anterior de base inferior (colgajo de Björk facilita el cambio de cánula en el periodo postoperatorio. Caso clínico. Paciente intervenido de un cáncer oral al que tras haberse cerrado el traqueostoma se le descubrió de forma casual un hilo de sutura en la luz traqueal. Dada la dificultad de su retirada por vía endoscópica y ausencia de sintomatología, se decidió no retirarlo. Discusión. La traqueotomía electiva en oncología cervicofacial asegura la vía aérea, pero presenta también complicaciones. Es muy importante un adecuado manejo del traqueostoma, independientemente de que se elija un cierre primario o secundario del mismo.Introduction. Elective temporary tracheotomy in often performed in head and neck oncologic surgery. An inferiorly hinged tracheal flap (Björk flap provides a secure airway in the inmediate postoperative period. Clinical case. This patient underwent resection of an oral cancer and subsequent tracheotomy. After deccanulation, a piece of suture was found into the trachea as an incidental discovery. There were no symptoms related to it, and it was not possible to remove it from the anterior tracheal wall by means of endoscopy, so it was left in place. Discussion. Elective tracheotomy in head and neck resection for malignancy safeguards the airway, but also has complications. It is very important a careful management of the stoma, without regard if a primary or secundary closure of it is chosen.

  7. Effects of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holem, Ryan R. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); ENTRIX, Inc., Okemos, MI 48864 (United States); Hopkins, William A. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)], E-mail: hopkinsw@vt.edu; Talent, Larry G. [Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100 mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81 day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.079) and 85% of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group exhibited clinical symptoms of poisoning. Growth, food consumption, body condition index, and terrestrial locomotor performance were not significantly influenced by malathion. However, arboreal sprint velocity was significantly reduced in lizards receiving 100 mg/kg. Fifty percent of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group also refused to sprint in the arboreal setting (p = 0.085). Based on these results, arboreal locomotor performance was the most sensitive metric of exposure we evaluated. Further study of compounds such as malathion is warranted due to highly variable application rates and exposure scenarios. - Repeated exposure of western fence lizards to malathion caused reduced arboreal performance and some mortality but growth, food consumption, and terrestrial performance were not affected.

  8. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Apostolos S; Havenetidis, Konstantinos; Zanker, Cathy L; O'Hara, John P; King, Roderick F G J; Hood, Colin; Paradisis, Giorgios; Cooke, Carlton B

    2005-05-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) to an acute creatine (Cr) loading regimen has been shown to increase muscle total creatine content significantly beyond that achieved through creatine loading alone. However, the potential ergogenic effects of combined Cr and CHO loading have not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to compare swimming performance, assessed as mean swimming velocity over repeated maximal intervals, in high-performance swimmers before and after an acute loading regimen of either creatine alone (Cr) or combined creatine and carbohydrate (Cr + CHO). Ten swimmers (mean +/- SD of age and body mass: 17.8 +/- 1.8 years and 72.3 +/- 6.8 kg, respectively) of international caliber were recruited and were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. Each swimmer ingested five 5 g doses of creatine for 4 days, with the Cr + CHO group also ingesting approximately 100 g of simple CHO 30 minutes after each dose of creatine. Performance was measured on 5 separate occasions: twice at "baseline" (prior to intervention, to assess the repeatability of the performance test), within 48 hours after intervention, and then 2 and 4 weeks later. All subjects swam faster after either dietary loading regimen (p swimmers continued to produce faster swim times for up to 4 weeks after intervention. Our findings suggest that no performance advantage was gained from the addition of carbohydrate to a creatine-loading regimen in these high-caliber swimmers.

  9. Retrospective analysis on the maintenance of BJ-6B accelerator%BJ-6B加速器维修保养回顾分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤富; 罗玉军; 谭榜宪; 柳弥; 周进伟; 谢力; 余宾

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the maintenance of BJ-6B accelerator. Methods Analyzed retrospectively the maintenance record of BJ-6B accelerator, including phenomena, causes and handle from 2002 to 2009. Results In 231 records, there were motion-controlling 64, hand-controlling-pendant 20.modulator 41, anti-peak overload 36, charging overload 5. Flatness 7, mechanical 21, digital-display 20,others lie in magnetron power, water-cooling system, light-indicator system, dose-monitor system and wedge system. Motion-controlling system is the highest among those, followed by high-voltage modulator and mechanical system. Conclusions The down time for BJ-6B accelerator is low because of its perfect technology. To keep its stability in clinic, the hospital authorities should emphasize training of engineer for improving their maintenance ability. The engineer must be familiar with the circuit diagram, check the electric wire and machine unit on time and prepare unit for maintenance. The temperature and humidity in machine house must be controlled on demand. The engineer must pay attention to machine parameters when beam is on for avoiding the spark's damage to magnetron and accelerating-tube%目的 研究BJ-6B加速器维修、保养方法.方法 回顾分析2002-2009年BJ-6B加速器故障现象、原因、处理方法记录资料.结果 记录的231次故障中运动控制故障64次(其中手控盒部分故障20次),高压脉冲调制器报故障41次,36次报反峰过荷,5次报充电过荷,均整器故障7次,机械故障21次,数显故障20次.其余故障出现在磁控管灯丝电源、钛泵电源、光学指示系统、剂量监测系统等部位.运动控制故障率最高,其次是高压调制器部分、机械部分.结论 BJ-6B加速器技术比较成熟,故障率较低.为了提高正常开机率,医院应重视物理工程人员培训,提高其业务水平;工程师应熟读图纸,按时检查线路以及机器元部件,根据维修经验提

  10. Repeated Sprint Ability in Elite Water Polo Players and Swimmers and its Relationship to Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Meckel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine indices of swimming repeated sprint ability (RSA in 19 elite water polo players compared to 16 elite swimmers during a repeated sprint swimming test (RST, and to examine the relationships between these indices and aerobic and anaerobic performance capabilities in both groups. Indices of RSA were determined by the ideal sprint time (IS, the total sprint time (TS, and the performance decrement (PD recorded during an 8 x 15-m swimming RST. Single long - (800-m and short-(25-m distance swim tests were used to determined indices of aerobic and anaerobic swimming capabilities, respectively. The water polo players exhibited lower RSA swimming indices, as well as lower scores in the single short and long swim distances, compared to the swimmers. Significant relationships were found between the 25- m swim results and the IS and the TS, but not the PD of both the swimmers and the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 800-m swim results and any of the RSA indices in either the swimmers or the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 25-m and the 800-m swim results in either the swimmers or the water polo players. The results indicate that swimmers posses better RSA as well as higher anaerobic and aerobic capabilities, as reflected by the single short- and long-distance swim tests, compared to water polo players. The results also indicate that, as for running and cycling, repeated sprint swim performance is strongly related to single sprint performance.

  11. Repeated sprint ability in elite water polo players and swimmers and its relationship to aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Yoav; Bishop, David; Rabinovich, Moran; Kaufman, Leonid; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine indices of swimming repeated sprint ability (RSA) in 19 elite water polo players compared to 16 elite swimmers during a repeated sprint swimming test (RST), and to examine the relationships between these indices and aerobic and anaerobic performance capabilities in both groups. Indices of RSA were determined by the ideal sprint time (IS), the total sprint time (TS), and the performance decrement (PD) recorded during an 8 x 15-m swimming RST. Single long - (800-m) and short-(25-m) distance swim tests were used to determined indices of aerobic and anaerobic swimming capabilities, respectively. The water polo players exhibited lower RSA swimming indices, as well as lower scores in the single short and long swim distances, compared to the swimmers. Significant relationships were found between the 25- m swim results and the IS and the TS, but not the PD of both the swimmers and the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 800-m swim results and any of the RSA indices in either the swimmers or the water polo players. No significant relationships were found between the 25-m and the 800-m swim results in either the swimmers or the water polo players. The results indicate that swimmers posses better RSA as well as higher anaerobic and aerobic capabilities, as reflected by the single short- and long-distance swim tests, compared to water polo players. The results also indicate that, as for running and cycling, repeated sprint swim performance is strongly related to single sprint performance. Key PointsElite water polo players demonstrated lower repeated sprint ability (RSA), aerobic and anaerobic capabilities compared to elite swimmers.A 25-m swim trial correlated significantly with ideal sprint time and total sprint time, emphasizing the important contribution of anaerobic metabolism for these exercise types in both water polo players and swimmers.800-m swim results did not correlate with RSA or 25-m

  12. Effect of Repeated/Spaced Formative Assessments on Medical School Final Exam Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K. Chang

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Performance on weekly formative assessments was predictive of final exam scores. Struggling medical students will benefit from extra cumulative practice exams while students who are excelling do not need extra practice.

  13. The R Protein of SARS-CoV: Analyses of Structure and Function Based on Four Complete Genome Sequences of Isolates BJ01-BJ04

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuyuan Xu; Zizhang Zhang; Jing Xu; Wei Wei; Jingui Zhu; Haiyan Sun; Xiaowei Zhang; Jun Zhou; Songgang Li; Jun Wang; Jian Wang; Haiqing Zhang; Shengli Bi; Huanming Yang; Xiangjun Tian; Jia Ji; Wei Li; Yan Li; Wei Tian; Yujun Han; Lili Wang

    2003-01-01

    The R (replicase) protein is the uniquely defined non-structural protein (NSP)responsible for RNA replication, mutation rate or fidelity, regulation of transcrip-tion in coronaviruses and many other ssRNA viruses. Based on our completegenome sequences of four isolates (BJ01-BJ04) of SARS-CoV from Beijing, China,we analyzed the structure and predicted functions of the R protein in comparisonwith 13 other isolates of SARS-CoV and 6 other coronaviruses. The entire ORF(open-reading frame) encodes for two major enzyme activities, RNA-dependentRNA polymerase (RdRp) and proteinase activities. The R polyprotein under-goes a complex proteolytic process to produce 15 function-related peptides. Ahydrophobic domain (HOD) and a hydrophilic domain (HID) are newly identifiedwithin NSP1. The substitution rate of the R protein is close to the average ofthe SARS-CoV genome. The functional domains in all NSPs of the R proteingive different phylogenetic results that suggest their different mutation rate underselective pressure. Eleven highly conserved regions in RdRp and twelve cleavagesites by 3CLP (chymotrypsin-like protein) have been identified as potential drugtargets. Findings suggest that it is possible to obtain information about the phy-logeny of SARS-CoV, as well as potential tools for drug design, genotyping anddiagnostics of SARS.

  14. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  15. Consistency across repeated eyewitness interviews: contrasting police detectives' beliefs with actual eyewitness performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana C Krix

    Full Text Available In the legal system, inconsistencies in eyewitness accounts are often used to discredit witnesses' credibility. This is at odds with research findings showing that witnesses frequently report reminiscent details (details previously unrecalled at an accuracy rate that is nearly as high as for consistently recalled information. The present study sought to put the validity of beliefs about recall consistency to a test by directly comparing them with actual memory performance in two recall attempts. All participants watched a film of a staged theft. Subsequently, the memory group (N = 84 provided one statement immediately after the film (either with the Self-Administered Interview or free recall and one after a one-week delay. The estimation group (N = 81 consisting of experienced police detectives estimated the recall performance of the memory group. The results showed that actual recall performance was consistently underestimated. Also, a sharp decline of memory performance between recall attempts was assumed by the estimation group whereas actual accuracy remained stable. While reminiscent details were almost as accurate as consistent details, they were estimated to be much less accurate than consistent information and as inaccurate as direct contradictions. The police detectives expressed a great concern that reminiscence was the result of suggestive external influences. In conclusion, it seems that experienced police detectives hold many implicit beliefs about recall consistency that do not correspond with actual recall performance. Recommendations for police trainings are provided. These aim at fostering a differentiated view on eyewitness performance and the inclusion of more comprehensive classes on human memory structure.

  16. Tolerance to repeated nicotine administration on performance, subjective, and physiological responses in nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, S J; Henningfield, J E

    2000-10-01

    When administered acutely to nonsmokers, nicotine's effects on performance are inconsistent, perhaps because of suboptimal dosing or initial dysphoria that could interfere with performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if a range of nicotine doses administered for 8 days to nonsmokers would enhance psychomotor and cognitive abilities and to document the development of nicotine tolerance or sensitization. Twelve male volunteers, who reported ever smoking five cigarettes or less, participated in 8 consecutive experimental days in which they were administered four doses of nicotine polacrilex gum each day in this order: 0, 2, 4, and 8 mg. Performance, subjective, and physiological measures were assessed before and after each dose. Plasma nicotine concentration ranged from 6.9 to 11.5 ng/ml following the 8 mg dose. Nicotine increased rate of responding and decreased response time on working memory (digit recall); however, accuracy was impaired. Nicotine also decreased accuracy on visual scanning and attention (two-letter search), and the 8 mg dose impaired gross motor coordination (circular lights). Tolerance did not develop to the performance impairing effects of nicotine. Nicotine produced dose-related increases in ratings of dysphoria and negative mood, including tension, anxiety, nervousness, turning of stomach, and sedation. Tolerance developed to some, but not all, of these aversive effects. Tolerance also was not observed to the increased cardiovascular measures. Although tolerance developed to some of the aversive effects of nicotine, performance enhancement was not observed. These data do not support the hypothesis that nicotine-induced performance enhancement contributes to the reinforcing effects of tobacco use during the early stages of dependence development.

  17. Consistency across Repeated Eyewitness Interviews: Contrasting Police Detectives’ Beliefs with Actual Eyewitness Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krix, Alana C.; Sauerland, Melanie; Lorei, Clemens; Rispens, Imke

    2015-01-01

    In the legal system, inconsistencies in eyewitness accounts are often used to discredit witnesses’ credibility. This is at odds with research findings showing that witnesses frequently report reminiscent details (details previously unrecalled) at an accuracy rate that is nearly as high as for consistently recalled information. The present study sought to put the validity of beliefs about recall consistency to a test by directly comparing them with actual memory performance in two recall attempts. All participants watched a film of a staged theft. Subsequently, the memory group (N = 84) provided one statement immediately after the film (either with the Self-Administered Interview or free recall) and one after a one-week delay. The estimation group (N = 81) consisting of experienced police detectives estimated the recall performance of the memory group. The results showed that actual recall performance was consistently underestimated. Also, a sharp decline of memory performance between recall attempts was assumed by the estimation group whereas actual accuracy remained stable. While reminiscent details were almost as accurate as consistent details, they were estimated to be much less accurate than consistent information and as inaccurate as direct contradictions. The police detectives expressed a great concern that reminiscence was the result of suggestive external influences. In conclusion, it seems that experienced police detectives hold many implicit beliefs about recall consistency that do not correspond with actual recall performance. Recommendations for police trainings are provided. These aim at fostering a differentiated view on eyewitness performance and the inclusion of more comprehensive classes on human memory structure. PMID:25695428

  18. Performance Concern, Contingent Self-Worth, and Responses to Repeated Achievement Failure in Second Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Patricia A.; Coulson, Sheri L.; Greene, Joelle K.; Bono, Katherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in emotion, cognitions, and task choice following achievement failure are found among four- to seven-year-olds. However, neither performance deterioration during failure nor generalization after failure--aspects of the helpless pattern in 10-year-olds--have been reliably demonstrated in this age group. In the present study,…

  19. Brandforsøg med belastede limtræbjælker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Frits Bolonius

    I rapporten redegøres for resultatet af en mindre serie pilotforsøg, som i maj 1979 er gennemført i instituttets brandlaboratorium med det formål at verificere, hvor godt belastede limtræbjælkers respons på brandpåvirkning stemmer overens med de senest opstillede modeller for henholdsvis indbrænd...

  20. Strut fracture in the new Bjørk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubakk, O; Simonsen, S; Källman, L; Fredriksen, A

    1981-04-01

    The case of a patient with the new type Bjørk-Shiley aortic and mitral valve prosthesis is described. Three months after implant she suffered acute heart failure and died. Post-mortem examination revealed a fractured outlet strut in the mitral valve prosthesis with dislocation of the disc. The fracture was regarded as due to excessive brittleness caused by demonstrated deposition of chromium-tungsten-carbide.

  1. USEFULNESS AND METABOLIC IMPLICATIONS OF A 60-SECOND REPEATED JUMPS TEST AS A PREDICTOR OF ACROBATIC JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN GYMNASTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Antoni Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gymnastics floor exercises are composed of a set of four to five successive acrobatic jumps usually called a �series�. The aims of the study were: 1 to relate the acrobatic gymnastics performance of these series with a repeated jumps test of similar duration (R60, 2 to study the relation between R60 and physiological parameters (heart rate and blood lactate, and the performance obtained in different kinds of jumps, 3 to confirm whether R60, executed without a damped jumping technique, can be considered an anaerobic lactic power test. Twenty male and twenty-four female gymnasts performed three repeated jumps tests for 5 s (R5, 10 s (R10 and 60 s (R60 and vertical jumps, such as drop jumps (DJ, squat jumps (SJ and countermovement jumps (CMJ. We assessed heart rate (HR and blood lactate during R10 and R60. The average values of the maximal blood lactate concentration (Lmax after R10 (males = 2.5±0.6 mmol.l-1; females = 2.1±0.8 mmol.l-1 confirm that anaerobic glycolysis is not activated to a high level. In R60, the Lmax (males = 7.5±1.7 mmol.l-1; females = 5.9±2.1 mmol.l-1 that was recorded does not validate R60 as an anaerobic lactic power test. We confirmed the relation between the average power obtained in R60 (R60Wm and the acrobatic performance on the floor. The inclusion in the multiple regression equation of the best power in DJ and the best flight-contact ratio (FC in R5 confirms the influence of other non-metabolic components on the variability in R60 performance, at least in gymnasts.

  2. Multijet production at low x{sub Bj} in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    Inclusive dijet and trijet production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured for 10Bj}<10{sup -2}. The data were taken at the HERA ep collider with centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 82 pb{sup -1}. Jets were identified in the hadronic centre-of-mass (HCM) frame using the k{sub T} cluster algorithm in the longitudinally invariant inclusive mode. Measurements of dijet and trijet differential cross sections are presented as functions of Q{sup 2}, x{sub Bj}, jet transverse energy, and jet pseudorapidity. As a further examination of low-x{sub Bj} dynamics, multi-differential cross sections as functions of the jet correlations in transverse momenta, azimuthal angles, and pseudorapidity are also presented. Calculations at O({alpha}{sup 3}{sub s}) generally describe the trijet data well and improve the description of the dijet data compared to the calculation at O({alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}). (orig.)

  3. Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photos 01,02: Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway signing the guest book; standing, Dr Carlo Wyss Photo 03: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Prof. Cecilia Jarlskog, Adviser to the Director-General for Member State Relations; Mr Morten Knutsen, CERN staff - Purchase; Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar Stapnes, Prof. Univ. of Oslo and Physicist in the ATLAS experiment (in profile), Dr Carlo Wyss, Director for Accelerators (standing), Dr Leif Westgaard, Senior Adviser, Research Council of Norway, CERN Delegate. Photo 04: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar ...

  4. Multijet production at low $x_{\\rm Bj}$ in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Nicholass, D; Repond, J; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Jechow, M; Pavel, N; Yagues-Molina, A G; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Bindi, M; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Iacobucci, G; Margotti, A; Nania, R; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Zichichi, A; Bartsch, D; Brock, I; Goers, S; Hartmann, H; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Jüngst, M; Kind, O M; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Paul, E; Renner, R; Samson, U; Schonberg, V; Shehzadi, R; Wlasenko, M; Brook, N H; Heath, G P; Morris, J D; Namsoo, T; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Tassi, E; Kim, J Y; Ma, K J; Ibrahim, Z A; Kamaluddin, B; Wan-Abdullah, W A T; Ning, Y; Ren, Z; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, A; Figiel, J; Galas, A; Gil, M; Olkiewicz, K; Stopa, P; Zaw, I; Adamczyk, L; Bold, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Kisielewska, D; Lukasik, J; Przybycien, M; Suszycki, L; Kotanski, A; Slominski, W; Adler, V; Behrens, U; Bloch, I; Blohm, C; Bonato, A; Borras, K; Ciesielski, R; Coppola, N; Dossanov, A; Drugakov, V; Fourletova, J; Geiser, A; Gladkov, D; Göttlicher, P; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Haas, T; Hain, W; Horn, C; Huttmann, A; Kahle, B; Katkov, I I; Klein, U; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lobodzinska, E; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Miglioranzi, S; Montanari, A; Notz, D; Rinaldi, L; Roloff, P; Rubinsky, I; Santamarta, R; Schneekloth, U; Spiridonov, A; Stadie, H; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Theedt, T; Wolf, G; Wrona, K; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Lohmann, W; Schlenstedt, S; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Bamberger, A; Dobur, D; Karstens, F; Vlasov, N N; Bussey, P J; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Ferrando, J; Forrest, M; Saxon, D H; Skillicorn, I O; Gialas, I; Papageorgiu, K; Gosau, T; Holm, U; Klanner, R; Lohrmann, E; Salehi, H; Schleper, P; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sztuk, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Foudas, C; Fry, C; Long, K R; Tapper, A D; Kataoka, M; Matsumoto, T; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Barakbaev, A N; Boos, E G; Pokrovskiy, N S; Zhautykov, B O; Aushev, V; Son, D; De Favereau, J; Piotrzkowski, K; Barreiro, F; Glasman, C; Jiménez, M; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Ron, E; Soares, M; Terron, J; Zambrana, M; Corriveau, F; Liu, C; Walsh, R; Zhou, C; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Dolgoshein, B A; Sosnovtsev, V; Stifutkin, A; Suchkov, S; Dementiev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Khein, L A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Levchenko, B B; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A; Abt, I; Büttner, C; Caldwell, A; Kollar, D; Schmidke, W B; Sutiak, J; Grigorescu, G; Keramidas, A; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Pellegrino, A; Tiecke, H; Vázquez, M; Wiggers, L; Brümmer, N; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Lee, A; Ling, T Y; Allfrey, P D; Bell, M A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cottrell, A; Devenish, R C E; Foster, B; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Patel, S; Roberfroid, V; Robertson, A; Straub, P B; Uribe-, C; Estrada; Walczak, R; Bellan, P; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Garfagnini, A; Limentani, S; Longhin, A; Stanco, L; Turcato, M; Oh, B Y; Raval, A; Ukleja, J; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, G; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cole, J E; Hart, J C; Abramowicz, H; Gabareen, A; Ingbir, R; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Kuze, M; Maeda, J; Hori, R; Kagawa, S; Okazaki, N; Shimizu, S; Tawara, T; Hamatsu, R; Kaji, H; Kitamura, S; Ota, O; Ri, Y D; Ferrero, M I; Monaco, V; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Arneodo, M; Ruspa, M; Fourletov, S; Martin, J F; Boutle, S K; Butterworth, J M; Gwenlan, C; Jones, T W; Loizides, J H; Sutton, M R; Wing, M; Brzozowska, B; Ciborowski, J; Grzelak, G; Kulinski, P; Luzniak, P; Malka, J; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Plucinsky, P P; Eisenberg, Y; Giller, I; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Rosin, M; Brownson, E; Danielson, T; Everett, A; Kcira, D; Reeder, D D; Ryan, P; Savin, A A; Smith, W H; Wolfe, H; Bhadra, S; Catterall, C D; Cui, Y; Hartner, G; Menary, S; Noor, U; Standage, J; Whyte, J

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive dijet and trijet production in deep inelastic $ep$ scattering has been measured for $10Bj}<10^{-2}$. The data were taken at the HERA $ep$ collider with centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s} = 318 \\gev$ using the ZEUS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of $82 {\\rm pb}^{-1}$. Jets were identified in the hadronic centre-of-mass (HCM) frame using the $k_{T}$ cluster algorithm in the longitudinally invariant inclusive mode. Measurements of dijet and trijet differential cross sections are presented as functions of $Q^2$, $x_{\\rm Bj}$, jet transverse energy, and jet pseudorapidity. As a further examination of low-$x_{\\rm Bj}$ dynamics, multi-differential cross sections as functions of the jet correlations in transverse momenta, azimuthal angles, and pseudorapidity are also presented. Calculations at $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_{s}^3)$ generally describe the trijet data well and improve the description of the dijet data compared to the ca...

  5. The effect of repeated periods of speed endurance training on performance, running economy and muscle adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    , with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin and CamKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE...

  6. Effect of cold water immersion on repeated 1-km cycling performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R; Watson, Greig; Nosaka, Kazunori; Laursen, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a short cold water immersion (CWI) intervention on rectal and muscle temperature, isokinetic strength and 1-km cycling time trial performance in the heat. Ten male cyclists performed a 1-km time trial at 35.0+/-0.3 degrees C and 40.0+/-3.0% relative humidity, followed by 20 min recovery sitting in either cold water (14 degrees C) for 5 min or in 35 degrees C air (control); a second 1-km time trial immediately followed. Peak and mean cycling power output were recorded for both time trials. Rectal and muscle temperature, and maximal isokinetic concentric torque of the knee extensors were measured before and immediately after the first and second time trials. Rectal temperature was not different between cold water immersion and control conditions at any time points. After the second time trial, however, muscle temperature was significantly lower (-1.3+/-0.7 degrees C) in cold water immersion compared with the control trial. While peak and mean power decreased from the first to second time trial in both conditions (-86+/-54 W and -24+/-16 W, respectively), maximal isokinetic concentric torque was similar between conditions at all time points. The 5 min cold water immersion intervention lowered muscle temperature but did not affect isokinetic strength or 1-km cycling performance. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between repeated kicking performance and maximal aerobic capacity in elite junior Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob; Woods, Carl; Joyce, Christopher

    2017-08-26

    Australian football (AF) is a physically demanding game, requiring players to engage in a range of anaerobic activities interspersed with prolonged aerobic exercise. Coupled, players have to perform a range of technical skills, the most fundamental of which being to effectively kick (dispose) the ball. The aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which aerobic capacity influenced kicking performance in AF. Twenty four elite U18 players competing in the same U18 competition performed the Australian Football Kicking test (AFK) three times with the yo-yo IR2 completed twice (between each AFK), with no rest between all three AFKs. Linear mixed models (LMM) reported the extent to which kicking speed and accuracy scores were influenced by the level reached on the yo-yo IR2. Results indicated that players who recorded a higher level on the yo-yo IR2 produced a faster average kicking speed following each AFK (P players, kicking speed was faster and more accurate on their dominant kicking leg regardless of score on the yo-yo IR2 (P players who attain a relatively higher score on the yo-yo IR2 may be better equipped at preserving their kicking speed. Thus, coaches may wish to integrate both technical and aerobic drills in an attempt to preserve a player's capability to execute ball disposals with a high velocity.

  8. Effects of leg contrast strength training on sprint, agility and repeated change of direction performance in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mehréz; Negra, Yassine; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel

    2017-11-01

    Contrast training is a popular technique among individuals who are involved in dynamic sports, having as its goal an increase in dynamic muscular performance. It is characterized by the use of high and low loads in the same strength training session. The present investigation aimed to determine the effects of adding 8 weeks of contrast strength training (CSTP) to regular soccer practice in U-17 male soccer players during the competitive season. We hypothesized that CSTP would enhance their performance. Subjects were divided randomly between a control group (CG, N.=12) and a contrast strength group (CSG, N.=19). The 2 groups trained together; controls followed the regular soccer program, which was replaced by a contrast strength training program for the experimental group. Performance was assessed before and after training, using 10 measures: 5-10-, 20- 30-, and 40-m sprints, a 4x5 m sprint (S4x5), a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with 180° turns (S180), a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with backward and forward running (SBF), a Repeated-Shuttle-Sprint Ability Test (RSSA), and a Repeated Change of Direction Test (RCOD). CSG showed gains relative to controls in 5-m (Psprints. There were also significant gains in S180°, SBF, and S4 x 5 agility tests (P<0.01), and all RCOD parameters (P<0.05) except RCOD-FI (P=0.055) but no significant change in any RSSA parameters. We conclude that biweekly contrast strength training can be commended to U-17 male soccer players as a means of improving many important components of athletic performance relative to standard in-season training.

  9. Emotional responses during repeated sprint intervals performed on level, downhill and uphill surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Bertrand; Guilloux, Bertrand; Begue, Mylène; Uriac, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test emotional responses during sprint intervals performed on a level, down and up surface. Fifty trained participants performed a maximal effort during a 60-m sprint and 10 repetitions of 60 m running sprints on a level, down and up surface on a 5.9% slope. Running speeds, emotional responses and heart rate were measured. Self-selected speeds were correlated with the rating of perceived exertion, the affective balance, the desire to stop and the resources needed for the task in all conditions whereas the pleasure, the desire to continue and the capacity to realise the task were correlated with speeds only during level and uphill running. Mean values of emotional parameters were significantly different (P < 0.05) during running on a flat surface, downhill and uphill. When the gradient of running surface is changed, the pattern of emotional responses was just translated, i.e. most of the slope between the evolution of emotional parameters and the repetitions were not significantly different whereas Y-intercepts were different. Consented effort is highly correlated with the resources needed for the task (P < 0.001, r(2) = 0.72). We propose that the difference in the resources needed for the task between level, downhill and uphill running (F 2, 1499 = 166.5, P < 0.001, Eta(2) = 0.18) is the most important key that explains our results.

  10. Effect on Spasticity After Performance of Dynamic-Repeated-Passive Ankle Joint Motion Exercise in Chronic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Li Wu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity associated with abnormal muscle tone is a common motor disorder following stroke, and the spastic ankle may affect ambulatory function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of dynamic-repeated-passive ankle movements with weight loading on ambulatory function and spastic hypertonia of chronic stroke patients. In this study, 12 chronic stroke patients with ankle spasticity and inefficient ambulatory ability were enrolled. Stretching of the plantar-flexors of the ankle in the standing position for 15 minutes was performed passively by a constant-speed and electrically powered device. The following evaluations were done before and immediately after the dynamic-repeated-passive ankle movements. Spastic hypertonia was assessed by the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS; range, 0–4, Achilles tendon reflexes test (DTR; range, 0–4, and ankle clonus (range, 0–5. Improvement in ambulatory ability was determined by the timed up-and-go test (TUG, the 10-minute walking test, and cadence (steps/minute. In addition, subjective experience of the influence of ankle spasticity on ambulation was scored by visual analog scale (VAS. Subjective satisfaction with the therapeutic effect of spasticity reduction was evaluated by a five-point questionnaire (1 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = acceptable, 4 = good, 5 = very good. By comparison of the results before and after intervention, these 12 chronic stroke patients presented significant reduction in MAS and VAS for ankle spasticity, the time for TUG and 10-minute walking speed (p < 0.01. The cadence also increased significantly (p < 0.05. In addition, subjective satisfaction with the short-term therapeutic effect was mainly good (ranging from acceptable to very good. In conclusion, 15 minutes of dynamic-repeated-passive ankle joint motion exercise with weight loading in the standing position by this simple constant-speed machine is effective in reducing ankle spasticity and improving

  11. Effect of homogenizer performance on accuracy and repeatability of mid-infrared predicted values for major milk components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marzo, Larissa; Barbano, David M

    2016-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of mid-infrared (MIR) homogenizer efficiency on accuracy and repeatability of Fourier transform MIR predicted fat, true protein, and anhydrous lactose determination given by traditional filter and partial least squares (PLS) prediction models. Five homogenizers with different homogenization performance based on laser light-scattering particle size analysis were used. Repeatability and accuracy were determined by conducting 17 sequential readings on milk homogenized externally to the instrument (i.e., control) and unhomogenized milk. Milk component predictions on externally homogenized milks were affected by variation in homogenizer performance, but the magnitude of effect were small (i.e., milks were pumped through both efficient and inefficient homogenizers within a MIR milk analyzer. Variation in the in-line MIR homogenizer performance on unhomogenized milks had a much larger effect on accuracy of component testing than on repeatability. The increase of particle size distribution [d(0.9)] from 1.35 to 3.03μm (i.e., fat globule diameter above which 10% of the volume of fat is contained) due to poor homogenization affected fat tests the most; traditional filter based fat B (carbon hydrogen stretch; -0.165%), traditional filter-based fat A (carbonyl stretch; -0.074%), and fat PLS (-0.078%) at a d(0.9) of 3.03μm. Variation in homogenization efficiency also affected traditional filter-based true protein test (+0.012%), true protein PLS prediction (-0.107%), and traditional filter-based anhydrous lactose test (+0.027%) at a d(0.9) of 3.03μm. Effects of variation in homogenization on anhydrous lactose PLS predictions were small. The accuracy of both traditional filter models and PLS models were influenced by poor homogenization. The value of 1.7µm for a d(0.9) used by the USDA Federal Milk Market laboratories as a criterion to make the decision to replace the homogenizer in a MIR milk analyzer appears to be a reasonable

  12. Performance Study of Screen-Printed Textile Antennas after Repeated Washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazani I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The stability of wearable textile antennas after 20 reference washing cycles was evaluated by measuring the reflection coefficient of different antenna prototypes. The prototypes’ conductive parts were screen-printed on several textile substrates using two different silver-based conductive inks. The necessity of coating the antennas with a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU coating was investigated by comparing coated with uncoated antennas. It is shown that covering the antennas with the TPU layer not only protects the screen-printed conductive area but also prevents delamination of the multilayered textile fabric substrates, making the antennas washable for up to 20 cycles. Furthermore, it is proven that coating is not necessary for maintaining antenna operation and this up to 20 washing cycles. However, connector detachment caused by friction during the washing process was the main problem of antenna performance degradation. Hence, other flexible, durable methods should be developed for establishing a stable electrical connection.

  13. Attentional and visual demands for sprint performance in non-fatigued and fatigued conditions: reliability of a repeated sprint test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diercks Ron L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical performance measures are widely used to assess physical function, providing information about physiological and biomechanical aspects of motor performance. However they do not provide insight into the attentional and visual demands for motor performance. A figure-of-eight sprint test was therefore developed to measure the attentional and visual demands for repeated-sprint performance. The aims of the study were: 1 to assess test-retest reliability of the figure-of-eight sprint test, and 2 to study the attentional and visual demands for sprint performance in a non-fatigued and fatigued condition. Methods Twenty-seven healthy athletes were included in the study. To determine test-retest reliability, a subgroup of 19 athletes performed the figure-of-eight sprint test twice. The figure-of-eight sprint test consisted of nine 30-second sprints. The sprint test consisted of three test parts: sprinting without any restriction, with an attention-demanding task, and with restricted vision. Increases in sprint times with the attention-demanding task or restricted vision are reflective of the attentional and visual demands for sprinting. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and mean difference between test and retest with 95% confidence limits (CL were used to assess test-retest reliability. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used for comparisons between the sprint times and fatigue measurements of the test parts in both a non-fatigued and fatigued condition. Results The figure-of-eight sprint test showed good test-retest reliability, with ICCs ranging from 0.75 to 0.94 (95% CL: 0.40-0.98. Zero lay within the 95% CL of the mean differences, indicating that no bias existed between sprint performance at test and retest. Sprint times during the test parts with attention-demanding task (P = 0.01 and restricted vision (P Conclusions High ICCs and the absence of systematic variation indicate good test-retest reliability of the figure

  14. The Aminopyridinol Derivative BJ-1201 Protects Murine Hippocampal Cells against Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity via Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sung Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It can cause neuronal cell damage in the context of oxidative stress. BJ-1201 is a derivative of the compound aminopyridinol, which is known for its antioxidant activity. In this study, we examined the effect of BJ-1201, a 6-(diphenylamino-2,4,5-trimethylpyridin-3-ol compound, on neuroprotection in HT22 cells. Our data showed that BJ-1201 can protect HT22 cells against glutamate-induced cell cytotoxicity. In addition, BJ-1201 upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 to levels comparable to those of the CoPP-treated group. BJ-1201 treatment induced phosphorylation of JNK, but not p38-MAPK or ERK. It also increased the signal in the reporter assay based on β-galactosidase activity driven by the nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 promoter harboring antioxidant response elements (AREs and induced the translocation of Nrf2. These results demonstrate that BJ-1201 may be a good therapeutic platform against neurodegenerative diseases induced by oxidative stress.

  15. Effects of chronic dietary selenomethionine exposure on repeat swimming performance, aerobic metabolism and methionine catabolism in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jith K; Wiseman, Steve; Giesy, John P; Janz, David M

    2013-04-15

    In a previous study we reported impaired swimming performance and greater stored energy in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after chronic dietary exposure to selenomethionine (SeMet). The goal of the present study was to further investigate effects of chronic exposure to dietary SeMet on repeat swimming performance, oxygen consumption (MO2), metabolic capacities (standard metabolic rate [SMR], active metabolic rate [AMR], factorial aerobic scope [F-AS] and cost of transport [COT]) and gene expression of energy metabolism and methionine catabolism enzymes in adult zebrafish. Fish were fed SeMet at measured concentrations of 1.3, 3.4, 9.8 or 27.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) for 90 d. At the end of the exposure period, fish from each treatment group were divided into three subgroups: (a) no swim, (b) swim, and (c) repeat swim. Fish from the no swim group were euthanized immediately at 90 d and whole body triglycerides, glycogen and lactate, and gene expression of energy metabolism and methionine catabolism enzymes were determined. Individual fish from the swim group were placed in a swim tunnel respirometer and swimming performance was assessed by determining the critical swimming speed (U(crit)). After both Ucrit and MO2 analyses, fish were euthanized and whole body energy stores and lactate were determined. Similarly, individual fish from the repeat swim group were subjected to two U(crit) tests (U(crit-1) and U(crit-2)) performed with a 60 min recovery period between tests, followed by determination of energy stores and lactate. Impaired swim performance was observed in fish fed SeMet at concentrations greater than 3 μg Se/g in the diet. However, within each dietary Se treatment group, no significant differences between single and repeat U(crits) were observed. Oxygen consumption, SMR and COT were significantly greater, and F-AS was significantly lesser, in fish fed SeMet. Whole body triglycerides were proportional to the concentration of SeMet in the diet. While

  16. Performing Repeated Quantitative Small-Animal PET with an Arterial Input Function Is Routinely Feasible in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Chun-Hu; Huang, Ya-Yao; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Chen, Szu-Fu; Tsai, Miao-Ling; Wu, Hsiao-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Performing quantitative small-animal PET with an arterial input function has been considered technically challenging. Here, we introduce a catheterization procedure that keeps a rat physiologically stable for 1.5 mo. We demonstrated the feasibility of quantitative small-animal (18)F-FDG PET in rats by performing it repeatedly to monitor the time course of variations in the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc). Methods: Aseptic surgery was performed on 2 rats. Each rat underwent catheterization of the right femoral artery and left femoral vein. The catheters were sealed with microinjection ports and then implanted subcutaneously. Over the next 3 wk, each rat underwent (18)F-FDG quantitative small-animal PET 6 times. The CMRglc of each brain region was calculated using a 3-compartment model and an operational equation that included a k*4Results: On 6 mornings, we completed 12 (18)F-FDG quantitative small-animal PET studies on 2 rats. The rats grew steadily before and after the 6 quantitative small-animal PET studies. The CMRglc of the conscious brain (e.g., right parietal region, 99.6 ± 10.2 μmol/100 g/min; n = 6) was comparable to that for (14)C-deoxyglucose autoradiographic methods. Conclusion: Maintaining good blood patency in catheterized rats is not difficult. Longitudinal quantitative small-animal PET imaging with an arterial input function can be performed routinely. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  17. Effect of Small-Sided Games and Repeated Shuffle Sprint Training on Physical Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Ardigò, Luca P; Meckel, Yoav; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) and repeated shuffle sprint (RSS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests performances of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (24.8 ± 4.4 years) were assigned to either SSG or RSS group training protocols twice a week for 8 weeks. The SSG training consisted of 5 small-sided handball games with 3-a-side teams excluding goalkeepers. The RSS consisted of 2 sets of 14-17 of 20-m shuttle sprints and 9-m jump shots interspersed by 20-second recoveries. Before and after training, the following performance variables were assessed: speed on 10-m and 20-m sprint time, agility and RSA time, CMJ height, standing throw, and jump shot speed. Significant pre-to-post treatment improvements were found in all the assessed variables following both training protocols (multivariate analysis of variance, p ≤ 0.05). There was a significantly greater improvement on 10-m sprint, CMJ, and jump shooting, after the RSS in comparison with SSG training (+4.4% vs. +2.4%, +8.6% vs. +5.6%, and +5.5% vs. +2.7%, respectively). Conversely, agility and standing throwing showed lower improvements after RSS in comparison with SSG (+1.0% vs. +7.8% and +1.6% vs. +9.0%, respectively). These results indicate that these training methods are effective for fitness development among elite adult handball players during the last period of the competitive season. Specifically, SSG seems to be more effective in improving agility and standing throw, whereas RSS seems preferable in improving 10-m sprint, CMJ, and jump shot.

  18. Changes in repeated-sprint performance in relation to change in locomotor profile in highly-trained young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of changes in maximal aerobic (MAS) and sprinting (MSS) speeds and the anaerobic reserve (ASR) on repeated-sprint performance. Two hundred and seventy highly-trained soccer players (14.5 ± 1.6 year) completed three times per season (over 5 years) a maximal incremental running test to approach MAS, a 40-m sprint with 10-m splits to assess MSS and a repeated-sprint test (10 × 30-m sprints), where best (RSb) and mean (RSm) sprint times, and percentage of speed decrement (%Dec) were calculated. ASR was calculated as MSS-MAS. While ∆RSb were related to ∆MSS and ∆body mass (r(2) = 0.42, 90%CL[0.34;0.49] for the overall multiple regression, n = 334), ∆RSm was also correlated with ∆MAS and ∆sum of 7 skinfolds (r(2) = 0.43 [0.35;0.50], n = 334). There was a small and positive association between ∆%Dec and ∆MAS (r(2) = 0.02 [-0.07;0.11], n = 334). Substantial ∆MSS and ∆MAS had a predictive value of 70 and 55% for ∆RSm, respectively. Finally, ∆ASR per se was not predictive of ∆RSm (Cohen's = +0.8 to -0.3 with increased ASR), but the greater magnitude of ∆RSm improvement was observed when MSS, MAS and ASR increased together (0.8 vs. +0.4 with ASR increased vs. not, additionally to MSS and MAS). Low-cost field tests aimed at assessing maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds can be used to monitor ∆RS performance.

  19. Björk: la revolución de la Diosa

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Asperilla, Estíbaliz

    2013-01-01

    En cuanto al ámbito musical se refiere, la imagen cada vez goza de un mayor protagonismo. No sólo se utiliza como mera herramienta publicitaria, sino que en la mayoría de los casos llega a ser considerada como obra de arte. Un claro ejemplo de ello es la cantante Björk, quien mediante sus imágenes -impregnadas de cierto carácter mitológico y alquímicocomunica todo aquello que con sus sonidos y letras no puede llegar a expresar. Existen varios artículos, libros y materiales digitales sobre su ...

  20. Effects of heat exposure and 3% dehydration achieved via hot water immersion on repeated cycle sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Justin A; Green, James M; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T; Neggers, Yasmin H; Leeper, James D

    2011-03-01

    This study examined effects of heat exposure with and without dehydration on repeated anaerobic cycling. Males (n = 10) completed 3 trials: control (CT), water-bath heat exposure (∼39°C) to 3% dehydration (with fluid replacement) (HE), and similar heat exposure to 3% dehydration (DEHY). Hematocrit increased significantly from pre to postheat immersion in both HE and DEHY. Participants performed 6 × 15s cycle sprints (30s active recovery). Mean Power (MP) was significantly lower vs. CT (596 ± 66 W) for DEHY (569 ± 72 W), and the difference approached significance for HE (582 ± 76 W, p = 0.07). Peak Power (PP) was significantly lower vs. CT (900 ± 117 W) for HE (870 ± 128 W) and approached significance for DEHY (857 ± 145 W, p = 0.07). Postsprint ratings of perceived exertion was higher during DEHY (6.4 ± 2.0) and HE (6.3 ± 1.6) than CT (5.7 ± 2.1). Combined heat and dehydration impaired MP and PP (decrements greatest in later bouts) with HE performance intermediate to CT and DEHY.

  1. Coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyun Jeong [Department of Biochemistry, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sahng Wook [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Chronic Metabolic Disease Research, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hojeong [Department of Anatomy, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Kyu, E-mail: 49park@kd.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dojun, E-mail: mozart@kd.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung, Gangwondo 210-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-19

    Mouse or human fibroblasts are commonly used as feeder cells to prevent differentiation in stem or primary cell culture. In the present study, we addressed whether fibroblasts can affect the differentiation of adipocytes. We found that the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was strongly suppressed when the cells were cocultured with human fibroblast (BJ) cells. BrdU incorporation analysis indicated that mitotic clonal expansion, an early event required for 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis, was not affected by BJ cells. The 3T3-L1 cell expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and Krueppel-like factor 15, but not those of C/EBP{beta} or C/EBP{delta}, were decreased by coculture with BJ cells. When mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cocultured with BJ cells, their lipid contents were significantly reduced, with decreased fatty acid synthase expression and increased phosphorylated form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. Our data indicate that coculture with BJ fibroblast cells inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreases the lipogenesis of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  2. Effects of Three Different Resistance Training Frequencies on Jump, Sprint, and Repeated Sprint Ability Performance in Professional Futsal Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Franco, Adrián; Rey, Ezequiel; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 3 different resistance training frequencies (one strength training session per week (1W), two strength training sessions per week (2W) or one strength training session every second week (0.5W)) on jump, sprint and repeated sprint performance (RSA) in professional futsal players. Thirty-five futsal players were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, the 1W group (n= 12), 2W group (n= 12), or the 0.5W group (n= 11). The players performed the same resistance training during 6 weeks and only training frequency differed between the groups. Within-group analysis showed significant improvements in jump (p≤0.001, Effect Size (ES)= 0.13-0.35), sprint (p≤0.001, ES= 0.48-0.71), and RSA (p≤0.01, ES= 0.22-0.63) from pretest to posttest in 1W and 2W. However, no significant (p>0.05) pre-post changes were observed for the 0.5W in any variable. In the between-groups analysis, significant better results were found in jump (p≤0.01), sprint (p≤0.01), and RSA performance (p≤0.01) in the 1W group and 2W group in comparison with 0.5W group. Also, jump (p≤0.05) and 5 m sprint (p≤0.05) performances was significantly better in the 2W group in comparison with 1W group. In conclusion, the current study showed that 6 weeks of RT one or two times per week in addition to typical futsal training, produced significant improvements in jump, sprint and RSA performance. Additionally, RT one every second week may be sufficient to maintain physical fitness in professional futsal players. This information may be useful for coaches when planning training contents during congested fixture schedules or in periods where the emphasis need to be put on other qualities and spend as little time as possible on maintaining or increasing physical performance.

  3. Experimental Assessment on the Flexural Bonding Performance of Concrete Beam with GFRP Reinforcing Bar under Repeated Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate the flexural bond performance of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP reinforcing bar under repeated loading. The flexural bond tests reinforced with GFRP reinforcing bars were carried out according to the BS EN 12269-1 (2000 specification. The bond test consisted of three loading schemes: static, monotonic, and variable-amplitude loading to simulate ambient loading conditions. The empirical bond length based on the static test was 225 mm, whereas it was 317 mm according to ACI 440 1R-03. Each bond stress on the rib is released and bonding force is enhanced as the bond length is increased. Appropriate level of bond length may be recommended with this energy-based analysis. For the monotonic loading test, the bond strengths at pullout failure after 2,000,000 cycles were 10.4 MPa and 6.5 MPa, respectively: 63–70% of the values from the static loading test. The variable loading test indicated that the linear cumulative damage theory on GFRP bonding may not be appropriate for estimating the fatigue limit when subjected to variable-amplitude loading.

  4. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; Candow, Darren G; Little, Jonathan P; Magnus, Charlene; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Wingate cycle performance and muscle endurance. Healthy young adults (N = 15, 11 men, 4 women, 21 +/- 5 y old) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body mass of caffeine) or isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo, separated by 7 d. Muscle endurance (bench press) was assessed by the maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets (separated by 1-min rest intervals) at an intensity corresponding to 70% of baseline 1-repetition maximum. Three 30-s Wingate cycling tests (load = 0.075 kp/kg body mass), with 2 min recovery between tests, were used to assess peak and average power output. Red Bull energy drink significantly increased total bench-press repetitions over 3 sets (Red Bull = 34 +/- 9 vs. placebo = 32 +/- 8, P %%%lt; 0.05) but had no effect on Wingate peak or average power (Red Bull = 701 +/- 124 W vs. placebo = 700 +/- 132 W, Red Bull = 479 +/- 74 W vs. placebo = 471 +/- 74 W, respectively). Red Bull energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance but had no effect on anaerobic peak or average power during repeated Wingate cycling tests in young healthy adults.

  5. Acute effects of a caffeine-taurine energy drink on repeated sprint performance of American college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwacham, Nnamdi; Wagner, Dale R

    2012-04-01

    Consumption of energy drinks is common among athletes; however, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of these beverages for short-duration, intense exercise. The purpose of this research was to investigate the acute effects of a low-calorie caffeine-taurine energy drink (AdvoCare Spark) on repeated sprint performance and anaerobic power in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Twenty football players (age 19.7 ± 1.8 yr, height 184.9 ± 5.3 cm, weight 100.3 ± 21.7 kg) participated in a double-blind, randomized crossover study in which they received the energy drink or an isoenergetic, isovolumetric, non-caffeinated placebo in 2 trials separated by 7 days. The Running Based Anaerobic Sprint Test, consisting of six 35-m sprints with 10 s of rest between sprints, was used to assess anaerobic power. Sprint times were recorded with an automatic electronic timer. The beverage treatment did not significantly affect power (F = 3.84, p = .066) or sprint time (F = 3.06, p = .097). However, there was a significant interaction effect between caffeine use and the beverage for sprint times (F = 4.62, p = .045), as well as for anaerobic power (F = 5.40, p = .032), indicating a confounding effect. In conclusion, a caffeine-taurine energy drink did not improve the sprint performance or anaerobic power of college football players, but the level of caffeine use by the athletes likely influenced the effect of the drink.

  6. Influence of equipment and settings on myocardial performance index repeatability and definition of settings to achieve optimal reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, S M; Cruz-Lemini, M; Valenzuela-Alcaraz, B; Ortiz, J U; Martinez, J M; Gratacos, E; Crispi, F

    2014-06-01

    To compare left myocardial performance index (MPI) values and reproducibility using different settings and ultrasound equipment in order to standardize optimal machine settings. Left MPI was prospectively evaluated by one observer performing conventional Doppler in 62 fetuses (28-36 weeks of gestational age) using different settings (changing sweep speed, gain and wall motion filter (WMF)) and two different ultrasound devices (Siemens Antares, Siemens; Voluson 730 Expert, GE Medical Systems). Intraclass coefficients of agreement (ICCs) were calculated using Bland-Altman analysis. Using baseline settings on the Siemens, mean (SD) MPI was 0.44 (0.05) with an ICC of 0.81. Decreasing the sweep speed resulted in decreasing average MPI values (0.43) and decreasing ICC (0.61). Lowering gain also influenced average MPI values (0.46) and ICC (0.76). Raising gain resulted in similar MPI values (0.45) with better ICC (0.90) compared with baseline settings. Raising wall motion filter (WMF) provided the best ICC (0.94) compared with the other settings. Changing the ultrasound equipment resulted in an ICC of 0.64. The optimal settings to achieve the highest reproducibility in measurement of MPI were sweep speed 8, gain 60 dB and WMF 281 Hz for Siemens Antares and sweep speed 5, gain -10 dB and WMF 210 Hz for Voluson 730 Expert. Changing ultrasound settings or equipment may affect the calculation and repeatability of measurement of MPI values. Strict standardization of methods decreases the variability of this parameter for fetal cardiac function assessment. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Transcriptional activation and localization of expression of Brassica juncea putative metal transport protein BjMTP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salt David E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal hyperaccumulators, including various Thlaspi species, constitutively express the putative metal transporter MTP1 to high levels in shoots. Here we present data on the transcriptional regulation and localization of expression of the homologous gene BjMTP1 in Brassica juncea. Though B. juncea lacks the ability to hyperaccumulate metals, its relatively high biomass, rapid growth and relatedness to true metal hyperaccumulating plants makes it a promising starting point for the development of plants for phytoremediation. Our goal in this study is to determine the transcriptional regulation of MTP1 in order to start to better understanding the physiological role of MTP1 in B. juncea. Results Steady-state mRNA levels of BjMTP1 were found to be enhanced 8.8, 5.9, and 1.6-fold in five-day-old B. juncea seedlings after exposure to Ni2+, Cd2+ or Zn2+, respectively. This was also reflected in enhanced GUS activity in B. juncea seedlings transformed with BjMTP1 promoter::GUSPlus after exposure to these metals over a similar range of toxicities from mild to severe. However, no increase in GUS activity was observed after exposure of seedlings to cold or heat stress, NaCl or hydrogen peroxide. GUS expression in Ni2+ treated seedlings was localized in roots, particularly in the root-shoot transition zone. In four- week- old transgenic plants BjMTP1 promoter activity also primarily increased in roots in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ in plants transformed with either GUS or mRFP1 as reporter genes, and expression was localized to the secondary xylem parenchyma. In leaves, BjMTP1 promoter activity in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ spiked after 24 h then decreased. In shoots GUS expression was prominently present in the vasculature of leaves, and floral parts. Conclusion Our studies establish that a 983 bp DNA fragment upstream of the BjMTP1 translational start site is sufficient for the specific activation by Ni2+ and Cd2+ of BjMTP1 expression

  8. Transcriptional activation and localization of expression of Brassica juncea putative metal transport protein BjMTP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Balasubramaniam; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Salt, David E

    2007-01-01

    Background Metal hyperaccumulators, including various Thlaspi species, constitutively express the putative metal transporter MTP1 to high levels in shoots. Here we present data on the transcriptional regulation and localization of expression of the homologous gene BjMTP1 in Brassica juncea. Though B. juncea lacks the ability to hyperaccumulate metals, its relatively high biomass, rapid growth and relatedness to true metal hyperaccumulating plants makes it a promising starting point for the development of plants for phytoremediation. Our goal in this study is to determine the transcriptional regulation of MTP1 in order to start to better understanding the physiological role of MTP1 in B. juncea. Results Steady-state mRNA levels of BjMTP1 were found to be enhanced 8.8, 5.9, and 1.6-fold in five-day-old B. juncea seedlings after exposure to Ni2+, Cd2+ or Zn2+, respectively. This was also reflected in enhanced GUS activity in B. juncea seedlings transformed with BjMTP1 promoter::GUSPlus after exposure to these metals over a similar range of toxicities from mild to severe. However, no increase in GUS activity was observed after exposure of seedlings to cold or heat stress, NaCl or hydrogen peroxide. GUS expression in Ni2+ treated seedlings was localized in roots, particularly in the root-shoot transition zone. In four- week- old transgenic plants BjMTP1 promoter activity also primarily increased in roots in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ in plants transformed with either GUS or mRFP1 as reporter genes, and expression was localized to the secondary xylem parenchyma. In leaves, BjMTP1 promoter activity in response to Ni2+ or Cd2+ spiked after 24 h then decreased. In shoots GUS expression was prominently present in the vasculature of leaves, and floral parts. Conclusion Our studies establish that a 983 bp DNA fragment upstream of the BjMTP1 translational start site is sufficient for the specific activation by Ni2+ and Cd2+ of BjMTP1 expression primarily in roots. Activation of

  9. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po Yee; Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-06-01

    The effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) and its analogs on solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury were examined in BJ human fibroblasts. Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C) increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and protected against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury. The photoprotection was paralleled by decreases in the elastases-type protease activity and matrix-metalloproteinases-1 expression in solar-irradiated fibroblasts. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production. The results suggest that by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B or Sch C may offer the prospect of preventing skin photo-aging.

  10. An intracellular toxic protein (Xin) isolated from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain BJ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An intracellular toxic protein, designated Xin and with remarkable inhibitory effect on growth of Helicoverpa armigera, was isolated from X. Nematophilus strain BJ by ion exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. After placing neonates on the artificial diet containing Xin at concentration of 0 or 3.48μg/g for 7 days, the average weight of insects was 23.50mg and 0.55mg, respectively. The activity of Xin was lost by heating, freeze-drying, digestion with proteases or urea. The Xin molecular weight, over kD, was determined by gel filtration on Superose 12, and there were six component proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The results show that Xin is a high molecular protein complex inhibiting growth of insect pest.

  11. Expression of FATE/BJ-HCC-2 Promotes Cell Proliferation and Tumorigenesis%FATE/BJ-HCC-2基因表达促进细胞增殖及肿瘤形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫萌; 王巍; 杨小昂; 张毓; 尹艳慧; 陈慰峰

    2008-01-01

    FATE/BJ-HCC-2是本实验室鉴定的一个新的肿瘤.睾丸抗原基因,定位于Xq28染色体.为探讨FATE/BJ-HCC-2对细胞生物学行为的影响及裸鼠体内肿瘤形成能力的改变,分别采用脂质体转染真核表达栽体及逆转录病毒感染两种方式,获得了FATE/BJ-HCC-2表达的Bel-7402单克隆细胞株及NIH-3T3细胞克隆,并通过RT-PCR和Western印迹在基因和蛋白水平鉴定了FATE/BJ-HCC-2表达情况.通过3 H-TdR参入法,检测细胞的增殖能力;通过稀释铺板集落形成率测定和软琼脂集落形成实验,检测细胞的集落形成能力;通过裸鼠体内细胞注射成瘤,检测细胞成瘤性和肿瘤生长速度.结果表明,FATE/BJ-HCC-2基因表达能明显提高细胞体外增殖、克隆形成能力和成瘤性.提示其对肿瘤的发生发展起到促进作用.

  12. EFFECT OF PRE-COOLING ON REPEAT-SPRINT PERFORMANCE IN SEASONALLY ACCLIMATISED MALES DURING AN OUTDOOR SIMULATED TEAM-SPORT PROTOCOL IN WARM CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly J. Brade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10. They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket and another without (CONT. Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23 in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit

  13. Long-term glycine propionyl-l-carnitine supplemention and paradoxical effects on repeated anaerobic sprint performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Erica R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that acute GPLC supplementation produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate production in resistance trained males. However, it is not known what effects chronic GPLC supplementation has on anaerobic performances or lactate clearance. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of different dosages of GPLC supplementation on repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprint performance. Methods Forty-five resistance trained men participated in a double-blind, controlled research study. All subjects completed two testing sessions, seven days apart, 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Following completion of the second test session, the 45 subjects were randomly assigned to receive 1.5 g, 3.0 g, or 4.5 g GPLC per day for a 28 day period. Subjects completed a third test session following the four weeks of GPLC supplementation using the same testing protocol. Values of peak power (PP, mean power (MP and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body mass. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results There were no significant effects of condition or significant interaction effects detected for PP and MP. However, results indicated that sprint bouts three, four and five produced 2 - 5% lower values of PP and 3 - 7% lower values of MP with GPLC at 3.0 or 4.5 g per day as compared to baseline values. Conversely, 1.5 g GPLC produced 3 - 6% higher values of PP and 2 -5% higher values of MP compared with PL baseline values. Values of DEC were significantly greater (15-20% greater across the five sprint bouts with 3.0 g or 4.5 g GPLC, but the 1.5 g GPLC

  14. Effect of pre-cooling on repeat-sprint performance in seasonally acclimatised males during an outdoor simulated team-sport protocol in warm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brade, Carly J; Dawson, Brian T; Wallman, Karen E

    2013-01-01

    Whether precooling is beneficial for exercise performance in warm climates when heat acclimatised is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of precooling on repeat-sprint performance during a simulated team-sport circuit performed outdoors in warm, dry field conditions in seasonally acclimatised males (n = 10). They performed two trials, one with precooling (PC; ice slushy and cooling jacket) and another without (CONT). Trials began with a 30-min baseline/cooling period followed by an 80 min repeat-sprint protocol, comprising 4 x 20-min quarters, with 2 x 5-min quarter breaks and a 10-min half-time recovery/cooling period. A clear and substantial (negative; PC slower) effect was recorded for first quarter circuit time. Clear and trivial effects were recorded for overall circuit time, third and fourth quarter sprint times and fourth quarter best sprint time, otherwise unclear and trivial effects were recorded for remaining performance variables. Core temperature was moderately lower (Cohen's d=0.67; 90% CL=-1.27, 0.23) in PC at the end of the precooling period and quarter 1. No differences were found for mean skin temperature, heart rate, thermal sensation, or rating of perceived exertion, however, moderate Cohen's d effect sizes suggested a greater sweat loss in PC compared with CONT. In conclusion, repeat- sprint performance was neither clearly nor substantially improved in seasonally acclimatised players by using a combination of internal and external cooling methods prior to and during exercise performed in the field in warm, dry conditions. Of practical importance, precooling appears unnecessary for repeat-sprint performance if athletes are seasonally acclimatised or artificially acclimated to heat, as it provides no additional benefit. Key PointsPre-cooling did not improve repeated sprint performance during a prolonged team-sport circuit in field conditions.If individuals are already heat acclimatised/acclimated, pre-cooling is

  15. Performance Analysis of Flat Surface Assumption and Residual Motion Errors on Airborne Repeat-pass InSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xue

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When applying to the airborne repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR, which has long synthetic aperture and large azimuth-dependent errors, the surface assumption used to simply the time-domain algorithm model and the residual motion errors due to the precision of the navigation system will affect the imaging result and the interferometric measurement. This paper analyzes the altitude errors introduced by the surface assumption and the residual motion errors due to the precision of the navigation system. We deduce the range errors model during the single pass and analyze the effects of these errors on the plane location, interferometric phase and DEM precision. Then the accuracy of the theoretical deduction is verified by simulation and real data. The research provides theoretical bases for the system design and signal processing of airborne repeat-pass InSAR.

  16. The effect of repeated nicotine administration on the performance of drug-naive rats in a five-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, A; Simon, H; Sanger, D J; Moser, P

    1999-11-01

    Nicotine improves cognitive performance both in animals and in humans, particularly in tests involving attentional processes. The five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used as a model of attentional performance in rats, and previous studies have demonstrated effects of nicotine in this task on measures such as improved reaction time. Using a modified version of this task (in which rats were required to respond to the disappearance of one of five stimulus lights), we evaluated the effects of repeated nicotine administration (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, on three occasions over 7 days) in drug-naive rats. After the first administration, nicotine increased accuracy and reduced inappropriate responding (anticipatory responses and responses during time-out) compared to performance following vehicle administration on the preceding day. However, with repeated administration the improvement in accuracy disappeared, and other effects became apparent. Thus, after the third administration the main effects of nicotine were to increase inappropriate responding and to reduce reaction times. A fourth administration 1-2 weeks later produced similar results to the third administration, suggesting that the effects of nicotine were now constant. Despite the general increase in inappropriate responding, there was no impairment in accuracy. In contrast to the response to repeated nicotine, the performance of the rats on the 3 vehicle days remained constant. These data demonstrate that the administration of nicotine to drug-naive subjects improves performance in the 5-CSRTT but that with repeated administration this effect disappears and is replaced by a profile in which inappropriate and impulsive responding predominate.

  17. Identification of fungus-responsive cis-acting element in the promoter of Brassica juncea chitinase gene, BjCHI1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Zan, Xin-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Yao, Lei; Chen, Yu-Ling; Jia, Shuang-Wei; Zhao, Kai-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Chitinases are a group of pathogenesis-related proteins. The Brassica juncea chitinase gene BjCHI1 is highly inducible by pathogenic fungal infection, suggesting that the promoter of BjCHI1 might contain specific cis-acting element responsive to fungal attack. To identify the fungus-responsive element in BjCHI1 promoter (BjC-P), a series of binary plant transformation vectors were constructed by fusing the BjC-P or its deletion-derivatives to β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression of the GUS reporter gene was systematically assayed by a transient gene expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves treated with fungal elicitor Hexa-N-Acetyl-Chitohexaose, as well as in transgenic Arabidopsis plants inoculated with fungus Botrytis cinerea. The histochemical and quantitative GUS assays showed that the W-box-like element (GTAGTGACTCAT) in the region (-668 to -657) was necessary for the fungus-response, although there were another five W-box-like elements in BjC-P. In addition, gain-of-function analysis demonstrated that the fragment (-409 to -337) coupled to the W-box-like element was needed for full magnitude of the fungal induction. These results revealed the existence of a novel regulation mechanism of W-box-like element involved in plant pathogenic resistance, and will benefit the potential application of BjC-P in engineering crops.

  18. NDM-1 encoded by a pNDM-BJ01-like plasmid p3SP-NDM in clinical Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhong; Li, Hongxia; Feng, Jiao; Li, Yuxue; Chen, Xin; Guo, Xuemin; Chen, Weijun; Wang, Li; Lin, Lei; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Wenhui; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Changting; Yin, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    A carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter aerogenes strain named 3-SP was isolated from a human case of pneumonia in a Chinese teaching hospital. NDM-1 carbapenemase is produced by a pNDM-BJ01-like conjugative plasmid designated p3SP-NDM to account for carbapenem resistance of 3-SP. p3SP-NDM was fully sequenced and compared with all publically available pNDM-BJ01-like plasmids. The genetic differences between p3SP-NDM and pNDM-BJ01 include only 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms, a 1 bp deletion and a 706 bp deletion. p3SP-NDM and pNDM-BJ01 harbor an identical Tn125 element organized as ISAba125, bla NDM-1, ble MBL, ΔtrpF, dsbC, cutA, ΔgroES, groEL, ISCR27, and ISAba125. The bla NDM-1 surrounding regions in these pNDM-BJ01-like plasmids have a conserved linear organization ISAba14-aphA6-Tn125-unknown IS, with considerable genetic differences identified within or immediately downstream of Tn125. All reported pNDM-BJ01-like plasmids are exclusively found in Acinetobacter, whereas this is the first report of identification of a pNDM-BJ01-like plasmid in Enterobacteriaceae.

  19. The effects of “Beijing grass” in diets on growth performance, humoral antibody and carcass characteristics in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chethanond, U.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological study on Beijing grass (Bj. grass: Murdannia loriformis showed immunomodulator and anticancer activities. Thus, the effect of Bj. grass in diets was investigated in Japanese quails (aged 0-6 weeks on growth performances, humoral immunity and carcass characteristics. 708 1-day-old quails (Corturnix type which had no vaccination program were used in this study. They were experimented using completely randomized design and were divided into 6 treatments consisted of 4 replications with 27-31 heads each. The treatments were assigned as follows: Treatment 1 (T1 no vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 2 (T2 vaccination and no Bj.grass, Treatment 3 (T3 vaccination and 3% Bj.grass, Treatment 4 (T4 vaccination and 6% Bj.grass, Treatment 5 (T5 vaccination and 9% Bj.grass and Treatment 6 (T6 vaccination and 10% Bj.grass juice (w/v. Vaccination program by 1 Newcastle disease + Infectious Bronchitis and 2 Pox were given at 1 and 3 weeks. Approximately 25% of quails were bled for determination of packed cell volume, gamma globulin levels and ND-HI titers. All male quails were put to sleep at 6 weeks. The results showed weight gain in the 3rd week was different in treatments using Bj. grass and treatments using control diet which body weight gain reduced when the level of Bj. grass increased (p 0.05. It was noted that not more than 6% Bj. grass could be used in quail diet without abnormal clinical signs. However, the more grass showed the tendency of poor weight gain. There were no differences in packed cell volume or gamma IgG level and ND-HI titers did not reach protection level. For carcass characteristics, Bj. grass 3% in diet gave the best carcass characteristics. (p < 0.05 In addition there was a dose-related reduction of abdominal fat (P=0.001.

  20. [Björn Ekwall and his contribution to modern cell toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, A

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Björn Ekwall (1940-2000) was a prominent Swedish scientist--cell toxicologist, who made an outstanding contribution in the field of in vitro toxicology. In the early 80-ties Ekwall formulated so called basal cytotoxicity concept, which served as a basis for modern orientation in the field of cell toxicology: the use of tests on cells in culture for prediction of acute systemic toxicity in humans, instead of the use of tests on experimental animals. To be able to verify his theories, Ekwall organized and led the international toxicological project called MEIC: Multicentre Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity Programme (1989-1999). In this project, 50 selected chemicals were tested in 100 laboratories worldwide with more than 60 different in vitro tests (laboratories have chosen tests themselves). MEIC project was unique not only because its large scale, but, in particular, because, for the first time, the human peak blood concentrations after acute poisoning with chemicals were used as references, aiming to check predictability of the in vitro assays. The results of the MEIC project have clearly demonstrated a possibility to use in vitro tests for prediction of toxicity of chemicals in humans.

  1. Single and repeated sevoflurane or desflurane exposure does not impair spatial memory performance of young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicaslan, Alper; Belviranli, Muaz; Okudan, Nilsel; Nurullahoglu Atalik, Esra

    2013-12-01

    Volatile anesthetics are known to disturb the spatial memory in aged rodents, but there is insufficient information on their effects on young adult rodents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single and repeated exposure to desflurane and sevoflurane on spatial learning and memory functions in young adult mice. Balb/c mice (2 months old) were randomly divided into six equal groups (n = 8). The groups with single inhalation were exposed to 3.3% sevoflurane or 7.8% desflurane or vehicle gas for 4 h, respectively. The groups with repeated inhalation were exposed to 3.3% sevoflurane or 7.8% desflurane or vehicle gas for 2 h a day during 5 consecutive days. Spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze 24 h after exposure. In the learning phase, the parameters associated with finding the hidden platform and swimming speed, and in the memory phase, time spent in the target quadrant and the adjacent quadrants, were assessed and compared between the groups. In the 4-day learning process, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of mean latency to platform, mean distance traveled and average speed (P > 0.05). During the memory-test phase, all mice exhibited spatial memory, but there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of time spent in the target quadrant (P > 0.05). Sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia did not impair acquisition learning and retention memory in young adult mice.

  2. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  3. PS1-14bj: A Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernova With a Long Rise and Slow Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Lunnan, R; Berger, E; Milisavljevic, D; Jones, D O; Rest, A; Fong, W; Fransson, C; Margutti, R; Drout, M R; Blanchard, P K; Challis, P; Cowperthwaite, P S; Foley, R J; Kirshner, R P; Morell, N; Riess, A G; Roth, K C; Scolnic, D; Smartt, S J; Smith, K W; Villar, V A; Chambers, K C; Draper, P W; Huber, M E; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R -P; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Waters, C

    2016-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of PS1-14bj, a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at redshift $z=0.5215$ discovered in the last months of the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. PS1-14bj stands out by its extremely slow evolution, with an observed rise to maximum light $\\gtrsim 125$ days in the rest frame, and exponential decline out to $\\sim 250$ days past peak at a measured rate of $9.75\\times 10^{-3}$ mag day$^{-1}$, consistent with fully-trapped $^{56}$Co decay. This is the longest rise time measured in a SLSN to date, and the first SLSN to show a rise time consistent with pair-instability supernova (PISN) models. Compared to other slowly-evolving SLSNe, it is spectroscopically similar to the prototype SN 2007bi at maximum light, though somewhat lower in luminosity ($L_{\\rm peak} \\simeq 4.4 \\times 10^{43}~{\\rm erg~s}^{-1}$) and with a flatter peak than previous events. In addition to its slow evolution, PS1-14bj shows a number of peculiar properties, including a near-constant color temperatur...

  4. A measurement of multijet production in low-x{sub Bj} neutral current deep inelastic scattering with ZEUS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, T.E.

    2007-12-15

    Inclusive dijet and trijet production in deep inelastic ep scattering has been measured for 10Bj}<10{sup -2}. The data were taken at the HERA ep collider with center-of-mass energy {radical}(s)=318 GeV using the ZEUS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 82 pb{sup -1}. Jets were identified in the hadronic center-of-mass (HCM) frame using the k{sub T} cluster algorithm in the longitudinally invariant inclusive mode. Measurements of dijet and trijet differential cross sections are presented as functions of Q{sup 2}, x{sub Bj}, jet transverse energy, and jet pseudorapidity. As a further examination of low-x{sub Bj} dynamics, multi-differential cross sections as functions of the jet correlations in transverse momenta, azimuthal angles, and pseudorapidity are also presented. Calculations at O({alpha}{sup 3}{sub s}) generally describe the trijet data well and improve the description of the dijet data compared to the calculation at O({alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}). (orig.)

  5. Sex differences in acute translational repressor 4E-BP1 activity and sprint performance in response to repeated-sprint exercise in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Jessica R; Edge, Johann A; Hawke, Emma; McMahon, Christopher; Mündel, Toby

    2015-11-01

    The physiological requirements underlying soccer-specific exercise are incomplete and sex-based comparisons are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a repeated-sprint protocol on the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and sprint performance in male and female soccer players. Cross-over design involving eight female and seven male university soccer players. Participants performed four bouts of 6 × 30-m maximal sprints spread equally over 40 min. Heart rate, sprint time and sprint decrement were measured for each sprint and during the course of each bout. Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken at rest, at 15 min and 2h post-exercise. While males maintained a faster mean sprint time for each bout (P sprint performance for each bout (P sprint performance in males, with no sex differences for heart rate or lactate. Muscle analyses revealed sex differences in resting total (P repeated sprints. We show that females have a larger sprint decrement indicating that males have a superior ability to recover sprint performance. Sex differences in resting 4E-BP1 Thr37/46 suggest diversity in the training-induced phenotype of the muscle of males and females competing in equivalent levels of team-sport competition. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attentional and visual demands for sprint performance in non-fatigued and fatigued conditions : reliability of a repeated sprint test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reininga, Inge H. F.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Diercks, Ron L.; Buizer, Arina T.; Stevens, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Physical performance measures are widely used to assess physical function, providing information about physiological and biomechanical aspects of motor performance. However they do not provide insight into the attentional and visual demands for motor performance. A figure-of-eight sprint

  7. The Comparative Study of the Change Detection in Coastal Engineering Using BJ-1 Small Satellite Remote Sensing Data%海岸工程变化的BJ-1遥感监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治; 杜云艳; 杨晓梅; 苏奋振

    2012-01-01

    海岸工程对海岸带经济发展和生态环境影响很大.随着海岸工程建设迅猛的发展,采用遥感的方法对海岸工程变化进行遥感监测显得尤为重要.本文以北京一号小卫星(BJ-1)资料为数据源,利用多种变化监测的方法对天津港和曹妃甸港区2006年和2010年的海岸工程变化进行监测.结果显示,波段替换法与SVM分类相结合的方法在2个重点研究区域精度最高,其总体精度和Kappa系数分别为92.35%和0.7902;面向对象的方法精度和稳定性其次,其总体精度和Kappa系数分别为91.77%和0.7732.%The coastal engineering exerts a great impact on the economic development and ecological environment of the seacoast. Thus, coastal engineering monitoring is a focus in coast zone remote sensing and monitoring. Since the 1980s, satellite remote sensing has become an indispensable technique in detecting the dynamic changes of coastal engineering. The accuracy of changes in coastal engineering is determined by the applicability of data obtained from remote sensing system and the feasibility of the methods in detecting the changes. As a satellite developed by China, the BJ-1 small satellite has already obtained numerous achievements in environment and disaster monitoring) urban management and construction and national land resource surveying. However, little has been investigated concerning the utilization of BJ-1 small satellite in monitoring the coast engineering. We compared various typical detection methods, and summarized a highly accurate and stable method in monitering the costal engineering with BJ-1 small satellite remote sensing data. Different detection methods were applied to investigate the changes in 2 key areas- Tianjin Port and Caofeidian Port costal engineering from 2006 to 2010 based on the characteristics of BJ-1 small satellite data, and evaluated the detected results. Our findings showed that among the detecting methods with BJ-1 remote sensing data

  8. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  9. A complete sequence and comparative analysis of a SARS-associated virus (Isolate BJ01)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The genome sequence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-associated virus provides essential information for the identification of pathogen(s), exploration of etiology and evolution, interpretation of transmission and pathogenesis, development of diagnostics, prevention by future vaccination, and treatment by developing new drugs. We report the complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of an isolate (BJ01) of the coronavirus that has been recognized as a pathogen for SARS. The genome is 29725 nt in size and has 11 ORFs (Open Reading Frames). It is composed of a stable region encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (composed of 2 ORFs) and a variable region representing 4 CDSs (coding sequences) for viral structural genes (the S, E, M, N proteins) and 5 PUPs (putative uncharacterized proteins). Its gene order is identical to that of other known coronaviruses. The sequence alignment with all known RNA viruses places this virus as a member in the family of Coronaviridae. Thirty putative substitutions have been identified by comparative analysis of the 5 SARS- associated virus genome sequences in GenBank. Fifteen of them lead to possible amino acid changes (non-synonymousmutations) in the proteins. Three amino acid changes, with predicted alteration of physical and chemical features, have been detected in the S protein that is postulated to be involved in the immunoreactions between the virus and its host. Two amino acid changes have been detected in the M protein, which could be related to viral envelope formation. Phylogenetic analysis suggests the possibility of non-human origin of the SARS-associated viruses but provides no evidence that they are man-made. Further efforts should focus on identifying the etiology of the SARS-associated virus and ruling out conclusively the existence of other possible SARS-related pathogen(s).

  10. Effects of in-season short-term aerobic and high-intensity interval training program on repeated sprint ability and jump performance in handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Schwesig, René; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl S; Chamari, Karim; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed S

    2016-11-16

    This study examined the effects of a 7-week in-season aerobic and high-intensity interval-training program on performance tests linked to successful handball play (e.g., repeated sprint and jumping ability). Thirty participants (age 17.0 ± 1.2 years, body mass 81.1 ± 3.4 kg, height 1.82± 0.07 m) performed a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), a squat (SJ) and a countermovement jump test (CMJ), as well as a repeated sprint ability test (RSA). From this, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, reached at the end of the Yo-Yo IR1), jumping ability, best time in a single sprint trial (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and the performance decrement (RSAdec) during all sprints were calculated. Later, subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; n=15) performing their normal training schedule (5 weekly sessions of ~90 min of handball training) or an experimental group (EG; n=15). The EG performed two 30 min sessions per week of high-intensity aerobic exercises at 100-130% of MAS in addition to their normal training schedule. Demonstrated a significant improvement in MAS (d=4.1), RSAbest (d=1.9), RSATT (d=1.5) and RSAdec (d=2.3) after the training period. Also, significant interaction effects (time x group) were found for all parameters as the EG significantly improved performances in all tests after training. The greatest interaction effects were observed in MAS (2=0.811) and CMJ (2=0.759). No relevant changes in test performances were found in the CG (mean d=-0.02). These results indicate that individually speed controlled aerobic and interval training is effective for improving specific handball performance.

  11. Comparison of plasma exchange performances between Spectra Optia and COBE Spectra apheresis systems in repeated procedures considering variability and using specific statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hequet, O; Stocco, V; Assari, S; Drillat, P; Le, Q H; Kassir, A; Rigal, D; Bouzgarrou, R

    2014-08-01

    Repeated therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) procedures using centrifugation techniques became a standard therapy in some diseases. As the new device Spectra Optia (SPO; Terumo BCT) was available, we studied its performances in repeated procedures in 20 patients in three apheresis units. First we analysed the performance results obtained by SPO. Second we compared the performances of the SPO device to a standard device, COBE Spectra (CSP; Terumo BCT) in the same patients using statistical method of mixed effects linear regression that considers variability between patients, centres and apheresis procedures. The performances analysed were classified according to plasma removal performances and their consequences on patients whose blood disturbances were assessed. Primary outcome was plasma removal efficiency (PRE) and PRE-anticoagulant corrected which was a more accurate parameter. Secondary outcomes corresponded to the volume of ACD-A consumed, platelets content in waste bag, procedure duration and status of coagulation system observed after TPE sessions. Before comparing the performances of both devices we compared the plasma volumes (PVs) processed in both techniques which showed that the PVs processed in SPO procedures were lower than in CSP procedures. In these conditions the statistical analysis revealed similar performances in both apheresis devices in PRE (p = ns) but better performances with SPO when considering higher PRE corrected by anticoagulant volume used (p apheresis patients' coagulation blood levels were identical before SPO and CSP, we showed identical haemostasis disturbances after SPO and CSP but lower platelet losses and higher fibrinogen post-apheresis blood levels after SPO (p < 0.05). No side effects or technical complications occurred during and after SPO and CSP. This study demonstrated that the Spectra Optia device is an alternative device to today's standard, the COBE Spectra device.

  12. Molecular, physiological, and motor performance defects in DMSXL mice carrying >1,000 CTG repeats from the human DM1 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Huguet

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is caused by an unstable CTG repeat expansion in the 3'UTR of the DM protein kinase (DMPK gene. DMPK transcripts carrying CUG expansions form nuclear foci and affect splicing regulation of various RNA transcripts. Furthermore, bidirectional transcription over the DMPK gene and non-conventional RNA translation of repeated transcripts have been described in DM1. It is clear now that this disease may involve multiple pathogenic pathways including changes in gene expression, RNA stability and splicing regulation, protein translation, and micro-RNA metabolism. We previously generated transgenic mice with 45-kb of the DM1 locus and >300 CTG repeats (DM300 mice. After successive breeding and a high level of CTG repeat instability, we obtained transgenic mice carrying >1,000 CTG (DMSXL mice. Here we described for the first time the expression pattern of the DMPK sense transcripts in DMSXL and human tissues. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that DMPK antisense transcripts are expressed in various DMSXL and human tissues, and that both sense and antisense transcripts accumulate in independent nuclear foci that do not co-localize together. Molecular features of DM1-associated RNA toxicity in DMSXL mice (such as foci accumulation and mild missplicing, were associated with high mortality, growth retardation, and muscle defects (abnormal histopathology, reduced muscle strength, and lower motor performances. We have found that lower levels of IGFBP-3 may contribute to DMSXL growth retardation, while increased proteasome activity may affect muscle function. These data demonstrate that the human DM1 locus carrying very large expansions induced a variety of molecular and physiological defects in transgenic mice, reflecting DM1 to a certain extent. As a result, DMSXL mice provide an animal tool to decipher various aspects of the disease mechanisms. In addition, these mice can be used to test the preclinical impact of systemic

  13. Molecular, physiological, and motor performance defects in DMSXL mice carrying >1,000 CTG repeats from the human DM1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Aline; Medja, Fadia; Nicole, Annie; Vignaud, Alban; Guiraud-Dogan, Céline; Ferry, Arnaud; Decostre, Valérie; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Metzger, Friedrich; Hoeflich, Andreas; Baraibar, Martin; Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Puymirat, Jack; Bassez, Guillaume; Furling, Denis; Munnich, Arnold; Gourdon, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by an unstable CTG repeat expansion in the 3'UTR of the DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene. DMPK transcripts carrying CUG expansions form nuclear foci and affect splicing regulation of various RNA transcripts. Furthermore, bidirectional transcription over the DMPK gene and non-conventional RNA translation of repeated transcripts have been described in DM1. It is clear now that this disease may involve multiple pathogenic pathways including changes in gene expression, RNA stability and splicing regulation, protein translation, and micro-RNA metabolism. We previously generated transgenic mice with 45-kb of the DM1 locus and >300 CTG repeats (DM300 mice). After successive breeding and a high level of CTG repeat instability, we obtained transgenic mice carrying >1,000 CTG (DMSXL mice). Here we described for the first time the expression pattern of the DMPK sense transcripts in DMSXL and human tissues. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that DMPK antisense transcripts are expressed in various DMSXL and human tissues, and that both sense and antisense transcripts accumulate in independent nuclear foci that do not co-localize together. Molecular features of DM1-associated RNA toxicity in DMSXL mice (such as foci accumulation and mild missplicing), were associated with high mortality, growth retardation, and muscle defects (abnormal histopathology, reduced muscle strength, and lower motor performances). We have found that lower levels of IGFBP-3 may contribute to DMSXL growth retardation, while increased proteasome activity may affect muscle function. These data demonstrate that the human DM1 locus carrying very large expansions induced a variety of molecular and physiological defects in transgenic mice, reflecting DM1 to a certain extent. As a result, DMSXL mice provide an animal tool to decipher various aspects of the disease mechanisms. In addition, these mice can be used to test the preclinical impact of systemic therapeutic

  14. The Effects of a Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy Exposure on Physiological, Performance, and Perceptual Responses of Professional Academy Soccer Players After Repeated Sprint Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; Birch, Jack; Love, Thomas; Cook, Christian J; Bracken, Richard M; Taylor, Tom; Swift, Eamon; Cockburn, Emma; Finn, Charlie; Cunningham, Daniel; Wilson, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-02-01

    Russell, M, Birch, J, Love, T, Cook, CJ, Bracken, RM, Taylor, T, Swift, E, Cockburn, E, Finn, C, Cunningham, D, Wilson, L, and Kilduff, LP. The effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy exposure on physiological, performance, and perceptual responses of professional academy soccer players after repeated sprint exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 415-421, 2017-In professional youth soccer players, the physiological, performance, and perceptual effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session performed shortly after repeated sprint exercise were investigated. In a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover design, 14 habituated English Premier League academy soccer players performed 15 × 30 m sprints (each followed by a 10 m forced deceleration) on 2 occasions. Within 20 minutes of exercise cessation, players entered a WBC chamber (Cryo: 30 seconds at -60° C, 120 seconds at -135° C) or remained seated (Con) indoors in temperate conditions (∼25° C). Blood and saliva samples, peak power output (countermovement jump), and perceptual indices of recovery and soreness were assessed pre-exercise and immediately, 2-hour and 24-hour postexercise. When compared with Con, a greater testosterone response was observed at 2-hour (+32.5 ± 32.3 pg·ml, +21%) and 24-hour (+50.4 ± 48.9 pg·ml, +28%) postexercise (both P = 0.002) in Cryo (trial × treatment interaction: P = 0.001). No between-trial differences were observed for other salivary (cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio), blood (lactate and creatine kinase), performance (peak power output), or perceptual (recovery or soreness) markers (all trial × treatment interactions: P > 0.05); all of which were influenced by exercise (time effects: all P ≤ 0.05). A single session of WBC performed within 20 minutes of repeated sprint exercise elevated testosterone concentrations for 24 hours but did not affect any other performance, physiological, or perceptual measurements taken. Although unclear, WBC may be

  15. Effects of an In-season Plyometric Training Program on Repeated Change of Direction and Sprint Performance in the Junior Soccer Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mehréz; Negra, Yassine; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2016-12-01

    Hammami, M, Negra, Y, Aouadi, R, Shephard, RJ, and Chelly, MS. Effects of an in-season plyometric training program on repeated change of direction and sprint performance in the junior soccer player. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3312-3320, 2016-We aimed to determine the gains in explosive movements of male junior soccer players induced by incorporating an 8-week plyometric training program (PTP) into a standard soccer conditioning regimen 5 months after the beginning of the competitive season. Our hypothesis was that PTP would enhance explosive movements, and thus sprint running, repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSSA), agility and the ability to make repeated changes of direction (RCOD). A group of junior soccer players were randomly divided into 2 groups: an experimental group (E, n = 15, age 15.7 ± 0.2 years) and a control group (C, n = 13, age 15.8 ± 0.2 years). The participants in E and C performed training exercises and matches together, but for an 8-week period in the latter part of the season, the experimental group replaced a part of the normal regimen (the tactical session) by a biweekly course of PTP (hurdle and drop jumps). Two familiarization sessions were held 2 weeks before definitive testing. The ability of the players was assessed by 3 agility tests (a sprint test with 180° turns, a 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with backward and forward running, and a four 5-m sprint test with turns); 2 repeated sprint tests (RSSA and RCOD); and running times over 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-m distances. Participants in E showed gains relative to C in sprint times (p ≤ 0.05 for 5, 10, and 20 m), and 2 of 3 the RCOD parameters (RCOD best, p ≤ 0.001; RCOD total, p ≤ 0.05). However, with the pattern of plyometric training that we adopted, and perhaps because participants were in good initial physical condition, the agility and RSSA test scores remained unchanged. Nevertheless, we conclude that our PTP can be commended to junior soccer players as a means of improving

  16. Effect of Pulsed 5.62 GHz Microwaves on Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) Performing a Repeated Acquisition Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-28

    the behavioral test sessions. Irradiation occurred for 2 minutes or until convulsions began. He found no effect on performance of a discrimination...only a slight, almost imperceptible , decrease during irradiation at power ý-ensities of 17 and 32 mW/cm2 . However, at 38 mW/cm2 this animal respo-ided

  17. Changes in surgical team performance and safety climate attitudes following expansion of perioperative services: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Harbeck, Emma; Kang, Evelyn; Steel, Catherine; Fairweather, Nicole; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2017-08-10

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe process changes in surgical team performance and team members' attitudes to safety culture following hospital relocation and expansion of perioperative services.Methods The study was a naturalistic study using structured observations and surveys to assess non-technical skills (NTS; i.e. communication, teamwork, situational awareness, decision making and leadership) in surgery. This interrupted time series design used mixed-linear regression models to examine the effect of phase (before and after hospital relocation) on surgical teams' NTS and their processes that may affect performance. Differences in self-reported teamwork and safety climate attitudes were also examined.Results In all, 186 procedures (100 before and 81 after hospital relocation) were observed across teams working in general, paediatric, orthopaedic and thoracic surgeries. Interobserver agreement ranged from 86% to 95%. An effect of phase was found, indicating that there were significant improvements after relocation in the use of NTS by the teams observed (P=0.020; 95% confidence interval 1.9-4.7).Conclusions The improvements seen in surgical teams' NTS performance and safety culture attitudes may be related to the move to a new state-of-the-art perioperative department.What is known about the topic? Patient safety in surgery relies on optimal team performance, underpinned by effective NTS.What does this paper add? The NTS of surgical teams may be improved through ergonomic innovations that promote teams' shared mental models.What are the implications for practitioners? Effective multidisciplinary teamwork relies on a combination of NTS and ergonomic factors, which inherently contribute to team performance and safety climate attitudes.

  18. USING BURSA MODEL AS COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION BETWEEN WGS84 and BJ54%BURSA模型应用于BJ54与WGS84坐标转换的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉贤; 杨志强; 张耀文; 杜海燕

    2006-01-01

    WGS84与BJ54坐标的转换一直是测量领域基础性工作,并在测量工区范围内有极其广泛的应用.本文以Bursa模型作为它们之间转换的理论依据,并以浙江某一区域的一级GPS点的坐标值进行转化,获得了很高的精度.

  19. Prediction of half-metallic ferromagnetism (HMF) in hypothetical Heusler compound Co{sub 2}VSb using modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, D.P., E-mail: dibyaprakashrai@gmail.com [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Heqing Rd. 3, Beijing 100084 (China); Maibam, J. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur 795003 (India); Sharma, B.I. [Department of Physics, Assam University, Silchar 788 011 (India); Shankar, A.; Sandeep,; Thapa, R.K. [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India); Ke, San Huang [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Heqing Rd. 3, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Microstructure Materials, MOE, Dept. of Physics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Rd. Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Half-metallic ferromagnetism were studied using GGA, LSDA+U and mBJ. • The calculated magnetic moment of 4.00 μ{sub B} (LSDA+U and mBJ). • mBJ is more effective to band gap calculation as compare to others. -- Abstract: In search of half-metallic ferromagnetism, we have studied the electronic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}VSb by using the different tools like GGA, LSDA+U and mBJ potential based on density functional theory (DFT). The compound Co{sub 2}VSb is analogous to Co{sub 2}VAl, Co{sub 2}VSn and Co{sub 2}VGa , these compounds were studied theoretically and experimentally by Buschow and Engen. We expect the similar kind of properties from Co{sub 2}VSb as that of Co{sub 2}VAl, Co{sub 2}VSn and Co{sub 2}VGa. The mBJ potential is considered to be more effective as compared to LDA and GGA which gives higher value of band gap. The theoretical lattice constant obtained from volume optimization is 6.072 Å. The calculated value of energy gaps was found to be 0.20 eV, 1.00 eV and 1.30 eV for GGA, LSDA+U and mBJ respectively. Our results of band gap calculation predicts that mBJ overestimate the results of GGA, LSDA and LSDA+U.

  20. Relationship between plaque score and video-monitored brushing performance after repeated instruction--a controlled, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, N; Klimek, J; Ganss, C

    2013-03-01

    Aim of this prospective, randomised, controlled clinical trial was to use the modified bass technique (MBT) and a specific brushing sequence to investigate whether two types of instruction methods lead to differences in plaque reduction and whether plaque reduction is related to technique adoption. Ninety-eight participants were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) control, no instruction; (2) verbal instruction by means of a leaflet; and (3) verbal instruction supported by demonstration, no leaflet. Brushing performance was video monitored. Plaque score (Turesky modified QHI (T-QHI)) was measured at baseline, afterwards participants received instructions. After 2 weeks, T-QHI was measured for a second time, and participants were re-instructed. After another 2 weeks, T-QHI was measured for a third time. At baseline, T-QHI did not differ between groups ((1) 1.99 ± 0.51, (2) 1.90 ± 0.51, (3) 1.93 ± 0.56). The second measurement revealed an improvement of T-QHI in the instructed groups and in the non-instructed control group ((1) 1.80 ± 0.47, (2) 1.58 ± 0.58, (3) 1.64 ± 0.58; n.s. between groups); in the intervention groups, remotivation achieved no further improvement ((1) 1.72 ± 0.48, (2) 1.52 ± 0.58, (3) 1.50 ± 0.69; n.s. between groups and compared to second measurement). Improvement of T-QHI was not related to proper performance of technique or brushing sequence. Those who fully adopted the brushing technique, the sequence or both did not have lower plaque scores. Technical performance and effectiveness were not linked. Within the study setting, the MBT was not effective in reducing plaque scores. The general recommendation of the MBT should be re-evaluated in further studies.

  1. Performance evaluation of an automatic anatomy segmentation algorithm on repeat or four-dimensional CT images using a deformable image registration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Garden, Adam S.; Zhang, Lifei; Wei, Xiong; Ahamad, Anesa; Kuban, Deborah A.; Komaki, Ritsuko; O’Daniel, Jennifer; Zhang, Yongbin; Mohan, Radhe; Dong, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Auto-propagation of anatomical region-of-interests (ROIs) from the planning CT to daily CT is an essential step in image-guided adaptive radiotherapy. The goal of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the algorithm in typical clinical applications. Method and Materials We previously adopted an image intensity-based deformable registration algorithm to find the correspondence between two images. In this study, the ROIs delineated on the planning CT image were mapped onto daily CT or four-dimentional (4D) CT images using the same transformation. Post-processing methods, such as boundary smoothing and modification, were used to enhance the robustness of the algorithm. Auto-propagated contours for eight head-and-neck patients with a total of 100 repeat CTs, one prostate patient with 24 repeat CTs, and nine lung cancer patients with a total of 90 4D-CT images were evaluated against physician-drawn contours and physician-modified deformed contours using the volume-overlap-index (VOI) and mean absolute surface-to-surface distance (ASSD). Results The deformed contours were reasonably well matched with daily anatomy on repeat CT images. The VOI and mean ASSD were 83% and 1.3 mm when compared to the independently drawn contours. A better agreement (greater than 97% and less than 0.4 mm) was achieved if the physician was only asked to correct the deformed contours. The algorithm was robust in the presence of random noise in the image. Conclusion The deformable algorithm may be an effective method to propagate the planning ROIs to subsequent CT images of changed anatomy, although a final review by physicians is highly recommended. PMID:18722272

  2. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  3. Current status, between-year comparisons and maternal transfer of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from Bjørnøya, Svalbard (Norway)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytingsvik, J., E-mail: jenny.bytingsvik@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Götsch, A.; Heimstad, E.S. [NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research), The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsø Norway (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Pb 6050 Langnes, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-07-15

    High levels of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) have been found in Arctic char from Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya (Svalbard, Norway) compared to char from other arctic lakes. The first aim of the study was to investigate the OHC status, contaminant profile, and partitioning of OHCs between muscle and ovary tissue in spawning female char from the high-polluted Lake Ellasjøen and the low-polluted Lake Laksvatn. The second aim was to investigate if OHC levels in muscle tissue have changed over time. Between-lake comparisons show that the muscle levels (lipid weight) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (∑ CHLs), mirex, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (∑ DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑ PCBs) were up to 36 times higher in char from Ellasjøen than in Laksvatn, and confirm that the char from Ellasjøen are still heavily exposed compared to char from neighboring lake. A higher proportion of persistent OHCs were found in Ellasjøen compared to Laksvatn, while the proportion of the less persistent OHCs was highest in Laksvatn. A between-year comparison of OHC levels (i.e., HCB, DDTs, PCBs) in female and male char shows higher levels of HCB in female char from Ellasjøen in 2009/2012 compared to in 1999/2001. No other between-year differences in OHC levels were found. Due to small study groups, findings associated with between-year differences in OHC levels should be interpreted with caution. OHCs accumulate in the lipid rich ovaries of spawning females, resulting in up to six times higher levels of OHCs in ovaries compared to in muscle (wet weight). The toxic equivalent (TEQ)-value for the dioxin-like PCBs (PCB-105 and -118) in ovaries of the Ellasjøen char exceeded levels associated with increased egg mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Hence, we suggest that future studies should focus on the reproductive health and performance abilities of the high-exposed population of char inhabiting Lake Ellasjøen. - Highlights: • Examine levels

  4. Assessment of repeatability of composition of perfumed waters by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with numerical data analysis based on cluster analysis (HPLC UV/VIS - CA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzik, L; Obarski, N; Papierz, A; Mojski, M

    2015-06-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV/VIS spectrophotometric detection combined with the chemometric method of cluster analysis (CA) was used for the assessment of repeatability of composition of nine types of perfumed waters. In addition, the chromatographic method of separating components of the perfume waters under analysis was subjected to an optimization procedure. The chromatograms thus obtained were used as sources of data for the chemometric method of cluster analysis (CA). The result was a classification of a set comprising 39 perfumed water samples with a similar composition at a specified level of probability (level of agglomeration). A comparison of the classification with the manufacturer's declarations reveals a good degree of consistency and demonstrates similarity between samples in different classes. A combination of the chromatographic method with cluster analysis (HPLC UV/VIS - CA) makes it possible to quickly assess the repeatability of composition of perfumed waters at selected levels of probability. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Performance and Metabolic Demand of a New Repeated-Sprint Ability Test in Basketball Players: Does the Number of Changes of Direction Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro M; Ardigò, Luca P; Barbieri, Fabio A; Milioni, Fabio; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Camargo, Bruno H F; Padulo, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    Zagatto, AM, Ardigò, LP, Barbieri, FA, Milioni, F, Dello Iacono, A, Camargo, BHF, and Padulo, J. Performance and metabolic demand of a new repeated-sprint ability test in basketball players: does the number of changes of direction matter? J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2438-2446, 2017-This study compared 2 repeated-sprint ability (RSA) tests in basketball players. Both tests included 10 × 30-m sprints, with the difference that the previously validated test (RSA2COD) featured 2 changes of direction (COD) per sprint, whereas the experimental test (RSA5COD) featured 5 CODs per sprint. Test performances and metabolic demands were specifically assessed in 20 basketball players. First, RSA5COD test-retest reliability was investigated. Then, RSA2COD, RSA5COD sprint times, peak speeds, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and posttest blood lactate concentration [La] were measured. The RSA5COD results showed to be reliable. RSA2COD performance resulted better than the RSA5COD version (p sprint times and higher peak speeds. Over sprints, the tests did not differ from each other in terms of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (p > 0.05). Over whole bout, the RSA2COD was more demanding than the RSA5COD, considering overall metabolic power requirement (i.e., VO2-driven + [La]-driven components). Given that RSA5COD (a) mimics real game-play as sprint distance and action change frequency/direction and (b) has the same metabolic expenditure per task completion as metabolic cost, RSA5COD is a valuable option for players and coaches for training basketball-specific agility and assessing bioenergetic demands.

  6. Comparison of shuttle and straight repeated-sprint ability tests and their relationship to anthropometrics and explosive muscular performance of lower limb in elite handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Schwesig, René; Wollny, Rainer; Fieseler, Georg; van den Tillaar, Roland; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed S

    2017-06-21

    This study assessed inter-relationships between shuttle and straight repeated-sprint ability tests and the relationship of each measure to anthropometric and explosive lower limb performance data in elite handball players. Twenty-two elite male handball players (18.9 ± 0.2 years; body mass: 83.3 ± 1.1 kg, height: 1.79 ± 2.30 m, body fat: 12.8 ± 0.2%) completed tests that included a lower limb force-velocity test of peak power (Wpeak), jumping ability (squat and counter-movement jumps; SJ, CMJ), 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) half back squat, average sprint velocity over 5 m (V-5 m), peak velocity between 25-30 m (Vmax), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), and anthropometric determinations of cross-sectional areas and muscle volumes for leg and thigh muscles. Data were compared with performance on 2 repeated sprint tests; the straight test [6 × 30 m (RSA30)] and the intermittent test [6 x (2 x 15 m) shuttle sprints (RSA15)]. V-5 m; 1-RM; and thigh and leg muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes showed relevant relationships to the shuttle RSA test (r2≥0.5). The Yo-Yo IR1 explained the largest percentage of variance in RSA15 total time (60%), and V-5 m also explained 56% of the variance in RSA15 total time. RSA15% fatigue was only related to 1-RM (explained variance: 58%), and the RSA30 test showed no useful correlations with any of the investigated predictors. Multiple-regression analyses using all physical tests explained 91% of the variance in RSA15 total time (prepeated sprints over distances of 15 m or less. RSA15 is related to muscular power, maximal strength, speed and endurance performance; however, the straight repeated sprint ability test is not, and thus does not seem relevant for the testing of handball players.

  7. Six weeks of β-alanine supplementation did not enhance repeated-sprint ability or technical performances in young elite basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Fabio; Redkva, Paulo E; Barbieri, Fabio A; Zagatto, Alessandro M

    2017-06-01

    Supplementation with β-alanine plays an important role as a precursor of carnosine, the most effective intramuscular buffer, and has been seen as a potential ergogenic aid, especially for high-intensity modalities such as basketball. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of β-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and technical performances in young elite Brazilian basketball players. In total, 27 young basketball players (17±1 years) were randomized into a β-alanine group (Gβ - 6.4 g day(-1) of β-alanine) and a placebo group (GP - 6.4 g day(-1) of dextrose). Before and after the supplementation period the athletes performed a RSA test composed of ten 30 m sprints with two 180° changes of direction interspaced by 30 s of recovery. During the recovery period (i.e., after the sprints) the athletes performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a set of three free throws. After 48 h they performed a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Both groups increased the distance covered in the Yo-Yo IR1 after the supplementation period ( p = 0.001). On the other hand, both groups presented impairment in RSA time-performance (total time, best time, and mean time, p ≤ 0.04), while no significant changes were observed for technical task performances (i.e., CMJ and free throws) ( p ≥ 0.07). No between-group interactions were observed for any variable measured ( p ≥ 0.31). Thus, 6 weeks of β-alanine supplementation did not improve RSA or technical performances in young elite basketball players.

  8. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  9. Beta-Alanine Supplementation Improves Throwing Velocities in Repeated Sprint Ability and 200-m Swimming Performance in Young Water Polo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Gabriel Machado; Redkva, Paulo Eduardo; Brisola, Gabriel Mota Pinheiro; Malta, Elvis Sousa; de Araujo Bonetti de Poli, Rodrigo; Miyagi, Willian Eiji; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on specific tests for water polo. Fifteen young water polo players (16 ± 2 years) underwent a 200-m swimming performance, repeated-sprint ability test (RSA) with free throw (shooting), and 30-s maximal tethered eggbeater kicks. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (placebo × beta-alanine) and supplemented with 6.4g∙day(-1)of beta-alanine or a placebo for six weeks. The mean and total RSA times, the magnitude based inference analysis showed a likely beneficial effect for beta-alanine supplementation (both). The ball velocity measured in the throwing performance after each sprint in the RSA presented a very like beneficial inference in the beta-alanine group for mean (96.4%) and percentage decrement of ball velocity (92.5%, likely beneficial). Furthermore, the percentage change for mean ball velocity was different between groups (beta-alanine=+2.5% and placebo=-3.5%; p = .034). In the 30-s maximal tethered eggbeater kicks the placebo group presented decreased peak force, mean force, and fatigue index, while the beta-alanine group maintained performance in mean force (44.1%, possibly beneficial), only presenting decreases in peak force. The 200-m swimming performance showed a possibly beneficial effect (68.7%). Six weeks of beta-alanine supplementation was effective for improving ball velocity shooting in the RSA, maintaining performance in the 30-s test, and providing possibly beneficial effects in the 200-m swimming performance.

  10. Diurnal variations of plasma homocysteine, total antioxidant status, and biological markers of muscle injury during repeated sprint: effect on performance and muscle fatigue--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chahed, Henda; Ferchichi, Salyma; Kallel, Choumous; Miled, Abdelhedi; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate whether homocysteine (Hcy), total antioxidant status (TAS), and biological markers of muscle injury would be affected by time of day (TOD) in football players and (ii) to establish a relationship between diurnal variation of these biomarkers and the daytime rhythm of power and muscle fatigue during repeated sprint ability (RSA) exercise. In counterbalanced order, 12 football (soccer) players performed an RSA test (5 x[6 s of maximal cycling sprint + 24 s of rest]) on two different occasions: 07:00-08:30 h and 17:00-18:30 h. Fasting blood samples were collected from a forearm vein before and 3-5 min after each RSA test. Core temperature, rating of perceived exertion, and performances (i.e., Sprint 1, Sprint 2, and power decrease) during the RSA test were significantly higher at 17:00 than 07:00 h (p RSA test. However, biomarkers of antioxidant status' resting levels (i.e., total antioxidant status, uric acid, and total bilirubin) were higher in the morning. This TOD effect was suppressed after exercise for TAS and uric acid. In conclusion, the present study confirms diurnal variation of Hcy, selected biological markers of cellular damage, and antioxidant status in young football players. Also, the higher performances and muscle fatigue showed in the evening during RSA exercise might be due to higher levels of biological markers of muscle injury and lower antioxidant status at this TOD.

  11. Identification, genotypic relation, and clinical features of colistin-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter genomic species 13BJ/14TU from bloodstreams of patients in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeob; Shin, Jong Hee; Park, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Ju Hee; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Colistin resistance remains rare among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species. We noted the emergence of colistin-resistant bloodstream isolates of the Acinetobacter genomic species (GS) 13BJ/14TU from patients at a university hospital between 2003 and 2011. We report here, for the first time, the microbiological and molecular characteristics of these isolates, with clinical features of Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU bacteremia. All 11 available patient isolates were correctly identified as Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU using partial rpoB gene sequencing but were misidentified using the phenotypic methods Vitek 2 (mostly as Acinetobacter baumannii), MicroScan (mostly as A. baumannii/Acinetobacter haemolyticus), and the API 20 NE system (all as A. haemolyticus). Most isolates were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, including carbapenems, but all were resistant to colistin, for which it is unknown whether the resistance is acquired or intrinsic. However, the fact that none of the patients had a history of colistin therapy strongly suggests that Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU is innately resistant to colistin. The phylogenetic tree of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that all 11 isolates formed a separate cluster from other Acinetobacter species and yielded five sequence types. However, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed 11 distinct patterns, suggesting that the bacteremia had occurred sporadically. Four patients showed persistent bacteremia (6 to 17 days), and all 11 patients had excellent outcomes with cleared bacteremia, suggesting that patients with Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU-associated bacteremia show a favorable outcome. These results emphasize the importance of precise species identification, especially regarding colistin resistance in Acinetobacter species. In addition, MLST offers another approach to the identification of Acinetobacter GS 13BJ/14TU, whereas PFGE is useful for genotyping for this species.

  12. Use of NIRS to assess effect of training on peripheral muscle oxygenation changes in elite rugby players performing repeated supramaximal cycling tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin; Cooper, C E

    2014-01-01

    In most team sports, intermittent high intensity sprint efforts combined with short recovery periods have been identified as a key factor of physical performance; the ability to repeat these efforts at a sustained level is of great importance. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as a tool to monitor muscle oxygenation changes during such sprint efforts. The purpose of this study was to observe muscle reoxygenation rate (reoxy rate) (% s⁻¹) between sprint efforts in a repeat sprint cycle test. A two wavelength spatially resolved NIR spectrometer (Portamon, Artinis Inc.) was used to assess reoxy rate changes in the vastus lateralis of the dominant leg before and after a training stimulus. Eight UK premiership academy level rugby players were assessed (age 20.6 ± 0.9) years; height 187 ± 0.6 cm; weight 109.5 ± 8.6 kg; quadriceps skin fold 16.6 ± 4.5 mm); the subjects completed ten repeated 10-s cycle sprints interspersed with 40 s recovery, upon a Wattbike Pro cycle. Hemoglobin variables (ΔHHb, ΔtHb, ΔO₂Hb, ΔTSI %) during the sprint and the post-sprint reoxygenation rate (%TSI s⁻¹) were measured. During both cycle tests all subjects experienced a drop in muscle oxygen saturation (Pre-Δ - 12.39 ± 6.01 %), Post-Δ - 14.83 ± 3.88 %). Post-training, there was an increase in the extent of desaturation (drop in TSI %) in the group means, both for the biggest single change and the average of all ten changes. Seven out of eight players showed an increase based on the maximum change and six based on the average of their ten tests. Additionally, seven out of eight players showed a significant increase in ΔHHb (Pre-Δ + 76.80 ± 61.92, Post-Δ + 121.28 ± 69.76) (p < 0.01) (including the one player who did not show a significant effect on the TSI measure). Players who exercised at the highest power tended to decrease their muscle oxygenation to a greater extent. The number of bike training sessions undertaken correlated with improvements in

  13. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Jessie L.; McGeer, James C., E-mail: jmcgeer@wlu.ca

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to 18 nM waterborne Cd induced plasma Ca loss that recovered by day 30 for lake whitefish but not brown trout. • Ucrit measured after an initial swim to 85% of Ucrit and a 30 min rest period was reduced in 18 nM Cd exposed fish compared to controls. • Swimming to 85% of Ucrit resulted in decreased muscle glycogen and increased lactate that was not recovered in the 30 min recovery period. • Second swim impairment is not related to metabolic processes in white muscle. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18 nM) in moderately hard water (120 mg L{sup −1} CaCO{sub 3}) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (U{sub crit}) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the U{sub crit} of control fish, a 30 min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine U{sub crit}. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim U{sub crit} and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure

  14. The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on repeat swimming performance and anaerobic metabolism in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jessie L; McGeer, James C

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of chronic Cd exposure on the ability to perform repeat swim challenges in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Fish were exposed to waterborne Cd (18nM) in moderately hard water (120mgL(-1) CaCO3) for 30 days. This level of exposure has been shown to cause sublethal physiological disruption and acclimation responses but no impairment of sustained swimming capacity (Ucrit) in single swim challenges. Swim trials were done over the course of the exposure and each one consisted of an initial swim to 85% of the Ucrit of control fish, a 30min recovery period and finally a second swim challenge to determine Ucrit. Plasma and tissue samples were collected before and after each of the swim periods. As expected from previous studies, Cd exposure resulted in significant accumulation of Cd in gills, liver and kidney but not in white muscle. Exposure also induced a loss of plasma Ca followed by subsequent recovery (in lake whitefish but not brown trout) with few mortalities (100% survival for lake whitefish and 93% for brown trout). Both control and exposed fish swam to 85% of the single swim Ucrit and no differences in performance were seen. The Ucrit of unexposed controls in the second swim challenges were not different from the single swim Ucrit. However, second swim performance was significantly reduced in Cd exposed fish, particularly after a week of exposure where 31% and 38% reductions were observed for brown trout and lake whitefish respectively. Swimming to 85% Ucrit resulted in metabolic expenditure with little recovery after 30min. Few differences were observed between control and Cd exposed fish with the exception of a reduction in resting white muscle ATP stores of Cd exposed fish after 1 week of exposure. The results show that chronic sublethal Cd exposure results in an impairment of swimming ability in repeat swim challenges but this impairment is generally not related to metabolic processes

  15. Antifungal Substance from Bacillus sp. BJ-6 and Its Antagonism against Plant Pathogens%芽孢杆菌BJ-6的抗菌物质及其抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任争光; 刘媛; 刘素花; 陈勇; 张志勇; 魏艳敏

    2006-01-01

    芽孢杆菌(Bacillus sp.)BJ-6菌株分离自北京市门头沟区杏树根际土壤,室内抑菌测定发现BJ-6菌株对苹果轮纹病(Physalospora piricola)、苹果斑点落叶病(Alternaria mali)和苹果树皮腐烂病(Valsa mali)、白菜黑斑病(A. brassicae)、番茄灰霉病(Botrytis cinerea)、茄子黄萎病(Verticillium dahliae)的病原菌均有较强的抑菌作用.对其代谢产生的抗菌物质的稳定性测定表明:抗菌物质在偏酸性和中性条件下能够耐受121 ℃高温处理20 min;但在偏碱性条件下不具备热稳定性,热处理后失去原来的抑菌活性.采用硫酸铵分级沉淀得到抗菌粗蛋白,其中饱和度在30%~40%之间沉淀的蛋白抗菌活性最强.紫外吸收测定显示只有具有274 nm附近吸收峰的蛋白液有抑菌活性,且抗菌粗蛋白可引起白菜黑斑病菌菌丝畸形.

  16. The effects of repeated administration of camphor-crataegus berry extract combination on blood pressure and on attentional performance - a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfurt, L; Schandry, R; Rubenbauer, S; Braun, U

    2014-09-25

    The present study investigated the effects of repeated administration of Korodin(®), a combination of camphor and crataegus berry extract, on blood pressure and attentional functioning. This study was conducted based on a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. 54 persons participated (33 female, 21 male) with a mean age of 24.3 years. Blood pressure and body mass index were in the normal range. Participants received 20 drops of either Korodin(®) or a placebo for four times with interjacent time intervals of about 10 min. Blood pressure was measured sphygmomanometrically before and after each administration. Attentional performance was quantified by using two paper-and-pencil tests, the d2 Test of Attention and Digit Symbol Test. Greater increases in blood pressure occurred after the four Korodin(®) administrations in comparison to the four placebo administrations. The performance in two parameters of d2 Test of Attention was consistently superior after the intake of Korodin(®). The excellent tolerability and safety of Korodin(®), even after a total consumption of 80 drops, was confirmed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships between anthropometric measures and athletic performance, with special reference to repeated-sprint ability, in the Qatar national soccer team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Forchino, Fabricio; Al Haddad, Hani; Dos Santos, Gilvan A; Millet, Grégoire P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine potential relationships between anthropometric parameters and athletic performance with special consideration to repeated-sprint ability (RSA). Sixteen players of the senior male Qatar national soccer team performed a series of anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement jumps without (CMJ) and with free arms (CMJwA), straight-line 20 m sprint, RSA (6 × 35 m with 10 s recovery) and incremental field test. Significant (P sprinting times and r = 0.54 for maximal sprinting speed) with the exception of the sprint decrement score (Sdec). The sum of six skinfolds and adipose mass index were largely correlated with Sdec (r = 0.68, P 0.05, respectively) or any standard athletic tests. Multiple regression analyses indicated that muscular cross-sectional area for mid-thigh, adipose index, straight-line 20 m time, maximal sprinting speed and CMJwA are the strongest predictors of Sdec (r(2) = 0.89) and TT (r(2) = 0.95) during our RSA test. In the Qatar national soccer team, players' power-related qualities and RSA are associated with a high muscular profile and a low adiposity. This supports the relevance of explosive power for the soccer players and the larger importance of neuromuscular qualities determining the RSA.

  18. State Secretary Bjørn Haugstad visiting CERN at the occasion of the 60 years anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    Photo, Team

    2014-01-01

    60 years after the world’s leading scientists gathered around the idea of bringing the world together through science; CERN – the European Organization for Nuclear Research – was celebrated by official delegations from 35 countries on 29 September 2014. State Secretary Bjørn Haugstad from the Ministry of Education and Research represented Norway, one of the twelve founding states, on this special event. The Norwegian delegation included Deputy Director General from the Ministry of Education and Research, delegates to the CERN Council from the University of Oslo and the Norwegian Research Council, representatives from CERN and the ATLAS Collaboration, as well as the Deputy Permanent Representative of the Permanent Mission of Norway. The delegation was given a lecture about CERN, as well as a tour of the ATLAS underground experimental area, where Norway is a contributor, and the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) tunnel.

  19. No associations found between the genes situated at 6p22.1, HIST1H2BJ, PRSS16, and PGBD1 in Japanese patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Maiko; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takebayashi, Yuto; Shibata, Nobuto; Baba, Hajime; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Yuka; Nakamura, Yukako; Aleksic, Branko; Yoshimi, Akira; Okochi, Tomo; Ikeda, Masashi; Naitoh, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio; Takeda, Masatoshi; Arai, Heii

    2012-06-01

    Recent GWAS demonstrated an association between candidate genes located at region 6p22.1 and schizophrenia. This region has been reported to house certain candidate SNPs, which may be associated with schizophrenia at HIST1H2BJ, PRSS16, and PGBD1. These genes may presumably be associated with pathophysiology in schizophrenia, namely epigenetics and psychoneuroimmunology. A three-step study was undertaken to focus on these genes with the following aims: (1) whether these genes may be associated in Japanese patients with schizophrenia by performing a 1st stage case-control study (514 cases and 706 controls) using Japanese tagging SNPs; (2) if the genetic regions of interest for the disease from the 1st stage of analyses were found, re-sequencing was performed to search for new mutations; (3) finally, a replication study was undertaken to confirm positive findings from the 1st stage were reconfirmed using a larger number of subjects (2,583 cases and 2,903 controls) during a 2nd stage multicenter replication study in Japan. Genotyping was performed using TaqMan PCR method for the selected nine tagging SNPs. Although three SNPs situated at the 3' side of PGBD1; rs3800324, rs3800327, and rs2142730, and two-window haplotypes between rs3800327 and rs2142730 showed positive associations with schizophrenia, these associations did not have enough power to sustain significance during the 2nd stage replication study. In addition, re-sequencing for exons 5 and 6 situated at this region did not express any new mutations for schizophrenia. Taken together these results indicate that the genes HIST1H2BJ, PRSS16, and PGBD1 were not associated with Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  1. Relationship between performances of 10-time-repeated sit-to-stand and maximal walking tests in non-disabled older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Naoko; Shimomitsu, Teruichi; Kawanishi, Masashi; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-06-27

    Sit-to-stand (STS) test is extensively used to assess the functionality of the lower body in elderly people. This study aimed to examine how the score of STS can be associated with that of maximal walking (MW) tests through a cross-sectional as well as longitudinal analysis for non-disabled older women. Times taken for a 10-time-repeated STS (STS time) and 5-m MW (MW time) were determined before (pre) and after (post) a 3-month body mass-based exercise program in 154 non-disabled women aged 60 to 79 years. In addition to the time scores, STS and MW power indexes (STS-PI and MW-PI, respectively) were calculated using the following equations: STS-PI = (body height - 0.4) × body mass × 10/STS time and MW-PI = body mass × 5/MW time. At pre- and post-intervention, STS-PI was significantly correlated to MW-PI, with higher correlation coefficients (r = 0.545-0.567, P sit-to-stand task and its training-induced gain are associated with those of the maximal walking task. In addition, the current results indicated that translation of the performance scores of the sit-to-stand and maximal walking tasks to power indexes may be a useful approach for examining the association between the two tasks.

  2. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  3. Molecular, Physiological, and Motor Performance Defects in DMSXL Mice Carrying >1,000 CTG Repeats from the Human DM1 Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Huguet; Fadia Medja; Annie Nicole; Alban Vignaud; Céline Guiraud-Dogan; Arnaud Ferry; Valérie Decostre; Jean-Yves Hogrel; Friedrich Metzger; Andreas Hoeflich; Martin Baraibar; Mário Gomes-Pereira; Jack Puymirat; Guillaume Bassez; Denis Furling

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by an unstable CTG repeat expansion in the 3'UTR of the DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene. DMPK transcripts carrying CUG expansions form nuclear foci and affect splicing regulation of various RNA transcripts. Furthermore, bidirectional transcription over the DMPK gene and non-conventional RNA translation of repeated transcripts have been described in DM1. It is clear now that this disease may involve multiple pathogenic pathways including changes in gene ...

  4. 反复浸渍法制备氧化镍及电化学性能研究%Repeated immersion method for nickel oxide and electrochemical performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 张莉

    2012-01-01

    With NaOH as precipitation agent and NiCl2 as raw material, Ni(OH)2 particles were synthetized by repeated immersion method and sintered at 300℃ for NiO. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the material is cubic crystalling phase of NiO;scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the NiO particles present a wave-like shape. When evaluated for electrochemical performance, the NiO particles demonstrate improved electrochemical properties with a high capacitance of 455F/g at the current of 10mA. With the increase of cycling times, the specific capacitance decreased; after 200 times it can be retained at 415F/g (91.2% of the initial capacitance).%以氢氧化钠为沉淀剂,以氯化镍为前驱体采用反复浸渍法合成了氢氧化镍,在300℃煅烧制备了氧化镍。X射线衍射(XRD)证明材料为立方晶相的氧化镍,扫描电子显微镜(SEM)显示了氧化镍呈现出波浪状的形貌。电化学性能测试:以10mA进行恒流充放电测试,起始的容量为455F/g;随着循环次数的增加,比容量减小,200次后稳定于415F/g(为初始容量的91.2%)。

  5. A first principles study of Nd doped cubic LaAlO{sub 3} perovskite: mBJ+U study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandeep, E-mail: sndp.chettri@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India); Rai, D.P. [Dept. of Physics, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl, Mizoram 796001 (India); Shankar, A. [Department of Physics, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling 734013 (India); Ghimire, M.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Research Center, Butwal-13, Rupandehi, Lumbini (Nepal); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modlisation Mathmatique (LPQ3M), Dpartement de Technologie, Universit de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Thapa, R.K. [Dept. of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India)

    2016-11-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Nd-doped Rare earth aluminate, La{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} (x=0–100%) are studied using the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory. The effects of Nd substitution in LaAlO{sub 3} are studied using super-cell calculations. The electronic structures were computed using modified Beck Johnson (mBJ) potential based approximation with the inclusion of Coulomb energy (U) for Nd-4f state electrons. The La{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} may possess half metallic behavior on Nd doping with finite density of states at E{sub F}. The direct and indirect band gaps were studied as a function of Nd concentration in LaAlO{sub 3}. The calculated magnetic moments in La{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} were found to arise mainly from the Nd-4f state electrons. A probable half-metallic nature is suggested for these systems with supportive integral magnetic moments and high spin polarized electronic structures in these doped cases at E{sub F}. The controlled decrease in band gap with increase in concentration of Nd doping is a suitable technique for harnessing useful spintronic and magnetic devices. - Highlights: • Electronic and magnetic properties of La{sub 1−x}Nd{sub x}AlO{sub 3} to study the effect of doping (x=0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) is carried out using DFT. • Theoretically calculated U was used in the mBJ+U approximation in order to stress accuracy in band-gap determination along with electron correlation effects in rare earth ions. • A high DOS at E{sub F} for certain doping concentrations in one spin channel with insulting DOS in the other channel supported their probable use as spintronic devices. • The change in doping concentration was found suitable for rare earth aluminates for desirable properties through band-gap tuning.

  6. Men’s Suits Retail Sales in Top 22 BJ Department Stores Worth CNY202 million

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The retail sales data of Beijing department stores is based on the sales receipts of more than 20 Beijing department stores each month, the following is an analysis of the sales performance of men’s suits and stores by price range.

  7. A first principles study of Nd doped cubic LaAlO3 perovskite: mBJ+U study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep; Rai, D. P.; Shankar, A.; Ghimire, M. P.; Khenata, R.; Thapa, R. K.

    2016-11-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Nd-doped Rare earth aluminate, La1-xNdxAlO3 (x=0-100%) are studied using the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory. The effects of Nd substitution in LaAlO3 are studied using super-cell calculations. The electronic structures were computed using modified Beck Johnson (mBJ) potential based approximation with the inclusion of Coulomb energy (U) for Nd-4f state electrons. The La1-xNdxAlO3 may possess half metallic behavior on Nd doping with finite density of states at EF. The direct and indirect band gaps were studied as a function of Nd concentration in LaAlO3. The calculated magnetic moments in La1-xNdxAlO3 were found to arise mainly from the Nd-4f state electrons. A probable half-metallic nature is suggested for these systems with supportive integral magnetic moments and high spin polarized electronic structures in these doped cases at EF. The controlled decrease in band gap with increase in concentration of Nd doping is a suitable technique for harnessing useful spintronic and magnetic devices.

  8. Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome performed worse than controls in a controlled repeated exercise study despite a normal oxidative phosphorylation capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sluiter Wim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility that a decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis causes muscular and mental fatigue and plays a role in the pathophysiology of the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME. Methods Female patients (n = 15 and controls (n = 15 performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET by cycling at a continuously increased work rate till maximal exertion. The CPET was repeated 24 h later. Before the tests, blood was taken for the isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, which were processed in a special way to preserve their oxidative phosphorylation, which was tested later in the presence of ADP and phosphate in permeabilized cells with glutamate, malate and malonate plus or minus the complex I inhibitor rotenone, and succinate with rotenone plus or minus the complex II inhibitor malonate in order to measure the ATP production via Complex I and II, respectively. Plasma CK was determined as a surrogate measure of a decreased oxidative phosphorylation in muscle, since the previous finding that in a group of patients with external ophthalmoplegia the oxygen consumption by isolated muscle mitochondria correlated negatively with plasma creatine kinase, 24 h after exercise. Results At both exercise tests the patients reached the anaerobic threshold and the maximal exercise at a much lower oxygen consumption than the controls and this worsened in the second test. This implies an increase of lactate, the product of anaerobic glycolysis, and a decrease of the mitochondrial ATP production in the patients. In the past this was also found in patients with defects in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However the oxidative phosphorylation in PBMC was similar in CFS/ME patients and controls. The plasma creatine kinase levels before and 24 h after exercise were low in patients and controls, suggesting normality of the muscular mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusion The

  9. BJ46A GENE TRANSFECTION,PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN BACULOVIRUS EXPRESSION SYSTEM AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF HOST CELLS%BJ46a基因在昆虫细胞的转染、蛋白表达及超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐剑文; 林建银; 林旭; 张晓艳

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究蛇毒金属蛋白酶抑制剂BJ46a在杆状病毒表达系统的表达及宿主细胞Sf9超微结构的变化.方法 将构建的杆状病毒重组穿梭载体Bacmid BJ46a,经Cellfectin脂质体介导转染Sf9昆虫细胞,获重组杆状病毒颗粒;以高滴度病毒感染Sf9昆虫细胞,行Western blot观察BJ46a融合蛋白的表达.在病毒扩增、蛋白表达过程应用透射电镜和超薄切片技术观察Sf9细胞超微结构的变化.结果 Western blot分析表明:在转染病毒的Sf9细胞出现BJ46a融合蛋白表达条带.电镜观察表明:Sf9细胞在病毒扩增过程,细胞核增大,病毒发生基质形成,杆状病毒在其周围装配.蛋白表达期间,杆状病毒量剧增,细胞核内外存在大量丝状纤维.结论 BJ46a基因可在杆状病毒表达系统成功表达,并伴随着宿主细胞超微结构的显著变化,其结果 为杆状病毒表达系统的研究奠定坚实的基础.

  10. Une idée simple. Une grande idée! Réflexions sur Björn Larsson: La place et le sens des adjectifs épithètes de valorisation positive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    1997-01-01

    En review-artikel af Björn Larssons bog om det attributive adjektivs stilling på fransk. Efter grundige empiriske undersøgelser af en lang række autentiske eksempler fremsætter Björn Larsson en hyopotese om, at adjektivets ekstention spiller en en afgørende rolle for dets placering: Jo større adj...

  11. Grounding zone system in outer Bjørnøyrenna, Barents Sea - constraints on its genesis and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Denise; Andreassen, Karin; Forwick, Matthias; Husum, Katrine

    2010-05-01

    A 200 km wide grounding zone system in outer Bjørnøyrenna (Bear Island Trough), south-western Barents Sea, has been investigated using 2D high resolution seismic, sediment gravity cores, regional swath and large scale bathymetry data. Observed sediment facies and three radiocarbon dates from the base of glacimarine units indicate glacier proximal conditions in outermost Bjørnøyrenna between 16,800 and 15,800 cal yrs. The bathymetry data sustain a division into a frontal wedge with a complex morphology of arcuate ridges and depressions, and an upstream part of the wedge characterized by mega scale glacial lineations. A high resolution seismic transect reveals elevation of the sediment deposit of up to 35 m over downstream seafloor and a longitudinal extend of roughly 30 kilometers for the part of the wedge with substantial thicknesses - corresponding to the hummocky frontal wedge. The lobate outline of the sediment wedge together with the arcuate ridge morphologies have earlier led to the hypothesis that the wedge was made of separate lobes which are partly overlapping. The lack of on-lapping strata in a high resolution cross sectional seismic line does however rather suggest the entire wedge to consist of one body of sediment. Based on the distinct morphology and internal structures we infer that the system was deposited during a sudden readvance of the ice front where mega scale glacial lineations have been formed under the grounded ice while pushing and squeezing of soft diluted sediment were the major depositional mechanisms for the hummocky frontal part of the wedge. 10 sediment gravity cores have been recovered from the area. Facies analyses enable the localization of subglacial, glaciproximal, and glacimarine environments in the cores downstream from the wedge, while generally thin non-glacial covers illustrate the Holocene erosive regime on the continental shelf. AMS dates on bulk benthic foraminifera from the bottom of glacimarine units in three of the

  12. Repeated Sprint Ability in Young Basketball Players (Part 2): The Chronic Effects of Multidirection and of One Change of Direction Are Comparable in Terms of Physiological and Performance Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene, Giuseppe; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Pizzolato, Fabio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Oggianu, Marcello; Migliaccio, Gian M; Mannucci Pacini, Elena; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 5-week training program, consisting of repeated 30-m sprints, on two repeated sprint ability (RSA) test formats: one with one change of direction (RSA) and the other with multiple changes of direction (RSM). Thirty-six young male and female basketball players (age 16.1 ± 0.9 years), divided into two experimental groups, were tested for RSA, RSM, squat jump, counter-movement jump, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery-Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test, before and after a 4-week training program and 1 week of tapering. One group performed 30-m sprints with one change of direction (RSA group, RSAG), whereas the other group performed multidirectional 30-m sprints (RSM group, RSMG). Both groups improved in all scores in the post-intervention measurements (P repeated 30-m sprints, either with one change of direction or multidirectional, induce similar physiological and performance responses in young basketball players, but have a different psycho-physiological impact.

  13. Repeat fine-needle aspiration can be performed at 6 months or more after initial atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance results for thyroid nodules 10 mm or larger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jieun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether repeat ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) in initial atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) results could be performed 6 months after or more. A total of 221 AUS/FLUS ≥10 mm with any follow-up were grouped according to the first follow-up interval at less than 6 months (group 1, n = 87) and 6 months or more (group 2, n = 134). Clinical features, final assessment of ultrasound (US) or the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS), tumour size, extrathyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis in malignancies were compared. Thirty-four (15.4 %) were malignant. Age, gender, size, final assessment, TIRADS and malignancy rate were not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.660, 0.691, 0.502, 0.237, 0.819 and 0.420). Tumour size, extrathyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis were not significantly different between the two malignancy groups (p = 0.770, 0.611 and 0.068). Two of 10 nodules with increased size were malignancies found at 7.1 and 25.0 months. None of 33 nodules (14.9 %) with decreased size at a median 10 months were malignant. Repeat US-FNA performed on nodules ≥10 mm at 6 months or more after initial AUS/FLUS results can reduce unnecessary repeat US-FNAs without progression of malignancy. • Follow-up intervals of AUS/FLUS did not affect the malignancy rate • Tumour stage was not different according to the follow-up intervals • None of the nodules with decreased size were malignant • Repeat US-FNA can be performed at ≥6 months after initial AUS/FLUS.

  14. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  15. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  16. Review of Dose Monitoring System Calibration in BJ-6B Accelerator%BJ-6B加速器剂量监测系统校准10年回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤富; 谢力; 郭飞; 周进伟; 柳弥; 谭榜宪

    2013-01-01

    目的:明确按时对加速器剂量监测系统校准的必要性.方法:查阅国产BJ-6B 6Mv加速器剂量监测系统结构,以便结合电路分析剂量校准出现偏差的原因.按照IAEA提出的规程校准吸收剂量.对加速器剂量监测系统校准系数K随时间变化的情况进行回顾,选择连续的201周数据,做出校准系数和时间关系曲线.查阅维修记录,寻找系数变化大的原因.结果:系数变化大时,经过仔细排查,发现了以下比较严重的机器故障:1.电离室信号电缆因破损、漏电,校准系数由1.103变化为1.173,剂量偏低约6.3%.2.电离室击穿,输出剂量偏低约7.7%.3.防漏射铅板滑动,遮挡校准点,剂量偏低约9.9%.4.更换加速管,剂量偏低约4.7%.5.均整位置有偏移,中心轴剂量偏差7.7%.6.调制器稳压器坏,输出电压偏低,剂量偏低3.5%.较小的校准系数变化,与温度、湿度、气压等有关,有以年为周期的变化趋势.结论:元件老化,磨损,一些不容易发现的机器故障有可能影响剂量传递准确;由于加速器所处环境温度、湿度、气压等变化,也会影响加速器剂量监测系统监测准确性,一定要按国家标准GBZ126-2011规定的频次校准加速器剂量.%Objeetive:Emphasize the necessity of calibrating dose monitoring system of accelerator on time.Methods:Research the construction of dose monitoring system in BJ-6B accelerator to find the factors of dose deviation.Calibrate dose according to IAEA regulations.Review the calibration coefficient K of dose monitoring system of accelerator within the past 10 years.Draw the relation curve between calibration coefficient K and time in the past continuous 201 weeks.Look for the cause of the greater change of K by looking up the maintenance record.Results:Some serious machine trouble were found when the coefficient K change was great.1.Ionization chamber signal cable damaged,dose lower 6.3%.2.Ionization chamber broke,dose lower 7

  17. Long-Term Safety of Repeated Blood-Brain Barrier Opening via Focused Ultrasound with Microbubbles in Non-Human Primates Performing a Cognitive Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Downs

    Full Text Available Focused Ultrasound (FUS coupled with intravenous administration of microbubbles (MB is a non-invasive technique that has been shown to reliably open (increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB in multiple in vivo models including non-human primates (NHP. This procedure has shown promise for clinical and basic science applications, yet the safety and potential neurological effects of long term application in NHP requires further investigation under parameters shown to be efficacious in that species (500 kHz, 200-400 kPa, 4-5 μm MB, 2 minute sonication. In this study, we repeatedly opened the BBB in the caudate and putamen regions of the basal ganglia of 4 NHP using FUS with systemically-administered MB over 4-20 months. We assessed the safety of the FUS with MB procedure using MRI to detect edema or hemorrhaging in the brain. Contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI sequences showed a 98% success rate for openings in the targeted regions. T2-weighted and SWI sequences indicated a lack edema in the majority of the cases. We investigated potential neurological effects of the FUS with MB procedure through quantitative cognitive testing of' visual, cognitive, motivational, and motor function using a random dot motion task with reward magnitude bias presented on a touchpanel display. Reaction times during the task significantly increased on the day of the FUS with MB procedure. This increase returned to baseline within 4-5 days after the procedure. Visual motion discrimination thresholds were unaffected. Our results indicate FUS with MB can be a safe method for repeated opening of the BBB at the basal ganglia in NHP for up to 20 months without any long-term negative physiological or neurological effects with the parameters used.

  18. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  19. Measurement of multijet events at low x{sub Bj} and low Q{sup 2} with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosau, T.

    2007-07-15

    In this thesis, cross sections of inclusive and differential di- and trijet production in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering at low Bjorken-x have been determined and compared to perturbative QCD calculations at next-to- leading order. The data were taken during the years 1998-2000 with the ZEUS detector at the HERA collider and had an integrated luminosity of 82 pb{sup -1}. The center-of-mass energy was {radical}(s)=318 GeV. The phase space was defined by 10{sup -4}Bj}<10{sup -2}, 10 GeV{sup 2}Bj}, transverse energy of the jets in the hadronic center-of-mass frame, E{sup jet}{sub T,HCM}, and the pseudorapidity of the jets in the laboratory frame, {eta}{sup jet}{sub LAB}. Multidifferential cross sections were measured as functions of x{sub Bj} and correlations of the jet momenta in the transverse plane. The 6m Tagger, which was reinstalled in 2003, was calibrated using the measurement of the photon energies by the Spectrometer. First measurements of the acceptance of the luminosity photon detectors where carried out. (orig.)

  20. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  1. Effects of repeated snowboard exercise in virtual reality with time lags of visual scene behind body rotation on head stability and subjective slalom run performance in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Nishiike, Suetaka; Kitahara, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imai, Takao; Ito, Taeko; Sato, Go; Matsuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    After repeated snowboard exercises in the virtual reality (VR) world with increasing time lags in trials 3-8, it is suggested that the adaptation to repeated visual-vestibulosomatosensory conflict in the VR world improved dynamic posture control and motor performance in the real world without the development of motion sickness. The VR technology was used and the effects of repeated snowboard exercise examined in the VR world with time lags between visual scene and body rotation on the head stability and slalom run performance during exercise in healthy subjects. Forty-two healthy young subjects participated in the study. After trials 1 and 2 of snowboard exercise in the VR world without time lag, trials 3-8 were conducted with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 s time lags of the visual scene that the computer creates behind board rotation, respectively. Finally, trial 9 was conducted without time lag. Head linear accelerations and subjective slalom run performance were evaluated. The standard deviations of head linear accelerations in inter-aural direction were significantly increased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly decreased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. The subjective scores of slalom run performance were significantly decreased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly increased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. Motion sickness was not induced in any subjects.

  2. Ab-initio DFT FP-LAPW GGA and LDA TB-mBJ and SO theoretical study of structural and elastic properties of Zinc-Blende crystal phase GaAs1-xBix alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezla, S.; Kadri, A.; Zitouni, K.; Djelal, A.; Djermouni, M.; Hallouche, A.; Zaoui, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an ab-initio theoretical study of structural and elastic properties of GaAs1-xBix alloys in the Zinc-Blende (ZB) phase. We use a recent version of Wien2k package code based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) Full Potential and Linearized Augmented Plane Waves (FP-LAPW) method including recent Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson correction of the exchange potential (TB-mBJ) and the spin-orbit interaction (SO). The calculations are performed within the Local Density Approximation (LDA) as well as the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). We study first the structural properties of GaAs1-xBix alloys by solving Murnaghan equation of state. Our results show that the ZB phase is the lowest equilibrium crystal structure of GaAs1-xBix in the whole alloy composition range, in agreement with previous theoretical predictions. The variations versus Bi contents of the ZB GaAs1-xBix lattice constant a0, bulk modulus B0 and its pressure derivative B0‧ are also found very close to other theoretical and experimental data, but with much smaller bowing effects indicating a better resolution thanks to TB-mBJ correction. The variations of B0 versus the reverse equilibrium volume of the unit cell (1/V0) are found to be described by the simple linear empirical expression B0 = -0.21068 + 0.16695/V0 which is close to the theoretical prediction for III-V semiconductors with, however, somewhat lower linear coefficients values, suggesting a more metallic behavior. In a second part of this work, we use Birch-Murnaghan approach to study the elastic properties of GaAs1-xBix alloys. The elastic stiffness coefficients, C11, C12 and C44, and their variations versus alloy composition were determined for ZB GaAs1-xBix alloy. Their values in GaAs and GaBi binary compounds are found in very good agreement with available experimental and/or theoretical data. Their variations in GaAs1-xBix alloy show a monotonic decrease with increasing Bi contents, indicating a softening behavior as is

  3. Enhanced Giant Piezoresistance Performance of Sandwiched ZnS/Si/SiO2 Radial Heterostructure Nanotubes for Nonvolatile Stress Memory with Repeatable Writing and Erasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Baochang; Xiong, Li; Cai, Qiangsheng; Shi, Haiping; Zhao, Jie; Su, Xiaohui; Xiao, Yanhe; Lei, Shuijin

    2016-12-21

    It is a challenge to realize nonvolatile stress-writing memory. Herein, we propose a strategy to construct rewritable stress information storage devices, consisting of deliberately designing individual sandwiched ZnS/Si/SiO2 radial heterostructure nanotubes synthesized by one-step thermal evaporation method. A bulk trap-related Poole-Frenkel hopping mechanism is proposed. Carriers are localized in a narrow bandgap Si intermediate layer; moreover, incorporated impurities and heterointerface defects can serve as charge trap centers or storage mediators. Compressive strain can induce trap barrier height to decrease at relatively low operation bias voltage, whereas tensile strain can induce it to increase, resulting in a giant piezoresistance effect. After both loading compressive and tensile strains at low bias voltage, additionally, the emptying of trap states results in a high resistance state. However, the emptied trap states can be filled by applying a relatively high bias voltage without strains and, correspondingly, the memories return to low resistance state. The emptying and filling of trap states, respectively applied by strains and high electric field, result in a repeatable writing/erasing nonvolatile memory effect. The results indicate that the creation and modification of trap states in multiscale nanostructures can give an avenue to the development of novel nanodevices for rewritable nonvolatile stress sensor and memory.

  4. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  5. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  6. Impact of the pay-for-performance contract and the management of hypertension in Scottish primary care: a 6-year population-based repeated cross-sectional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Simpson, Colin R

    2011-07-01

    The 2004 introduction of the pay-for-performance contract has increased the proportion of income that GPs are able to earn by targeting quality care to patients with chronic diseases such as hypertension.

  7. Severe de novo Hepatitis B Recovered from Late-Onset Liver Insufficiency with Prolonged Ascites and Hypoalbuminemia due to Hepatitis B Virus Genotype Bj with Precore Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available De novo hepatitis B is associated with a high risk of hepatic failure often resulting in fatal fulminant hepatitis even when nucleotide analogues are administered. A 77-year-old female developed de novo hepatitis B after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hepatitis B virus (HBV isolated from the patient was of genotype Bj, with a precore mutation (G1896A exhibiting an extremely high viral load at the onset of hepatitis. She showed markedly high levels of transaminase with mild jaundice on admission and rapid decrease of prothrombin activity after admission. Although acute liver failure was averted by the administration of entecavir and corticosteroid pulse therapy, liver volume decreased to 860 ml, and marked hypoalbuminemia accompanying massive ascites occurred 2 months after the onset of hepatitis and persisted for 3 months with high levels of HBV DNA and mild abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels. Frequent infusions of albumin solution, nutrition support, and alleviation therapy showed limited effect. However, overall improvement along with HBV DNA reduction was observed after increasing the dose of entecavir and completion of prednisolone that was administered with a minimum dose for adrenal insufficiency. An immediate and sufficient suppression of virus replication with potent antiviral therapy is critical, particularly in patients infected with HBV precore mutation (G1896A and/or Bj genotype, which may have a high viral replication and direct hepatocellular damage.

  8. Reconstructing the retreat dynamics of the Bjørnøyrenna Ice Stream based on new 3D seismic data from the central Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka, Emilia D.; Winsborrow, Monica C. M.; Andreassen, Karin; Stokes, Chris R.

    2016-11-01

    The stability of contemporary ice sheets is influenced by the discharge from ice streams - corridors of fast-flowing ice bounded by ice flowing an order of magnitude slower. Reconstructions of palaeo-ice stream dynamics contribute to our understanding of ice stream sensitivity to the ocean-climate system and can aid in the numerical modelling and prediction of future changes in contemporary ice sheets. Here we use 3D seismic data, covering 13,000 km2 in the central Bjørnøyrenna (Bear Island Trough), Barents Sea, to investigate the record of ice streaming preserved on the seafloor and on a buried palaeo-seafloor surface. The unusually broad coverage and high resolution of the dataset, as well as its location in the central area of the trough, enables improved reconstruction of dynamics of the former Bjørnøyrenna Ice Stream in terms of number of streaming events, their trajectory, and their relative age sequence during deglaciation. Our results reveal major changes in the configuration and flow dynamics of the ice stream, with up to 10 flow-switching events identified. For the first time, we also document ice streaming sourced from the eastern Barents Sea around the time of the LGM. This high degree of flow variability is suggested to have resulted from climate-driven changes in ice sheet geometry (and ice divide migration), and variations in topography that influenced calving at the ice stream terminus.

  9. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  10. 从桑树根际土壤分离的产低温碱性纤维素酶菌株BJ-XH及酶的特性研究%Isolation of Cold-active Alkaline Cellulase Producing Microbial Strain BJ-XH from Mulberry Rhizospheric Soil and Analysis of Enzymatic Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 季更生; 谷绪顶; 黄倩; 费娟娟; 冯圆圆

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline cellulase has shown great applicative potential in detergent, forage, textile and food industries. Aimed to obtain microbial strains producing cold-active alkaline cellulase, we isolated 16 cellulase producing microbial strains from mulberry rhizospheric soil in winter. A microbial strain BJ-XH producing high activity cellulase was obtained through isolation with cellulose Congo red selection medium and determination of cellulase activity. Based on the morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, BJ-XH was identified to be an actinomycete belonging to Nocar-dia. The optimal condition for cellulase production of BJ-XH was culture temperature 28 ℃, culture medium pH 8. 5, inoculation quantity 6%, and culture time 6 to 8 days. The major cellulase produced by this strain was endo-β-1,4-gly-canase (Cx enzyme). Activity of this enzyme could reach 5. 6 lU/mL with optimal catalytic temperature 28 ℃ and optimal catalytic pH 9.0, showing typical property of cold-active alkaline cellulases. In addition, metal ions Mn2+, Fe3+ and Co could improve its activity, while Cu2+ and Pb2+ inhibit its activity. These results indicated that microbial strain BJ-XH could yield cold-active alkaline cellulase which has great potential for further exploration and utilization.%碱性纤维素酶在洗涤、饲料、纺织和食品等领域具有较大的应用潜力.为获得产低温碱性纤维素酶的菌种,于冬季从桑树根际土壤中分离到16株纤维素酶产生菌,通过纤维素刚果红选择培养基分离及酶活性测定,筛选出1株能产酶活较高的纤维素酶的菌株BJ-XH,依据形态特征和生理生化特性初步认为该菌株为诺卡氏菌属(Nocardia)的放线菌.BJ-XH菌株的最佳产酶条件为:培养温度28℃,培养液pH 8.5,接种量6%,培养时间6~8d.该菌株产生的纤维素酶主要为内切β-1,4葡聚糖酶(Cx酶),其酶活力可达5.6 IU/mL,酶最适催化温度为28℃,最适催化pH9.0,属于低温碱性纤

  11. Endurance, aerobic high-intensity, and repeated sprint cycling performance is unaffected by normobaric "Live High-Train Low": a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejder, Jacob; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Buchardt, Rie; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to investigate whether 6 weeks of normobaric "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) using altitude tents affect highly trained athletes incremental peak power, 26-km time-trial cycling performance, 3-min all-out performance, and 30-s repeated sprint ability. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, seven highly trained triathletes were exposed to 6 weeks of normobaric hypoxia (LHTL) and normoxia (placebo) for 8 h/day. LHTL exposure consisted of 2 weeks at 2500 m, 2 weeks at 3000 m, and 2 weeks at 3500 m. Power output during an incremental test, ~26-km time trial, 3-min all-out exercise, and 8 × 30 s of all-out sprint was evaluated before and after the intervention. Following at least 8 weeks of wash-out, the subjects crossed over and repeated the procedure. Incremental peak power output was similar after both interventions [LHTL: 375 ± 74 vs. 369 ± 70 W (pre-vs-post), placebo: 385 ± 60 vs. 364 ± 79 W (pre-vs-post)]. Likewise, mean power output was similar between treatments as well as before and after each intervention for time trial [LHTL: 257 ± 49 vs. 254 ± 54 W (pre-vs-post), placebo: 267 ± 57 vs. 267 ± 52 W (pre-vs-post)], and 3-min all-out [LHTL: 366 ± 68 vs. 369 ± 72 W (pre-vs-post), placebo: 365 ± 66 vs. 355 ± 71 W (pre-vs-post)]. Furthermore, peak- and mean power output during repeated sprint exercise was similar between groups at all time points (n = 5). In conclusion, 6 weeks of normobaric LHTL using altitude tents simulating altitudes of 2500-3500 m conducted in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design do not affect power output during an incremental test, a ~26-km time-trial test, or 3-min all-out exercise in highly trained triathletes. Furthermore, 30 s of repeated sprint ability was unaltered.

  12. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  13. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  14. 重复荷载作用下钢筋混凝土锚固端黏结性能试验研究%Test study on bonding performance of reinforced concrete anchorage zone under repeated loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋德稳; 邱洪兴

    2012-01-01

    通过对23个钢筋混凝土试件的静载和重复荷载作用下拔出试验,研究了重复荷载作用下钢筋峰值应变和残余应变、自由端和加载端滑移发展特征,得到了重复荷载作用下黏结应力-滑移滞回曲线变化规律。运用试验测定的钢筋应变,计算了静载和重复荷载作用下锚固端黏结应力分布曲线,总结了重复荷载作用下峰值黏结应力、残余黏结应力变化特征,分析了锚固端黏结应力分布机理。研究结果表明:重复荷载作用后黏结强度并不受重复次数影响;重复荷载作用下,自由端、加载端峰值滑移量和残余滑移量发展均符合疲劳破坏的三阶段特征;当滑移量累积到静载作用下破坏时的峰值滑移量时,发生黏结疲劳破坏;随着重复次数的增加,黏结应力沿锚固长度的分布出现明显的双峰现象,最大黏结应力位于距离加载端和自由端约1/4锚固长度位置处。研究结果可为深入研究混凝土结构疲劳性能提供依据。%23 reinforced concrete Rebar' s peak and residual stress, pull-out specimens were tested under monotonic loading and repeated loading peak slip and residual slip at the loading end and free end were inspected in this test. The bonding stress-slip hysteretic curve was obtained. According to the rebar stress data, the distribution curve in the anchorage was calculated under monotonic loading and repeated loading. Variation characteristics of peak and residual bonding stress under repeated loads were summarized, and bonding stress distribution mechanism was analyzed. Research result shows that bonding strength is not influenced much by repeated loading. The peak slip and residual slip follow the three stage rule of fatigue failure. Bonding fatigue failure occurs when the rebar slippage under repeated loading reaches the maximum slippage under monotonic loading. With the increase of repeating times, the obvious double peak phenomenon was shown in

  15. Detection and characterization of chlorinated-dioxin ether cleavage function in the bacterium geobacillus midousuji SH2B-J2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Y.; Hoshina, S. [Jikei Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Laboratory Medicine; Nakamura, M.; Hishiyama, S. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Katayama, Y. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    As of now, there are no dioxin degrading microorganism reported that can be applied to bioremediation. The reasons for this are that degrading function acquired from comprehensive screening of bacteria that can be grown with a single carbon source using non-chlorinated dioxin does not function against highly chlorinated dioxins, and that although white rot fungus capable of degrading lignin, a plant polyphenol substance, have been reported to reduce chlorinated dioxins, degrading enzyme remain unclear. Geobacillus midousuji SH2B-J2 (J2 strain) that have been separated by Hoshina et al. have shown to reduce highly chlorinated dioxins in incineration fly ash, as well as octa-chlorinated dioxins (OCDD). However, details of its degrading mechanisms remain unclear. Since the J2 strain is capable of reducing even OCDD, it was hypothesized that the initial degradation reaction is intramolecular ether bond cleavage, so J2 strain dioxin degradation mechanism was analyzed for verification.

  16. Band gap characterization of ternary BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) alloys using modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Battal G.

    2015-04-01

    The semi-local Becke-Johnson (BJ) exchange-correlation potential and its modified form proposed by Tran and Blaha have attracted a lot of interest recently because of the surprisingly accurate band gaps they can deliver for many semiconductors and insulators (e.g., sp semiconductors, noble-gas solids, and transition-metal oxides). The structural and electronic properties of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx (0≤x≤1) in zinc-blende phase have been reported in this study. The results of the studied binary compounds (BN and BBi) and ternary alloys BBi1-xNx structures are presented by means of density functional theory. The exchange and correlation effects are taken into account by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional of Wu and Cohen (WC) which is an improved form of the most popular Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). For electronic properties the modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) potential, which is more accurate than standard semi-local LDA and PBE calculations, has been chosen. Geometric optimization has been implemented before the volume optimization calculations for all the studied alloys structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of the studied binary compounds are in coincidence with experimental works. And, the variation of the lattice parameter of ternary alloys BBi1-xNx almost perfectly matches with Vegard's law. The spin-orbit interaction (SOI) has been also considered for structural and electronic calculations and the results are compared to those of non-SOI calculations.

  17. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  18. Triaging pregnancies of unknown location: the performance of protocols based on single serum progesterone or repeated serum hCG levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, S; Ayim, F; Ludlow, J; Sayasneh, A; Condous, G; Kirk, E; Stalder, C; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T; Van Calster, B

    2014-05-01

    How does a protocol based on a single serum progesterone measurement perform as a triage tool in women with pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) in comparison to protocols based on serial hCG measurement? Triage based on the logistic regression model M4 (using initial hCG and hCG ratio (48 h/0 h)) classifies the majority of PUL into low and high risk groups, in contrast to a progesterone protocol based on a serum level threshold of 10 nmol/l. Low progesterone has been shown to identify failing pregnancies and those at low risk of complications. A prediction model (M4) based on the initial hCG and the hCG ratio at 0 and 48 h can successfully classify PUL into low and high risk groups. A multi-centre diagnostic accuracy study of 1271 women was performed retrospectively on data from women at St. George's Hospital (SGH, London, UK) between February 2005 and 2006, Queen Charlottes & Chelsea Hospital (QCCH, London, UK) between April 2009 and August 2012, and the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH, Sydney, Australia) between February 2008 and October 2011. The end-points were the final observed outcome for each pregnancy as a failed PUL (low risk), intrauterine pregnancy (IUP, low risk), or ectopic pregnancy (EP, high risk), and any interventions or complications for EP during the follow-up period. Complete data were available for initial progesterone, 0/48 h hCG and final outcome in 431 of 534 women (81%) at SGH, 396/585 (68%) at QCCH and 96/152 (63%) at RPAH. Missing values were handled using multiple imputation. Three diagnostic approaches were used to classify PUL as high risk: a range of serum progesterone levels were evaluated (>10, 16 and 20 nmol/l) for the progesterone protocol, risk of EP given by the M4 model ≥5% for the M4-based protocol, and hCG ratio was between 0.87 and 1.66 for hCG cut-offs as previously published. Results were analysed using random intercept models or stratified analysis to account for variability between centres. The progesterone

  19. 转发干扰下DS/FH混合扩频测控信号检测性能%Detection Performance of DS/FH Hybrid Signals for TT & C under Repeater Jamming*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文革; 路伟涛; 卞燕山; 洪家财

    2013-01-01

    Studying the performance deterioration of DS/FH signals for TT&C(Telemetry Tracking&Command) in interfered environment is of great importance to this novel system. Expressions for probability of detection and false alarming of DS/FH(Direct Spread/Frequency Hopping)signals for TT&C under repeater jamming are de-duced. The probability of false alarming,PSLR(Peak Side lobe Level Ratio)and Correlation Coefficient are simulated and analyzed with different configuration of DS(Direct Spread)and FH(Frequency Hopping)spread-ing gain based on Matlab/Simulink. It is concluded that victim′s receiver is suffered“deception jamming”as long as relative delay time is less than frequency hop duration,which denotes correctness of deduce and offers references for following work.

  20. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  1. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  2. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  3. Geochronological, stable isotopes and fluid inclusion constraints for a premetamorphic development of the intrusive-hosted Björkdal Au deposit, northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billström, K.; Broman, C.; Jonsson, E.; Recio, C.; Boyce, A. J.; Torssander, P.

    2009-07-01

    The Björkdal gold deposit, bound to a quartz vein system which is mainly hosted by a quartz-monzodioritic intrusion, is situated at the easternmost part of the 1.9 Ga Skellefte base metal district in the Fennoscandian shield. Three fluid stages may be distinguished, referred to as a “barren” stage, a main gold stage, and a remobilization stage, respectively. From oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence, it is argued that fluids of different origins (magmatic and surface waters) penetrated the ore zone at the inferred stages, but regional metamorphic fluids appear essentially only to have redistributed elements. Early quartz veining took place during a pre-metamorphic stage at ca. 1.88 Ga, as evidenced by unradiogenic galena data and an Sm-Nd scheelite errorchron of 1,915 ± 32 Ma (MSWD = 0.25). Temporarily, the main ore-forming stage was closely related to the first barren stage and took place during a major uplift event close to 1.88 Ga. Although other source rocks cannot be totally ruled out, available isotope data (O, S, Sr and Pb) are seemingly consistent with the view that these elements, and by inference other ore elements, were derived from the host intrusion.

  4. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  5. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  6. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  7. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, prepeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  8. Seismic architecture and sedimentology of a major grounding zone system deposited by the Bjørnøyrenna Ice Stream during Late Weichselian deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, Denise Christina; Mattingsdal, Rune; Andreassen, Karin; Forwick, Matthias; Husum, Katrine

    2011-09-01

    A 280 km wide sediment wedge in outer Bjørnøyrenna (Bear Island Trough), south-western Barents Sea, has been investigated using 2D and 3D seismic data, sediment gravity cores, as well as regional swath and large scale bathymetry data. The bathymetry data indicate a division into an up to 35 m high frontal wedge with large depressions, and an upstream part characterized by mega scale glacial lineations (MSGL). From seismic sections increasing erosion is demonstrated for the upstream part, coinciding with the location of MSGL. Whether the latter are depositional features postdating an extensive erosional event or formed by erosion remains inconclusive. Based on the distinct morphology and internal structures, we infer that the system was deposited during a rapid readvance whereby the ice front pushed and bulldozed predominantly soft, diluted proglacial sediments. Analyses in the eastern part of the sediment system reveal the existence of imbricated thrust sheets in the frontal part of the wedge. This is suggested to imply upstream erosion of sedimentary rock and incorporation of thrusted blocks into the moraine, forming a composite ridge locally. We argue that observed large scale depressions are dead-ice features in the marine environment. It is envisioned that intense englacial thrusting may have developed into a decollement as the cold glacier snout got overrun by ice masses from the interior, thereby enabling the inclusion of slabs of ice in the push moraine mass. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the sediment wedge was deposited around 17,090 cal yrs BP (14,530 14C yrs BP) and that the ice front probably remained stable until 16,580 cal yrs BP (13,835 14C yrs BP).

  9. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  10. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of rep...

  11. Repeated Sprint Ability in Young Basketball Players (Part 2): The Chronic Effects of Multidirection and of One Change of Direction Are Comparable in Terms of Physiological and Performance Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Attene, Giuseppe; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Bragazzi, Nicola L.; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Pizzolato, Fabio; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Oggianu, Marcello; Migliaccio, Gian M.; Mannucci Pacini, Elena; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 5-week training program, consisting of repeated 30-m sprints, on two repeated sprint ability (RSA) test formats: one with one change of direction (RSA) and the other with multiple changes of direction (RSM). Thirty-six young male and female basketball players (age 16.1 ± 0.9 years), divided into two experimental groups, were tested for RSA, RSM, squat jump, counter-movement jump, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery-Level-1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test...

  12. Avaliação do desempenho zootécnico de genótipos de frangos de corte utilizando-se a análise de medidas repetidas Performance evaluation of broiler genotypes by repeated measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millor Fernandes do Rosário

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar genótipos de frangos de corte por meio do desempenho zootécnico utilizando-se medidas repetidas. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro genótipos (A, B, C e D e dois sexos avaliados em seis idades (7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias. As variáveis analisadas foram: consumo médio de alimento (CONS, peso vivo médio (PV e conversão alimentar (CA. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos incompletos desbalanceados, em esquema fatorial 4x2 nas parcelas experimentais, com seis medidas realizadas no decorrer do experimento. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do procedimento MIXED do SAS®, sendo testadas cinco estruturas de variância e covariância do erro. As médias foram estimadas por quadrados mínimos e comparadas pelo teste Tukey-Kramer. Foram estimadas funções de resposta quadrática para CONS e CA e Gompertz para PV e seus respectivos coeficientes de determinação, pelo procedimento NLIN do SAS®. Detectaram-se efeitos de algumas interações triplas ou duplas para todas as variáveis. Verificaram-se diferenças significativas entre genótipos dentro de cada idade e sexo para CONS e PV e para CA entre genótipos e sexos, dentro de cada idade, apenas aos 42 e a partir dos 21 dias, respectivamente. Constatou-se que o genótipo D, apesar de apresentar maiores médias de CONS e PV, não mostrou menor CA, que foi verificada nos genótipos C e B. As funções de resposta estimadas explicaram adequadamente cada variável em função da idade, constatando-se que o CONS e PV dos machos do genótipo D foram maiores a partir dos 14 dias e dos 28 aos 42 dias, distinguindo este tratamento dos demais. A melhor CA foi verificada nos machos e no genótipo C. É possível avaliar o desempenho zootécnico de frangos de corte por medidas repetidas, sendo que os genótipos B e C apresentaram melhor desempenho zootécnico.The objetive of this study was to evaluate the performance of broiler genotypes using repeated measurements

  13. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  14. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  15. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  16. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Delhomel, Gregory; Brughelli, Matt; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effects of explosive strength (ExpS) vs. repeated shuttle sprint (RS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in young elite soccer players, 15 elite male adolescents (14.5 ± 0.5 years) performed, in addition to their soccer training program, RS (n = 7) or ExpS (n = 8) training once a week for a total of 10 weeks. RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 × 15- to 20-m repeated shuttle sprints interspersed with 14 seconds of passive or 23 seconds of active recovery (≈2 m·s⁻¹); ExpS training consisted of 4-6 series of 4-6 exercises (e.g., maximal unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs), calf and squat plyometric jumps, and short sprints). Before and after training, performance was assessed by 10 and 30 m (10 and 30 m) sprint times, best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test, a CMJ, and a hopping (Hop) test. After training, except for 10 m (p = 0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all p's repeated shuttle sprint test were only observed after RS training, whereas CMJ height was only increased after ExpS. Because RS and ExpS were equally efficient at enhancing maximal sprinting speed, RS training-induced improvements in RSA were likely more related to progresses in the ability to change direction.

  17. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  18. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  19. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  20. Mononucleotide repeats are asymmetrically distributed in fungal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaff Leo H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic analyses of sequence features have resulted in a better characterisation of the organisation of the genome. A previous study in prokaryotes on the distribution of sequence repeats, which are notoriously variable and can disrupt the reading frame in genes, showed that these motifs are skewed towards gene termini, specifically the 5' end of genes. For eukaryotes no such intragenic analysis has been performed, though this could indicate the pervasiveness of this distribution bias, thereby helping to expose the selective pressures causing it. Results In fungal gene repertoires we find a similar 5' bias of intragenic mononucleotide repeats, most notably for Candida spp., whereas e.g. Coccidioides spp. display no such bias. With increasing repeat length, ever larger discrepancies are observed in genome repertoire fractions containing such repeats, with up to an 80-fold difference in gene fractions at repeat lengths of 10 bp and longer. This species-specific difference in gene fractions containing large repeats could be attributed to variations in intragenic repeat tolerance. Furthermore, long transcripts experience an even more prominent bias towards the gene termini, with possibly a more adaptive role for repeat-containing short transcripts. Conclusion Mononucleotide repeats are intragenically biased in numerous fungal genomes, similar to earlier studies on prokaryotes, indicative of a similar selective pressure in gene organization.

  1. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  2. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  3. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  4. PILER-CR: Fast and accurate identification of CRISPR repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of prokaryotic genomes has recently revealed the presence of CRISPR elements: short, highly conserved repeats separated by unique sequences of similar length. The distinctive sequence signature of CRISPR repeats can be found using general-purpose repeat- or pattern-finding software tools. However, the output of such tools is not always ideal for studying these repeats, and significant effort is sometimes needed to build additional tools and perform manual analysis of the output. Results We present PILER-CR, a program specifically designed for the identification and analysis of CRISPR repeats. The program executes rapidly, completing a 5 Mb genome in around 5 seconds on a current desktop computer. We validate the algorithm by manual curation and by comparison with published surveys of these repeats, finding that PILER-CR has both high sensitivity and high specificity. We also present a catalogue of putative CRISPR repeats identified in a comprehensive analysis of 346 prokaryotic genomes. Conclusion PILER-CR is a useful tool for rapid identification and classification of CRISPR repeats. The software is donated to the public domain. Source code and a Linux binary are freely available at http://www.drive5.com/pilercr.

  5. Analysis of CR1 Repeats in the Zebra Finch Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bird species have smaller genomes and fewer repeats than mammals. Chicken Repeat 1 (CR1 repeat is one of the most abundant families of repeats, ranging from ~133,000 to ~187,000 copies accounting for ~50 to ~80% of the interspersed repeats in the zebra finch and chicken genomes, respectively. CR1 repeats are believed to have arisen from the retrotransposition of a small number of master elements, which gave rise to multiple CR1 subfamilies in the chicken. In this study, we performed a global assessment of the divergence distributions, phylogenies, and consensus sequences of CR1 repeats in the zebra finch genome. We identified and validated 34 CR1 subfamilies and further analyzed the correlation between these subfamilies. We also discovered 4 novel lineage-specific CR1 subfamilies in the zebra finch when compared to the chicken genome. We built various evolutionary trees of these subfamilies and concluded that CR1 repeats may play an important role in reshaping the structure of bird genomes.

  6. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  7. Repeated nondiagnostic result of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiańska, Klaudia; Kopczyński, Janusz; Kowalska, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most accurate and cost-effective method to evaluate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules, but approximately 1-24% of FNABs generate a nondiagnostic result (ND-FNAB). The aim of this study was to determine the predictive factors of a repeated nondiagnostic result of FNAB. A total of 4018 FNABs performed in a territorial referral centre were analysed, of which 288 (7.17%) were nondiagnostic. Medical records were available for 245 biopsies performed in 228 patients. The retrospective analysis of factors that may influence a repeat ND-FNAB, including demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics, was performed. A repeat FNAB was performed in 159 nodules giving a diagnostic result in 79.2% of cases. The time between the biopsies ranged from 1 to 611 days (mean 154.4, median 119). The timing of a repeat FNAB did not significantly alter the diagnostic output (p = 0.29). In the univariate analysis, significant predictors of a repeat ND-FNAB were older patient age (p = 0.02), L-thyroxine supplementation (p = 0.05), and a history of (131)I therapy (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, only a history of (131)I therapy was a statistically significant risk factor for a repeat ND-FNAB (p = 0.002). Patients with a history of (131)I therapy and ND-FNAB should undergo periodic ultrasonographic assessment rather than a repeat biopsy. The interval between repeated FNABs recommended by guidelines does not affect the diagnostic output.

  8. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  9. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  10. Global Design Analysis for Highly Repeatable Solid-state Klystron Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony, Dal Gobbo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the repeatability issue in the electrical-to-radio frequency conversion chains using pulsed klystrons. The focus is on the power electronics used in klystron modulators. Repeatability definition is presented and simulation results allow deriving important conclusions regarding the voltage repeatability harmonic content versus power electronics design directions. The trade-off between klystron modulator and low level RF controls is a key point for optimizing the global system repeatability performance.

  11. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (psprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Repeating earthquakes recorded by Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-tong; WU Zhong-liang; JIANG Chang-sheng; LI Guang-ping

    2008-01-01

    In the list of 'repeating pairs' or 'doublets' of earthquakes in China identified by Schaff and Richards using tele-seismic waveform cross-correlation, there were 23 repeating pairs located in Liaoning Province. In this study the waveforms of these events were cross-correlated using records from Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network (LRSN), and the 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation were obtained. The result was compared with that of Schaff and Richards and was used for the assessment of the seismic phase picking and event location practice of LRSN. The result shows that 'repeating events' in the sense of teleseismic waveform cross-correlation and those in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation have significant difference, al-though with some overlap. However, the overall assessment of the location accuracy and the phase pick errors of LRSN by using these two sets of 'repeating events', respectively, provides similar results, while 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation seem to be better performing in such an assessment. With the assumption that the separation between the 'repeaters' be less than 1 km, the uncertainty in routine earthquake location of LRSN is estimated to be below 5 km, with the average of 2 km. In the observational bulletins of LRSN the time error in phase picking is estimated to be within±Is for 94% Pg readings and for 88% Sg readings.

  13. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Saraswat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding in buffaloes was evaluated in terms of incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. The incidence of repeat breeding is low in buffaloes however in different studies the incidence varied from 0.70% to 30%. Because of seasonal suppression of fertility repeat breeding in buffaloes should be limited to the breeding season. Spring and winter calving, first parity, peri-parturient disease and lactation are significant risk factors for repeat breeding in buffaloes. The etiologies of repeat breeding in buffaloes can be failure of fertilization and early embryonic deaths. Only a few of causes of failure of fertilization have been identified in buffaloes. Ovulatory disturbances and ovarian cysts are uncommon in buffaloes and cysts have poor clinical manifestation. Endometritis is the common female cause of fertilization failures in buffaloes whereas poor semen quality and improper insemination are the bull side factors for fertilization failures. Early embryonic deaths are common in buffaloes mated/inseminated during the end of the breeding season due to a low luteal progesterone however embryonic deaths occur late (<25 days in buffaloes. Diagnostic approaches for repeat breeding include vaginoscopic and transrectal examination and uterine cytology for genital health. More precise evaluations of the ovarian and uterine function can be obtained by ultrasonographic and hysteroscopic examinations performed sequentially however, precise diagnosis of the cause of repeat breeding seems difficult.

  14. Comment on Kokshoorn, B, and Blankers, BJ ‘Response to Grisedale, KS and van Daal, A: comparison of STR profiling from low template DNA extracts with and without the consensus profiling method’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisedale Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kokshoorn and Blankers responded to our recent article by saying that replicate analysis and consensus profiling of low template samples was best in terms of reliability and objectivity. We agree that the consensus approach has benefits, particularly in eliminating non-repeating spurious alleles from the final profile. However, with the development of statistical models that can accommodate stochastic effects and allele drop in, it may be beneficial to perform a single amplification with three times the amount of template, since much information is lost from the profile using the consensus approach.

  15. TPRpred: a tool for prediction of TPR-, PPR- and SEL1-like repeats from protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söding Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solenoid repeat proteins of the Tetratrico Peptide Repeat (TPR family are involved as scaffolds in a broad range of protein-protein interactions. Several resources are available for the prediction of TPRs, however, they often fail to detect divergent repeat units. Results We have developed TPRpred, a profile-based method which uses a P-value-dependent score offset to include divergent repeat units and which exploits the tendency of repeats to occur in tandem. TPRpred detects not only TPR-like repeats, but also the related Pentatrico Peptide Repeats (PPRs and SEL1-like repeats. The corresponding profiles were generated through iterative searches, by varying the threshold parameters for inclusion of repeat units into the profiles, and the best profiles were selected based on their performance on proteins of known structure. We benchmarked the performance of TPRpred in detecting TPR-containing proteins and in delineating the individual repeats therein, against currently available resources. Conclusion TPRpred performs significantly better in detecting divergent repeats in TPR-containing proteins, and finds more individual repeats than the existing methods. The web server is available at http://tprpred.tuebingen.mpg.de, and the C++ and Perl sources of TPRpred along with the profiles can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.tuebingen.mpg.de/ebio/protevo/TPRpred/.

  16. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  17. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  19. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  20. A prospective study evaluating the performance of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using repeated sampling of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using the biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) obtained before and at the time of the nuchal translucency (NT) scan....

  1. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  2. Prospective study evaluating performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using repeat sampling of maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelund, C; Wright, D; Ball, S; Kirkegaard, I; Nørgaard, P; Sørensen, S; Friis-Hansen, L; Jørgensen, F S; Tørring, N; Bech, B H; Petersen, O B; Tabor, A

    2012-09-01

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using the biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) obtained before and at the time of the nuchal translucency (NT) scan. Three fetal medicine departments in Denmark participated in the study. Screening for trisomy 21 was set up as a two-step approach with blood sampling performed before the NT scan (early sample) and again at the time of the NT scan (late sample). PAPP-A and free β-hCG were measured on both the early and late samples. Age-standardized detection and false-positive rates for different screening protocols were calculated. We collected two blood samples in 27 pregnancies affected by trisomy 21 and in 3891 control pregnancies. The early samples were taken between gestational ages 8 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks, and the late samples between 11 + 3 and 14 + 6 weeks. The median interval between the samples was 17 (range, 1-40) days. We found a significantly better estimated screening performance when using early sampling vs late sampling (P trisomy 21, use of early sampling with measurement of PAPP-A and free β-hCG before the time of the NT scan can optimize screening performance. Using maternal serum markers obtained both before and at the time of the NT scan has the potential to further improve performance, but larger studies are needed to confirm this potential. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  5. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  6. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  7. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  8. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  9. Quantum repeater based on cavity QED evolutions and coherent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonţa, Denis; van Loock, Peter

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of cavity QED, we propose a quantum repeater scheme that uses coherent light and chains of atoms coupled to optical cavities. In contrast to conventional repeater schemes, in our scheme there is no need for an explicit use of two-qubit quantum logical gates by exploiting solely the cavity QED evolution. In our previous work (Gonta and van Loock in Phys Rev A 88:052308, 2013), we already proposed a quantum repeater in which the entanglement between two neighboring repeater nodes was distributed using controlled displacements of input coherent light, while the produced low-fidelity entangled pairs were purified using ancillary (four-partite) entangled states. In the present work, the entanglement distribution is realized using a sequence of controlled phase shifts and displacements of input coherent light. Compared to previous coherent-state-based distribution schemes for two-qubit entanglement, our scheme here relies only upon a simple discrimination of two coherent states with opposite signs, which can be performed in a quantum mechanically optimal fashion via a beam splitter and two on-off detectors. For the entanglement purification, we employ a method that avoids the use of extra entangled ancilla states. Our repeater scheme exhibits reasonable fidelities and repeater rates providing an attractive platform for long-distance quantum communication.

  10. On the life time prediction of repeatedly impacted thermoplastic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, Mustafa Ozguer [Kocaeli University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Veziroglu Campus, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)], E-mail: ozgur_bora@yahoo.com; Coban, Onur [Kocaeli University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Veziroglu Campus, 41040 Izmit (Turkey); Sinmazcelik, Tamer [Kocaeli University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Veziroglu Campus, 41040 Izmit (Turkey); TUBITAK-MAM, Materials Institute, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze (Turkey); Cuerguel, Ismail [Kocaeli University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Veziroglu Campus, 41040 Izmit (Turkey); Guenay, Volkan [TUBITAK-MAM, Materials Institute, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    Impact-fatigue properties of unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polyetherimide (PEI) composites were investigated. Low velocity repeated impacts were performed by using pendulum type instrumented impact tester (Ceast, Resil 25) at energy levels ranging 0.54-0.94 J. Samples were prepared according to ISO 180 and subjected to repeated low velocity impacts up to fracture by the hammer. Results of repeated impact study are reported in terms of peak load (F{sub max}), absorbed energy (E{sub max}) and number of repeated impacts. An analytical model to describe the life time of composite materials subjected to repeated impact loadings was presented.

  11. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  12. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  13. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  14. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  15. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. PMID:22414427

  16. The evolution of filamin-a protein domain repeat perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Value of repeat biopsy in lupus nephritis flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greloni, G; Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Lancioni, E; Quiroz, C; Zacariaz, J; De la Iglesia Niveyro, P; Christiansen, S; Pierangelo, M A; Varela, C F; Rosa-Diez, G J; Catoggio, L J; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Renal flares are common in lupus nephritis (LN), and class switch is thought to be characteristic. There is no agreement on indications for performing a repeat renal biopsy. Our objective was to retrospectively review patients who had more than one renal biopsy performed on clinical indications, and analyse clinical, pathological and treatment changes after successive biopsies. Methods Forty-five patients with LN and one or more repeat renal biopsies were included, with a total of 116 biopsies. Results Of the 71 repeat biopsies, pathological transition occurred in 39 (54.9%). When having a previous biopsy with a proliferative lesion, class switch occurred in 55.6%, with 24.4% evolving into non-proliferative classes. When previous biopsy was class V, transition to other classes occurred in 58.3% and changes were all into proliferative classes. Conversion from one pure proliferative form to another (class III to class IV or vice versa) happened in 11.3% of the rebiopsies, with 62 rebiopsies (87.3%) leading to a change in the treatment regimen. Conclusions Histological transformations were common, and they occurred when the previous biopsy had non-proliferative lesions as well as when lesions were proliferative. Treatments were modified after repeat renal biopsy in the majority of patients. In this experience, kidney repeat biopsies were useful in guiding treatment of LN flares. PMID:25396056

  18. A COMPARISON OF PAIRS FIGURE SKATERS IN REPEATED JUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Sands

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare

  19. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  20. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Ladd, Thaddeus D.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network.

  1. Positional Repeatability Measurements Of Stepper Motors At Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Hall, Michael S.; Bartko, Frank; Houck, James R.

    1983-08-01

    Stepper motors operating at liquid helium temperature have multiple applications in cryogenically-cooled telescopes such as the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). These SIRTF applications include driving cryogen flow valves, operating the Multiple Instrument Chamber (MIC) beam splitter mechanism, and operating filters and grating wheel mechanisms in the scientific instruments. The positional repeatability of the beam splitter drive mechanism is especially critical since it feeds the optical beam to the scien-tific instruments. Despite these important applications, no significant data on the positional repeatability of stepper motors at cryogenic temperatures has been available. Therefore, we conducted a series of measurements to determine the positional repeatability of a modified, off-the-shelf Berger/Lahr stepper motor (model RDM 253/25, step angle 3.6°) which had demonstrated excellent performance in previous endurance testing at LHe temperature. These test results indicated that the positional repeatability of the motor was excellent at all temperatures, with somewhat better performance at cryogenic temperatures. Another important result was that the motor could be repeatedly turned off and on while still accurately retaining its rotor position.

  2. Identification of the antagonistic bacteria B J1 and its antifungal activity against Valsa ceratosperma%苹果树腐烂病拮抗细菌菌株BJ1的鉴定及其抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩霞; 张清明; 李桂舫; 董向丽; 李保华

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop an effective biocontrol measure against apple tree canker caused by Valsa ceratosperma, 63 bacterium strains were isolated and screened from the soil around the cultured apple root in Qixia, Shandong Province. The strain B J1 which had significantly antagonistic effect on V. ceratosper- rna, was obtained using fiat confrontation culture method. The inhibition rates of B J1 and its fermentation supernatant were 78.38% and 70.54% , respectively. The antagonistic spectrum and the inhibitory effi- ciency of BJ1 on the conidial germination and hyphal growth of V. ceratosperma were investigated. The re- suits showed that B J1 could significantly reduce the conidial germination rate and induce alterations on mycelia morphology, such as deformity, branch increasing and cytoplasm exosmosis. In addition, BJ1 showed obvious antifungal activities on several fruit tree pathogenic fungi, such as Sclerotinia laxa, Pho- mopsis perniciosa and V. leucostoma. Based on the morphologic, physiological, biochemical characteristicsand 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the strain B J1 was defined as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. The strain B J1 fermentation supernatants with different dilution time exerted obvious inhibitory efficiency on V. ceratosperma growth in detached apple twigs. The control efficiency could reach 81.06% when the su- pernatant was diluted by fifty times. These results indicated that the strain B J1 promised to provide a new biological control method in containing apple canker.%为开发对苹果树腐烂病有效的生防措施,对从山东栖霞苹果果园根际土壤中分离的63株细菌进行了筛选,获得有显著拮抗作用的菌株BJ1。采用玻片法和对峙培养法测定BJ1对苹果树腐烂病菌孢子萌发和菌丝生长的抑制作用及其抑菌谱,根据菌株BJ1的形态特征、生理生化特性及16S rDNA序列对其进行鉴定,并用离体枝条烫伤接种法对腐烂病的防效进行测定。菌株BJ1对

  3. Evolution of Determinant Factors of Repeated Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; López-Segovia, Manuel; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Bachero-Mena, Beatriz; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the relationships between repeated sprint ability (RSA) and anthropometric measures as well as fitness qualities in soccer players. Twenty-one professional soccer players performed several anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs), a straight-line 30 m sprint (T30), an RSA test (6 x 20 + 20 m with 20 s recovery), a progressive isoinertial loading test in a full squat, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT-1) and a 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT). The mean (RSAmean), the fastest (RSAbest), each single sprint time, and the percentage in a sprint decrease (%Dec) in the RSA test were calculated. RSAbest correlated significantly with RSAmean (r = .82) and with all single sprints (p sprints performed increased. No significant relationship was observed between the %Dec and RSA performance. CMJs and the T30 also showed a correlation with RSA performance, whereas lower limb strength did not show any relationship with RSA performance. RSAmean showed significant (p repeated sprints increased. The 20mSRT showed minimal relationships with RSA performance. In conclusion, maximal sprint capacity seems to be relevant for the RSA performance, mainly in the first sprints. However, high intermittent endurance capacity and low adiposity might help enhance the RSA performance when increasing the number of repeated sprints.

  4. Repeated Prolonged Exercise Decreases Maximal Fat Oxidation in Older Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Thomas; Rosenkilde, Mads; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Fat metabolism and muscle adaptation was investigated in 6 older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2max: 48 ± 2 mL kg min) following repeated prolonged exercise). METHODS: 2706 km (1,681 miles) cycling was performed over 14 days and a blood sample and a muscle biopsy were...

  5. Physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transportation process acts as a stressor with adverse effects on animal health and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine physiological responses to repeated transportation of gestating Brahman cows, previously classified as mature cows, into temperament groups of calm, moderate,...

  6. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...

  7. Practical repeaters for ultralong-distance quantum communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, Scott E.; Kok, Pieter

    2017-05-01

    Quantum repeaters enable long-range quantum communication in the presence of attenuation. Here we propose a method to construct a robust quantum repeater network using only existing technology. We combine the ideas of brokered graph-state construction with double-heralded entanglement generation to form a system that is able to perform all parts of the procedure in a way that is highly tolerant to photon loss and imperfections in detectors. We show that when used in quantum key distribution this leads to secure kilohertz bit rates over intercontinental distances.

  8. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  9. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  10. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  11. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed......Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...

  12. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  13. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  14. Potential Role of the Last Half Repeat in TAL Effectors Revealed by a Molecular Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TAL effectors (TALEs contain a modular DNA-binding domain that is composed of tandem repeats. In all naturally occurring TALEs, the end of tandem repeats is invariantly a truncated half repeat. To investigate the potential role of the last half repeat in TALEs, we performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal structure of DNA-bound TALE AvrBs3 lacking the last half repeat and its modeled structure having the last half repeat. The structural stability analysis indicates that the modeled system is more stable than the nonmodeled system. Based on the principle component analysis, it is found that the AvrBs3 increases its structural compactness in the presence of the last half repeat. The comparison of DNA groove parameters of the two systems implies that the last half repeat also causes the change of DNA major groove binding efficiency. The following calculation of hydrogen bond reveals that, by stabilizing the phosphate binding with DNA at the C-terminus, the last half repeat helps to adopt a compact conformation at the protein-DNA interface. It further mediates more contacts between TAL repeats and DNA nucleotide bases. Finally, we suggest that the last half repeat is required for the high-efficient recognition of DNA by TALE.

  15. Potential Role of the Last Half Repeat in TAL Effectors Revealed by a Molecular Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hua; Chang, Shan; Hu, Jian-ping; Tian, Xu-hong

    2016-01-01

    TAL effectors (TALEs) contain a modular DNA-binding domain that is composed of tandem repeats. In all naturally occurring TALEs, the end of tandem repeats is invariantly a truncated half repeat. To investigate the potential role of the last half repeat in TALEs, we performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal structure of DNA-bound TALE AvrBs3 lacking the last half repeat and its modeled structure having the last half repeat. The structural stability analysis indicates that the modeled system is more stable than the nonmodeled system. Based on the principle component analysis, it is found that the AvrBs3 increases its structural compactness in the presence of the last half repeat. The comparison of DNA groove parameters of the two systems implies that the last half repeat also causes the change of DNA major groove binding efficiency. The following calculation of hydrogen bond reveals that, by stabilizing the phosphate binding with DNA at the C-terminus, the last half repeat helps to adopt a compact conformation at the protein-DNA interface. It further mediates more contacts between TAL repeats and DNA nucleotide bases. Finally, we suggest that the last half repeat is required for the high-efficient recognition of DNA by TALE. PMID:27803930

  16. Exploring the Dynamic X-ray Universe (Summarising report of the ISSI-BJ Forum on monitoring the transient X-ray Universe in the multi-messenger era, Beijing, May 6-7, 2014)

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    This white paper is a summarising report of the Forum on monitoring the transient X-ray Universe in the multi-messenger era organized by the International Space Science Institute in Beijing (ISSI-BJ) on May 6-7, 2014. Time-domain astronomy will enter a golden era towards the end of this decade with the advent of major facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum and in the multi-messenger realms of gravitational wave and neutrino. In the soft X-ray regime, the novel micro-pore lobster-eye optics provides a promising technology to realise, for the first time, focusing X-ray optics for wide-angle monitors to achieve a good combination of sensitivity and wide field of view. In this context, Einstein Probe - a soft X-ray all-sky monitor - has been proposed and selected as a candidate mission of priority in the space science programme of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This report summarises the most important science developments in this field towards 2020 and beyond and how to achieve them technologically, wh...

  17. DNA profiling of extended tracts of primitive DNA repeats: Direct identification of unstable simple repeat loci in complex genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogaeva, E.A.; Korovaitseva, G.; St. George-Hyslop, P. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The most simple DNA repetitive elements, with repetitive monomer units of only 1-10 bp in tandem tracts, are an abundant component of the human genome. The expansion of at least one type of these repeats ((CCG)n and (CTG)n) have been detected for a several neurological diseases with anticipation in successive generations. We propose here a simple method for the identification of particularly expanded repeats and for the recovery of flanking sequences. We generated DNA probes using PCR to create long concatamers (n>100) by amplification of the di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeat oligonucleotide primer pairs. To reduce the complexity of the background band pattern, the genomic DNA was restricted with a mixture of at least five different endonucleases, thereby reducing the size of restriction fragments containing short simple repeat arrays while leaving intact the large fragments containing the longer simple repeats arrays. Direct blot hybridization has shown different {open_quotes}DNA fingerprint{close_quotes} patterns with all arbitrary selected di-hexa nucleotide repeat probes. Direct hybridization of the (CTG)n and (CCG)n probes revealed simple or multiple band patterns depending upon stringency conditions. We were able to detect the presence of expanded unstable tri-nucleotide alleles by (CCG)n probe for some FRAXA subjects and by (CTG)n probe for some myotonic dystrophy subjects which were not present in the parental DNA patterns. The cloning of the unstable alleles for simple repeats can be performed by direct recover from agarose gels of the aberrant unstable bands detected above. The recovered flanking regions can be cloned, sequenced and used for PCR detection of expanded alleles or can be used to screen cDNA. This method may be used for testing of small families with diseases thought to display clinical evidence of anticipation.

  18. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, Paul S.R.; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J.; Gore, Christopher J.; Peeling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of ‘top-up’ normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, ‘top-up’ training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this ‘top-up’ training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the ‘top-up’ training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points ‘Top-up’ repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players. The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.

  19. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, Paul S R; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact of 'top-up' normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, 'top-up' training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this 'top-up' training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the 'top-up' training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points'Top-up' repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players.The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.'Top-up' cycling repeat-sprint training

  20. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  1. Density Functional Theory and Beyond for Band-Gap Screening: Performance for Transition-Metal Oxides and Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqing; Walther, Christian F J; Kuc, Agnieszka; Heine, Thomas

    2013-07-09

    The performance of a wide variety of commonly used density functionals, as well as two screened hybrid functionals (HSE06 and TB-mBJ), on predicting electronic structures of a large class of en vogue materials, such as metal oxides, chalcogenides, and nitrides, is discussed in terms of band gaps, band structures, and projected electronic densities of states. Contrary to GGA, hybrid functionals and GGA+U, both HSE06 and TB-mBJ are able to predict band gaps with an appreciable accuracy of 25% and thus allow the screening of various classes of transition-metal-based compounds, i.e., mixed or doped materials, at modest computational cost. The calculated electronic structures are largely unaffected by the choice of basis functions and software implementation, however, might be subject to the treatment of the core electrons.

  2. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  3. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  4. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  5. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  6. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia

    2017-01-01

    Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in

  7. Repeat urine cultures in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risky Vitria Prasetyo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the second leading cause of infection in children, following respiratory tract infections. Repeat urine cultures after antibiotic treatment are routinely obtained in clinical practice to verify proof of bacteriologic cure. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommended repeat cultures, due to increased cost and discomfort to patients. Objective To determine the frequency of positive repeat urine cultures after 3 days of antibiotics in children with UTIs. Methods We conducted a retrospective study on children with UTIs who visited the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Child Health at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya from January 2006 to December 2011. Results of repeat urine cultures were obtained after 3 days of antibiotic treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 779 pediatric UTI cases, repeat urine cultures were performed in 264 (33.9% cases. Of the 264 patients who comprised our study, there were similar numbers of girls and boys (50.4% vs. 49.6%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 43.9 (SD 1.59 months and 35.5% of subjects were aged under 1 year. In the initial urine cultures of our subjects, Escherichia coli was the most common organism found, with 92 cases (34.8%, compared to 58 cases (21.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 29 cases (10.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rrepeat urine cultures showed no bacterial growth in 168 cases (63.6%. Conclusion Mostly negative repeat urine cultures will probably obviate the need of this test in daily routine practice. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:170-4].

  8. REPEATED LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: EXPERIENCE OF RUSSIAN SCIENTIFIC CENTER OF RADIOLOGY AND SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY (RSCRST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Granov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the report about the experience in repeated liver transplantation (LT. Totally 99 LT including 6 repeated operation at five patients performed between june 1999 and june 2011. In 3 of 6 cases bile ducts necroses was the indication to repeated LT. Retransplantations were connected with difficulties, enlargement of duration and replacement therapy volume, also explained high number of complication after operation. It is demonstrated that chronic biliary infection and bad condition of patients are the main reasons of complication and poor prognosis after repeated liver transplantation. 

  9. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  10. Repeating a Monologue under Increasing Time Pressure: Effects on Fluency, Complexity, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chau; Boers, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that learners' task performance improves when they have the opportunity to repeat the task. Conditions for task repetition vary, however. In the 4/3/2 activity, learners repeat a monologue under increasing time pressure. The purpose is to foster fluency, but it has been suggested in the literature that it also benefits other…

  11. Multiparametric MRI in men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer undergoing repeat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Lars; Nørgaard, Nis; Løgager, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    for detection of csPCa in men undergoing repeat biopsies. Material and Methods MpMRI was performed prior to re-biopsy in 289 prospectively enrolled patients. All underwent repeat TRUSbx followed by targeted biopsies (MRITB) of any mpMRI-identified lesion. MpMRI suspicion grade, PSA level, and density (PSAd...

  12. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  13. Modified Suboptimal Iterative Decoding for Regular Repeat- Accumulate Coded Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Thamer Nesr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two algorithms are suggested in order to improve the performance of systematic Repeat-Accumulate ( decoding. The first one is accomplished by the insertion of pilot symbols among the data stream that entering the encoder. The positions where pilots should be inserted are chosen in such a way that to improve the minimum Hamming distance and/or to reduce the error coefficients of the code. The second proposed algorithm includes the utilization of the inserted pilots to estimate scaling (correction factors. Two-dimensional correction factor was suggested in order to enhance the performance of traditional Minimum-Sum decoding of regular repeat accumulate codes. An adaptive method can be achieved for getting the correction factors by calculating the mean square difference between the values of received pilots and the a-posteriori data of bit and check node related to them which created by the minimum-sum ( decoder

  14. Evolution of Determinant Factors of Repeated Sprint Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pareja-Blanco Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the relationships between repeated sprint ability (RSA and anthropometric measures as well as fitness qualities in soccer players. Twenty-one professional soccer players performed several anthropometric and physical tests including countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs, a straight-line 30 m sprint (T30, an RSA test (6 x 20 + 20 m with 20 s recovery, a progressive isoinertial loading test in a full squat, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT-1 and a 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT. The mean (RSAmean, the fastest (RSAbest, each single sprint time, and the percentage in a sprint decrease (%Dec in the RSA test were calculated. RSAbest correlated significantly with RSAmean (r = .82 and with all single sprints (p < 0.05, showing a downward trend as the number of sprints performed increased. No significant relationship was observed between the %Dec and RSA performance. CMJs and the T30 also showed a correlation with RSA performance, whereas lower limb strength did not show any relationship with RSA performance. RSAmean showed significant (p < 0.05 relationships with body mass (r = .44, adiposity (r = .59 and the YYIRT-1 (r = -.62, increasing as the number of repeated sprints increased. The 20mSRT showed minimal relationships with RSA performance. In conclusion, maximal sprint capacity seems to be relevant for the RSA performance, mainly in the first sprints. However, high intermittent endurance capacity and low adiposity might help enhance the RSA performance when increasing the number of repeated sprints.

  15. Caffeine Ingestion Improves Repeated Freestyle Sprints in Elite Male Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S.R. Goods, Grant Landers, Sacha Fulton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a moderate dose of caffeine to improve repeat-sprint performance in elite freestyle sprinters. Nine highly trained male swimmers performed 6 x 75 m freestyle sprints on two occasions 1-h after consuming either 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine (CAF, or placebo, in a cross-over manner. Capillary blood samples for the analysis of blood lactate concentration and pH were collected after the 1st, 3rd, and 5th sprint, while heart rate and perceived exertion (RPE were collected after every sprint. There was a moderate effect for improved mean sprint time in the CAF condition (0.52 s; 1.3%; d = 0.50. When assessed individually, there was a large effect for improved performance in sprints 3 (1.00 s; 2.5%; d = 1.02 and 4 (0.84 s; 2.1%; d = 0.84 in CAF compared to placebo, with worthwhile performance improvement found for each of the first 5 sprints. There was a significant treatment effect for higher blood lactate concentration for CAF (p = 0.029, and a significant treatment*time effect for reduced pH in the CAF condition (p = 0.004. Mean heart rate (167 ± 9 bpm vs 169 ± 7 bpm and RPE (17 ± 1 vs 17 ± 1 were not different between placebo and CAF trials, respectively. This investigation is the first to demonstrate enhanced repeat-sprint ability in swimmers following acute caffeine ingestion. It appears likely that the combination of a moderate dose of caffeine (3-6 mg·kg-1 with trained athletes is most likely to enhance repeat-sprint ability in various athletic populations; however, the exact mechanism(s for an improved repeat-sprint ability following acute caffeine ingestion remain unknown.

  16. Brain Vulnerability to Repeated Blast Overpressure and Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    discrimination procedures were developed, refined and implemented to test visual acuity and visually based cognitive performance and reaction time. Telemetric...exposure: The shock tube consists of a 2.5 ft long compression chamber that is separated from a 15 ft long expansion chamber by polyester Mylar...single BOP (figs 8 & 9) or 2 BOPs separated by 24 hr (not shown), closely coupled repeated BOP exposure increased reaction times (fig 11

  17. A comparison of pairs figure skaters in repeated jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, William A; Kimmel, Wendy L; McNeal, Jeni R; Murray, Steven Ross; Stone, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Trends in pairs figure skating have shown that increasingly difficult jumps have become an essential aspect of high-level performance, especially in the latter part of a competitive program. We compared a repeated jump power index in a 60 s repeated jump test to determine the relationship of repeated jump test to competitive rank and to measure 2D hip, knee, and ankle angles and angular velocities at 0, 20, 40, and 60 s. Eighteen National Team Pairs Figure Skaters performed a 60 s repeated jump test on a large switch-mat with timing of flight and ground durations and digital video recording. Each 60-s period was divided into 6, 10-s intervals, with power indexes (W/kg) calculated for each 10-s interval. Power index by 10-s interval repeated measures ANOVAs (RMANOVA) showed that males exceeded females at all intervals, and the highest power index interval was during 10 to 20 s for both sexes. RMANOVAs of angles and angular velocities showed main effects for time only. Power index and jumping techniques among figure skaters showed rapid and steady declines over the test duration. Power index can predict approximately 50% of competitive rank variance, and sex differences in jumping technique were rare. Key pointsThe repeated jumps test can account for about 50% of the variance in pairs ranks.Changes in technique are largely due to fatigue, but the athletes were able to maintain a maximum flexion knee angle very close to the desired 90 degrees. Changes in angular velocity and jump heights occurred as expected, again probably due to fatigue.As expected from metabolic information, the athletes' power indexes peak around 20s and decline thereafter. Coaches should be aware of this time as a boundary beyond which fatigue becomes more manifest, and use careful choreographic choices to provide rest periods that are disguised as less demanding skating elements to afford recovery.The repeated jumps test may be a helpful off-ice test of power-endurance for figure skaters.

  18. Long-term elastic durability of polymer matrix composite materials after repeated steam sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alexander C M; Fischer, Gustav; Dart, Bradley R; Wooley, Paul H

    2015-11-01

    We compared the durability of 3 different selected composite materials that underwent repeated steam sterilization with the durability of traditional metal materials. Composite materials Tepex, CFR-PPS (carbon-fiber-reinforced polyphenylene sulfide), and HTN-53 (Zytel HTN53G50HSLR NC010) were evaluated for durability and water retention after repeated steam sterilization. These composites were compared with stainless steel and aluminum. The structural properties of these materials were measured (short-beam load-to-failure and cyclic compression loading tests) before, during, and after repeated steam sterilization. The relative radiographic density of these materials was also compared. There was no significant difference in the moisture retention of these composite materials before and after repeated sterilization. The composite materials were significantly more radiolucent than the metals. For all the composite materials, load to failure deteriorated after repeated sterilization. The cyclic compression loading tests showed HTN-53 had the poorest performance, with complete failure after 400 cycles of repeated sterilization. CFR-PPS performed slightly better, with 33% failure at final testing. Tepex had no failures at final testing. Although HTN-53 has shown promise in other orthopedic applications, its performance after repeated sterilization was relatively poor. Tepex showed the most potential for durability after repeated sterilization. Further study is needed to identify specific applications for these materials in the orthopedic industry.

  19. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  20. Experimental demonstration of a BDCZ quantum repeater node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Shuai; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2008-08-28

    Quantum communication is a method that offers efficient and secure ways for the exchange of information in a network. Large-scale quantum communication (of the order of 100 km) has been achieved; however, serious problems occur beyond this distance scale, mainly due to inevitable photon loss in the transmission channel. Quantum communication eventually fails when the probability of a dark count in the photon detectors becomes comparable to the probability that a photon is correctly detected. To overcome this problem, Briegel, Dür, Cirac and Zoller (BDCZ) introduced the concept of quantum repeaters, combining entanglement swapping and quantum memory to efficiently extend the achievable distances. Although entanglement swapping has been experimentally demonstrated, the implementation of BDCZ quantum repeaters has proved challenging owing to the difficulty of integrating a quantum memory. Here we realize entanglement swapping with storage and retrieval of light, a building block of the BDCZ quantum repeater. We follow a scheme that incorporates the strategy of BDCZ with atomic quantum memories. Two atomic ensembles, each originally entangled with a single emitted photon, are projected into an entangled state by performing a joint Bell state measurement on the two single photons after they have passed through a 300-m fibre-based communication channel. The entanglement is stored in the atomic ensembles and later verified by converting the atomic excitations into photons. Our method is intrinsically phase insensitive and establishes the essential element needed to realize quantum repeaters with stationary atomic qubits as quantum memories and flying photonic qubits as quantum messengers.

  1. Single and repeated elective abortions in Japan: a psychosocial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M

    1998-09-01

    Despite its social, legal and medical importance, termination of pregnancy (TOP) (induced abortion) has rarely been the focus of psychosocial research. Of a total of 1329 women who consecutively attended the antenatal clinic of a general hospital in Japan, 635 were expecting their first baby. Of these 635 women, 103 (16.2%) had experienced TOP once previously (first aborters), while 47 (7.4%) had experienced TOP two or more times (repeated aborters). Discriminant function analysis was performed using psychosocial variables found to be significantly associated with either first abortion or repeated abortion in bivariate analyses. This revealed that both first and repeated aborters could be predicted by smoking habits and an unwanted current pregnancy while the repeated aborters appear to differ from first aborters in having a longer pre-marital dating period, non-arranged marriages, smoking habits, early maternal loss experience or a low level of maternal care during childhood. These findings suggest that both the frequency of abortion and its repetition have psychosocial origins.

  2. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  3. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  4. Caffeine Ingestion Improves Repeated Freestyle Sprints in Elite Male Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, Paul S.R.; Landers, Grant; Fulton, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a moderate dose of caffeine to improve repeat-sprint performance in elite freestyle sprinters. Nine highly trained male swimmers performed 6 x 75 m freestyle sprints on two occasions 1-h after consuming either 3 mg·kg-1 caffeine (CAF), or placebo, in a cross-over manner. Capillary blood samples for the analysis of blood lactate concentration and pH were collected after the 1st, 3rd, and 5th sprint, while heart rate and perceived exertion (RPE) were collected after every sprint. There was a moderate effect for improved mean sprint time in the CAF condition (0.52 s; 1.3%; d = 0.50). When assessed individually, there was a large effect for improved performance in sprints 3 (1.00 s; 2.5%; d = 1.02) and 4 (0.84 s; 2.1%; d = 0.84) in CAF compared to placebo, with worthwhile performance improvement found for each of the first 5 sprints. There was a significant treatment effect for higher blood lactate concentration for CAF (p = 0.029), and a significant treatment*time effect for reduced pH in the CAF condition (p = 0.004). Mean heart rate (167 ± 9 bpm vs 169 ± 7 bpm) and RPE (17 ± 1 vs 17 ± 1) were not different between placebo and CAF trials, respectively. This investigation is the first to demonstrate enhanced repeat-sprint ability in swimmers following acute caffeine ingestion. It appears likely that the combination of a moderate dose of caffeine (3-6 mg·kg-1) with trained athletes is most likely to enhance repeat-sprint ability in various athletic populations; however, the exact mechanism(s) for an improved repeat-sprint ability following acute caffeine ingestion remain unknown. Key points A moderate dose of caffeine (3 mg·kg-1) ingested 1 h before a repeat-sprint freestyle set significantly improves mean sprint time in elite swimmers. The combination of at least a moderate dose of caffeine (>3 mg·kg-1) with trained athletes appears the most likely to result in ergogenic benefit to anaerobic

  5. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  6. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  8. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  9. Repeatability and consistency of individual behaviour in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Andrea C.; Carl, Teresa; Foerster, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on animal personality has provided new insights into evolutionary biology and animal ecology, as behavioural types have been shown to affect fitness. Animal personality is characterized by repeatable and consistent between-individual behavioural differences throughout time and across different situations. Behavioural repeatability within life history stages and consistency between life history stages should be checked for the independence of sex and age, as recent data have shown that males and females in some species may differ in the repeatability of behavioural traits, as well as in their consistency. We measured the repeatability and consistency of three behavioural and one cognitive traits in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice ( Micromys minutus). We found that exploration, activity and boldness were repeatable in juveniles and adults. Spatial recognition measured in a Y Maze was only repeatable in adult mice. Exploration, activity and boldness were consistent before and after maturation, as well as before and after first sexual contact. Data on spatial recognition provided little evidence for consistency. Further, we found some evidence for a litter effect on behaviours by comparing different linear mixed models. We concluded that harvest mice express animal personality traits as behaviours were repeatable across sexes and consistent across life history stages. The tested cognitive trait showed low repeatability and was less consistent across life history stages. Given the rising interest in individual variation in cognitive performance, and in its relationship to animal personality, we suggest that it is important to gather more data on the repeatability and consistency of cognitive traits.

  10. Repeated-sprint ability and team selection in Australian football league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rossignol, Peter; Gabbett, Tim J; Comerford, Dan; Stanton, Warren R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between selected physical capacities and repeated-sprint performance of Australian Football League (AFL) players and to determine which physical capacities contributed to being selected for the first competition game. Sum of skinfolds, 40-m sprint (with 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-m splits), repeated-sprint ability (6 × 30-m sprints), and 3-km-run time were measured during the preseason in 20 AFL players. The physical qualities of players selected to play the first match of the season and those not selected were compared. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship among variables, and a regression analysis identified variables significantly related to repeated-sprint performance. In the regression analysis, maximum velocity was the best predictor of repeated-sprint time, with 3-km-run time also contributing significantly to the predictive model. Sum of skinfolds was significantly correlated with 10-m (r = .61, P sprint times. A 2.6% ± 2.1% difference in repeated-sprint time (P repeated-sprint performance in AFL players than short 10- to 20-m intervals from standing starts. Further research is warranted to establish the relative importance of endurance training for improving repeated-sprint performance in AFL football.

  11. Repeat-until-success linear optics distributed quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yuan Liang; Beige, Almut; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2005-07-15

    We demonstrate the possibility to perform distributed quantum computing using only single-photon sources (atom-cavity-like systems), linear optics, and photon detectors. The qubits are encoded in stable ground states of the sources. To implement a universal two-qubit gate, two photons should be generated simultaneously and pass through a linear optics network, where a measurement is performed on them. Gate operations can be repeated until a success is heralded without destroying the qubits at any stage of the operation. In contrast with other schemes, this does not require explicit qubit-qubit interactions, a priori entangled ancillas, nor the feeding of photons into photon sources.

  12. Effects of repeated Valsalva maneuver straining on cardiac and vasoconstrictive baroreflex responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A; Ratliff, Duane A; Doerr, Donald F; Ludwig, David A; Muniz, Gary W; Benedetti, Erik; Chavarria, Jose; Koreen, Susan; Nguyen, Claude; Wang, Jeff

    2003-03-01

    We hypothesized that repeated respiratory straining maneuvers (repeated SM) designed to elevate arterial BPs (arterial baroreceptor loading) would acutely increase baroreflex responses. We tested this hypothesis by measuring cardiac baroreflex responses to carotid baroreceptor stimulation (neck pressures), and changes in heart rate and diastolic BP after reductions in BP induced by a 15-s Valsalva maneuver in 10 female and 10 male subjects at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after performing repeated SM. Baroreflex responses were also measured in each subject at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h at the same time on a separate day without repeated SM (control) in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over experimental design. There was no statistical difference in carotid-cardiac and peripheral vascular baroreflex responses measured across time following repeated SM compared with the control condition. Integrated cardiac baroreflex response (deltaHR/ deltaSBP) measured during performance of a Valsalva maneuver was increased by approximately 50% to 1.1 +/- 0.2 bpm x mm Hg(-1) at 1 h and 1.0 +/- 0.1 bpm x mm Hg(-1) at 3 h following repeated SM compared with the control condition (0.7 +/- 0.1 bpm x mm Hg(-1) at both 1 and 3 h, respectively). However, integrated cardiac baroreflex response after repeated SM returned to control levels at 6 and 24 h after training. These responses did not differ between men and women. Our results are consistent with the notion that arterial baroreceptor loading induced by repeated SM increased aortic, but not carotid, cardiac baroreflex responses for as long as 3 h after repeated SM. We conclude that repeated SM increases cardiac baroreflex responsiveness which may provide patients, astronauts, and high-performance aircraft pilots with protection from development of orthostatic hypotension.

  13. Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The generation of short tandem repeat profiles, also referred to as ‘DNA typing,’ is not currently performed outside the laboratory because the process requires highly skilled technical operators and a controlled laboratory environment and infrastructure with several specialized instruments. The goal of this work was to develop a fully integrated system for the automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles from buccal swab samples, to improve forensic laboratory process flow as well as to enable short tandem repeat profile generation to be performed in police stations and in field-forward military, intelligence, and homeland security settings. Results An integrated system was developed consisting of an injection-molded microfluidic BioChipSet cassette, a ruggedized instrument, and expert system software. For each of five buccal swabs, the system purifies DNA using guanidinium-based lysis and silica binding, amplifies 15 short tandem repeat loci and the amelogenin locus, electrophoretically separates the resulting amplicons, and generates a profile. No operator processing of the samples is required, and the time from swab insertion to profile generation is 84 minutes. All required reagents are contained within the BioChipSet cassette; these consist of a lyophilized polymerase chain reaction mix and liquids for purification and electrophoretic separation. Profiles obtained from fully automated runs demonstrate that the integrated system generates concordant short tandem repeat profiles. The system exhibits single-base resolution from 100 to greater than 500 bases, with inter-run precision with a standard deviation of ±0.05 - 0.10 bases for most alleles. The reagents are stable for at least 6 months at 22°C, and the instrument has been designed and tested to Military Standard 810F for shock and vibration ruggedization. A nontechnical user can operate the system within or outside the laboratory. Conclusions The integrated system represents the

  14. Music snippet extraction via melody-based repeated pattern discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU JiePing; ZHAO Yang; CHEN Zhe; LIU ZiLi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a complete set of procedures to automatically extract a music snippet, defined as the most representative or the highlighted excerpt of a music clip. We first generate a modified and compact similarity matrix based on selected features and distance metrics, and then several improved techniques for music repeated pattern discovery are utilized because a music snippet is usually a part of the repeated melody, main theme or chorus. During the process, redundant and wrongly detected patterns are discarded, boundaries are corrected using beat information, and final clusters are also further sorted according to the occurrence frequency and energy information. Subsequently, following our methods, we designed a music snippet extraction system which allows users to detect snippets. Experiments performed on the system show the superiority of our proposed approach.

  15. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Simon, Christoph; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field are reviewed. The potentials of different approaches are compared quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  16. Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in quantum memories, and to swap it. One attractive general strategy for realizing quantum repeaters is based on the use of atomic ensembles as quantum memories, in combination with linear optical techniques and photon counting to perform all required operations. Here we review the theoretical and experimental status quo of this very active field. We compare the potential of different approaches quantitatively, with a focus on the most immediate goal of outperforming the direct transmission of photons.

  17. A high stability and repeatability electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-12-15

    We present a home built electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) with very high stability and repeatability. Its coarse approach is driven by a closely stacked piezo motor of GeckoDrive type with four rigid clamping points, which enhances the rigidity, compactness, and stability greatly. It can give high clarity atomic resolution images without sound and vibration isolations. Its drifting rates in XY and Z directions in solution are as low as 84 pm/min and 59 pm/min, respectively. In addition, repeatable coarse approaches in solution within 2 mm travel distance show a lateral deviation less than 50 nm. The gas environment can be well controlled to lower the evaporation rate of the cell, thus reducing the contamination and elongating the measurement time. Atomically resolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} image on Au (111) work electrode is demonstrated to show the performance of the ECSTM.

  18. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  19. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  20. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  1. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  2. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  3. Repeated-sprint ability - part I: factors contributing to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Bishop, David

    2011-08-01

    Short-duration sprints (ability to recover and to reproduce performance in subsequent sprints is probably an important fitness requirement of athletes engaged in these disciplines, and has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). This review (Part I) examines how fatigue manifests during repeated-sprint exercise (RSE), and discusses the potential underpinning muscular and neural mechanisms. A subsequent companion review to this article will explain a better understanding of the training interventions that could eventually improve RSA. Using laboratory and field-based protocols, performance analyses have consistently shown that fatigue during RSE typically manifests as a decline in maximal/mean sprint speed (i.e. running) or a decrease in peak power or total work (i.e. cycling) over sprint repetitions. A consistent result among these studies is that performance decrements (i.e. fatigue) during successive bouts are inversely correlated to initial sprint performance. To date, there is no doubt that the details of the task (e.g. changes in the nature of the work/recovery bouts) alter the time course/magnitude of fatigue development during RSE (i.e. task dependency) and potentially the contribution of the underlying mechanisms. At the muscle level, limitations in energy supply, which include energy available from phosphocreatine hydrolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative metabolism, and the intramuscular accumulation of metabolic by-products, such as hydrogen ions, emerge as key factors responsible for fatigue. Although not as extensively studied, the use of surface electromyography techniques has revealed that failure to fully activate the contracting musculature and/or changes in inter-muscle recruitment strategies (i.e. neural factors) are also associated with fatigue outcomes. Pending confirmatory research, other factors such as stiffness regulation, hypoglycaemia, muscle damage and hostile environments (e.g. heat, hypoxia) are also likely to compromise

  4. International Mycoplasma pneumoniae typing study: interpretation of M. pneumoniae multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Chalker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA is increasingly in use. However, no specific internationally agreed guidance is available. Thirty M. pneumoniae DNA samples including serial dilutions of a type strain were sent to six international laboratories to perform MLVA and results were compared. Good correlation was observed, indicating that this methodology can be robustly performed in multiple sites. However, differences due to interpretation of fragment size, repeat sequence identification and repeat numbering led to inconsistency in the final profiles assigned by laboratories. We propose guidelines for interpreting M. pneumoniae MLVA typing and assigning the number of repeats.

  5. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  6. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  7. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  8. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  9. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  10. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  11. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  12. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  13. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  14. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  15. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  16. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiji eNageshwaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasised following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA in 1991. In this review we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  17. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  18. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species

  19. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  20. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  1. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  2. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  3. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...

  4. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  5. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  6. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  7. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measurements designs via SPSS: correction and extension of D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W

    2006-05-01

    D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001) published SPSS syntax to perform power analyses for three complex procedures: ANCOVA, MANOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA. Unfortunately, the published SPSS syntax for performing the repeated measures analysis needed some minor revision in order to perform the analysis correctly. This article presents the corrected syntax that will successfully perform the repeated measures analysis and provides some guidance on modifying the syntax to customize the analysis.

  8. Time of day effects on repeated sprint ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, N; Chtourou, H; Rebai, H; Hammouda, O; Souissi, N; Dogui, M; Hug, F

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of time-of-day on muscle power and associated electromyographic (EMG) activity level of 4 thigh muscles during a repeated pedalling sprint exercise. After a familiarization session, 12 male subjects were asked to perform the repeated sprint ability test during 2 experimental sessions (randomized order), which were set up either at 06:00 or 18:00 h. For each sprint, peak power output, percentage of peak power decrement and total work were calculated. EMG activity of vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis and biceps femoris muscles was recorded throughout the test and analyzed for each sprint. Total work and percentage of peak power decrement were higher in the evening than in the morning (psprints (psprint 1 and psprint 2 and 3). There was no time-of-day effect for EMG activity level. The neuromuscular efficiency decreased significantly over the repeated sprint ability test at the 2 times of testing (prepeated sprint ability test, EMG activity of major thigh muscles was not time-of-day dependent. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Neuroimaging Findings and Repeat Neuroimaging Value in Pediatric Chronic Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Michael S; Chodirker, Bernard N; Bunge, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Chronic ataxia, greater than two months in duration, is encountered relatively commonly in clinical pediatric neurology practise and presents with diagnostic challenges. It is caused by multiple and diverse disorders. Our aims were to describe the neuroimaging features and the value of repeat neuroimaging in pediatric chronic ataxia to ascertain their contribution to the diagnosis and management. A retrospective charts and neuroimaging reports review was undertaken in 177 children with chronic ataxia. Neuroimaging in 130 of 177 patients was also reviewed. Nineteen patients had head computed tomography only, 103 brain magnetic resonance imaging only, and 55 had both. Abnormalities in the cerebellum or other brain regions were associated with ataxia. Neuroimaging was helpful in 73 patients with 30 disorders: It was diagnostic in 9 disorders, narrowed down the diagnostic possibilities in 14 disorders, and revealed important but non-diagnostic abnormalities, e.g. cerebellar atrophy in 7 disorders. Having a normal magnetic resonance imaging scan was mostly seen in genetic diseases or in the early course of ataxia telangiectasia. Repeat neuroimaging, performed in 108 patients, was generally helpful in monitoring disease evolution and in making a diagnosis. Neuroimaging was not directly helpful in 36 patients with 10 disorders or by definition the 55 patients with unknown disease etiology. Normal or abnormal neuroimaging findings and repeat neuroimaging are very valuable in the diagnosis and management of disorders associated with pediatric chronic ataxia.

  10. Oral creatine supplementation augments the repeated bout effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veggi K, F T; Machado, Marco; Koch, Alexander J; Santana, Sandro C; Oliveira, Sedison S; Stec, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    We examined the effects of creatine supplementation on the response to repeated bouts of resistance exercise. Young men (24.1 ± 5.2 yr) were divided into Creatine (CM, n = 9) and Placebo (PL, n = 9) groups. On day (D) 1 and D15, subjects performed four sets of bicep curls at 75% 1-RM to concentric failure. On D8-D13, subjects consumed either 20g/d creatine monohydrate or placebo. Muscle soreness and elbow joint range of motion (ROM) were assessed on D1-D5 and D15-D19. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK) was assessed on D1, D3, D5, D15, D17, and D19. The first exercise bout produced increases in muscle soreness and CK, and decreases in ROM in both groups (p Creatine supplementation provides an additive effect on blunting the rise of muscle damage markers following a repeated bout of resistance exercise. The mechanism by which creatine augments the repeated bout effect is unknown but is likely due to a combination of creatine's multifaceted functions.

  11. Repeated-sprint ability - part II: recommendations for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David; Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    Short-duration sprints, interspersed with brief recoveries, are common during most team sports. The ability to produce the best possible average sprint performance over a series of sprints (≤10 seconds), separated by short (≤60 seconds) recovery periods has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). RSA is therefore an important fitness requirement of team-sport athletes, and it is important to better understand training strategies that can improve this fitness component. Surprisingly, however, there has been little research about the best training methods to improve RSA. In the absence of strong scientific evidence, two principal training theories have emerged. One is based on the concept of training specificity and maintains that the best way to train RSA is to perform repeated sprints. The second proposes that training interventions that target the main factors limiting RSA may be a more effective approach. The aim of this review (Part II) is to critically analyse training strategies to improve both RSA and the underlying factors responsible for fatigue during repeated sprints (see Part I of the preceding companion article). This review has highlighted that there is not one type of training that can be recommended to best improve RSA and all of the factors believed to be responsible for performance decrements during repeated-sprint tasks. This is not surprising, as RSA is a complex fitness component that depends on both metabolic (e.g. oxidative capacity, phosphocreatine recovery and H+ buffering) and neural factors (e.g. muscle activation and recruitment strategies) among others. While different training strategies can be used in order to improve each of these potential limiting factors, and in turn RSA, two key recommendations emerge from this review; it is important to include (i) some training to improve single-sprint performance (e.g. 'traditional' sprint training and strength/power training); and (ii) some high-intensity (80-90% maximal oxygen

  12. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  13. A novel interconnect-optimal repeater insertion model with target delay constraint in 65 nm CMOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Qian Li-Bo; Yang Yin-Tang

    2009-01-01

    Repeater optimization is the key for SOC (System on Chip) interconnect delay design. This paper proposes a novel optimal model for minimizing power and area overhead of repeaters while meeting the target performance of on-chip interconnect lines. It also presents Lagrangian function to find the number of repeaters and their sizes required for minimizing area and power overhead with target delay constraint. Based on the 65 nanometre CMOS technology, the computed results of the intermediate and global lines show that the proposed model can significantly reduce area and power of interconnected lines, and the better performance will be achieved with the longer line. The results compared with the reference paper demonstrate the validity of this model. It can be integrated into repeater design methodology and CAD (computer aided design) tool for interconnect planning in nanometre SOC.

  14. TDP-43 suppresses CGG repeat-induced neurotoxicity through interactions with HnRNP A2/B1

    OpenAIRE

    He, Fang; Krans, Amy; Freibaum, Brian D.; Taylor, J. Paul; Todd, Peter K

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide repeat expansions can elicit neurodegeneration as RNA by sequestering specific RNA-binding proteins, preventing them from performing their normal functions. Conversely, mutations in RNA-binding proteins can trigger neurodegeneration at least partly by altering RNA metabolism. In Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a CGG repeat expansion in the 5′UTR of the fragile X gene (FMR1) leads to progressive neurodegeneration in patients and CGG repeats in isolation elicit t...

  15. Single and combined effects of beetroot juice and caffeine supplementation on cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stephen C; Hawley, John A; Desbrow, Ben; Jones, Andrew M; Blackwell, James R; Ross, Megan L; Zemski, Adam J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-09-01

    Both caffeine and beetroot juice have ergogenic effects on endurance cycling performance. We investigated whether there is an additive effect of these supplements on the performance of a cycling time trial (TT) simulating the 2012 London Olympic Games course. Twelve male and 12 female competitive cyclists each completed 4 experimental trials in a double-blind Latin square design. Trials were undertaken with a caffeinated gum (CAFF) (3 mg·kg(-1) body mass (BM), 40 min prior to the TT), concentrated beetroot juice supplementation (BJ) (8.4 mmol of nitrate (NO3(-)), 2 h prior to the TT), caffeine plus beetroot juice (CAFF+BJ), or a control (CONT). Subjects completed the TT (females: 29.35 km; males: 43.83 km) on a laboratory cycle ergometer under conditions of best practice nutrition: following a carbohydrate-rich pre-event meal, with the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink and regular oral carbohydrate contact during the TT. Compared with CONT, power output was significantly enhanced after CAFF+BJ and CAFF (3.0% and 3.9%, respectively, p supplementation when used alone (-0.4%, p = 0.6 compared with CONT) or when combined with caffeine (-0.9%, p = 0.4 compared with CAFF). We conclude that caffeine (3 mg·kg(-1) BM) administered in the form of a caffeinated gum increased cycling TT performance lasting ∼50-60 min by ∼3%-4% in both males and females. Beetroot juice supplementation was not ergogenic under the conditions of this study.

  16. Fast Adaptive Beamforming with Smart Antenna for Radio Frequency Repeater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a fast adaptive beamforming null algorithm with smart antenna for Radio Frequency Repeater (RFR. The smart antenna system is realized by a Direction Of Arrival (DOA Estimator, whose output is used by an adaptive beamforming algorithm to shape a suitable radiation pattern of the equivalent antenna; so that the co-channel interference due to retransmitting antenna can be reduced. The proposed adaptive beamforming algorithm, which has been proved by formulaic analysis and simulation, has a lower computation complexity yet better performance.

  17. Entanglement distillation by dissipation and continuous quantum repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H; Muschik, Christine A; Cirac, J Ignacio

    2011-09-16

    Even though entanglement is very vulnerable to interactions with the environment, it can be created by purely dissipative processes. Yet, the attainable degree of entanglement is profoundly limited in the presence of noise sources. We show that distillation can also be realized dissipatively, such that a highly entangled steady state is obtained. The schemes put forward here display counterintuitive phenomena, such as improved performance if noise is added to the system. We also show how dissipative distillation can be employed in a continuous quantum repeater architecture, in which the resources scale polynomially with the distance.

  18. Repeated adjacent-segment degeneration after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shinya; Oda, Takenori; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Maeno, Takafumi; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important sequelae affecting long-term results is adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Although several reports have described the incidence rate, there have been no reports of repeated ASD. The purpose of this report was to describe 1 case of repeated ASD after PLIF. A 62-year-old woman with L-4 degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent PLIF at L4-5. At the second operation, L3-4 PLIF was performed for L-3 degenerative spondylolisthesis 6 years after the primary operation. At the third operation, L2-3 PLIF was performed for L-2 degenerative spondylolisthesis 1.5 years after the primary operation. Vertebral collapse of L-1 was detected 1 year after the third operation, and the collapse had progressed. At the fourth operation, 3 years after the third operation, vertebral column resection of L-1 and replacement of titanium mesh cages with pedicle screw fixation between T-4 and L-5 was performed. Although the patient's symptoms resolved after each operation, the time between surgeries shortened. The sacral slope decreased gradually although each PLIF achieved local lordosis at the fused segment.

  19. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  20. Identification of polymorphic tandem repeats by direct comparison of genome sequence from different bacterial strains : a web-based resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnaud Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphic tandem repeat typing is a new generic technology which has been proved to be very efficient for bacterial pathogens such as B. anthracis, M. tuberculosis, P. aeruginosa, L. pneumophila, Y. pestis. The previously developed tandem repeats database takes advantage of the release of genome sequence data for a growing number of bacteria to facilitate the identification of tandem repeats. The development of an assay then requires the evaluation of tandem repeat polymorphism on well-selected sets of isolates. In the case of major human pathogens, such as S. aureus, more than one strain is being sequenced, so that tandem repeats most likely to be polymorphic can now be selected in silico based on genome sequence comparison. Results In addition to the previously described general Tandem Repeats Database, we have developed a tool to automatically identify tandem repeats of a different length in the genome sequence of two (or more closely related bacterial strains. Genome comparisons are pre-computed. The results of the comparisons are parsed in a database, which can be conveniently queried over the internet according to criteria of practical value, including repeat unit length, predicted size difference, etc. Comparisons are available for 16 bacterial species, and the orthopox viruses, including the variola virus and three of its close neighbors. Conclusions We are presenting an internet-based resource to help develop and perform tandem repeats based bacterial strain typing. The tools accessible at http://minisatellites.u-psud.fr now comprise four parts. The Tandem Repeats Database enables the identification of tandem repeats across entire genomes. The Strain Comparison Page identifies tandem repeats differing between different genome sequences from the same species. The "Blast in the Tandem Repeats Database" facilitates the search for a known tandem repeat and the prediction of amplification product sizes. The "Bacterial

  1. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  2. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  3. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  4. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  5. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  6. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  7. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  8. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  9. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  10. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  11. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  12. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  13. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  14. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  15. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions f...

  16. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiji eNageshwaran; Richard eFestenstein

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions fr...

  17. An experimental study of the summer convective weather categorical probability forecast based on the rapid updated cycle system for the Beijing area (BJ-RUC)%基于中尺度数值模式快速循环系统的强对流天气分类概率预报试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷蕾; 孙继松; 王国荣; 郭锐

    2012-01-01

    About the convective weather in the summer of Beijing area, some researches have done before by using the conventional sounding data of 54511 station, the special sounding data constructed by microwave radiometer data as well as the wind profile data and the model-output sounding data of the rapid updated cycle assimilation and forecast system for Beijing area (BJ-RUC). Now in this article, we discuss the experimental study of the convective weather probability forecast and the categorical (such as short-time convective rainstorm and the hailstorm) probability forecast in Beijing area based on the BJ-RUC meso-scaled model. On the model basic elements many different thermal and physical parameters are calculated and then some convective weather characteristic indicators are employed. In this study at least four experiments were compared and the best of them are used to analyze three typical convective weather events in the summer of 2009 and 2010 in the Beijing area. The experimental results show that the probability forecast of the summer convective weather can be achieved, and there are also some successes of the categorical probability forecast based on the BJ-RUC in the Beijing area.%在利用实况探空资料、微波辐射计和风廓线构建的特种探空资料对北京地区强对流天气进行判别,以及快速更新循环同化预报系统(BJ-RUC模式)探空资料可应用性分析的基础上,针对模式探空基本要素计算多种热力、动力、综合不稳定物理量,根据统计的强对流天气判别指标,计算模式格点上的强对流发生概率,并进一步针对冰雹(雷暴大风)和强对流短时暴雨天气下不同物理量的阈值范围,初步探索中尺度数值模式对强对流天气分类预报的可能性.通过不同组合的预报方案进行的对比分析表明,利用北京地区中尺度数值模式快速循环系统(BJ-RUC)的格点探空资料进行强对流天气概率的预报是可以实现的,强对流天

  18. Mechanical Alterations Associated with Repeated Treadmill Sprinting under Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Racinais, Sébastien; Millet, Grégoire P.; Périard, Julien D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Examine the mechanical alterations associated with repeated treadmill sprinting performed in HOT (38°C) and CON (25°C) conditions. Methods Eleven recreationally active males performed a 30-min warm-up followed by three sets of five 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery and 3-min between sets in each environment. Constant-velocity running for 1-min at 10 and 20 km.h-1 was also performed prior to and following sprinting. Results Mean skin (37.2±0.7 vs. 32.7±0.8°C; P<0.001) and core (38.9±0.2 vs. 38.8±0.3°C; P<0.05) temperatures, together with thermal comfort (P<0.001) were higher following repeated sprinting in HOT vs. CON. Step frequency and vertical stiffness were lower (-2.6±1.6% and -5.5±5.5%; both P<0.001) and contact time (+3.2±2.4%; P<0.01) higher in HOT for the mean of sets 1–3 compared to CON. Running distance per sprint decreased from set 1 to 3 (-7.0±6.4%; P<0.001), with a tendency for shorter distance covered in HOT vs. CON (-2.7±3.4%; P = 0.06). Mean vertical (-2.6±5.5%; P<0.01), horizontal (-9.1±4.4%; P<0.001) and resultant ground reaction forces (-3.0±2.8%; P<0.01) along with vertical stiffness (-12.9±2.3%; P<0.001) and leg stiffness (-8.4±2.7%; P<0.01) decreased from set 1 to 3, independently of conditions. Propulsive power decreased from set 1 to 3 (-16.9±2.4%; P<0.001), with lower propulsive power values in set 2 (-6.6%; P<0.05) in HOT vs. CON. No changes in constant-velocity running patterns occurred between conditions, or from pre-to-post repeated-sprint exercise. Conclusions Thermal strain alters step frequency and vertical stiffness during repeated sprinting; however without exacerbating mechanical alterations. The absence of changes in constant-velocity running patterns suggests a strong link between fatigue-induced velocity decrements during sprinting and mechanical alterations. PMID:28146582

  19. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  20. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  1. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  2. Site and Orbit Repeatabilities using Adaptive Mapping Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Camille; Gegout, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent; Biancale, Richard; Perosanz, Felix

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic signals emitted by the satellite positioning systems travel at the speed of light in a straight line in a vacuum but are modified in their propagation through the neutral atmosphere by temporal and spatial changes of density, and composition and refractivity. These waves are slowed down and their trajectories are bent. This presentation summarizes the performances of the modeling of the tropospheric propagation by the ray tracing technique through the assimilations of the European Meteorological Centre (ECMWF) in the framework of realizing the geodetic reference frame. This goal is achieved by modeling the spatial variability of the propagation using the time variable three-dimensional physical parameters of the atmosphere. The tropospheric delays obtained by ray tracing in all directions throughout the meteorological model surrounding the geodetic site, are fitted by Adaptive Mapping Functions (AMF) parameterized by several tens of coefficients. The delays produced by the Horizon software are then experimented, kept unchanged or adjusted, when recovering a reference frame based on hundred sites using the GINS software. Without any adjustments of the tropospheric modeling, the subcentimetric performances of the AMF are demonstrated by the repeatability of sites positions and GPS satellites orbits. When some AMF coefficients are adjusted, the accuracy of orbits recovery in term of quadratic mean is 7 to 8 millimeters. This limit is imposed by the lack or deficiency of other models, such as non-tidal and tidal loading respectively. Hence the repeatability of the vertical position is not enhanced by changing the propagation model. At the contrary, the repeatability of the horizontal position of geodetic sites is greatly enhanced by accounting for the azimuthal variability provided by the realistic 3D shapes of the Atmosphere and the Earth and the rigorous interpolations of atmospheric parameters included in Adaptive Mapping Functions with respect

  3. Rate and yield of repeat upper endoscopy in patients with dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uri; Ladabaum; Viam; Dinh

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the rate and yield of repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for dyspepsia in clinical practice,whether second opinions drive its use,and whether it is performed at the expense of colorectal cancer screening.METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent repeat EGD for dyspepsia from 1996 to 2006 at the University of California,San Francisco endoscopy service.RESULTS: Of 24 780 EGDs,5460 (22%) were performed for dyspepsia in 4873 patients.Of these,451 pat...

  4. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  5. Repeat procedure using radiofrequency energy for recurrence of atrial fibrillation after initial cryoballoon ablation: a 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conte, G.; Chierchia, G.B.; Sieira, J.; Levinstein, M.; Casado-Arroyo, R.; Asmundis, C. de; Sarkozy, A.; Rodriguez-Manero, M.; Giovanni, G.; Baltogiannis, G.; Wauters, K.; Brugada, P.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: The ideal energy source needed to perform 're-isolation' of the pulmonary veins (PVs) during a repeat procedure for recurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been established yet. In this study we analysed the outcome of repeat procedure using radiofrequency (RF) energy after i

  6. Repeat aortocoronary bypass grafting. Early and late results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Mendez, A M; Zubiate, P; Vanstrom, N R; Yokoyama, T; Kay, J H

    1978-04-01

    Seventy-nine patients underwent repeat myocardial revascularization between March 1971 and January 1977. The initial procedure was performed at the St. Vincent Medical Center, Los Angeles, in 70 (2.0 percent) of 3,526 patients undergoing surgery for coronary arterial disease and in nine more patients was performed at other hospitals; the second operation followed the first procedure at an interval of from three weeks to 78 months. Five deaths (6 percent) occurred while patients were hospitalized, and six deaths (8 percent) occurred later. Two of the six later deaths were from noncardiac causes. Complications were not different from those that occurred during primary procedures. Thirty-six (60 percent) of 60 patients undergoing repeat surgery since 1973 did not receive any transfusions of blood during or after surgery. Of 48 patients followed-up for periods ranging from 12 to 70 months after the second operation, angina was completely relieved in 18 patients (38 percent), improved in 16 patients (33 percent), unchanged in 11 patients (23 percent), and worse in three patients (6 percent).

  7. Neuromuscular adjustments of the quadriceps muscle after repeated cycling sprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Girard

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the supraspinal processes of fatigue of the quadriceps muscle in response to repeated cycling sprints. METHODS: Twelve active individuals performed 10 × 6-s "all-out" sprints on a cycle ergometer (recovery = 30 s, followed 6 min later by 5 × 6-s sprints (recovery = 30 s. Transcranial magnetic and electrical femoral nerve stimulations during brief (5-s and sustained (30-s isometric contractions of the knee extensors were performed before and 3 min post-exercise. RESULTS: Maximal strength of the knee extensors decreased during brief and sustained contractions (~11% and 9%, respectively; P0.05. While cortical voluntary activation declined (P 40% reduced (P<0.001 following exercise. CONCLUSION: The capacity of the motor cortex to optimally drive the knee extensors following a repeated-sprint test was shown in sustained, but not brief, maximal isometric contractions. Additionally, peripheral factors were largely involved in the exercise-induced impairment in neuromuscular function, while corticospinal excitability was well-preserved.

  8. Assessment of radiographic film repeats rate and its related causes within hospitals in Sari during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Fallah Mohamadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 8 April, 2009 ; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Radiographic film repeat rate assessment is performed to appropriate profiting of existence resources in therapeutic wards. Multiple exposures of x-ray generators due to repeated radiographic examination can lead to amortization of the radiographic facilities and decrease their longevity and also increases the cost of facilities repair. On the other hand, its therapeutic services are necessary to be carried out for patients as soon as possible. Recognition of radiographic film repeat rate and its related causes will help to eliminate the problems and are cost effective.Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, samples were garnered with data collection and non random model during three months in eight radiographic rooms and four darkrooms belonging to four governmental hospitals, namely Imam Khomeini, Booali Sina, Fatemh Zahra and Zare in Sari. All rejected radiographic films were seen by resident experts in each center and information was entered into designed forms. Radiographic repeat rates were calculated through data available from all recipients and the number of used films. In this article, related causes responsible for repeated radiographic examination including errors in selection of exposure factors (over exposure and under exposure, positioning, centering, film size, equipment, processing or darkroom, movement and others were assessed.Results: In four hospitals, 36,758 films were received during investigation and the number of repeated films was 2,155 (5.9 % were estimated as radiographic repeat rate. The maximum repeat rate belonged to Booali sina Hospital (7.2 % and the minimum one was Zare Hospital (0.7 %. The most important causes were due to over exposure selection (1.4 % and the least one was due to improper selection of film size (0.08 %. The percentage of other factors include, under exposure selection (1.12%, centering (0.92%, others (0

  9. C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in Chinese sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji; Tang, Lu; Benyamin, Beben; Shah, Sonia; Hemani, Gib; Liu, Rong; Ye, Shan; Liu, Xiaolu; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Huagang; Cremin, Katie; Leo, Paul; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M; Xu, Huji; Brown, Matthew A; Bartlett, Perry F; Mangelsdorf, Marie; Fan, Dongsheng

    2015-09-01

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) in the C9orf72 gene has been identified as the most common mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among Caucasian populations. We sought to comprehensively evaluate genetic and epigenetic variants of C9orf72 and the contribution of the HRE in Chinese ALS cases. We performed fragment-length and repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction to determine GGGGCC copy number and expansion within the C9orf72 gene in 1092 sporadic ALS (sALS) and 1062 controls from China. We performed haplotype analysis of 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within and surrounding C9orf72. The C9orf72 HRE was found in 3 sALS patients (0.3%) but not in control subjects (p = 0.25). For 2 of the cases with the HRE, genotypes of 8 single-nucleotide polymorphisms flanking the HRE were inconsistent with the haplotype reported to be strongly associated with ALS in Caucasian populations. For these 2 individuals, we found hypermethylation of the CpG island upstream of the repeat, an observation not detected in other sALS patients (p Chinese samples provides robust evidence that may not be consistent with a single Caucasian founder event. Both the Caucasian and Chinese haplotypes associated with HRE were highly associated with repeat lengths >8 repeats implying that both haplotypes may confer instability of repeat length.

  10. CRISPR Recognition Tool (CRT): a tool for automatic detection ofclustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Charles; Ramsey, Teresa L.; Sabree, Fareedah; Lowe,Micheal; Brown, Kyndall; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2007-05-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are a novel type of direct repeat found in a wide range of bacteria and archaea. CRISPRs are beginning to attract attention because of their proposed mechanism; that is, defending their hosts against invading extrachromosomal elements such as viruses. Existing repeat detection tools do a poor job of identifying CRISPRs due to the presence of unique spacer sequences separating the repeats. In this study, a new tool, CRT, is introduced that rapidly and accurately identifies CRISPRs in large DNA strings, such as genomes and metagenomes. CRT was compared to CRISPR detection tools, Patscan and Pilercr. In terms of correctness, CRT was shown to be very reliable, demonstrating significant improvements over Patscan for measures precision, recall and quality. When compared to Pilercr, CRT showed improved performance for recall and quality. In terms of speed, CRT also demonstrated superior performance, especially for genomes containing large numbers of repeats. In this paper a new tool was introduced for the automatic detection of CRISPR elements. This tool, CRT, was shown to be a significant improvement over the current techniques for CRISPR identification. CRT's approach to detecting repetitive sequences is straightforward. It uses a simple sequential scan of a DNA sequence and detects repeats directly without any major conversion or preprocessing of the input. This leads to a program that is easy to describe and understand; yet it is very accurate, fast and memory efficient, being O(n) in space and O(nm/l) in time.

  11. EGFR CA repeat polymorphism predict clinical outcome in EGFR mutation positive NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther Larsen, Anne; Nissen, Peter Henrik; Meldgaard, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are predictors of efficacy for treatment with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A CA repeat polymorphism in intron 1 of the EGFR gene influences the transcription...... of the EGFR gene. This study evaluates the association between the CA repeat polymorphism and outcome in NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Number of CA repeats in the EGFR gene was evaluated with PCR-fragment length analysis by capillary electrophoresis in 432 advanced NSCLC...... patients treated with erlotinib irrespective of EGFR mutation status. Patients were dichotomized into harboring short allele (CA≤16 in any allele) or long alleles (CA>16 in both alleles). Number of repeats was correlated with clinical characteristic and outcome. A subgroup analysis was performed based...

  12. Aerobic Capacity is Related to Repeated Sprint Ability with Sprint Distances Less Than 40 Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANDERS, GABRIEL J.; TURNER, ZACHARY; BOOS, BRIAN; PEACOCK, COREY A.; PEVELER, WILLARD; LIPPING, ALAR

    2017-01-01

    Research is inconclusive regarding the association between aerobic fitness (objectively measured VO2max) and repeated sprint performance when the sprints are less than 40 meters. Soccer athletes must be able to repeat sprints without significant decreases in speed and strength and conditioning coaches need to better understand if aerobic fitness is related to repeated sprint ability (RSA). Twenty (10 male, 10 female) Division I soccer athletes first completed a graded maximal treadmill test to measure VO2max. Then on a separate day, athletes completed the RSA test. The RSA test consisted of 10, 30-meter sprints which athletes repeated every 30 seconds. There were significant negative correlations (r ≤ −0.69, P distances are less than 40 meters.

  13. Aerobic Capacity is Related to Repeated Sprint Ability with Sprint Distances Less Than 40 Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Turner, Zachary; Boos, Brian; Peacock, Corey A; Peveler, Willard; Lipping, Alar

    2017-01-01

    Research is inconclusive regarding the association between aerobic fitness (objectively measured VO2max) and repeated sprint performance when the sprints are less than 40 meters. Soccer athletes must be able to repeat sprints without significant decreases in speed and strength and conditioning coaches need to better understand if aerobic fitness is related to repeated sprint ability (RSA). Twenty (10 male, 10 female) Division I soccer athletes first completed a graded maximal treadmill test to measure VO2max. Then on a separate day, athletes completed the RSA test. The RSA test consisted of 10, 30-meter sprints which athletes repeated every 30 seconds. There were significant negative correlations (r ≤ -0.69, P sprint times and average sprint time. More aerobically fit Division I soccer athletes were faster at all time points during the RSA test. Aerobic fitness is associated with faster sprint times during a more anaerobic RSA test when sprint distances are less than 40 meters.

  14. Repeated Renal Biopsy - A Predictive Tool to Assess the Probability of Renal Flare in Lupus Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Gastón J; Arrizabalaga, Pilar; Solé, Manel; Abellana, Rosa M; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    How one responds to treatment of lupus nephritis (LN) is based on clinical features, but the activity in renal biopsy (RB) is uncertain. We have described the therapeutic decisions after performing a repeated RB on the assessment of response to intravenous cyclophosphamide (IC) and the possible prognostic role of this repeated RB. Clinical, laboratory and histological features at the initial RB and repeated RB were analyzed in 35 patients. Data in the initial versus the repeated RB were serum creatinine 1.23 ± 1.08 and 0.96 ± 0.45 mg/dl (p < 0.05), glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min in 12 and 5% patients and proteinuria 4.1 ± 2.8 vs. 0.6 1.1 g/day (p < 0.05). Significant differences were detected in hematuria, nephrotic syndrome and serological immune features. Complete renal remission was reached in 60% (n = 21) at the time of the repeated RB, partial remission in 31.4% (n = 11), and no response IC in 8.6% (n = 3). Nine patients showed proliferative forms in the repeated RB, 3 of them had proteinuria <1 g/day. Just after the repeated RB, 34.3% increased or started a new immunosuppressive therapy, 17.1% remained with the same complementary IST, and 14.3% decreased or stopped it. In the follow-up post repeated RB, 34.5% without active lesions showed a renal flare versus 77.8% with active lesions (p = 0.04). The mean time was 120 and 45 months, respectively. A repeated biopsy in LN distinguishes patients in true remission from those in apparent remission. By doing this, we can identify patients who could benefit from intensified treatment and for whom unnecessary treatment methods can be modified or eliminated. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Haplotype analysis of the CAG and CCG repeats in 21 Brazilian families with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Luciana de A; Rocha, Catielly F; Medina-Acosta, Enrique; Barboza, Hazel N; da Silva, Antônio F Alves; Pereira, Simão P F; da Silva, Iane Dos Santos; Paradela, Eduardo R; Figueiredo, André L dos S; Nogueira, Eduardo de M; Alvarenga, Regina M P; Hernan Cabello, Pedro; dos Santos, Suely R; Paiva, Carmen L A

    2012-12-01

    We studied the allelic profile of CAG and CCG repeats in 61 Brazilian individuals in 21 independent families affected by Huntington's disease (HD). Thirteen individuals had two normal alleles for HD, two had one mutable normal allele and no HD phenotype, and forty-six patients carried at least one expanded CAG repeat allele. Forty-five of these individuals had one expanded allele and one individual had one mutable normal allele (27 CAG repeats) and one expanded allele (48 CAG repeats). Eleven of these forty-five subjects had a mutant allele with reduced penetrance, and thirty-four patients had a mutant allele with complete penetrance. Inter- and intragenerational investigations of CAG repeats were also performed. We found a negative correlation between the number of CAG repeats and the age of disease onset (r=-0.84; Pdisease onset (r=0.06). We found 40 different haplotypes and the analysis showed that (CCG)(10) was linked to a CAG normal allele in 19 haplotypes and to expanded alleles in two haplotypes. We found that (CCG)(7) was linked to expanded CAG repeats in 40 haplotypes (95.24%) and (CCG)(10) was linked to expanded CAG repeats in only two haplotypes (4.76%). Therefore, (CCG)(7) was the most common allele in HD chromosomes in this Brazilian sample. It was also observed that there was a significant association of (CCG)(7) with the expanded CAG alleles (χ(2)=6.97, P=0.0084). Worldwide, the most common CCG alleles have 7 or 10 repeats. In Western Europe, (CCG)(7) is the most frequent allele, similarly to our findings.

  16. The CAG repeat polymorphism of androgen receptor gene and prostate cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingliang; Dong, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Xuezhi; Niu, Wenquan

    2012-03-01

    The association between the polymorphic CAG repeat in androgen receptor gene (AR) and prostate cancer susceptibility has been studied extensively. However, the results are contradictory. The purpose of our meta-analysis was to investigate whether CAG repeat related to prostate cancer risk and had genetic heterogeneity across different geographic regions and study designs. Random-effects model was performed irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate. Publication bias was assessed by the fail-safe number and Egger's test. There were 16 (patients/controls: 2972/3792), 19 (3835/4908) and 12 (3372/2631) study groups for comparisons of ≥ 20, 22 and 23 repeats of CAG sequence, respectively. Compared with CAG repeat repeats had 21% (95% CI: 0.61-1.02; P = 0.076), 5% (95% CI: 0.81-1.11; P = 0.508) and 5% (95% CI: 0.76-1.20; P = 0.681) decreased risk of prostate cancer. After classifying studies by geographic areas, carriers of ≥ 20 repeats had 11% decreased risk in populations from USA, 53% from Europe, and 20% from Asia (P > 0.05), whereas comparison of ≥ 23 repeats with others generated a significant prediction in European populations (OR = 1.17; P = 0.039). Stratification by study designs revealed no material changes in risk estimation. Meta-regression analysis found no significant sources of between-study heterogeneity for age, study design and geographic region for all comparisons. There was no identified publication bias. Taken together, our results demonstrated that AR CAG repeat polymorphism with ≥ 20 repeats might confer a protective effect among the prostate cancer patients with 45 years older but not all the prostate cancer patients.

  17. Repeated sprint ability in young basketball players: one vs. two changes of direction (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene, Giuseppe; Laffaye, Guillaume; Chaouachi, Anis; Pizzolato, Fabio; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Padulo, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the training effects based on repeated sprint ability (RSA) (with one change of direction) with an intensive repeated sprint ability (IRSA) (with two changes of direction) on jump performance and aerobic fitness. Eighteen male basketball players were assigned to repeated sprint ability and intensive repeated sprint ability training groups (RSAG and IRSAG). RSA, IRSA, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test were assessed before and after four training weeks. The RSA and IRSA trainings consisted of three sets of six sprints (first two weeks) and eight sprints (second two weeks) with 4-min sets recovery and 20-s of sprints recovery. Four weeks of training led to an overall improvement in most of the measures of RSA, but little evidence of any differences between the two training modes. Jump performance was enhanced: CMJ of 7.5% (P repeated sprint training with one/two changes of direction promotes improvements in both RSA and IRSA respectively but the better increase on jump performance shown a few changes on sprint and endurance performances.

  18. Improving HSDPA Indoor Coverage and Throughput by Repeater and Dedicated Indoor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of the paper is to provide guidelines for indoor planning and optimization using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater or a dedicated indoor system. The paper provides practical information for enhancing the performance of high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA in an indoor environment. The capabilities of an outdoor-to-indoor analog WCDMA repeater are set against a dedicated indoor system and, furthermore, compared to indoor coverage of a nearby macrocellular base station. An extensive measurement campaign with varying system configurations was arranged in different indoor environments. The results show that compared to dedicated indoor systems, similar HSDPA performance can be provided by extending macrocellular coverage inside buildings using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater. According to the measurements, the pilot coverage planning threshold of about −80 dBm ensures a 2500 kbps throughput for shared HSDPA connections. Improving the coverage above −80 dBm seems to provide only small advantage in HSDPA throughput. Of course, the pilot planning thresholds may change if different channel power allocations are used. In addition, network performance can be further improved by increasing the antenna density in the serving distributed antenna system. Finally, good performance of repeater implementation needs careful repeater gain setting and donor antenna siting.

  19. Improving HSDPA Indoor Coverage and Throughput by Repeater and Dedicated Indoor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isotalo Tero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The target of the paper is to provide guidelines for indoor planning and optimization using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater or a dedicated indoor system. The paper provides practical information for enhancing the performance of high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA in an indoor environment. The capabilities of an outdoor-to-indoor analog WCDMA repeater are set against a dedicated indoor system and, furthermore, compared to indoor coverage of a nearby macrocellular base station. An extensive measurement campaign with varying system configurations was arranged in different indoor environments. The results show that compared to dedicated indoor systems, similar HSDPA performance can be provided by extending macrocellular coverage inside buildings using an outdoor-to-indoor repeater. According to the measurements, the pilot coverage planning threshold of about −80 dBm ensures a 2500 kbps throughput for shared HSDPA connections. Improving the coverage above −80 dBm seems to provide only small advantage in HSDPA throughput. Of course, the pilot planning thresholds may change if different channel power allocations are used. In addition, network performance can be further improved by increasing the antenna density in the serving distributed antenna system. Finally, good performance of repeater implementation needs careful repeater gain setting and donor antenna siting.

  20. Inter- vs intra-individual variation and temporal repeatability of escape responses in the coral reef fish Amblyglyphidodon curacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïwenn Jornod

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast-start escape responses are critical behaviours used by fishes during predator-prey encounters and some interactions with hetero- and conspecifics. In experimental studies, escape responses are often measured once per individual and considered representative of maximum performance. However, few studies have compared variability and repeatability in escape performances within and among individuals. Using the tropical damselfish Amblyglyphidodon curacao, we quantified inter- and intra-individual variation in behavioural and kinematic components of escape performance during repeated presentations of a stimulus at 15 min intervals. Individual maximum escape performance was repeatable through time, but there was considerable variation in the magnitude of responses both among and within fish. We found no evidence of habituation or fatigue due to repeated stimulations, suggesting that fish can be stimulated multiple times to ensure that an accurate estimate of maximum escape performance is obtained.

  1. Intermittent endurance and repeated sprint ability in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Manzi, Vincenzo; Wong, Del P; Chaalali, Anis; Laurencelle, Louis; Chamari, Karim; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    The ability to perform high-intensity intermittent exercise (i.e., Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test [Yo-Yo IR1]) and to repeat sprints with relatively short recovery times (i.e., 20- to 30-seconds, relatively short time interval [repeated sprint ability (RSA)]) has been shown to be relevant fitness variables in soccer. However, though they potentially share common features, it is not known whether these 2 abilities are associated. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between Yo-Yo IR1 and RSA performances in elite soccer players. Twenty-three soccer players (age 19 ± 1 years, height 181 ± 5.7 cm, body mass 73.2 ± 4.1 kg, %body fat 11 ± 2.4) performed the Yo-Yo IR1 and a test for RSA (7 × 30 m with 25-second recovery). Results were 2,289 ± 409 m, 31.21 ± 1.13 seconds, and 4 ± 2.1% for Yo-Yo IR1, total sprint time, and sprint decrement, respectively. Yo-Yo IR1 showed a significant and moderate relationship with sprint decrement (r² = -0.44, p = 0.04). Splitting the sample into Best and Worst Yo-Yo IR1 performers according to median score (2,320 m), the Best group showed lower RSA total time (30.69 ± 0.99 vs. 31.79 ± 1.06, p Sprint-time deterioration over 30 m occurred earlier (from the second sprint on) in the Yo-YoWorst compared with in the Yo-YoBest group (from the fourth sprint on, p sprint bouts.

  2. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  3. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  4. REPEAT facility. Report for May, June, July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, C. B.

    1981-08-01

    The construction of the REPEAT facility, a test facility for passive and hybrid solar heating systems is reported. The development of a simulation program for envelope type passive solar systems, constructing an envelope test cell, collecting data to validate the program, and application of the program to determine the best envelope type design are discussed. A low cost monitoring system using a dedicated microprocessor system, an inexpensive, high accuracy A/D converter, and minimum system hardware is developed. A method to determine the average temperature and the average daily temperature variation inside a passively heated solar building is presented.

  5. Cataractogenesis after Repeat Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been the unsubstantiated clinical impression that laser refractive surgery accelerates cataract development along with solid experimental data about the cataractogenic effects of excimer laser treatment. We present the first documented case of significant cataract formation in a young myope after repeat excimer laser ablation necessitating phacoemulsification with a posterior chamber implant. Proposed explanations include focusing of the ablation wave on the posterior capsule (acoustic wave lens epithelial damage, photooxidative stress of the lens (ultraviolet and inflammatory oxidative stress, and corticosteroid-induced cataract (lens toxicity.

  6. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  7. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  8. Airway refractoriness to inhaled mannitol after repeated challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong In; Lee, Ju Kyung; Kim, Jin-Tack; Koh, Young Yull

    2011-10-01

    Exercise and inhaled mannitol are thought to cause bronchoconstriction through a similar mechanism in asthma. The response to exercise becomes refractory with repeated challenges. This study aimed to investigate whether repeated challenge with mannitol induces refractoriness, as with exercise. Forty-one children with asthma underwent two consecutive dose-response mannitol challenges (Phase 1); the second challenge proceeded after recovery (FEV(1) : 95% or more of baseline value) from the first. The response to mannitol was expressed as a provocative dose causing a 15% fall in FEV(1) (PD(15) ) and the response-dose ratio (RDR) (% fall in FEV(1) /cumulative dose). In 18 subjects who were deemed to have mannitol refractoriness in Phase 1, a mannitol challenge was performed before and after a methacholine challenge (Phase 2). In Phase 1, the time taken for the FEV(1) to recover after the first mannitol challenge ranged from 20 to 100 min with a median of 50 min. In the 23 subjects with a measurable mannitol PD(15) in both challenges, the geometric mean (95%CI) PD(15) in the second challenge (163 mg [114-232]) was significantly higher than that in the first challenge (66 mg [50-88], P value of 0.083%/mg (0.055-0.125) in the first challenge to 0.029%/mg (0.017-0.048) in the second challenge (P challenge with methacholine or mannitol did not significantly alter subsequent bronchoconstriction to the opposite challenge. Repeated challenge with mannitol resulted in less bronchoconstriction when compared with the initial challenge. This refractoriness seems not to be attributable to functional loss of responsiveness or non-specific effect of prior bronchoconstriction.

  9. The rise in carboxyhemoglobin from repeated pulmonary diffusing capacity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study determined the rise in carboxyhemoglobin percentage (COHb) from repeated pulmonary diffusing capacity tests using 5 or 10s single breath-hold maneuvers. Five male and four female non-smokers [baseline COHb=1.2 (SD 0.5%)] performed repeated pulmonary diffusing capacity testing on two separate days. The days were randomized to either repeated 10s (0.28% CO), or 5s (0.28% CO, 55ppm NO) breath-hold maneuvers. Twenty-two 5s breath-hold maneuvers, each separated by 4min rest, raised COHb to 11.1 (1.4)% and minimally raised the methemoglobin percentage (METHb) by 0.3 (0.2)% to a value of 0.8 (0.2)%. After the 22nd test, pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was reduced by about 4mL/min/mmHg, equating to a 0.44% increase in COHb per 5s breath-hold maneuver and a concomitant 0.35mL/min/mmHg decrease in DLCO. Pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) was not altered after 22 tests. On another day, the 10s single breath-hold maneuver increased COHb by 0.64% per test, and reduced DLCO by 0.44mL/min/mmHg per test. In conclusion, 5s breath-hold maneuvers do not appreciably raise METHb or DLNO, and DLCO is only significantly reduced when COHb is at least 6%.

  10. IMHEX fuel cell repeat component manufacturing continuous improvement accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakaitis, L.A.; Petraglia, V.J.; Bryson, E.S. [M-C Power Corp., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power is taking a power generation technology that has been proven in the laboratory and is making it a commercially competitive product. There are many areas in which this technology required scale up and refinement to reach the market entry goals for the IMHEX{reg_sign} molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. One of the primary areas that needed to be addressed was the manufacturing of the fuel cell stack. Up to this point, the fuel cell stack and associated components were virtually hand made for each system to be tested. M-C Power has now continuously manufactured the repeat components for three 250 kW stacks. M-C Power`s manufacturing strategy integrated both evolutionary and revolutionary improvements into its comprehensive commercialization effort. M-C Power`s objectives were to analyze and continuously improve stack component manufacturing and assembly techniques consistent with established specifications and commercial scale production requirements. Evolutionary improvements are those which naturally occur as the production rates are increased and experience is gained. Examples of evolutionary (learning curve) improvements included reducing scrap rates and decreasing raw material costs by buying in large quantities. Revolutionary improvements result in significant design and process changes to meet cost and performance requirements of the market entry system. Revolutionary changes often involve identifying new methods and developing designs to accommodate the new process. Based upon our accomplishments, M-C Power was able to reduce the cost of continuously manufactured fuel cell repeat components from the first to third 250 kW stack by 63%. This paper documents the continuous improvement accomplishments realized by M-C Power during IMHEX{reg_sign} fuel cell repeat component manufacturing.

  11. The effect of 40-m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint speed endurance, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Enoksen, Eystein

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks' 40-m repeated sprint training program that does not involve strength training on sprinting speed and repeated sprint speed on young elite soccer players. Twenty young well-trained elite male soccer players of age (±SD) 16.4 (±0.9) years, body mass 67.2 (±9.1) kg, and stature 176.3 (±7.4) cm volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on 40-m running speed, 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed, 20-m acceleration speed, 20-m top speed, countermovement jump (CMJ), and aerobic endurance (beep test). Participants were divided into training group (TG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). The study was conducted in the precompetition phase of the training program for the participants and ended 13 weeks before the start of the season; the duration of the precompetition period was 26 weeks. The TG followed a Periodized repeated sprint training program once a week. The training program consisted of running 40 m with different intensities and duration from week to week. Within-group results indicate that TG had a statistically marked improvement in their performance from pre to posttest in 40-m maximum sprint (-0.06 seconds), 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.12 seconds), 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), and CMJ (2.7 cm). The CG showed only a statistically notable improvement from pre to posttest in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.06 seconds). Between-group differences showed a statistically marked improvement for the TG over the CG in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.07 seconds) and 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), but the effect of the improvement was moderate. The results further indicate that a weekly training with repeated sprint gave a moderate but not statistically marked improvement in 40-m sprinting, CMJ, and beep test. The results of this study indicate that the repeated sprint program had a positive effect on several of the parameters tested

  12. Comparative genomics and molecular dynamics of DNA repeats in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck; Kerrest, Alix; Dujon, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Repeated elements can be widely abundant in eukaryotic genomes, composing more than 50% of the human genome, for example. It is possible to classify repeated sequences into two large families, "tandem repeats" and "dispersed repeats." Each of these two families can be itself divided into subfamilies. Dispersed repeats contain transposons, tRNA genes, and gene paralogues, whereas tandem repeats contain gene tandems, ribosomal DNA repeat arrays, and satellite DNA, itself subdivided into satellites, minisatellites, and microsatellites. Remarkably, the molecular mechanisms that create and propagate dispersed and tandem repeats are specific to each class and usually do not overlap. In the present review, we have chosen in the first section to describe the nature and distribution of dispersed and tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes in the light of complete (or nearly complete) available genome sequences. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the fast evolution of two specific classes of tandem repeats: minisatellites and microsatellites. Given that a growing number of human neurological disorders involve the expansion of a particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, a large part of the recent experimental work on microsatellites has focused on these particular repeats, and thus we also review the current knowledge in this area. Finally, we propose a unified definition for mini- and microsatellites that takes into account their biological properties and try to point out new directions that should be explored in a near future on our road to understanding the genetics of repeated sequences.

  13. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  14. The Perpetual Repeater: an Educative Musical Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Skriagina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Music Undergraduate Program of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (National Pedagogic University, two musical events were planned: an original work written for choir, soloists and symphonic band, and an opera for children. As a result, the cantata ‘The Perpetual Repeater” has been created as an adaptation of a work named “50 Milions de Segons” (50 Millions of Seconds, staged by the CATANIA project of the Barcelona Servei Educatiu de L’Auditori. This work tells the story of those school teachers who, paradoxically enough repeat the same course year after year. After visiting L’Auditori of Barcelona to participate in the pedagogic musical work carried out with school children, we considered the possibility of developing an analogous project, in a similar sociocultural and educational environment, within our Music Undergraduate Program. So, this article deals with two fundamental moments which are essential to understand the educational work implemented with the ISPA students of sixth degree, as well as with a group of the program’s students: The Purpose, which describes in detail the planning of the musical work for children, and The Experience, in which the way the process of The Perpetual Repeater Cantatawas carried out is described.

  15. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  16. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  17. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  18. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  19. Repeat-induced gene silencing in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, D; Fiering, S; Martin, D I; Whitelaw, E

    1998-01-01

    In both plants and Drosophila melanogaster, expression from a transgenic locus may be silenced when repeated transgene copies are arranged as a concatameric array. This repeat-induced gene silencing is frequently manifested as a decrease in the proportion of cells that express the transgene, resulting in a variegated pattern of expression. There is also some indication that, in transgenic mammals, the number of transgene copies within an array can exert a repressive influence on expression, with several mouse studies reporting a decrease in the level of expression per copy as copy number increases. However, because these studies compare different sites of transgene integration as well as arrays with different numbers of copies, the expression levels observed may be subject to varying position effects as well as the influence of the multicopy array. Here we describe use of the lox/Cre system of site-specific recombination to generate transgenic mouse lines in which different numbers of a transgene are present at the same chromosomal location, thereby eliminating the contribution of position effects and allowing analysis of the effect of copy number alone on transgene silencing. Reduction in copy number results in a marked increase in expression of the transgene and is accompanied by decreased chromatin compaction and decreased methylation at the transgene locus. These findings establish that the presence of multiple homologous copies of a transgene within a concatameric array can have a repressive effect upon gene expression in mammalian systems.

  20. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...