WorldWideScience

Sample records for repeated acquisition learning

  1. Repeated acquisition and performance chamber for mice: a paradigm for assessment of spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A I; Cory-Slechta, D A; Murg, S L; Federoff, H J

    2000-11-01

    Molecular genetic manipulation of the mouse offers the possibility of elucidating the function of individual gene products in neural systems underlying learning and memory. Many extant learning paradigms for mice rely on negative reinforcement, involve simple problems that are relatively rapidly acquired and thus preclude time-course assessment, and may impose the need to undertake additional experiments to determine the extent to which noncognitive behaviors influence the measures of learning. To overcome such limitations, a multiple schedule of repeated acquisition and performance was behaviorally engineered to assess learning vs rote performance within-behavioral test session and within-subject utilizing an apparatus modified from the rat (the repeated acquisition and performance chamber; RAPC). The multiple schedule required mice to learn a new sequence of door openings leading to saccharin availability in the learning component during each session, while the sequence of door openings for the performance component remained constant across sessions. The learning and performance components alternated over the course of each test session, with different auditory stimuli signaling which component was currently in effect. To validate this paradigm, learning vs performance was evaluated in two inbred strains of mice: C57BL/6J and 129/SvJ. The hippocampal dependence of this measure was examined in lesioned C57BL/6J mice. Both strains exhibited longer latencies and higher errors in the learning compared to the performance component and evidenced declines in both measures across the trials of each session, consistent with an acquisition phenomenon. These same measures showed little or no evidence of change in the performance component. Whereas three trials per session were utilized with C57BL/65 mice in each component, behavior of 129/SvJ mice could only be sustained for two trials per component per session, demonstrating differences in testing capabilities between

  2. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  3. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  4. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  5. The Role of Repeated Exposure to Multimodal Input in Incidental Acquisition of Foreign Language Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has reported incidental vocabulary acquisition with complete beginners in a foreign language (FL), within 8 exposures to auditory and written FL word forms presented with a picture depicting their meaning. However, important questions remain about whether acquisition occurs with fewer exposures to FL words in a multimodal situation and whether there is a repeated exposure effect. Here we report a study where the number of exposures to FL words in an incidental learning phase varied between 2, 4, 6, and 8 exposures. Following the incidental learning phase, participants completed an explicit learning task where they learned to recognize written translation equivalents of auditory FL word forms, half of which had occurred in the incidental learning phase. The results showed that participants performed better on the words they had previously been exposed to, and that this incidental learning effect occurred from as little as 2 exposures to the multimodal stimuli. In addition, repeated exposure to the stimuli was found to have a larger impact on learning during the first few exposures and decrease thereafter, suggesting that the effects of repeated exposure on vocabulary acquisition are not necessarily constant.

  6. Algebraic learning for language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kevin R.; Mammone, Richard J.; Gorin, Allen

    1994-02-01

    This paper explores the application of new algorithms to the adaptive language acquisition model formulated by Gorin. The new methods consists of incremental approaches for the algebraic learning of statistical associations proposed by Tishby. The incremental methods are evaluated on a text-based natural language experiment, namely the inward call manager task. Performance is evaluated with respect to the alternative methods, namely the smooth mutual information method and the pseudo-inverse solution.

  7. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

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    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  8. Lexicon acquisition in an interdisciplinary learning context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA PAULA SANTOS SOARES DA SILVA LAGO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the questions that led to the field research, the theoretical frame, the subsequent methodology, and some of the results and conclusions. One of these conclusions is the need of specific tasks aimed at lexicon acquisition and of interdisciplinary work within that acquisition. Some strategies of minimizing failure and e learning enhancement will also be discussed, as well as the learning results achieved in the strict area of lexicon acquisition.

  9. Hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits following repeated pyrethroid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Muhammad M; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Richardson, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Previously, we reported that the widely used pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin causes ER stress-mediated apoptosis in SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells. Whether or not this occurs in vivo remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure (3 mg/kg every 3 days for 60 days) causes hippocampal ER stress and learning deficits in adult mice. Repeated exposure to deltamethrin caused ER stress in the hippocampus as indicated by increased levels of C/EBP-homologous protein (131%) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (96%). This was accompanied by increased levels of caspase-12 (110%) and activated caspase-3 (50%). To determine whether these effects resulted in learning deficits, hippocampal-dependent learning was evaluated using the Morris water maze. Deltamethrin-treated animals exhibited profound deficits in the acquisition of learning. We also found that deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased BrdU-positive cells (37%) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting potential impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that repeated deltamethrin exposure leads to ER stress, apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, and deficits in hippocampal precursor proliferation, which is associated with learning deficits.

  10. Learning Strategies in Acquisition of Medical Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俊英; 蒋东坡

    2016-01-01

    Medical vocabulary consists of so many words and terms.Medical students are often terrified by large vocabulary.The paper aimed to analyze the problems lie in acquisition of medical vocabulary,review literature of learning strategies of medical vocabulary,and offers a few simple rules for students to follow to facilitate their acquisition of medical vocabulary.

  11. Learning: Statistical Mechanisms in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    The grammatical structure of human languages is extremely complex, yet children master this complexity with apparent ease. One explanation is that we come to the task of acquisition equipped with knowledge about the possible grammatical structures of human languages—so-called "Universal Grammar". An alternative is that grammatical patterns are abstracted from the input via a process of identifying reoccurring patterns and using that information to form grammatical generalizations. This statistical learning hypothesis receives support from computational research, which has revealed that even low level statistics based on adjacent word co-occurrences yield grammatically relevant information. Moreover, even as adults, our knowledge and usage of grammatical patterns is often graded and probabilistic, and in ways which directly reflect the statistical makeup of the language we experience. The current chapter explores such evidence and concludes that statistical learning mechanisms play a critical role in acquisition, whilst acknowledging holes in our current knowledge, particularly with respect to the learning of `higher level' syntactic behaviours. Throughout, I emphasize that although a statistical approach is traditionally associated with a strongly empiricist position, specific accounts make specific claims about the nature of the learner, both in terms of learning mechanisms and the information that is primitive to the learning system. In particular, working models which construct grammatical generalizations often assume inbuilt semantic abstractions.

  12. Vocabulary Learning through Assisted and Unassisted Repeated Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effects of unassisted and assisted repeated reading has primarily focused on how each approach may contribute to improvement in reading comprehension and fluency. Incidental learning of the form and meaning of unknown or partially known words encountered through assisted and unassisted repeated reading has yet…

  13. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  14. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  15. The Culture Acquisition in the Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王抒飞

    2011-01-01

    In the second language learning,some people only put their focus on grammar,words,sentence etc. The paper aims to tell the people not forget the culture acquisition plays a very important role in the second language learning.

  16. Early language acquisition: Statistical learning and social learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2003-10-01

    Infants are sensitive to the statistical patterns in language input, and exposure to them alters phonetic perception. Our recent data indicate that first-time exposure to a foreign language at 9 months of age results in learning after only 5 h, suggesting a process that is fairly automatic, given natural language input. At the same time, it appears that early phonetic learning from natural language may be constrained by the need for social interaction. Our work demonstrates that infants learn phonetically when exposed to a live, but not a pre-recorded, speaker. This talk will focus on statistical learning in a social context and develop the thesis that this combination provides an ideal situation for the acquisition of a natural language.

  17. Learning Strategies in Chinese ESL Learners' Acquisition of Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安阳阳

    2007-01-01

    As for Chinese ESL (English as a second language) learners, one of the major problems in English learning is their poor performance of spoken English. Among various factors that improve spoken English skills, it is believed, learning strategies play an important role in acquisition of oral English. Beginning with the learning purpose and style of spoken English, this paper discusses the application of socioaffecrive, cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies in Chinese ESL learners' acquisition of spoken English.

  18. The Influence of Learning Style on Second Language Acquisition

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    HAN Xian-yan

    2016-01-01

    Different theorists hold their own idea of learning style and thus lead to various models of learning style. Numerous studies in the field of second language acquisition has been done to prove whether there is a correlation between learning style and second language achievement. The bulk of research indicates that there is a strong relationship between learning styles and language learning outcomes. Learning style is of great importance in second language learning.

  19. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  20. A PLL Synthesizer with Learning Repeatable Fluctuation of Input Signal

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    Ono, Hiroyuki

    This paper describes a high frequency PLL (Phase Locked Loop) synthesizer with a function of learning then eliminating repeatable fluctuation of timing intervals on series input pulses. Typical spindle encoder generates digital pulses according to the revolution speed. The intervals of each pulse have repeatable fluctuation every revolution by eccentricity or warpage of the encoder scale disk. This method provides a programmable counter for the loop counter of PLL circuit and an interval counter with memory in order to learn the repeatable fluctuation. After the learning process, the PLL generates very pure tone clock signal based on the real flutter components of the spindle revolution speed without influenced by encoder errors. This method has been applied to a hard disk test system in order to generate 3GHz read/write clock.

  1. Successive failure, repeat entrepreneurship and no learning: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Current theories of repeat entrepreneurship provide little explanation for the effect of failure as a ‘trigger’ for creating successive ventures or learning from repeated failures. Research purpose: This study attempts to establish the role of previous failures on the ventures that follow them and to determine the process of learning from successive failures.Motivation for the study: Successive failures offer potentially valuable insights into the relationship between failures on the ventures that follow and the process of learning from failure.Research design, approach and method: The researchers investigated a single case study of one entrepreneur’s successive failures over 20 years.Main findings: Although the causes varied, all the failures had fundamental similarities. This suggested that the entrepreneur had not learnt from them. The previous failures did not trigger the subsequent ventures. Instead, they played a role in causing the failures. Learning from failure does not happen immediately but requires deliberate reflection. Deliberate reflection is a prerequisite for learning from failure as the entrepreneur repeated similar mistakes time after time until he reflected on each failure.Practical/managerial implications: It confirms that failure is a part of entrepreneurial endeavours. However, learning from it requires deliberate reflection. Failure does not ‘trigger’ the next venture and educators should note this.Contribution/value-add: Knowing the effect of failure on consecutive ventures may help us to understand the development of prototypes (mental frameworks and expand the theory about entrepreneurial prototype categories.

  2. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

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    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning.

  3. Skill learning in mirror reading: how repetition determines acquisition.

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    Ofen-Noy, N; Dudai, Y; Karni, A

    2003-07-01

    Practice makes perfect, but the role of repetitions in skill learning is not yet fully understood. For example, given a similar number of trials on a given task, it is debated whether repeating and non-repeating items are learned by the same neural process. When one is given training with both types of items--does one learn two separate skills, or only one? Here we show, using a mirror reading task, that practice trials with trial-unique words, and practice trials with repeated words, count towards learning to a different degree. There was no interaction between the time-course of learning repeated and unique words even within the same individuals given mixed training. While repeated words were learned faster than unique words, the repetitions-dependent gains diminished with training beyond a small number of repetitions. Moreover, the gains in performance could not be accounted for solely by the number of repetitions, as assumed by power-law models of learning; rather, the passage of time was a critical factor. Finally, our results suggest that although both repeated and new words were learned by both declarative and procedural memory mechanisms, even a single repetition of specific words could lead to the establishment of a selective differential representation in memory. The results are compatible with the notion of a repetition-sensitive process, triggered by specific repeating events. This 'repetition counter' may be a critical trigger for the effective formation of procedural as well as some type of declarative memory.

  4. Interactive effect of acute pain and motor learning acquisition on sensorimotor integration and motor learning outcomes.

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    Dancey, Erin; Murphy, Bernadette; Andrew, Danielle; Yielder, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated differential changes in early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) when motor learning acquisition occurred in the presence of acute pain; however, the learning task was insufficiently complex to determine how these underlying neurophysiological differences impacted learning acquisition and retention. To address this limitation, we have utilized a complex motor task in conjunction with SEPs. Two groups of 12 participants (n = 24) were randomly assigned to either a capsaicin (capsaicin cream) or a control (inert lotion) group. SEP amplitudes were collected at baseline, after application, and after motor learning acquisition. Participants performed a motor acquisition task followed by a pain-free retention task within 24-48 h. After motor learning acquisition, the amplitude of the N20 SEP peak significantly increased (P learning acquisition for both groups. The P25 SEP peak decreased significantly (P learning acquisition (P learning acquisition (P learning acquisition (P learning in the presence of capsaicin provides support for the enhancement of motor learning while in acute pain. In addition, the changes in SEP peak amplitudes suggest that early SEP changes reflect neurophysiological alterations accompanying both motor learning and mild acute pain. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. The Impact of Learning Contexts on English Granunar Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FuXiaoxiao

    2004-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate to what extent different learning contexts inform syntax acquisition of Chinese adult learners of English. The research was conducted in London and Chongqing within a different framework that acknowledges the role of context from a perspective of the general theory of second language acquisition. Issues and

  6. Learning the manifold of quality ultrasound acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zehiry, Noha; Yan, Michelle; Good, Sara; Fang, Tong; Zhou, S Kevin; Grady, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound acquisition is a challenging task that requires simultaneous adjustment of several acquisition parameters (the depth, the focus, the frequency and its operation mode). If the acquisition parameters are not properly chosen, the resulting image will have a poor quality and will degrade the patient diagnosis and treatment workflow. Several hardware-based systems for autotuning the acquisition parameters have been previously proposed, but these solutions were largely abandoned because they failed to properly account for tissue inhomogeneity and other patient-specific characteristics. Consequently, in routine practice the clinician either uses population-based parameter presets or manually adjusts the acquisition parameters for each patient during the scan. In this paper, we revisit the problem of autotuning the acquisition parameters by taking a completely novel approach and producing a solution based on image analytics. Our solution is inspired by the autofocus capability of conventional digital cameras, but is significantly more challenging because the number of acquisition parameters is large and the determination of "good quality" images is more difficult to assess. Surprisingly, we show that the set of acquisition parameters which produce images that are favored by clinicians comprise a 1D manifold, allowing for a real-time optimization to maximize image quality. We demonstrate our method for acquisition parameter autotuning on several live patients, showing that our system can start with a poor initial set of parameters and automatically optimize the parameters to produce high quality images.

  7. Motivation and Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼梨娜

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the effects of the individual differences in the process of SLA (Second Language Acquisition) and provide some basic ideas and suggestions in L2 learning and teaching for further discussion and development.

  8. Repeated Rule Acquisition using Rule Ontology from Similar Web Sites Based on Genetic Algorithm

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    Shanmugapriya. D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Semantic Web, which is the key component of Web 2.0 and Web 3.0, is an evolving development of the World Wide Web in which the semantics of information and services on the Web are being defined. Knowledge is an essential part of most Semantic Web applications and ontology, which is a formal explicit description of concepts or classes in a domain of discussion, is the most important part of the knowledge. As a model for knowledge description and formalization, ontology’s are widely used to represent user profiles in personalized web information gathering. The ontology can decrease the amount of information and reduce the work of utilizing the information in rule acquisition, because it is generalized and specifically rearranged for rule acquisition. Moreover, the ontology can be accumulated and reused throughout repeated rule acquisition. The main contribution of existing work is that the complete and detailed rule composition process with examples and its evaluation. The enhancement work is, with the existing system concept we combining the concept of selecting exact parts that contain rules from Web pages to increase the accuracy in their result. In this proposed work we are combining the screen method from WebPages with use of genetic Techniques to extract the rule optimally.

  9. The role of exposure history on HIV acquisition: insights from repeated low-dose challenge studies.

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    Roland R Regoes

    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy of HIV vaccine candidates or preventive treatment, many research groups have started to challenge monkeys repeatedly with low doses of the virus. Such challenge data provide a unique opportunity to assess the importance of exposure history for the acquisition of the infection. I developed stochastic models to analyze previously published challenge data. In the mathematical models, I allowed for variation of the animals' susceptibility to infection across challenge repeats, or across animals. In none of the studies I analyzed, I found evidence for an immunizing effect of non-infecting challenges, and in most studies, there is no evidence for variation in the susceptibilities to the challenges across animals. A notable exception was a challenge experiment by Letvin et al. Sci Translat Med (2011 conducted with the strain SIVsmE660. The challenge data of this experiment showed significant susceptibility variation from animal-to-animal, which is consistent with previously established genetic differences between the involved animals. For the studies which did not show significant immunizing effects and susceptibility differences, I conducted a power analysis and could thus exclude a very strong immunization effect for some of the studies. These findings validate the assumption that non-infecting challenges do not immunize an animal - an assumption that is central in the argument that repeated low-dose challenge experiments increase the statistical power of preclinical HIV vaccine trials. They are also relevant for our understanding of the role of exposure history for HIV acquisition and forecasting the epidemiological spread of HIV.

  10. Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-lan

    2013-01-01

      The proper use of learning strategies can facilitate language learning. There are abundant studies on L2 learning strate⁃gies and the initial research is studies on good language learners, which provides information on strategy use contributing to suc⁃cessful language learning. Strategies used by successful learners differ from less successful learners and strategies can be learned.

  11. Learning Contracts in Second Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Jolita Šliogerienė

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the problem of control in self-directed language learning. The necessity for the registers of learners’ progress is expressed both by teachers and students and the conclusion to frame learning process is drawn. On the basis of some widely spread methods fostering the development of self-directed language learning, that is problem-based learning, project method, case-based learning, several registers for students progress could be introduced in second language learning envir...

  12. Learning Contracts in Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Šliogerienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem of control in self-directed language learning. The necessity for the registers of learners’ progress is expressed both by teachers and students and the conclusion to frame learning process is drawn. On the basis of some widely spread methods fostering the development of self-directed language learning, that is problem-based learning, project method, case-based learning, several registers for students progress could be introduced in second language learning environment The article analyses learning contracts as one of the forms to structure the learning process and to register the progress students make.

  13. Learning-by-doing approaches for skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hristov, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Hristov, I. (2006). Learning-by-doing approaches for skill acquisition. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 20

  14. Learning-by-doing approaches for skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hristov, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Hristov, I. (2006). Learning-by-doing approaches for skill acquisition. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 20

  15. Resource-Bounded Information Acquisition and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    45] apply the theory of value of information, but their method is mostly restricted to chain graphical models. Golovin et al. [33] tackle the problem...for information acquisition from large and redundant data. Tech. Rep. arXiv:1012.3502, Dec 2010. [33] Golovin , Daniel, Krause, Andreas, and Ray

  16. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  17. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  18. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  19. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review

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    Falcon Dario Restrepo Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies and tasks that promote the incidental learning of vocabulary. The findings show that L2 learners develop much of their vocabulary by incidental means through exposure to words in informative contexts. Moreover, this exposure is promoted by reading, and enhanced through multimodal glosses. Further research may focus on listening for higher lexical retention rates, the circumstances that allow incidental learning of multi-word phrases and collocations, and the use of technology-based methods for incidental vocabulary acquisition.

  20. More than words: fast acquisition and generalization of orthographic regularities during novel word learning in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Matti; Polonyi, Tünde; Abari, Kálmán

    2014-08-01

    In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university students with different exposures (Group 1 saw 2 words once, Group 2 saw 20 words once, Group 3 saw 20 words three times). Recognition memory results for Groups 2 and 3 indicated that adults can learn novel written words even with just a single exposure, albeit repeated exposure improved target detection. A generalization task revealed that even the minimal exposure in Group 1 was enough for acquisition of the two embedded regularities. More exemplars and repeated exposure provided more robust effects for the syllable regularity. Finally, post-test interview showed that repeated exposure was needed to become aware of the regularities. The present results show that adults learn novel written words and their inherent regularities in a fast and effective fashion.

  1. Effects of GABA[subscript A] Modulators on the Repeated Acquisition of Response Sequences in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Una C.; Winsauer, Peter J.; Stevenson, Michael W.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of positive and negative GABA[subscript A] modulators under three different baselines of repeated acquisition in squirrel monkeys in which the monkeys acquired a three-response sequence on three keys under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of food reinforcement. In two of these baselines, the…

  2. The Teacher, Motivation, Acquisition and Cognitive Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dede Wilson

    2006-01-01

    @@ English is a world language spoken by a great number of non-native speakers, the majority of whom learn to speak and communicate in the language in the classroom. Many factors contribute to learning in the language classroom but the key to success lies in the teacher and students' motivation and the use of motivational teaching strategies that maintain motivation and facilitate the process.

  3. Skill acquisition of manual wheelchair propulsion: initial motor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEJ VEEGER Dirkjan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in propulsion technique due to motor learning might account for a higher mechanical efficiency (ME, the ratio of internal power over external power. The changes in ME and propulsion technique were studied in a learning experiment, three times a week for eight minutes, with nine able-bodied subjects, simulating early rehabilitation. Instrumented wheels measured three-dimensional forces and torques on the handrim. During practice peak torques were reduced, work per cycle increased, while push frequency decreased, at a stable power output and speed of the treadmill. Over the three weeks of practice propulsion technique kept changing in combination with an increase of ME. Results suggest skill acquisition because of motor learning. The rise in ME seems logically related to propulsion technique, but is not yet fully understood. More insight in motor learning and skill acquisition will contribute to understanding and optimizing rehabilitation strategies in the light of wheelchair provision in early rehabilitation.

  4. COOPERATIVE LEARNING AS AN ENVIRONMENT FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    SERNIAK O.M.

    2012-01-01

    The article concentrates on ways of providing opportunities for meaningful interaction in foreign language classroom settings. The investigation deals with the analysis of cooperative learning as an environment for foreign language acquisition at a university level. The article explores several methods and activities that are for most part compatible with an interactional approach. Special techniques of implementation cooperative learning activities in foreign language classroom settings are ...

  5. Is Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition Feasible to EFL Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    For learning English as a foreign language, the efficiency of the approach of incidental vocabulary acquisition depends on the word frequency and text coverage. However, the statistics of English corpus reveals that English is a language that has a large vocabulary size but a low word frequency as well as text coverage, which is obviously not in…

  6. Learning To Read: Process and Problems in Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    An overview of current theories of reading and the acquisition of literacy skills by children is presented. A research framework in which reading can be described in terms of the processes employed in other language uses is introduced and used to explain the failure of some children to learn to read. An ongoing research program is described that…

  7. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  8. Learning L2 Rhythm : Does the direction of acquisition matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, Lieke; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of second language (L2) rhythm by speakers of Dutch and Spanish, two languages that traditionally are considered to be rhythmically different. Specifically, it investigates whether the direction in which the L2 is learned (from Dutch to Spanish, or vice versa)

  9. Learning L2 Rhythm : does the direction of acquisition matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, Lieke; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of second language (L2) rhythm by speakers of Dutch and Spanish, two languages that traditionally are considered to be rhythmically different. Specifically, it investigates whether the direction in which the L2 is learned (from Dutch to Spanish, or vice versa)

  10. The Role of Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition: A Model for Research in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    role of learning strategies in second language acquisition . While strategies used in acquiring productive language skills are discussed briefly, the...comprehensions. Keywords: Learning strategies, English as a second language, Second language acquisition , Basic skills, Research model.

  11. PROBLEM BASED LEARNING FOR EPISTEMOLOGICAL COMPETENCE: THE KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alias Masek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the potential of Problem Based Learning (PBL for epistemological competence in< an engineering education area. The main idea is to explore how the processes in PBL promote knowledge acquisition that lead to an individual deep content learning. A review has been done from theoretical and conceptual aspect, as well as supportive evidence from several empirical findings. Within this, knowledge is constructed from the basic knowledge of concepts, principles, and procedural knowledge with integration to previous knowledge and experiences. The concepts and principles are linked and integrated with each other, forming a procedural knowledge, which promotes deep content learning. However, supportive evidence from the recent research literature indicates inconclusive findings, which called for more studies to provide more empirical evidence to investigate the effectiveness of PBL on knowledge acquisitions.

  12. ISOTDAQ - where students learn about trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Where can students learn to implement a good trigger and to design the data acquisition system for today’s increasingly complex experiments? Universities rarely include classes on such specific topics. The ISOTDAQ School trains students and helps them gain hands-on experience of trigger systems, data-acquisition hardware and software, and data-transfer technologies.   One of the commercially available FPGA development boards from Altera. This was used in one of the practical exercises at ISOTDAQ2011 to teach students the principles of FPGA programming. The second International School of Trigger and Data Acquisition (ISOTDAQ) was held from 9 to 16 February at the Physics Department of Rome University, ‘La Sapienza’. The School was jointly organised and sponsored by CERN, INFN, ACEOLE (a Marie Curie Initial Training Network at CERN), and National Instruments. This year almost fifty students took part in the School. “Leading experts in the field gave lectures ...

  13. Repeated Acquisitions and Extinctions in Classical Conditioning of the Rabbit Nictitating Membrane Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, E. James

    2006-01-01

    The rabbit nictitating membrane (NM) response underwent successive stages of acquisition and extinction training in both delay (Experiment 1) and trace (Experiment 2) classical conditioning. In both cases, successive acquisitions became progressively faster, although the largest, most reliable acceleration occurred between the first and second…

  14. Measuring Knowledge Acquisition in 3D Virtual Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eunice P dos Santos; Roque, Licínio G; Nunes, Fatima de Lourdes dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Virtual environments can contribute to the effective learning of various subjects for people of all ages. Consequently, they assist in reducing the cost of maintaining physical structures of teaching, such as laboratories and classrooms. However, the measurement of how learners acquire knowledge in such environments is still incipient in the literature. This article presents a method to evaluate the knowledge acquisition in 3D virtual learning environments (3D VLEs) by using the learner's interactions in the VLE. Three experiments were conducted that demonstrate the viability of using this method and its computational implementation. The results suggest that it is possible to automatically assess learning in predetermined contexts and that some types of user interactions in 3D VLEs are correlated with the user's learning differential.

  15. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  16. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  17. Open-ended category learning for language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra Lopes, Luis; Chauhan, Aneesh

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the need to support language-based communication between robots and their human users, as well as grounded symbolic reasoning, this paper presents a learning architecture that can be used by robotic agents for long-term and open-ended category acquisition. To be more adaptive and to improve learning performance as well as memory usage, this learning architecture includes a metacognitive processing component. Multiple object representations and multiple classifiers and classifier combinations are used. At the object level, the main similarity measure is based on a multi-resolution matching algorithm. Categories are represented as sets of known instances. In this instance-based approach, storing and forgetting rules optimise memory usage. Classifier combinations are based on majority voting and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. All learning computations are carried out during the normal execution of the agent, which allows continuous monitoring of the performance of the different classifiers. The measured classification successes of the individual classifiers support an attentional selection mechanism, through which classifier combinations are dynamically reconfigured and a specific classifier is chosen to predict the category of a new unseen object. A simple physical agent, incorporating these learning capabilities, is used to test the approach. A long-term experiment was carried out having in mind the open-ended nature of category learning. With the help of a human mediator, the agent incrementally learned 68 categories of real-world objects visually perceivable through an inexpensive camera. Various aspects of the approach are evaluated through systematic experiments.

  18. Modes of knowledge acquisition and retrieval in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznanski, Yael; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to conceptualize artificial grammar learning (AGL) in terms of two orthogonal dimensions--the mode of knowledge acquisition and the mode of knowledge retrieval--as was done by Perlman and Tzelgov (2006) for sequence learning. Experiment 1 was carried out to validate our experimental task; Experiments 2-4 tested, respectively, performance in the intentional, incidental, and automatic retrieval modes, for each of the three modes of acquisition. Furthermore, signal detection theory (SDT) was used as an analytic tool, consistent with our assumption that the processing of legality-relevant information involves decisions along a continuous dimension of fluency. The results presented support the analysis of AGL in terms of the proposed dimensions. They also indicate that knowledge acquired during training may include many aspects of the presented stimuli (whole strings, relations among elements, etc.). The contribution of the various components to performance depends on both the specific instruction in the acquisition phase and the requirements of the retrieval task.

  19. Phases of learning: How skill acquisition impacts cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenison, Caitlin; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, John R

    2016-06-01

    This fMRI study examines the changes in participants' information processing as they repeatedly solve the same mathematical problem. We show that the majority of practice-related speedup is produced by discrete changes in cognitive processing. Because the points at which these changes take place vary from problem to problem, and the underlying information processing steps vary in duration, the existence of such discrete changes can be hard to detect. Using two converging approaches, we establish the existence of three learning phases. When solving a problem in one of these learning phases, participants can go through three cognitive stages: Encoding, Solving, and Responding. Each cognitive stage is associated with a unique brain signature. Using a bottom-up approach combining multi-voxel pattern analysis and hidden semi-Markov modeling, we identify the duration of that stage on any particular trial from participants brain activation patterns. For our top-down approach we developed an ACT-R model of these cognitive stages and simulated how they change over the course of learning. The Solving stage of the first learning phase is long and involves a sequence of arithmetic computations. Participants transition to the second learning phase when they can retrieve the answer, thereby drastically reducing the duration of the Solving stage. With continued practice, participants then transition to the third learning phase when they recognize the problem as a single unit and produce the answer as an automatic response. The duration of this third learning phase is dominated by the Responding stage.

  20. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel T N Panouillères

    Full Text Available Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms

  1. Intact Acquisition and Short-Term Retention of Non-Motor Procedural Learning in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panouillères, Muriel T N; Tofaris, George K; Brown, Peter; Jenkinson, Ned

    2016-01-01

    Procedural learning is a form of memory where people implicitly acquire a skill through repeated practice. People with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been found to acquire motor adaptation, a form of motor procedural learning, similarly to healthy older adults but they have deficits in long-term retention. A similar pattern of normal learning on initial exposure with a deficit in retention seen on subsequent days has also been seen in mirror-reading, a form of non-motor procedural learning. It is a well-studied fact that disrupting sleep will impair the consolidation of procedural memories. Given the prevalence of sleep disturbances in PD, the lack of retention on following days seen in these studies could simply be a side effect of this well-known symptom of PD. Because of this, we wondered whether people with PD would present with deficits in the short-term retention of a non-motor procedural learning task, when the test of retention was done the same day as the initial exposure. The aim of the present study was then to investigate acquisition and retention in the immediate short term of cognitive procedural learning using the mirror-reading task in people with PD. This task involved two conditions: one where triads of mirror-inverted words were always new that allowed assessing the learning of mirror-reading skill and another one where some of the triads were presented repeatedly during the experiment that allowed assessing the word-specific learning. People with PD both ON and OFF their normal medication were compared to healthy older adults and young adults. Participants were re-tested 50 minutes break after initial exposure to probe for short-term retention. The results of this study show that all groups of participants acquired and retained the two skills (mirror-reading and word-specific) similarly. These results suggest that neither healthy ageing nor the degeneration within the basal ganglia that occurs in PD does affect the mechanisms that underpin the

  2. New insights into statistical learning and chunk learning in implicit sequence acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yue; Clark, Jane E

    2016-11-03

    Implicit sequence learning is ubiquitous in our daily life. However, it is unclear whether the initial acquisition of sequences results from learning to chunk items (i.e., chunk learning) or learning the underlying statistical regularities (i.e., statistical learning). By grouping responses with or without a distinct chunk or statistical structure into segments and comparing these responses, previous studies have demonstrated both chunk and statistical learning. However, few studies have considered the response sequence as a whole and examined the temporal dependency of the entire sequence, where the temporal dependencies could disclose the internal representations of chunk and statistical learning. Participants performed a serial reaction time (SRT) task under different stimulus interval conditions. We found that sequence learning reflected by reaction time (RT) rather than motor improvements represented by movement time (MT). The temporal dependency of RT and MT revealed that both RT and MT displayed recursive patterns caused by biomechanical effects of response locations and foot transitions. Chunking was noticeable only in the presence of the recurring RT or MT but vanished after the recursive component was removed, implying that chunk formation may result from biomechanical constraints rather than learning itself. In addition, we observed notable first-order autocorrelations in RT. This trial-to-trial association enhanced as learning progressed regardless of stimulus intervals, reflecting the internal cognitive representation of the first-order stimulus contingencies. Our results suggest that initial acquisition of implicit sequences may arise from first-order statistical learning rather than chunk learning.

  3. Learned Attention in Adult Language Acquisition: A Replication and Generalization Study and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick C.; Sagarra, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates associative learning explanations of the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to cues. It replicates and extends Ellis and Sagarra (2010) in demonstrating short- and long-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin. In Experiment 1,…

  4. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  5. Effect of repeated morphine withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol level in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdieh Matinfar; Mahsa Masjedi Esfahani; Neda Aslany; Seyyed Hamid Reza Davoodi; Pouya Parsaei; Ghasem Zarei; Parham Reisi

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the serious problems that opioid addicted people are facing is repeated withdrawal syndrome that is accompanying with a significant stress load for addicts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol levels in morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Male NMRI mice received morphine as daily increasing doses for 3 days. After that, the mice underwent one time or repeated spont...

  6. First Language Acquisition as a Guide for Theories of Learning and Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1994-01-01

    Articulates general principles of learning based on research of the earliest periods of language acquisition in childhood. The principles are meant to be suggestive and to contribute to the development of a first language acquisition-based theory of learning. (78 references) (MDM)

  7. Structural and Informal Knowledge Acquisition and Dissemination in Organizational Learning: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Siu Loon; McShane, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of organizational learning is populated with many theories and models; many relate to the enduring organizational learning framework consisting of knowledge acquisition, knowledge dissemination, and knowledge use. However, most of the research either emphasizes structural knowledge acquisition and dissemination as a composite…

  8. Assessment of Language Learners' Strategies: Do They Prefer Learning or Acquisition Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate learning and acquisition strategies used by second/foreign language learners. This study is a comparative investigation of learning and acquisition strategies of successful and less successful language learners. The main question of the study is to investigate if there is a relationship between the learners'…

  9. Capturing learning effects on eye movements in repeated measures experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Martin; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Fiedler, Susann

    We propose and illustrate that repeated exposure to stimuli sets increases the size of the saccade amplitudes. Saccadic amplitudes are closely related to the perceptual span and therefore used as a measure for the information intake in an experiment. Studies on expertise have shown that experts...... experiment in which 68 participants made choices between four alternatives with three different between subject conditions varying in presentation format (verbal matrix, a pictorial matrix, and a realistic product representation). The results consistently demonstrate an increase of the saccade amplitude over...... the course of the experiment independent of condition. We conclude by discussing our results in the light of the possible increase of the perceptual span and its implications for the research procedure in eye-tracking experiments with a repeated measurement design....

  10. Effects of Situated Learning on Students' Knowledge Acquisition: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of situated learning on students' knowledge acquisition by investigating the influence of individual differences in such learning. Seventy-nine graduates were recruited from an educational department and were assigned to situated learning and traditional learning based on a randomized block design. Results…

  11. Effect of repeated morphine withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol level in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Matinfar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the serious problems that opioid addicted people are facing is repeated withdrawal syndrome that is accompanying with a significant stress load for addicts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of repeated withdrawal on spatial learning, memory and serum cortisol levels in morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Male NMRI mice received morphine as daily increasing doses for 3 days. After that, the mice underwent one time or repeated spontaneous or pharmacologic (naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Then spatial learning and memory were investigated by morris water maze test, and at the end trunk blood samples were collected for measurement of serum cortisol levels. Results: The results showed that only repeated spontaneous withdrawal significantly increases escape latency ( P < 0.05, and in other models of withdrawal, spatial learning and memory were intact. The results of probe trial were intact in all groups. Radioimmunoassay showed that serum cortisol levels were increased significantly in all models of withdrawal ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 except the repeated spontaneous withdrawal. Conclusion: The results showed that short periods of withdrawal syndrome can increase serum cortisol levels; however they do not affect spatial learning and memory. Nevertheless, repeated spontaneous withdrawal can make learning slow.

  12. CLIFF COLLAPSE HAZARD FROM REPEATED MULTICOPTER UAV ACQUISITIONS: RETURN ON EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. B. Dewez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry, it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France. Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm. Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face’s geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to “high” or “medium”, though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet

  13. Cliff Collapse Hazard from Repeated Multicopter Uav Acquisitions: Return on Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, T. J. B.; Leroux, J.; Morelli, S.

    2016-06-01

    Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry), it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France). Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm). Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face's geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to "high" or "medium", though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient) and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet, from a hazard point of

  14. Acquisition capability development : Behavioral and cognitive learning perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven, M.P.G.

    2008-01-01

    With worldwide acquisition activity approaching an all-time record of $5 trillion, acquisitions are more than ever at the forefront of scholarly attention and debate. This is all the more so because piles of research have shown that the majority of acquisitions fail to live up to expectations. In th

  15. Phonetic diversity, statistical learning, and acquisition of phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, Janet B

    2003-01-01

    In learning to perceive and produce speech, children master complex language-specific patterns. Daunting language-specific variation is found both in the segmental domain and in the domain of prosody and intonation. This article reviews the challenges posed by results in phonetic typology and sociolinguistics for the theory of language acquisition. It argues that categories are initiated bottom-up from statistical modes in use of the phonetic space, and sketches how exemplar theory can be used to model the updating of categories once they are initiated. It also argues that bottom-up initiation of categories is successful thanks to the perception-production loop operating in the speech community. The behavior of this loop means that the superficial statistical properties of speech available to the infant indirectly reflect the contrastiveness and discriminability of categories in the adult grammar. The article also argues that the developing system is refined using internal feedback from type statistics over the lexicon, once the lexicon is well-developed. The application of type statistics to a system initiated with surface statistics does not cause a fundamental reorganization of the system. Instead, it exploits confluences across levels of representation which characterize human language and make bootstrapping possible.

  16. Reconciling genetic evolution and the associative learning account of mirror neurons through data-acquisition mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotem, Arnon; Kolodny, Oren

    2014-04-01

    An associative learning account of mirror neurons should not preclude genetic evolution of its underlying mechanisms. On the contrary, an associative learning framework for cognitive development should seek heritable variation in the learning rules and in the data-acquisition mechanisms that construct associative networks, demonstrating how small genetic modifications of associative elements can give rise to the evolution of complex cognition.

  17. L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

  18. Learning to use working memory: a reinforcement learning gating model of rule acquisition in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eLloyd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning to form appropriate, task-relevant working memory representations is a complex process central to cognition. Gating models frame working memory as a collection of past observations and use reinforcement learning to solve the problem of when to update these observations. Investigation of how gating models relate to brain and behavior remains, however, at an early stage. The current study sought to explore the ability of simple reinforcement learning gating models to replicate rule learning behavior in rats. Rats were trained in a maze-based spatial learning task that required animals to make trial-by-trial choices contingent upon their previous experience. Using an abstract version of this task, we tested the ability of two gating algorithms, one based on the Actor-Critic and the other on the State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA algorithm, to generate behavior consistent with the rats’. Both models produced rule-acquisition behavior consistent with the experimental data, though only the SARSA gating model mirrored faster learning following rule reversal. We also found that both gating models learned multiple strategies in solving the initial task, a property which highlights the multi-agent nature of such models and which is of importance in considering the neural basis of individual differences in behavior.

  19. Research Notes ~ Second Language Acquisition Theories as a Framework for Creating Distance Learning Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Eileen N. Ariza; Sandra Hancock

    2003-01-01

    Moore and Kearsley (1996) maintain distance educators should provide for three types of interaction: a) learner-content; b) learner-instructor; and c) learner-learner. According to interactionist second language acquisition (SLA) theories that reflect Krashen’s theory (1994) that comprehensible input is critical for second language acquisition, interaction can enhance second language acquisition and fluency. Effective output is necessary as well. We reviewed the research on distance learning ...

  20. Language Acquisition and Language Learning: Developing the System of External and Internal Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The use of three-five languages is of the greatest importance in order to form varied cooperative networks for the creation of new knowledge. Aim of the paper is to analyze the synergy between language acquisition and language learning. Materials and Methods. The search for the synergy between language acquisition and language…

  1. The Role of Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition: A selected Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes theoretical developments in the cognitive psychology of second language acquisition . One conclusion reached is that such...of John Anderson. Anderson’s theory is seen as having promise for serving as the foundation for a research model on the role of learning strategies in second language acquisition . Keywords: English as a second language.

  2. Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties? Additional language acquisition: an update for paediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Children's Acquisition of Phonology: The Learning of Acoustic Stimuli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L.

    This paper takes issue with the position that children's phoneme acquisition schedule is dictated primarily by auditory perceptual factors and suggests the alternative position that ease of production accounts for age of acquisition. It is felt that perceptual theory cannot adequately explain phonological development, e.g. three-year-olds produce…

  4. Dual-Modality Input in Repeated Reading for Foreign Language Learners with Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yeu-Ting; Todd, Andrew Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Research into dual-modality theory has long rested on the assumption that presenting input in two modalities leads to better learning outcomes. However, this may not always hold true. This study explored the possible advantages of using dual modality in repeated reading--a pedagogy often used to enhance reading development--for two literacy…

  5. Myopic Regret Avoidance: Feedback Avoidance and Learning in Repeated Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Jochen; Connolly, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Decision makers can become trapped by "myopic regret avoidance" in which rejecting feedback to avoid short-term "outcome regret" (regret associated with counterfactual outcome comparisons) leads to reduced learning and greater long-term regret over continuing poor decisions. In a series of laboratory experiments involving repeated choices among…

  6. Effect of Repeated Exposures on Word Learning in Quiet and Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiser, Kristina M.; Nelson, Peggy B.; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of repeated exposures on word learning of preschool children with and without hearing loss (HL) in quiet and noise conditions. Participants were 19 children with HL and 17 peers with normal hearing (NH). Children were introduced to 16 words: 8 in quiet and 8 in noise conditions. Production and identification scores…

  7. Dual-Modality Input in Repeated Reading for Foreign Language Learners with Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yeu-Ting; Todd, Andrew Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Research into dual-modality theory has long rested on the assumption that presenting input in two modalities leads to better learning outcomes. However, this may not always hold true. This study explored the possible advantages of using dual modality in repeated reading--a pedagogy often used to enhance reading development--for two literacy…

  8. The impact of constructivist teaching strategies on the acquisition of higher order cognition and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Alison Saricks

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the

  9. Language Learning Strategies in Second & Foreign Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEUCHI, Osamu; 竹内, 理

    1991-01-01

    This article is an attempt to the work on language learning strategies(LLS) in second & foreign language acquisiton (SFLA) research, and to give suggestions for future language learning strategies research. In the first section, I will discuss briefly the background of language learning strategies reserch, and in the ensuing sections, I will review articles on: (ⅰ) the identification & classification of language learning strategies; (ⅱ) the variables affecting the use of language learning str...

  10. Repeated Strains, Social Control, Social Learning, and Delinquency: Testing an Integrated Model of General Strain Theory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wan-Ning; Haas, Ain; Chen, Xiaojin; Pi, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    In Agnew's general strain theory, repeated strains can generate crime and delinquency by reducing social control and fostering social learning of crime. Using a sample of 615 middle-and high-school students in China, this study examines how social control and social learning variables mediate the effect of repeated strains in school and at home on…

  11. Web-based Learning and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning for psychomotor skill acquisition: perspectives of medical undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jansen; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Mackinnon, Kim; Brett, Clare; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence for the use of Web-based Learning (WBL) and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) for acquiring psychomotor skills in medical education. In this study, we surveyed medical undergraduate students attending a simulation based training session for central line insertion on their perspectives and utilization of WBL and CSCL for acquisition of a complex psychomotor skill.

  12. Is CALL Obsolete? Language Acquisition and Language Learning Revisited in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Huw; Krashen, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Huw Jarvis and Stephen Krashen ask "Is CALL Obsolete?" When the term CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) was introduced in the 1960s, the language education profession knew only about language learning, not language acquisition, and assumed the computer's primary contribution to second language acquisition…

  13. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  14. Isolating second language learning factors in a computational study of bilingual construction acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusevych, Y.; Alishahi, A.; Backus, A.M.; Bello, P.; Guarini, M.; McShane, M.; Scassellati, B.

    2014-01-01

    The study of second language acquisition (SLA) is often hindered by substantial variability in the background of learners, their learning process and the input they receive. This diversity often makes it difficult to isolate specific learning factors and study their impact on L2 development. We pres

  15. Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Wopereis, I. G. J. H., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences: Vol. 2 (pp. 419-420). Chic

  16. A Problem-Based Learning Model for Teaching the Instructional Design Business Acquisition Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Karl M.; Phillips, Timothy L.; Wanner, Janice H.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines a conceptual framework for using a problem-based learning model for teaching the Instructional Design Business Acquisition Process. Discusses writing a response to a request for proposal, developing a working prototype, orally presenting the solution, and the impact of problem-based learning on students' perception of their confidence in…

  17. Implicit Learning of Written Regularities and Its Relation to Literacy Acquisition in a Shallow Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Luciana; Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Simpson, Ian C.; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Some research on literacy acquisition suggests that implicit learning processes may be related to reading and writing proficiency in English, which is a deep orthography. However, little research has been done to determine if the same is true in shallow orthographies. Here, we investigated whether the implicit learning ability of third grade…

  18. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  19. Implicit Learning of Written Regularities and Its Relation to Literacy Acquisition in a Shallow Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Luciana; Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Simpson, Ian C.; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Some research on literacy acquisition suggests that implicit learning processes may be related to reading and writing proficiency in English, which is a deep orthography. However, little research has been done to determine if the same is true in shallow orthographies. Here, we investigated whether the implicit learning ability of third grade…

  20. Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Wopereis, I. G. J. H., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Improvising in music: A learning biography study to reveal skill acquisition. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences: Vol. 2 (pp. 419-420). Chic

  1. Effect of Cooperative Learning on the Acquisition of Second Language Rules and Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaith, G. M.; Yaghi, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of cooperative learning on Lebanese elementary students' acquisition of English-as-a-Second-Language rules and mechanics. Pretest and posttest comparison of experimental and control classes did not significantly favor cooperative learning as compared to individualistic instruction, though low achieving experimental class…

  2. Teachers’Perspective on Language Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yuan

    2013-01-01

    “Teaching how to learn”has become very popular nowadays, and it is also very important to explore language learn-ing strategies (LLS) in second language acquisition (SLA). Teachers’perspective will greatly affect the result of strategy instruction and training and how to help students acquire second language effectively is worthy researching.

  3. A Study of learning Strategies in Second language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青华; 徐婷; 张丽云

    2012-01-01

    With the concept of autonomic learning being part of the mainstream of research and practice with the field of language education, the study of learning strat-egies has been an “explosion of activity” in recent years. This paper discusses the issues covering the fundamental aspects identification and classification of learning strategies, and some inspirations to both teachers and students.

  4. Success in Second Language Learning: Exploring the Effect of Age, Aptitude and Motivation on Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Björgvin Steingrímsson 1968

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in second language acquisition have proposed a critical period in language learning for individuals from early age until puberty and argue that if language attainment does not occur within this period it will not be successful. The innateness theory which suggests a critical period for children between age 2 – 6 in learning their first language has also been applied to second language learning. This has been controversial and there is no consensus among scholars. The terms sensiti...

  5. The Computer Book of the Internal Medicine Resident: competence acquisition and achievement of learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oristrell, J; Oliva, J C; Casanovas, A; Comet, R; Jordana, R; Navarro, M

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Book of the Internal Medicine resident (CBIMR) is a computer program that was validated to analyze the acquisition of competences in teams of Internal Medicine residents. To analyze the characteristics of the rotations during the Internal Medicine residency and to identify the variables associated with the acquisition of clinical and communication skills, the achievement of learning objectives and resident satisfaction. All residents of our service (n=20) participated in the study during a period of 40 months. The CBIMR consisted of 22 self-assessment questionnaires specific for each rotation, with items on services (clinical workload, disease protocolization, resident responsibilities, learning environment, service organization and teamwork) and items on educational outcomes (acquisition of clinical and communication skills, achievement of learning objectives, overall satisfaction). Associations between services features and learning outcomes were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. An intense clinical workload, high resident responsibilities and disease protocolization were associated with the acquisition of clinical skills. High clinical competence and teamwork were both associated with better communication skills. Finally, an adequate learning environment was associated with increased clinical competence, the achievement of educational goals and resident satisfaction. Potentially modifiable variables related with the operation of clinical services had a significant impact on the acquisition of clinical and communication skills, the achievement of educational goals, and resident satisfaction during the specialized training in Internal Medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Who Deserves My Trust? Cue-Elicited Feedback Negativity Tracks Reputation Learning in Repeated Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Meng, Liang; Ma, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Trust and trustworthiness contribute to reciprocal behavior and social relationship development. To make better decisions, people need to evaluate others’ trustworthiness. They often assess this kind of reputation by learning through repeated social interactions. The present event-related potential (ERP) study explored the reputation learning process in a repeated trust game where subjects made multi-round decisions of investment to different partners. We found that subjects gradually learned to discriminate trustworthy partners from untrustworthy ones based on how often their partners reciprocated the investment, which was indicated by their own investment decisions. Besides, electrophysiological data showed that the faces of the untrustworthy partners induced larger feedback negativity (FN) amplitude than those of the trustworthy partners, but only in the late phase of the game. The ERP results corresponded with the behavioral pattern and revealed that the learned trustworthiness differentiation was coded by the cue-elicited FN component. Consistent with previous research, our findings suggest that the anterior cue-elicited FN reflects the reputation appraisal and tracks the reputation learning process in social interactions. PMID:28663727

  7. Lexical Learning in Second Language Acquisition: Optionality in the Numeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere suggests that second language acquisition (SLA) researchers should pay more attention to the distribution of a given feature in source and target languages, using the distribution of [plural] in English, Chinese and Korean to illustrate. I argue that the distribution of [definite] in English shows a similar complexity, and that this has…

  8. Lexical Learning in Second Language Acquisition: Optionality in the Numeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere suggests that second language acquisition (SLA) researchers should pay more attention to the distribution of a given feature in source and target languages, using the distribution of [plural] in English, Chinese and Korean to illustrate. I argue that the distribution of [definite] in English shows a similar complexity, and that this has…

  9. Learning Organizations: Their Importance to Systems Acquisition in DoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    warfighter capability needs and meet Better Buying Power objectives promulgated by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, which seek greater... millennials ” are yet working in acquisition organizations. Nonetheless, learning technologies serve as a gateway to both information and knowledge...the Honorable Frank Kendall, under secretary of defense for acquisition, technology, and logistics (USD[AT&L]) published the Better Buying Power 2.0

  10. An Interactive Learning Algorithm for Acquisition of Concepts Represented as CFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董韫美

    1998-01-01

    In this paper,an interactive learning algorithm of context-frmm language is presented.This algorithm is designed especially for system SAQ,which is a system for formal secification acquisition and verification.As the kernel of concept acquisition subsystem(SAQ/CL)of SAQ,the algorithm has been implemented on SUN SPARC workstation.The grammar to be obtained can represent sentence structure naturally.

  11. Acquisition Challenge: The Importance of Incompressibility in Comparing Learning Curve Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    of Akron, an MBA from Regis University, and a PhD in man- agement with a specialization in Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management...environ- ment in which competition for congressional funding is higher than ever before. On an organizational level, DoD acquisition programs have...International Journal of Production Research, 33(3), 777–794. Badiru, A. (2012). Half-life learning curves in the defense acquisition life cycle. Defense ARJ

  12. Knowledge Acquisition and Knowledge Management through E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Thennarasu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning has become increasingly hot in the past decade but is still on its way to a new pinnacle and now E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The Information and communication systems, whether networked or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum

  13. Research Notes ~ Second Language Acquisition Theories as a Framework for Creating Distance Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen N. Ariza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Moore and Kearsley (1996 maintain distance educators should provide for three types of interaction: a learner-content; b learner-instructor; and c learner-learner. According to interactionist second language acquisition (SLA theories that reflect Krashen’s theory (1994 that comprehensible input is critical for second language acquisition, interaction can enhance second language acquisition and fluency. Effective output is necessary as well. We reviewed the research on distance learning for second language learners and concluded that SLA theories can, and should, be the framework that drives the development of courses for students seeking to learn languages by distance technology. This article delineates issues to consider in support of combining SLA theories and research literature as a guide in creating distance language learning courses.

  14. The differential consolidation of perceptual and motor learning in skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgató, Emese; Győri-Dani, Dóra; Pekár, Judit; Janacsek, Karolina; Nemeth, Dezso

    2013-04-01

    Implicit skill learning is an unconscious way of learning which underlies not only motor but also cognitive and social skills. This form of learning is based on both motor and perceptual information. Although many studies have investigated the perceptual and motor components of "online" skill learning, the effect of consolidation on perceptual and motor characteristics of skill learning has not been studied to our knowledge. In our research we used a sequence learning task to determine if consolidation had the same or different effect on the perceptual and the motor components of skill acquisition. We introduced a 12-h (including or not including sleep) and a 24-h (diurnal control) delay between the learning and the testing phase with AM-PM, PM-AM, AM-AM and PM-PM groups, in order to examine whether the offline period had differential effects on perceptual and motor learning. Although both perceptual and motor learning were significant in the testing phase, results showed that motor knowledge transfers more effectively than perceptual knowledge during the offline period, irrespective of whether sleep occurred or not and whether there was a 12- or 24-h delay period between the learning and the testing phase. These results have important implications for the debate concerning perceptual/motor learning and the role of sleep in skill acquisition.

  15. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  16. Skill acquisition of manual wheelchair propulsion: initial motor learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, R.J.K.; Lamoth, C.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.; De Groot, S.; Van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in propulsion technique due to motor learning might account for a higher mechanical efficiency (ME, the ratio of internal power over external power). The changes in ME and propulsion technique were studied in a learning experiment, three times a week for eight minutes, with nine able-bodied

  17. Understanding of Acquisition and Learning in English teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉阳

    2015-01-01

    Instruction English language attracts worldwide attention,because of its important communication function for international economic business,education,political affairs,and other global matters concerned.Therefore,there is an increasing number of people who are learning or start to learn English language,however,for the majority of the second(or foreign)language learners,they still feel

  18. Knowledge acquisition and interface design for learning on demand systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wayne A.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid changes in our world precipitated by technology have created new problems and new challenges for education and training. A knowledge 'explosion' is occurring as our society moves toward a service oriented economy that relies on information as the major resource. Complex computer systems are beginning to dominate the workplace, causing alarming growth and change in many fields. The rapidly changing nature of the workplace, especially in fields related to information technology, requires that our knowledge be updated constantly. This characteristic of modern society poses seemingly unsolvable instructional problems involving coverage and obsolescence. The sheer amount of information to be learned is rapidly increasing, while at the same time some information becomes obsolete in light of new information. Education, therefore, must become a lifelong process that features learning of new material and skills as needed in relation to the job to be done. Because of the problems cited above, the current model of learning in advance may no longer be feasible in our high-technology world. In many cases, learning in advance is impossible because there are simply too many things to learn. In addition, learning in advance can be time consuming, and often results in decontextualized knowledge that does not readily transfer to the work environment. The large and growing discrepancy between the amount of potentially relevant knowledge available and the amount a person can know and remember makes learning on demand an important alternative to current instructional practices. Learning on demand takes place whenever an individual must learn something new in order to perform a task or make a decision. Learning on demand is a promising approach for addressing the problems of coverage and obsolescence because learning is contextualized and integrated into the task environment rather than being relegated to a separate phase that precedes work. Learning on demand allows learners

  19. A Theory of Language Acquisition Based on General Learning Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-17

    N00014.79.C.ES1 from the Office of Naval Research. I would like to thank Steven Pinker , Lynne Reder, and Miriam Schustack for their comments on earlier...has its background in past work on language acquisition (for reviews, see Anderson, 1976; Pinker , 1979--see also Langley, 1981), especially in my...policy in that rules are quite specific to various lexical items (Bresnan, 1981; Maratsos & Chalkley, 1980; Pinker , 1981). This also is exactly how

  20. Effects of repeated walking in a perturbing environment: a 4-day locomotor learning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Andreanne; Moffet, Helene; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that when subjects repeatedly walk in a perturbing environment, initial movement error becomes smaller, suggesting that retention of the adapted locomotor program occurred (learning). It has been proposed that the newly learned locomotor program may be stored separately from the baseline program. However, how locomotor performance evolves with repeated sessions of walking with the perturbation is not yet known. To address this question, 10 healthy subjects walked on a treadmill on 4 consecutive days. Each day, locomotor performance was measured using kinematics and surface electromyography (EMGs), before, during, and after exposure to a perturbation, produced by an elastic tubing that pulled the foot forward and up during swing, inducing a foot velocity error in the first strides. Initial movement error decreased significantly between days 1 and 2 and then remained stable. Associated changes in medial hamstring EMG activity stabilized only on day 3, however. Aftereffects were present after perturbation removal, suggesting that daily adaptation involved central command recalibration of the baseline program. Aftereffects gradually decreased across days but were still visible on day 4. Separation between the newly learned and baseline programs may take longer than suggested by the daily improvement in initial performance in the perturbing environment or may never be complete. These results therefore suggest that reaching optimal performance in a perturbing environment should not be used as the main indicator of a completed learning process, as central reorganization of the motor commands continues days after initial performance has stabilized.

  1. Acquisition versus consolidation of auditory perceptual learning using mixed-training regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David W; Kang, HiJee; Gill, Emma C; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Learning is considered to consist of two distinct phases-acquisition and consolidation. Acquisition can be disrupted when short periods of training on more than one task are interleaved, whereas consolidation can be disrupted when a second task is trained after the first has been initiated. Here we investigated the conditions governing the disruption to acquisition and consolidation during mixed-training regimens in which primary and secondary amplitude modulation tasks were either interleaved or presented consecutively. The secondary task differed from the primary task in either task-irrelevant (carrier frequency) or task-relevant (modulation rate) stimulus features while requiring the same perceptual judgment (amplitude modulation depth discrimination), or shared both irrelevant and relevant features but required a different judgment (amplitude modulation rate discrimination). Based on previous literature we predicted that acquisition would be disrupted by varying the task-relevant stimulus feature during training (stimulus interference), and that consolidation would be disrupted by varying the perceptual judgment required (task interference). We found that varying the task-relevant or -irrelevant stimulus features failed to disrupt acquisition but did disrupt consolidation, whereas mixing two tasks requiring a different perceptual judgment but sharing the same stimulus features disrupted both acquisition and consolidation. Thus, a distinction between acquisition and consolidation phases of perceptual learning cannot simply be attributed to (task-relevant) stimulus versus task interference. We propose instead that disruption occurs during acquisition when mixing two tasks requiring a perceptual judgment based on different cues, whereas consolidation is always disrupted regardless of whether different stimulus features or tasks are mixed. The current study not only provides a novel insight into the underlying mechanisms of perceptual learning, but also has

  2. Inhibiting DNA methylation alters olfactory extinction but not acquisition learning in Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwen; Wang, Chao; Nieh, James C; Tan, Ken

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in invertebrate acquisition and extinction memory. Honey bees have excellent olfactory learning, but the role of DNA methylation in memory formation has, to date, only been studied in Apis mellifera. We inhibited DNA methylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with zebularine (zeb) and studied the resulting effects upon olfactory acquisition and extinction memory in two honey bee species, Apis cerana and A. mellifera. We used the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay to measure memory. We provide the first demonstration that DNA methylation is also important in the olfactory extinction learning of A. cerana. DNMT did not reduce acquisition learning in either species. However, zeb bidirectionally and differentially altered extinction learning in both species. In particular, zeb provided 1h before acquisition learning improved extinction memory retention in A. mellifera, but reduced extinction memory retention in A. cerana. The reasons for these differences are unclear, but provide a basis for future studies to explore species-specific differences in the effects of methylation on memory formation.

  3. Acquisition and Retention of STEM Concepts through Inquiry Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Candice

    This study explores the integration of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) concepts through inquiry based learning. Students are exposed to a constructivist style learning environment where they create understanding for themselves. This way of learning lets students plan and justify their ideas and beliefs while discussing and examining the ideas of their classmates. Students are engaged in solving a scientific problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner through hypothesis testing, experimentation, and investigation. This mode of learning introduces students to real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The focus of the unit is for the students to create connections and understanding about geography and the globe in order to ultimately identify the exact latitude and longitude of 10 mystery sites. The students learn about latitude and longitude and apply their knowledge through a set of clues to determine where their Mystery Class is located. Journey North provides an internationally accessed game of hide-and-seek called Mystery Class Seasons Challenge. Throughout this challenge, over the course of eleven weeks, students will record, graph, interpret and analysis data and research to ultimate identify the location of ten mystery locations. Students will track seasonal changes in sunlight while investigating, examining and researching clues to find these ten secret sites around the world. My research was done to prove the success of students' ability to learn new mathematics, science, technology and engineering concepts through inquiry based design.

  4. From Krashen to Porcher: The Duo Acquisition/Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Viglioglia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we take into account the following factors characterizing the learning/teaching process of a foreign language: implicit and explicit learning/teaching, as well as awareness of teachers and learners about learning/teaching strategies in the light of information provided by the communicative method of Krashen and Porcher. The aforementioned factors are understood as central to approaches and integrated teaching methods wishing to address the complexities of teaching a foreign language. The understanding of a foreign language-culture or rather the internalization of an non-own system - and participation to the values shared by another group are, despite appearances, among the most difficult skills to integrate to learning "off natural production environment" ie learning driven. What are the roles, styles and strategies of teachers and learners in the learning/teaching process?   DA KRASHEN A PORCHER: IL BINOMIO ACQUISIZIONE/APPRENDIMENTO In questo articolo vengono presi in considerazione i seguenti fattori caratterizzanti il processo di apprendimento/insegnamento di una lingua straniera: apprendimento/insegnamento implicito ed esplicito, nonché consapevolezza degli insegnanti e degli apprendenti riguardo alle strategie di insegnamento/apprendimento, alla luce delle indicazioni fornite dal metodo e dell’approccio comunicativo di Krashen e Porcher. I fattori sopramenzionati vengono intesi come centrali ad approcci e metodi didattici integrati che intendano affrontare la complessità dell’insegnamento di una lingua straniera. La comprensione di una lingua-cultura straniera o meglio l’interiorizzazione di un sistema non proprio - e la partecipazione ai valori condivisi da un altro gruppo sono nonostante le apparenze tra le competenze più difficili da integrare nell’apprendimento “fuori contesto naturale di produzione” ossia nell’apprendimento guidato. Quali sono i ruoli, gli stili e le strategie dei docenti e degli

  5. A Comparison of Krashen's L2 Acquisition/Learning Theory and Lozanov's Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, H. Ludolph; Puhl, Carol A.

    Stephen Krashen's L2 (Second Language) Acquisition/Learning Theory and Georgi Lozanov's method of teaching through suggestion are compared in both their underlying theories and classroom applications. The seven component hypotheses of Krashen's theory and their neurological implications are analyzed for their agreement or disagreement with the…

  6. Experimental Evidence of the Relative Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning for Knowledge Acquisition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Marit; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Schaap, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on knowledge acquisition and knowledge retention in a controlled experiment in a lab setting. Eighty-eight first-year psychology students were randomly assigned to either a PBL condition, a lecture condition, or a self-study condition. All participants had the opportunity to study…

  7. LATIST: A Performance Support Tool for Integrating Technologies into Defense Acquisition University Learning Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    is exemplified through its Performance Learning Model ( PLM ) (DAU, 2010, p. 28). The three pillars of the PLM (Career Development, Job Perfor- mance...University. (2010). Defense Acquisition University 2010 catalog. Retrieved from http://icatalog.dau.mil/onlinecatalog/doc/Catalog2010. pdf Department of

  8. A Comparison of Krashen's L2 Acquisition/Learning Theory and Lozanov's Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, H. Ludolph; Puhl, Carol A.

    Stephen Krashen's L2 (Second Language) Acquisition/Learning Theory and Georgi Lozanov's method of teaching through suggestion are compared in both their underlying theories and classroom applications. The seven component hypotheses of Krashen's theory and their neurological implications are analyzed for their agreement or disagreement with the…

  9. Structuring Narrative in 3D Digital Game-Based Learning Environments to Support Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, David O.

    2010-01-01

    The essay is a conceptual analysis from an instructional design perspective exploring the feasibility of using three-dimensional digital game-based learning (3D-DGBL) environments to assist in second language acquisition (SLA). It examines the shared characteristics of narrative within theories of situated cognition, context-based approaches to…

  10. "Language Learning" Roundtable: Memory and Second Language Acquisition 2012, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhisheng; McNeill, Arthur; Mota, Mailce Borges

    2014-01-01

    Organized under the auspices of the "Language Learning" Roundtable Conference Grant (2012), this seminar aimed to provide an interactive forum for a group of second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with particular interests in cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics to discuss key theoretical and methodological issues in the…

  11. The Acquisition of Sociolinguistic Evaluations among Polish-Born Adolescents Learning English: Evidence from Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lynn; Schleef, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve full native-like competence in a second language, speakers must also acquire sociolinguistic awareness in that language. This paper reports the results of a study investigating the acquisition of sociolinguistic awareness among immigrant Polish adolescents learning English in the UK. This paper asks whether Polish-born…

  12. Playing to Learn: A Review of Physical Games in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Brian; Masuhara, Hitomi

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the potential of competitive games involving physical movement to facilitate the acquisition of a second or foreign language and argues that such activities can promote educational development too. It first provides a critical overview of the literature on physical games in language learning. Then, it outlines our…

  13. A Changing Pedagogy in E-Learning: From Acquisition to Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Wim; Collis, Betty

    2002-01-01

    Conceptualizes the pedagogical shift, driven by Web-based technology, from students being contributors to, in addition to consumers of, learning materials in terms of a move from an acquisition orientation to a contribution orientation. Describes a Web-supported course as an example of this contribution-oriented pedagogy as well as of other…

  14. The Impact of Simulation-Based Learning Experience on Critical Thinking Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Candice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative experimental project was to compare the impact of simulation-based learning experiences to traditional clinical rotations on critical thinking acquisition of associate nursing students within a maternal-child course. Innovative pedagogies have been integrated in nursing programs to augment inadequate clinical…

  15. "Language Learning" Roundtable: Memory and Second Language Acquisition 2012, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhisheng; McNeill, Arthur; Mota, Mailce Borges

    2014-01-01

    Organized under the auspices of the "Language Learning" Roundtable Conference Grant (2012), this seminar aimed to provide an interactive forum for a group of second language acquisition (SLA) researchers with particular interests in cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics to discuss key theoretical and methodological issues in the…

  16. Age and Second Language Acquisition in Adulthood: The Learning Experiences and Perceptions of Women Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    Presents 30 adult Chinese immigrant women's accounts of their experiences with, and perceptions of, learning English as a Second Language in Canada. Results from interviews with two age groups of adult women reveal the complexity of adult second-language acquisition, which involves factors pertaining both to the learners, and to the social context…

  17. More than Words: Fast Acquisition and Generalization of Orthographic Regularities during Novel Word Learning in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Matti; Polonyi, Tünde; Abari, Kálmán

    2014-01-01

    In literates, reading is a fundamental channel for acquiring new vocabulary both in the mother tongue and in foreign languages. By using an artificial language learning task, we examined the acquisition of novel written words and their embedded regularities (an orthographic surface feature and a syllabic feature) in three groups of university…

  18. Instruction and Learning Styles&Strategies in Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾瑾

    2012-01-01

      Based on the current reality of L2 learners in China, this study focuses on the relationship betweenindividual differences and languageteaching instructionin theEFL context ofChina. Thispaper firstly introducesthe theoriesand previousrelevant research results onthis area. Thenthe learners’varietyof learning stylesand strategies areanalyzed. Also theelaboration on theEFL learners’ differentpersonalityandrelated languageinstructionis discussedforfurther understandingof thesignificanceof thisstudy. Lastly,the results of this paper showed that the right and matching instruction contributes to the language learning and lasting the learners’ memoryafterlearning.

  19. Behaviorally inhibited individuals demonstrate significantly enhanced conditioned response acquisition under non-optimal learning conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J L; Allen, M T; Myers, C E; Servatius, R J

    2014-03-15

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an anxiety vulnerability factor associated with hypervigilance to novel stimuli, threat, and ambiguous cues. The progression from anxiety risk to a clinical disorder is unknown, although the acquisition of defensive learning and avoidance may be a critical feature. As the expression of avoidance is also central to anxiety development, the present study examined avoidance acquisition as a function of inhibited temperament using classical eyeblink conditioning. Individuals were classified as behaviorally inhibited (BI) or non-inhibited (NI) based on combined scores from the Adult and Retrospective Measures of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI and RMBI, respectively). Acquisition was assessed using delay, omission, or yoked conditioning schedules of reinforcement. Omission training was identical to delay, except that the emission of an eyeblink conditioned response (CR) resulted in omission of the unconditioned airpuff stimulus (US) on that trial. Each subject in the yoked group was matched on total BI score to a subject in the omission group, and received the same schedule of CS and US delivery, resulting in a partial reinforcement training schedule. Delay conditioning elicited significantly more CRs compared to the omission and yoked contingencies, the latter two of which did not differ from each other. Thus, acquisition of an avoidance response was not apparent. BI individuals demonstrated enhanced acquisition overall, while partial reinforcement training significantly distinguished between BI and NI groups. Enhanced learning in BI may be a function of an increased defensive learning capacity, or sensitivity to uncertainty. Further work examining the influence of BI on learning acquisition is important for understanding individual differences in disorder etiology in anxiety vulnerable cohorts.

  20. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  1. Declarative Knowledge Acquisition in Immersive Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rustin

    2016-01-01

    The author investigated the interaction effect of immersive virtual reality (VR) in the classroom. The objective of the project was to develop and provide a low-cost, scalable, and portable VR system containing purposely designed and developed immersive virtual learning environments for the US Army. The purpose of the mixed design experiment was…

  2. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  3. Impact of online visual feedback on motor acquisition and retention when learning to reach in a force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcho, C S; Gagné, M; Bouyer, L J; Roy, J S; Mercier, C

    2016-11-19

    When subjects learn a novel motor task, several sources of feedback (proprioceptive, visual or auditory) contribute to the performance. Over the past few years, several studies have investigated the role of visual feedback in motor learning, yet evidence remains conflicting. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of online visual feedback (VFb) on the acquisition and retention stages of motor learning associated with training in a reaching task. Thirty healthy subjects made ballistic reaching movements with their dominant arm toward two targets, on 2 consecutive days using a robotized exoskeleton (KINARM). They were randomly assigned to a group with (VFb) or without (NoVFb) VFb of index position during movement. On day 1, the task was performed before (baseline) and during the application of a velocity-dependent resistive force field (adaptation). To assess retention, participants repeated the task with the force field on day 2. Motor learning was characterized by: (1) the final endpoint error (movement accuracy) and (2) the initial angle (iANG) of deviation (motor planning). Even though both groups showed motor adaptation, the NoVFb-group exhibited slower learning and higher final endpoint error than the VFb-group. In some condition, subjects trained without visual feedback used more curved initial trajectories to anticipate for the perturbation. This observation suggests that learning to reach targets in a velocity-dependent resistive force field is possible even when feedback is limited. However, the absence of VFb leads to different strategies that were only apparent when reaching toward the most challenging target.

  4. Research on the FFT Fast Acquisition Method to Suppress Repeater Spoofing Interferences%抗转发干扰FFT快速捕获方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚文飞; 孙昕

    2011-01-01

    The problem of suppressing the repeater spoofing interferences effectively has become a must for the design of military anti-jamming satellite navigation receivers. By analyzing the code phase characteristic of satellite signals and repeater spoofing interferences, this research proposes a method of FFT fast acquisition of long code based on delay-waiting strategy. The method distinguishes satellite signals from repeater spoofing interferences according to the code phase information of the correlation peak whose amplitude is above the threshold. Thus the acquisition performance in the scene of repeater spoofing interferences can meet the demand without degradation in normal conditions. The theory analysis and simulation results validate the effectiveness of proposed method.%为了解决有效抑制转发式干扰问题,根据转发干扰信号的码相位滞后于卫星导航信号的特点,结合快速傅里叶变换(FFT)快速捕获的二维搜索策略,提出基于延迟-等待捕获策略的抗转发干扰FFT快速捕获方法.该方法根据过门限峰值的码相位信息来区分判别卫星导航信号和转发干扰信号,在不影响接收机在无转发干扰正常工作的条件下,保证了接收机在转发干扰下的捕获性能.理论分析和仿真实验验证了该方法的有效性.

  5. Effect of tonic pain on motor acquisition and retention while learning to reach in a force field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Lamothe

    Full Text Available Most patients receiving intensive rehabilitation to improve their upper limb function experience pain. Despite this, the impact of pain on the ability to learn a specific motor task is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of experimental tonic pain interferes with the acquisition and retention stages of motor learning associated with training in a reaching task. Twenty-nine healthy subjects were randomized to either a Control or Pain Group (receiving topical capsaicin cream on the upper arm during training on Day 1. On two consecutive days, subjects made ballistic movements towards two targets (NEAR/FAR using a robotized exoskeleton. On Day 1, the task was performed without (baseline and with a force field (adaptation. The adaptation task was repeated on Day 2. Task performance was assessed using index distance from the target at the end of the reaching movement. Motor planning was assessed using initial angle of deviation of index trajectory from a straight line to the target. Results show that tonic pain did not affect baseline reaching. Both groups improved task performance across time (p<0.001, but the Pain group showed a larger final error (under-compensation than the Control group for the FAR target (p = 0.030 during both acquisition and retention. Moreover, a Group x Time interaction (p = 0.028 was observed on initial angle of deviation, suggesting that subjects with Pain made larger adjustments in the feedforward component of the movement over time. Interestingly, behaviour of the Pain group was very stable from the end of Day 1 (with pain to the beginning of Day 2 (pain-free, indicating that the differences observed could not solely be explained by the impact of pain on immediate performance. This suggests that if people learn to move differently in the presence of pain, they might maintain this altered strategy over time.

  6. Evidence for perceptual learning with repeated stimulation after partial and total cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevethan, Ceri T; Urquhart, James; Ward, Richard; Gentleman, Douglas; Sahraie, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Lesions of occipital cortex result in loss of sight in the corresponding regions of visual fields. The traditional view that, apart from some spontaneous recovery in the acute phase, field defects remain permanently and irreversibly blind, has been challenged. In patients with partial field loss, a range of residual visual abilities in the absence of conscious perception (blindsight) has been demonstrated (Weiskrantz, 1986). Recent findings (Sahraie et al., 2006, 2010) have also demonstrated increased visual sensitivity in the field defect following repeated stimulation. We aimed to extend these findings by systematically exploring whether repeated stimulation can also lead to increased visual sensitivity in two cases with total (bilateral) cortical blindness. In addition, for a case of partial blindness, we examined the extent of the recovery as a function of stimulated region of the visual field, over extended periods of visual training. Positive auditory feedback was provided during the training task for correct detection of a spatial grating pattern presented at specific retinotopic locations using a temporal two alternative forced-choice paradigm (Neuro-Eye Therapy). All three cases showed improved visual sensitivity with repeated stimulation. The findings indicate that perceptual learning can occur through systematic visual field stimulation even in cases of bilateral cortical blindness.

  7. A Study on Students Acquisition of IT Knowledge and Its Implication on M-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balavivekanandhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The boom in mobile technology has seen a dramatic rise in its usage. This has led to usage of mobiles even in the academic context for further learning. Although the advantages of m-learning (mobile learning are visible, studies are required to address the aspects that shape its virtual expectations. The acceptance of mobile technology relies mostly on how the students feel about mobile technology fitting into their requirements. Yet, in spite of the significance in the potential of m-learning, research studies have only inadequate data to identify the factors that influence their decision to adapt the mobile technology for the purpose of learning. To deal with this space, the present study was undertaken to correlate the IT skills of students with their impact on their acceptance of m-learning. The research study found that the perceived usability along with the usefulness of m-learning impacts the association between IT expertise and the objective of learners’ acceptance of m-learning. A survey of 892 students from Engineering, Arts, and Science Colleges found that IT skills influence student’s acquisition of m-learning technology. Specialized and advanced skills in mobile technology along with basic skills play a significant role in influencing a student to accept m-learning. But no specific substantiation has been established to support the statement that highly developed IT skills have influenced the students to accept m-learning.

  8. A Study on Students Acquisition of IT Knowledge and Its Implication on M-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balavivekanandhan, A; Arulchelvan, S

    2015-01-01

    The boom in mobile technology has seen a dramatic rise in its usage. This has led to usage of mobiles even in the academic context for further learning. Although the advantages of m-learning (mobile learning) are visible, studies are required to address the aspects that shape its virtual expectations. The acceptance of mobile technology relies mostly on how the students feel about mobile technology fitting into their requirements. Yet, in spite of the significance in the potential of m-learning, research studies have only inadequate data to identify the factors that influence their decision to adapt the mobile technology for the purpose of learning. To deal with this space, the present study was undertaken to correlate the IT skills of students with their impact on their acceptance of m-learning. The research study found that the perceived usability along with the usefulness of m-learning impacts the association between IT expertise and the objective of learners' acceptance of m-learning. A survey of 892 students from Engineering, Arts, and Science Colleges found that IT skills influence student's acquisition of m-learning technology. Specialized and advanced skills in mobile technology along with basic skills play a significant role in influencing a student to accept m-learning. But no specific substantiation has been established to support the statement that highly developed IT skills have influenced the students to accept m-learning.

  9. Scenes of an acquisition and learning process of French by a native speaker of Brazilian Portuguese: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Maranúbia Pereira; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Durão, Adja Balbino de Amorim Barbieri; Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2008-01-01

    This article approaches some aspects of the acquisition/learning process of a native speaker of Brazilian Portuguese whose learning of French language took place in the country where this language had its origin, France. Inserted directly in the foreign context, this informant is an example of the complicated process of acquisition/learning of a second language concerning linguistic and sociocultural aspects. By using descriptive analysis of Portuguese (L1) and French (L2), as well as a descr...

  10. Improvements in Anatomy Knowledge When Utilizing a Novel Cyclical "Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat" Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Hutchinson, Joseph; Thandi, Charankumal S.; Keenan, Iain D.

    2017-01-01

    Innovative educational strategies can provide variety and enhance student learning while addressing complex logistical and financial issues facing modern anatomy education. "Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat" (ORDER), a novel cyclical artistic process, has been designed based on cognitivist and constructivist learning theories, and on…

  11. Improvements in Anatomy Knowledge When Utilizing a Novel Cyclical "Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat" Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Hutchinson, Joseph; Thandi, Charankumal S.; Keenan, Iain D.

    2017-01-01

    Innovative educational strategies can provide variety and enhance student learning while addressing complex logistical and financial issues facing modern anatomy education. "Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat" (ORDER), a novel cyclical artistic process, has been designed based on cognitivist and constructivist learning theories, and on…

  12. Medical students’ perceptions of using e-learning to enhance the acquisition of consulting skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnecke E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study aims to evaluate medical students’ perception ofthe usefulness and effectiveness of an e-learning packagedeveloped to enhance the acquisition of consulting skills.MethodA survey with mixed method data analysis was conducted.Participants were 67 medical students completing theirthird year primary care rotation as part of a five-year degreeat the University of Tasmania. Participants completed a 10question anonymous online survey after using the elearningpackageResultsOf the participants, 92% found it enjoyable and 95% foundthe e-learning package useful; 75% perceived it to beeffective in increasing their performance and 91% believedit increased their knowledge in consulting skills. Benefits forparticipants’ confidence, style and structure of consultingskills were found.ConclusionParticipants found the e-learning package to be enjoyableand effective. E-learning should be further utilised in ablended learning environment to support face-to-faceteaching in consulting skills.

  13. Learning the language of time: Children's acquisition of duration words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Katharine A; Barner, David

    2015-05-01

    Children use time words like minute and hour early in development, but take years to acquire their precise meanings. Here we investigate whether children assign meaning to these early usages, and if so, how. To do this, we test their interpretation of seven time words: second, minute, hour, day, week, month, and year. We find that preschoolers infer the orderings of time words (e.g., hour>minute), but have little to no knowledge of the absolute durations they encode. Knowledge of absolute duration is learned much later in development - many years after children first start using time words in speech - and in many children does not emerge until they have acquired formal definitions for the words. We conclude that associating words with the perception of duration does not come naturally to children, and that early intuitive meanings of time words are instead rooted in relative orderings, which children may infer from their use in speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pedagogy of Notation: Learning Styles Using a Constructivist, Second-Language Acquisition Approach to Dance Notation Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Teresa L.

    2015-01-01

    Four undergraduate dance majors learned Motif Notation and Labanotation using a second-language acquisition, playful, constructivist approach to learning notation literacy in order to learn and dance the "Parsons Etude." Qualitative outcomes were gathered from student journals and pre- and post-tests that assessed for levels of improved…

  15. Pedagogy of Notation: Learning Styles Using a Constructivist, Second-Language Acquisition Approach to Dance Notation Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Teresa L.

    2015-01-01

    Four undergraduate dance majors learned Motif Notation and Labanotation using a second-language acquisition, playful, constructivist approach to learning notation literacy in order to learn and dance the "Parsons Etude." Qualitative outcomes were gathered from student journals and pre- and post-tests that assessed for levels of improved…

  16. Feedforward self-modeling enhances skill acquisition in children learning trampoline skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M. Ste-Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine whether children would benefit from a feedforward self-modeling (FSM video and to explore possible explanatory mechanisms for the potential benefits, using a self-regulation framework. To this end, children were involved in learning two five-skill trampoline routines. For one of the routines, a FSM video was provided during acquisition, whereas only verbal instructions were provided for the alternate routine. The FSM involved editing video footage such that it showed the learner performing the trampoline routine at a higher skill level than their current capability. Analyses of the data showed that while physical performance benefits were observed for the routine that was learned with the FSM video, no differences were obtained in relation to the self-regulatory measures. Thus, the FSM video enhanced motor skill acquisition, but this could not be explained by changes to the varied self-regulatory processes examined.

  17. The history of imitation in learning theory: the language acquisition process.

    OpenAIRE

    Kymissis, E; Poulson, C L

    1990-01-01

    The concept of imitation has undergone different analyses in the hands of different learning theorists throughout the history of psychology. From Thorndike's connectionism to Pavlov's classical conditioning, Hull's monistic theory, Mowrer's two-factor theory, and Skinner's operant theory, there have been several divergent accounts of the conditions that produce imitation and the conditions under which imitation itself may facilitate language acquisition. In tracing the roots of the concept of...

  18. A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Spatio-Temporal Prediction and Uncertainty Assessment Using Repeat LiDAR Acquisitions for the Kenai Peninsula, AK, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, C. R.; Andersen, H. E.; Finley, A. O.; Cook, B.; Morton, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Models using repeat LiDAR and field campaigns may be one mechanism to monitor carbon storage and flux in forested regions. Considering the ability of multi-temporal LiDAR to estimate growth, it is not surprising that there is great interest in developing forest carbon monitoring strategies that rely on repeated LiDAR acquisitions. Allowing for sparser field campaigns, LiDAR stands to make monitoring forest carbon cheaper and more efficient than field-only sampling procedures. Here, we look to the spatio-temporally data-rich Kenai Peninsula in Alaska to examine the potential for Bayesian spatio-temporal mapping of forest carbon storage and uncertainty. The framework explored here can predict forest carbon through space and time, while formally propagating uncertainty through to prediction. Bayesian spatio-temporal models are flexible frameworks allowing for forest growth processes to be formally integrated into the model. By incorporating a mechanism for growth---using temporally repeated field and LiDAR data---we can more fully exploit the information-rich inventory network to improve prediction accuracy. LiDAR data for the Kenai Peninsula has been collected on four different occasions---spatially coincident LiDAR strip samples in 2004, 09 and 14, along with a wall-to-wall collection in 2008. There were 436 plots measured twice between 2002 and 2014. LiDAR was acquired at least once over most inventory plots with many having LiDAR collected during 2, 3 or 4 different campaigns. Results from this research will impact how forests are inventoried. It is too expensive to monitor terrestrial carbon using field-only sampling strategies and currently proposed LiDAR model-based techniques lack the ability to properly utilize temporally repeated and misaligned data. Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal models offer a solution to these shortcomings and allow for formal predictive error assessment, which is useful for policy development and decision making.

  19. The effect of pose variability and repeated reliability of segmental centres of mass acquisition when using 3D photonic scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chuang-Yuan; Pease, David L; Sanders, Ross H

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic scanning is an emerging technique to acquire accurate body segment parameter data. This study established the repeated reliability of segmental centres of mass when using 3D photonic scanning (3DPS). Seventeen male participants were scanned twice by a 3D whole-body laser scanner. The same operators conducted the reconstruction and segmentation processes to obtain segmental meshes for calculating the segmental centres of mass. The segmental centres of mass obtained from repeated 3DPS were compared by relative technical error of measurement (TEM). Hypothesis tests were conducted to determine the size of change required for each segment to be determined a true variation. The relative TEMs for all segments were less than 5%. The relative changes in centres of mass at ±1.5% for most segments can be detected (p 3D photonic scanning and emphasised that the error for arm segments need to be considered while using this technique to acquire centres of mass.

  20. Six Tentative Approaches to Culture Acquisition in English Learning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝兴

    2012-01-01

      EFL teachers in China have come to realize that EFL teaching does not stop at the students' linguistic competence, but should go on to develop their communicative competence. To achieve this,it is essential for both teachers and students to be conscious of the sociolin-guistic functions of languages and take measures to increase their cultural awareness. Therefore, this article suggests some tentative approaches to culture acquisition in English learning,in the hope of increasing efficiency of English learning for the Chinese students.

  1. The retreat from overgeneralization in child language acquisition: word learning, morphology, and verb argument structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M; Rowland, Caroline F; Chang, Franklin; Bidgood, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This review investigates empirical evidence for different theoretical proposals regarding the retreat from overgeneralization errors in three domains: word learning (e.g., *doggie to refer to all animals), morphology [e.g., *spyer, *cooker (one who spies/cooks), *unhate, *unsqueeze, *sitted; *drawed], and verb argument structure [e.g., *Don't giggle me (c.f. Don't make me giggle); *Don't say me that (c.f. Don't say that to me)]. The evidence reviewed provides support for three proposals. First, in support of the pre-emption hypothesis, the acquisition of competing forms that express the desired meaning (e.g., spy for *spyer, sat for *sitted, and Don't make me giggle for *Don't giggle me) appears to block errors. Second, in support of the entrenchment hypothesis, repeated occurrence of particular items in particular constructions (e.g., giggle in the intransitive construction) appears to contribute to an ever strengthening probabilistic inference that non-attested uses (e.g., *Don't giggle me) are ungrammatical for adult speakers. That is, both the rated acceptability and production probability of particular errors decline with increasing frequency of pre-empting and entrenching forms in the input. Third, learners appear to acquire semantic and morphophonological constraints on particular constructions, conceptualized as properties of slots in constructions [e.g., the (VERB) slot in the morphological un-(VERB) construction or the transitive-causative (SUBJECT) (VERB) (OBJECT) argument-structure construction]. Errors occur as children acquire the fine-grained semantic and morphophonological properties of particular items and construction slots, and so become increasingly reluctant to use items in slots with which they are incompatible. Findings also suggest some role for adult feedback and conventionality; the principle that, for many given meanings, there is a conventional form that is used by all members of the speech community. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:47-62. doi

  2. Repeated Auctions with Learning for Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhu; Poor, Vincent H

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, spectrum access in cognitive radio networks is modeled as a repeated auction game subject to monitoring and entry costs. For secondary users, sensing costs are incurred as the result of primary users' activity. Furthermore, each secondary user pays the cost of transmissions upon successful bidding for a channel. Knowledge regarding other secondary users' activity is limited due to the distributed nature of the network. The resulting formulation is thus a dynamic game with incomplete information. In this paper, an efficient bidding learning algorithm is proposed based on the outcome of past transactions. As demonstrated through extensive simulations, the proposed distributed scheme outperforms a myopic one-stage algorithm, and can achieve a good balance between efficiency and fairness.

  3. Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based on Repeat-Cycle Asymptotic Self-Learning and Self-Evolving Disturbance for Function Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Jie-sheng Wang; Shu-xia Li; Jiang-di Song

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve convergence velocity and optimization accuracy of the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm for solving the function optimization problems, a new improved cuckoo search algorithm based on the repeat-cycle asymptotic self-learning and self-evolving disturbance (RC-SSCS) is proposed. A disturbance operation is added into the algorithm by constructing a disturbance factor to make a more careful and thorough search near the bird’s nests location. In order to select a reasonable repeat-...

  4. Younger and Older learners'Advantages on Language Acquisition in Different Learning Settings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖信含

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether, and how, age affects L2 outcomes has been a major issue in SLA for several decades, and a number of recent publications provide reviews from different points of view. The author has made a comprehensive survey on the researches on the relationship between age and attainment in second language acquisition. Based on age differences theory, the author agrees the opinion that younger learners are more successful in informal and naturalistic L2 learning contexts, and older learners are more successful in formal instructional settings. Then, the younger learners' and older learners' advantages are discussed and put into contrastive analysis. Therefore, in second language teaching and learning, it is necessary to exert the learning advantages of different age groups, have a specific focus on listening, speaking, reading and writing, select teaching strategies suitable for different ages, and make a scientific teaching and learning plan.

  5. [Problem-based learning, a comparison in the acquisition of transversal competencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Pascual, Juan Luis; López Martin, Inmaculada; Toledo Gómez, David

    2009-01-01

    In the European Higher Education Area (EEES in Spanish reference), a change in the pedagogical model has occurred: from teaching centered on the figure of the professor to learning centered on students, from an integral perspective. This learning must bring together the full set of competencies included in the program requirements necessary to obtain a degree. The specific competencies characterize a profession and distinguish one from others. The transversal competencies surpass the limits of one particular discipline to be potentially developed in all; these are subdivided in three types: instrumental, interpersonal and systemic. The authors describe and compare the acquisition of transversal competencies connected to students' portfolios and Problem-based Learning as pedagogical methods from the perspective of second year nursing students at the European University in Madrid during the 2007-8 academic year To do so, the authors carried out a transversal descriptive study; data was collected by a purpose-made questionnaire the authors developed which they based on the transversal competencies of the Tuning Nursing Project. Variables included age, sex, pedagogical method, perception on acquisition of those 24 competencies by means of a Likert Scale. U de Mann-Whitney descriptive and analytical statistics. The authors conclude that the portfolio and Problem-based Learning are useful pedagogical methods for acquiring transversal competencies; these results coincide with those of other studies. Comparing both methods, the authors share the opinion that the Problem-based Learning method could stimulate the search for information better than the portfolio method.

  6. Effects of Learning on Performance When Computerized Dynamic Posturography Assessments Are Repeated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Paloski, William H.; Wood, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Computerized dynamic posturography is widely used to measure balance control performance. Clinically, performance is assessed by comparing individual data against standards obtained from a normative population. When performing repeated assessments to track performance changes, one must be concerned with the influence of learning effects. Subjects do not have the opportunity to practice before the first session, and often a second session is not performed prior to an experiment. Thus, the objective of this activity was to examine learning effects on balance control performance. We hypothesize that subjects will perform better on the second session when compared to the first, and that the difference will be greater for more difficult conditions. Methods: Data were collected from 204 subjects using the NeuroCom Equitest system during quiet stance with arms crossed at the chest on up to two sessions. All subjects performed standard sensory organization tests (SOTs) including 1) normal vision, fixed support; 2) absent vision, fixed support; 3) sway-referenced vision, fixed support; 4) normal vision, swayreferenced support; 5) absent vision, sway-referenced support; and 6) sway-referenced vision, sway-referenced support. 120 of these subjects performed modified sensory organization tests (mSOTs 2 and 5) which included static (20 back) and dynamic (20, 0.33Hz) head tilts. Median equilibrium scores (mEQ) were calculated from peak-to-peak anterior-posterior sway across trials. Data collected on the first session were then compared with the second to examine learning effect. Results: There were no differences in mEQ scores between the first and second sessions for SOTs 1, 2, and 4, while mEQ scores were higher for the second session when compared to the first for SOTs 3, 5, and 6 and for all mSOTs. Discussion: An additional familiarization session or practice trials prior to the first session may be necessary for more challenging SOT and mSOT conditions to

  7. Knowledge Acquisition or Participation in Communities of Practice? Academics' Metaphors of Teaching and Learning at the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Elisabeth; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Learning has been described by two conceptual metaphors: as individual acquisition of knowledge ("acquisition metaphor"), and as an enculturation into a subject community ("participation metaphor"). On the other hand, academics' conceptions of teaching are usually reported to vary between teacher and student orientation. In…

  8. What works more in second language acquisition:age,first language or learning patterns%What works more in second language acquisition: age, first language or learning patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾婷婷

    2011-01-01

    1.Theoretical Background 1.1 Age and second language acquisition Age issue has been one of the most controversial questions in second language acquisition since the birth of Critical Period Hypothesis ( CPH).Actually,the notion of critical period was firstly offered by Penfield & Robert ( 1959 ) by claiming that “for the purposes of learning languages,the human brain becomes progressively stiff and rigid after the age of nine” (Penfield and Roberts 1959,p.236 ) and that ”when languages are taken up for the first time in the second decade of life,it is difficult to achieve a good result because it is unphysiological” ( Penfield and Roberts 1959,p.255).Definitely,they insisted on that it is a causal relationship between age and language proficiency,it is a conceptualization of maturational constraints that is associated with an all - or - nothing - effect and abrupt onsets and offsets of the period,among other things.( Hylstenstam & Ambrahamson,2001 ).Later,Lenneberg( 1967) postulated Critical Period Hypothesis,which states that there is a neurological based critical period,”from roughly two years of age to puberty”,beyond which completely mastery of a language,first or second,is no longer possible.That's because the end of critical period was marked by “ termination of a state of organizational plasticity linked with lateralization of function” (p.176).

  9. Evidence for preserved novel word learning in Down syndrome suggests multiple routes to vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Emma K; Jarrold, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to see whether these may account for an apparent impairment in word learning in Down syndrome demonstrated in earlier research. Paired associate word and nonword learning tasks were presented, requiring participants to learn the names of novel characters. The nonword stimuli varied in the degree of wordlikeness in 2 studies. A third study investigated extraneous task demand. Across 3 studies, there was no suggestion of a word learning deficit associated with Down syndrome (η(2)(p) for the main effect of group of .03, .11, and .03, respectively), despite the level of phonological representation required. There was evidence that novel word learning by participants with Down syndrome exceeded that which their verbal short-term memory capacity would predict. Vocabulary acquisition in Down syndrome may not rely on verbal short-term memory to the same extent as in typically developing children, lending support to the suggestion that new word learning may be underpinned by an additional memory process.

  10. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Mobile Learning in Foreign Language Learning: Podcasts and Lexicon Acquisition in the Elementary Instruction of Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrainer, Eva Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the research design (including the pilot study) of a work-in-progress study aimed at examining the potential of bilingual podcasts for the vocabulary acquisition in Italian as an L3 in the Austrian school context for beginning learners. The longitudinal study tries to link findings of the Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1993, 1997)…

  12. Does Studying Vocabulary in Smaller Sets Increase Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Tatsuya; Webb, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of part and whole learning on the acquisition of second language (L2, English) vocabulary. In whole learning, the materials to be learned are repeated in one large block, whereas, in part learning, the materials are divided into smaller blocks and repeated. Experiment 1 compared the effects of the following…

  13. Does Studying Vocabulary in Smaller Sets Increase Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Tatsuya; Webb, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of part and whole learning on the acquisition of second language (L2, English) vocabulary. In whole learning, the materials to be learned are repeated in one large block, whereas, in part learning, the materials are divided into smaller blocks and repeated. Experiment 1 compared the effects of the following…

  14. Using Mixed-Modality Learning Strategies via e-Learning for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated an e-learning system, MyEVA, based on a mixed-modality vocabulary strategy in assisting learners of English as a second language (L2 learners) to improve their vocabulary. To explore the learning effectiveness of MyEVA, the study compared four vocabulary-learning techniques, MyEVA in preference mode, MyEVA in basic mode, an…

  15. Teaching Effectiveness and Student’s Learning Acquisition in Selected Major Courses in the International Tourism and Hospitality Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlita C. Medallon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment in the classroom is done to determine the effectiveness of the lesson delivery and the extent of learning acquired by the students. The study identified the determinants of teaching effectiveness and learning acquisition of students enrolled in selected major courses in the International Hospitality Management Program. Utilizing a descriptive-evaluative design, data were collected from 210 students enrolled in courses of the International Tourism and Hospitality Management Program. Findings show that the level of interest of the students is a great consideration in increasing their level of learning acquisition. The significant determinants of teaching effectiveness are number of absences and the level of interest of the students. The significant determinant of learning acquisition is the level of interest of the students.

  16. The Hebb Repetition Effect as a Laboratory Analogue of Language Acquisition: Learning Three Lists at No Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Guérard, Katherine

    2017-07-20

    The Hebb repetition effect (i.e., the enhanced recall performance for a sequence of items that is repeated during a serial recall experiment) is considered an experimental analogue to language learning. However, although language learning occurs in a context in which multiple verbal sequences are repeated concurrently, the effect of increasing the number of repeated sequences in the Hebb repetition paradigm has received little attention, and previous studies have used tasks that depart considerably from the natural language learning experience. In the present study, we manipulated the number of repeated sequences in a Hebb repetition paradigm that is a close experimental analogue of language learning. Participants were asked to orally recall sequences of 7 nonsense syllables that were aurally presented. The paradigm included 1 or 3 sequences that were repeated every 4th trial. The results showed that participants could learn 3 sequences simultaneously and they could do so as easily as they would learn a single sequence. The results provide additional evidence to models relating the Hebb repetition effect to word-form learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Media-Assisted Language Learning for Young Children: Effects of a Word-Learning App on the Vocabulary Acquisition of Two-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter-Laager, Catherine; Brandenberg, Kathrin; Tinguely, Luzia; Schwarz, Jürg; Pfiffner, Manfred R.; Moschner, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The intervention study investigated the effects of an interactive word-learning app Learning apps are developed to achieve certain aims. In our case, the intention was to enrich the vocabulary acquisition of young children. Many other apps, such as games, are developed mainly for entertainment. The intention of games apps is to hold the attention…

  18. Machine Learning and Computer Vision System for Phenotype Data Acquisition and Analysis in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Navarro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenomics is a technology-driven approach with promising future to obtain unbiased data of biological systems. Image acquisition is relatively simple. However data handling and analysis are not as developed compared to the sampling capacities. We present a system based on machine learning (ML algorithms and computer vision intended to solve the automatic phenotype data analysis in plant material. We developed a growth-chamber able to accommodate species of various sizes. Night image acquisition requires near infrared lightning. For the ML process, we tested three different algorithms: k-nearest neighbour (kNN, Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC, and Support Vector Machine. Each ML algorithm was executed with different kernel functions and they were trained with raw data and two types of data normalisation. Different metrics were computed to determine the optimal configuration of the machine learning algorithms. We obtained a performance of 99.31% in kNN for RGB images and a 99.34% in SVM for NIR. Our results show that ML techniques can speed up phenomic data analysis. Furthermore, both RGB and NIR images can be segmented successfully but may require different ML algorithms for segmentation.

  19. Machine Learning and Computer Vision System for Phenotype Data Acquisition and Analysis in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pedro J; Pérez, Fernando; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2016-05-05

    Phenomics is a technology-driven approach with promising future to obtain unbiased data of biological systems. Image acquisition is relatively simple. However data handling and analysis are not as developed compared to the sampling capacities. We present a system based on machine learning (ML) algorithms and computer vision intended to solve the automatic phenotype data analysis in plant material. We developed a growth-chamber able to accommodate species of various sizes. Night image acquisition requires near infrared lightning. For the ML process, we tested three different algorithms: k-nearest neighbour (kNN), Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC), and Support Vector Machine. Each ML algorithm was executed with different kernel functions and they were trained with raw data and two types of data normalisation. Different metrics were computed to determine the optimal configuration of the machine learning algorithms. We obtained a performance of 99.31% in kNN for RGB images and a 99.34% in SVM for NIR. Our results show that ML techniques can speed up phenomic data analysis. Furthermore, both RGB and NIR images can be segmented successfully but may require different ML algorithms for segmentation.

  20. Learning for life, a structured and motivational process of knowledge construction in the acquisition/learning of English as a foreign language in native Spanish speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miño-Garcés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As language learning theory has shifted from a highly guided to a more open learning process, this paper presents the teaching/learning philosophy called Learning for Life (L for L as a great way to motivate native Spanish speaker students learning English as a foreign language, and to help them be the constructors of their own knowledge. The Learning for Life philosophy was created by Patricia López de Jaramillo, M.A. and Fernando Miño-Garcés, Ph.D. at the Andean Center for Latin American Studies (ACLAS in Quito – Ecuador. In the Learning for Life philosophy, the learner is the center of the process and becomes the creator of his/her own knowledge. To get to this new dimension in learning, acquisition is emphasized, and the principles of this philosophy are applied in the EFL classroom. The definition of the philosophy and its principles are presented, and explained in detail as to how they can be applied in the teaching of a foreign language. This paper also explains the difference between acquisition versus learning, and what process should be applied in the classroom to emphasize on acquisition, and not so much on learning.

  1. Individual and social learning processes involved in the acquisition and generalization of tool use in macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macellini, S.; Maranesi, M.; Bonini, L.; Simone, L.; Rozzi, S.; Ferrari, P. F.; Fogassi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Macaques can efficiently use several tools, but their capacity to discriminate the relevant physical features of a tool and the social factors contributing to their acquisition are still poorly explored. In a series of studies, we investigated macaques' ability to generalize the use of a stick as a tool to new objects having different physical features (study 1), or to new contexts, requiring them to adapt the previously learned motor strategy (study 2). We then assessed whether the observation of a skilled model might facilitate tool-use learning by naive observer monkeys (study 3). Results of study 1 and study 2 showed that monkeys trained to use a tool generalize this ability to tools of different shape and length, and learn to adapt their motor strategy to a new task. Study 3 demonstrated that observing a skilled model increases the observers' manipulations of a stick, thus facilitating the individual discovery of the relevant properties of this object as a tool. These findings support the view that in macaques, the motor system can be modified through tool use and that it has a limited capacity to adjust the learnt motor skills to a new context. Social factors, although important to facilitate the interaction with tools, are not crucial for tool-use learning. PMID:22106424

  2. Behavior in Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma Games with Shifted Outcomes Analyzed with a Statistical Learning Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Assen, Marcel; Snijders, Chris; Weesie, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    We address whether cooperative behavior in a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) is more easily achieved under ‘‘good circumstances’’ (all payoffs in the constituent PD are positive), ‘‘bad circumstances’’ (payoffs are negative), or ‘‘mixed circumstances.’’ To analyze the behavior in these repeated PDs

  3. Improvements in anatomy knowledge when utilizing a novel cyclical "Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat" learning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Hutchinson, Joseph; Thandi, Charankumal S; Keenan, Iain D

    2017-01-01

    Innovative educational strategies can provide variety and enhance student learning while addressing complex logistical and financial issues facing modern anatomy education. Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat (ORDER), a novel cyclical artistic process, has been designed based on cognitivist and constructivist learning theories, and on processes of critical observation, reflection and drawing in anatomy learning. ORDER was initially investigated in the context of a compulsory first year surface anatomy practical (ORDER-SAP) at a United Kingdom medical school in which a cross-over trial with pre-post anatomy knowledge testing was utilized and student perceptions were identified. Despite positive perceptions of ORDER-SAP, medical student (n = 154) pre-post knowledge test scores were significantly greater (P learning methods (3.26, SD = ±2.25) than with ORDER-SAP (2.17, ±2.30). Based on these findings, ORDER was modified and evaluated in the context of an optional self-directed gross anatomy online interactive tutorial (ORDER-IT) for participating first year medical students (n = 55). Student performance was significantly greater (P  0.05) to those students without these characteristics. These findings will be of value to anatomy instructors seeking to engage students from diverse learning backgrounds in a research-led, innovative, time and cost-effective learning method, in the context of contrasting learning environments. Anat Sci Educ 10: 7-22. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Work Based Learning Combined with E-Learning for Acquisition of Management Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vieira Soeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Partners in E-View project developed and piloted a European Virtual Campus aimed at learners in the work place which focused on enhancing their management skills and competences within a European context. The project began with a needs analysis followed by the creation of the Virtual Campus Framework. This framework utilized a customised open source delivery methodology and a work-based learning module based on the needs analysis aimed at training managers in European enterprises. The module with an emphasis on working within Europe was piloted with about one hundred employees in the UK, Poland, Portugal and Ireland involving four employers. Concrete outcomes from E-View included a Virtual Campus Framework for Work-based learning (WBL with a sample undergraduate module, two rounds of pilot courses and an online handbook with a description of the experiences gained in creating and delivering this course in the Virtual Campus Framework for Work-based Learning. Webinars were delivered and recorded to illustrate the procedures.

  5. The Road to Language Learning Is Not Entirely Iconic: Iconicity, Neighborhood Density, and Frequency Facilitate Acquisition of Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Pyers, Jennie E

    2017-07-01

    Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition. Despite differences in iconicity and phonological structure between signed and spoken language, signing children, like children learning a spoken language, track statistical information about lexical items and their phonological properties and leverage this information to expand their vocabulary.

  6. Learning Electrical Circuits: The Effects of the 4C-ID Instructional Approach in the Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mário; Miranda, Guilhermina Lobato

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of two instructional approaches (4C-ID versus conventional) on learners' knowledge-acquisition and learning transfer of the electrical circuits content in Physics. Participants were 129 9th graders from a secondary school in Lisbon, M = 14.3 years, SD = 0.54. The participants were divided in two…

  7. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  8. Tracking "Learning Behaviours" in the Incidental Acquisition of Two Dimensional Adjectives by Japanese Beginner Learners of L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko; Ellis, Rod

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine both the process and product of vocabulary learning in a task-based instructional context. The article reports a study that investigated the acquisition of two dimensional adjectives ("big" and "small") by six-year-old Japanese children who were complete beginners. It tracked the…

  9. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition, Language Learning and Teaching in Poland (2006-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzial-Szelest, Krystyna; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews 25 doctoral dissertations on second language acquisition (SLA), English language learning and teaching submitted in Poland in the years 2006-2010. The theses were selected for review on the basis of the recommendations of Ph.D. supervisors from leading Polish universities and they are divided into six groups: learner autonomy,…

  10. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition, Language Learning and Teaching in Poland (2006-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzial-Szelest, Krystyna; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews 25 doctoral dissertations on second language acquisition (SLA), English language learning and teaching submitted in Poland in the years 2006-2010. The theses were selected for review on the basis of the recommendations of Ph.D. supervisors from leading Polish universities and they are divided into six groups: learner autonomy,…

  11. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  12. Acquisition and improvement of human motor skills: Learning through observation and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Skilled movement is an integral part of the human existence. A better understanding of motor skills and their development is a prerequisite to the construction of truly flexible intelligent agents. We present MAEANDER, a computational model of human motor behavior, that uniformly addresses both the acquisition of skills through observation and the improvement of skills through practice. MAEANDER consists of a sensory-effector interface, a memory of movements, and a set of performance and learning mechanisms that let it recognize and generate motor skills. The system initially acquires such skills by observing movements performed by another agent and constructing a concept hierarchy. Given a stored motor skill in memory, MAEANDER will cause an effector to behave appropriately. All learning involves changing the hierarchical memory of skill concepts to more closely correspond to either observed experience or to desired behaviors. We evaluated MAEANDER empirically with respect to how well it acquires and improves both artificial movement types and handwritten script letters from the alphabet. We also evaluate MAEANDER as a psychological model by comparing its behavior to robust phenomena in humans and by considering the richness of the predictions it makes.

  13. Don't just repeat after me: retrieval practice is better than imitation for foreign vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sean H K; Gollan, Tamar H; Pashler, Harold

    2013-12-01

    Second language (L2) instruction programs often ask learners to repeat aloud words spoken by a native speaker. However, recent research on retrieval practice has suggested that imitating native pronunciation might be less effective than drill instruction, wherein the learner is required to produce the L2 words from memory (and given feedback). We contrasted the effectiveness of imitation and retrieval practice drills on learning L2 spoken vocabulary. Learners viewed pictures of objects and heard their names; in the imitation condition, they heard and then repeated aloud each name, whereas in the retrieval practice condition, they tried to produce the name before hearing it. On a final test administered either immediately after training (Exp. 1) or after a 2-day delay (Exp. 2), retrieval practice produced better comprehension of the L2 words, better ability to produce the L2 words, and no loss of pronunciation quality.

  14. Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based on Repeat-Cycle Asymptotic Self-Learning and Self-Evolving Disturbance for Function Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Li, Shu-xia; Song, Jiang-di

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve convergence velocity and optimization accuracy of the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm for solving the function optimization problems, a new improved cuckoo search algorithm based on the repeat-cycle asymptotic self-learning and self-evolving disturbance (RC-SSCS) is proposed. A disturbance operation is added into the algorithm by constructing a disturbance factor to make a more careful and thorough search near the bird's nests location. In order to select a reasonable repeat-cycled disturbance number, a further study on the choice of disturbance times is made. Finally, six typical test functions are adopted to carry out simulation experiments, meanwhile, compare algorithms of this paper with two typical swarm intelligence algorithms particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The results show that the improved cuckoo search algorithm has better convergence velocity and optimization accuracy.

  15. Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based on Repeat-Cycle Asymptotic Self-Learning and Self-Evolving Disturbance for Function Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve convergence velocity and optimization accuracy of the cuckoo search (CS algorithm for solving the function optimization problems, a new improved cuckoo search algorithm based on the repeat-cycle asymptotic self-learning and self-evolving disturbance (RC-SSCS is proposed. A disturbance operation is added into the algorithm by constructing a disturbance factor to make a more careful and thorough search near the bird’s nests location. In order to select a reasonable repeat-cycled disturbance number, a further study on the choice of disturbance times is made. Finally, six typical test functions are adopted to carry out simulation experiments, meanwhile, compare algorithms of this paper with two typical swarm intelligence algorithms particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm and artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm. The results show that the improved cuckoo search algorithm has better convergence velocity and optimization accuracy.

  16. Learning Electrical Circuits: The Effects of the 4C-ID Instructional Approach in the Acquisition and Transfer of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Melo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of two instructional approaches (4C-ID versus conventional on learners’ knowledge-acquisition and learning transfer of the electrical circuits content in Physics. Participants were 129 9th graders from a secondary school in Lisbon, M = 14.3 years, SD = 0.54. The participants were divided in two groups: an experimental group constituted three intact classes (n = 78; and a control group constituted two intact classes (n = 51. The experimental group was taught using a digital learning environment designed with the 4C-ID model principles while the control group learned the same contents through a conventional method. We assessed the students’ performance (knowledge-acquisition and transfer, the perceived cognitive load, and the instructional efficiency. Results indicated that the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group on a knowledge-acquisition test and in a learning transfer test. They also perceived a less cognitive load in the transfer test and the learning environment developed with the 4C-ID model proved to be more instructional efficient than the conventional method.

  17. Advancing our understanding of the link between statistical learning and language acquisition: The need for longitudinal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne eArciuli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastery of language can be a struggle for some children. Amongst those that succeed in achieving this feat there is variability in proficiency. Cognitive scientists remain intrigued by this variation. A now substantial body of research suggests that language acquisition is underpinned by a child's capacity for statistical learning. Moreover, a growing body of research has demonstrated that variability in statistical learning is associated with variability in language proficiency. Yet, there is a striking lack of longitudinal data. To date, there has been no comprehensive investigation of whether a capacity for statistical learning in young children is, in fact, associated with language proficiency in subsequent years. Here we review key studies that have led to the need for this longitudinal research. Advancing the language acquisition debate via longitudinal research has the potential to transform our understanding of typical development as well as disorders such as autism, specific language impairment and dyslexia.

  18. Instance-Based Learning: Integrating Sampling and Repeated Decisions from Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Dutt, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In decisions from experience, there are 2 experimental paradigms: sampling and repeated-choice. In the sampling paradigm, participants sample between 2 options as many times as they want (i.e., the stopping point is variable), observe the outcome with no real consequences each time, and finally select 1 of the 2 options that cause them to earn or…

  19. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re- acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Freundlieb

    Full Text Available Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re- acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01, but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79% than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002. Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of

  20. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  1. Dyslexic adults can learn from repeated stimulus presentation but have difficulties in excluding external noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Beattie

    Full Text Available We examined whether the characteristic impairments of dyslexia are due to a deficit in excluding external noise or a deficit in taking advantage of repeated stimulus presentation. We compared non-impaired adults and adults with poor reading performance on a visual letter detection task that varied two aspects: the presence or absence of background visual noise, and a small or large stimulus set. There was no interaction between group and stimulus set size, indicating that the poor readers took advantage of repeated stimulus presentation as well as the non-impaired readers. The poor readers had higher thresholds than non-impaired readers in the presence of high external noise, but not in the absence of external noise. The results support the hypothesis that an external noise exclusion deficit, not a perceptual anchoring deficit, impairs reading for adults.

  2. Amygdala’s involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily S Chau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala’s role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US that elicits an unconditioned response (UR. After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR. Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala’s involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  3. Amygdala's involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Lily S; Galvez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala's role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an unconditioned response (UR). After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR). Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala's involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  4. The effect of image quality, repeated study, and assessment method on anatomy learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Barbara; Mackinnon, Chelsea; Cheng, Lucia; Kim, Joseph A; Wainman, Bruce C

    2017-06-01

    The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality images of the human hand and human eye. On day 0, participants learned about each anatomical specimen from paper booklets using either low-quality or high-quality images, and then completed a comprehension test using either 2D images or three-dimensional (3D) cadaveric specimens. On day 1, participants relearned each booklet, and on day 2 participants completed a final comprehension test using either 2D images or 3D cadaveric specimens. The effect of image quality on learning varied according to anatomical content, with high-quality images having a greater effect on improving learning of hand anatomy than eye anatomy (high-quality vs. low-quality for hand anatomy P = 0.018; high-quality vs. low-quality for eye anatomy P = 0.247). Also, the benefit of high-quality images on hand anatomy learning was restricted to performance on short-answer (SA) questions immediately after learning (high-quality vs. low-quality on SA questions P = 0.018), but did not apply to performance on multiple-choice (MC) questions (high-quality vs. low-quality on MC questions P = 0.109) or after participants had an additional learning opportunity (24 hours later) with anatomy content (high vs. low on SA questions P = 0.643). This study underscores the limited impact of image quality on anatomy learning, and questions whether investment in enhancing image quality of learning aids significantly promotes knowledge development. Anat Sci Educ 10: 249-261. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Episodic intertrial learning of younger and older participants: effects of age of acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Nicholas M; Morrison, Catriona M

    2014-01-01

    There is clear evidence of a deficit in episodic memory for older adults compared to younger adults. Using an intertrial technique previous research has investigated whether this deficit can be attributed to a decline in encoding or consolidation. On standard memory tests, these two aspects of memory function can be measured by examining the items forgotten or acquired across multiple learning trials. The present study assessed whether age deficits in episodic memory were affected by stimulus characteristics, specifically age of acquisition (AoA). A standard intertrial design was implemented whereby participants studied word lists over several study-test trials. The stimulus characteristics of AoA were manipulated using a pure-list technique. Our findings showed that older adults demonstrate an overall recall deficit which appeared to be a consequence of both an encoding deficit and consolidation weakness. Earlier-acquired words were recalled significantly better than later-acquired words and this was apparently due to both enhanced encoding and consolidation of earlier- over later-acquired words. The key finding is that older adults show a recall advantage for earlier- compared to later-acquired words over the entire experiment to a greater degree than younger adults.

  6. Bilateral injections of beta A(25-35) + IBO into the hippocampus disrupts acquisition of spatial learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, W A; Kang, D E; McCampbell, A; Kang, E E

    1993-11-18

    Focal deposits of beta-amyloid (beta A) in the hippocampus have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. In this study we assessed the effects of bilateral injections into the hippocampus of beta A(25-35), a combination of beta A(25-35) with ibotenic acid (IBO), and IBO on spatial learning in the rat. Bilateral injections of beta A(25-35) into the hippocampus together with IBO (which by itself has no neurotoxic effects) produced a dramatic disruption in the acquisition of a spatial learning in the rat. Separate injections into the hippocampus of beta A(25-35) or the incubated form of beta A(25-35) alone failed to significantly affect maze acquisition in the rat. Histological examination revealed that only the combination of beta A(25-35) with IBO produced a lesion along with focal deposits in the hippocampus.

  7. A novel AX+/BX- paradigm to assess fear learning and safety-signal processing with repeated-measure designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Andy M; Schauder, Kimberly B; McKinnon, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Davis, Michael

    2013-04-15

    One of the core symptoms of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, is the failure to overcome feelings of danger despite being in a safe environment. This deficit likely stems from an inability to fully process safety signals, which are cues in the environment that enable healthy individuals to over-ride fear in aversive situations. Studies examining safety signal learning in rodents, humans, and non-human primates currently rely on between-groups designs. Because repeated-measure designs reduce the number of subjects required, and facilitate a broader range of safety signal studies, the current project sought to develop a repeated-measures safety-signal learning paradigm in non-human primates. Twelve healthy rhesus macaques of both sexes received three rounds of auditory fear-potentiated startle training and testing using an AX+/BX- design with all visual cues. Cue AX was paired with an aversive blast of air, whereas the same X cue in compound with another B cue (BX) signaled the absence of an air blast. Hence, cue B served as a safety signal. Once animals consistently discriminated between the aversive (AX+) and safe (BX-) cues, measured by greater startle amplitude in the presence of AX vs. BX, they were tested for conditioned inhibition by eliciting startle in the presence of a novel ambiguous combined cue (AB). Similar to previous AX+/BX- studies, healthy animals rapidly learned to discriminate between the AX+ and BX- cues as well as demonstrate conditioned inhibition in the presence of the combined AB cue (i.e. lower startle amplitude in the presence of AB vs. AX). Additionally, animals performed consistently across three rounds of testing using three new cues each time. The results validate this novel method that will serve as a useful tool for better understanding the mechanisms for the regulation of fear and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Image Quality, Repeated Study, and Assessment Method on Anatomy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Barbara; Mackinnon, Chelsea; Cheng, Lucia; Kim, Joseph A.; Wainman, Bruce C.

    2017-01-01

    The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality…

  9. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, BRK; Korte, SM; Buwalda, B; la Fleur, SE; Bohus, B; Luiten, PGM

    1998-01-01

    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  10. A Comparison of Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian EFL University Students: Repeating versus Cooperating with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning and assessment are considered as the key basis for the training of English as a foreign language. However, it is time-consuming, uncertain and repetitious for the teachers to assess the proficiency of the students' vocabulary storage. This paper reports the results of a study which aimed to investigate the effect of Repeating…

  11. Repeated blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors, but not of glucocorticoid receptors impairs food rewarded spatial learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, B.R.; Korte, S.M.; Buwalda, B.; Fleur, la S.E.; Bohus, B.; Luiten, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex influence a variety of behaviours including cognition, learning and memory. These hormones act via two intracellular receptors, the mineralo-corticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These two receptor types display a high concentration and

  12. Decreasing the Proportion of Self-Control Trials during the Acquisition Period Does Not Compromise the Learning Advantages in a Self-Controlled Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T.; Carter, Michael; Sanli, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment examined the learning effects of participants self-controlling their receipt of knowledge of results (KR) on all or half of their acquisition trials (50%). For participants who were provided 50% self-control, the first half of their acquisition period consisted of receiving KR on all trials, or according to a faded-KR…

  13. Software Acquisition Program Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    techniques to avoid these problems The Objective • Improve acquisition program staff decision-making, and thus improve acquisition program outcomes...classroom training, eLearning , certification, and more—to serve the needs of customers and partners worldwide.

  14. LEARNING AS A TOOL FOR CANCER PREVENTION THROUGH THE ACQUISITION OF NEW DIETARY HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to promote knowledge of health entails, in part, by encouraging healthy eating habits. The creation of popular science materials, especially at schools, by promoting guidance for the eating habits is presented as an important tool. Foods that contain bioactive compounds are called nutraceutical foods and about 35% of various cancers occur due to inadequate diets. Conventional therapies are used in the treatment of cancer, even though they are efficient in fighting tumors, to cause many harmful effects to the patient, and therefore the researches for alternative therapies have increased. Especially those act strengthening the immunologic system. The mushrooms are able to modulate carcinogenesis in all stages of the disease through different mechanisms of action of the bioactive compounds, thus having an antitumor effect that is assigned to restore and improve the immune response through stimulation of cellular immunity which are present polysaccharides the composition of the mushrooms, such as beta-glucans that besides the anticancer effect, it still has activity as immunostimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, which are already used in Japan as drugs for treating cancer patients. The aim of this work was to use learning as a tool for acquiring habits and eating behaviors in the general community and ownership and acquisition of knowledge about the antitumor potential of bioactive compounds in foods which are applied in cancer prevention through the scientific dissemination / education. Because it is a popular science work using written material and the dissemination of the material make for yourself the methodology used for the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Thus, the inclusion of consumption of mushrooms in the diet may represent an important step in the cancer prevention as the best form of prevention, and therefore it shows the need for available information to everyone, as it has proposed this work, disclosure.

  15. Conceptual Distance and Word Learning: Patterns of Acquisition in Samoan-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Gayle; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cross-linguistic influence in acquisition of a second lexicon, evaluating Samoan-English sequentially bilingual children (initial mean age 4 ; 9) during their first 18 months of school. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary tasks evaluated acquisition of four word types: cognates, matched nouns, phrasal nouns and holonyms.…

  16. Language Acquisition without Universal Grammar: A General Nativist Proposal for L2 Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    1996-01-01

    Explores the prospects for a "general nativist" theory of first- and second-language acquisition (SLA), outlines a modular acquisition device not including Universal Grammar, and considers the role of universal grammar in the emergence of a first language (L1). (50 references) (Author/CK)

  17. Acquisition of Spanish Gender Agreement in Two Learning Contexts: Study Abroad and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelli-Garcia, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the acquisition rate for gender acquisition in Spanish and to show whether individual variability and language contact may affect this rate. The participants were intermediate second language Spanish (first language English) learners in the study abroad and at-home contexts over a 4-month period. The…

  18. Conceptual Distance and Word Learning: Patterns of Acquisition in Samoan-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Gayle; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cross-linguistic influence in acquisition of a second lexicon, evaluating Samoan-English sequentially bilingual children (initial mean age 4 ; 9) during their first 18 months of school. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary tasks evaluated acquisition of four word types: cognates, matched nouns, phrasal nouns and holonyms.…

  19. Contextual change after fear acquisition affects conditioned responding and the time course of extinction learning – Implications for renewal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eSjouwerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context plays a central role in retrieving (fear memories. Accordingly, context manipulations are inherent to most return of fear (ROF paradigms (in particular renewal, involving contextual changes after fear extinction. Context changes are, however, also often embedded during earlier stages of ROF experiments such as context changes between fear acquisition and extinction (e.g. in ABC and ABA renewal. Previous studies using these paradigms have however focused exclusively on the context switch after extinction (i.e. renewal. Thus, the possibility of a general effect of a context switch on conditioned responding that may not be conditional to preceding extinction learning remains unstudied.Hence, the current study investigated the impact of a context switch between fear acquisition and extinction on immediate conditioned responding and on the time-course of extinction learning by using a multimodal approach. A group that underwent contextual change after fear conditioning (AB; n = 36 was compared with a group without a contextual change from acquisition to extinction (AA; n = 149, while measuring autonomic (skin conductance and fear potentiated startle measures and subjective fear ratings. Contextual change between fear acquisition and extinction had a pronounced effect on both immediate conditioned responding and on the time course of extinction learning in skin conductance responses and subjective fear ratings. This may have important implications for the mechanisms underlying and the interpretation of the renewal effect (i.e. contextual switch after extinction. Consequently, future studies should incorporate designs and statistical tests that disentangle general effects of contextual change from genuine ROF effects.

  20. HESS Opinions: Repeatable research: what hydrologists can learn from the Duke cancer research scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Bakker, Mark

    2016-09-01

    In the past decade, difficulties encountered in reproducing the results of a cancer study at Duke University resulted in a scandal and an investigation which concluded that tools used for data management, analysis, and modeling were inappropriate for the documentation of the study, let alone the reproduction of the results. New protocols were developed which require that data analysis and modeling be carried out with scripts that can be used to reproduce the results and are a record of all decisions and interpretations made during an analysis or a modeling effort. In the hydrological sciences, we face similar challenges and need to develop similar standards for transparency and repeatability of results. A promising route is to start making use of open-source languages (such as R and Python) to write scripts and to use collaborative coding environments (such as Git) to share our codes for inspection and use by the hydrological community. An important side-benefit to adopting such protocols is consistency and efficiency among collaborators.

  1. HESS Opinions: Repeatable research: what hydrologistscan learn from the Duke cancer research scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael; Bakker, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, difficulties encountered in reproducing the results of a cancer study at Duke University resulted in a scandal and an investigation which concluded that tools used for data management, analysis, and modeling were inappropriate for the documentation of the study, let alone the reproduction of the results. New protocols were developed which require that data analysis and modeling be carried out with scripts that can be used to reproduce the results and are a record of all decisions and interpretations made during an analysis or a modeling effort. In the hydrological sciences, we face similar challenges and need to develop similar standards for transparency and repeatability of results. A promising route is to start making use of open-source languages (such as R and Python) to write scripts and to use collaborative coding environments (such as Git) to share our codes for inspection and use by the hydrological community. An important side-benefit to adopting such protocols is consistency and efficiency among collaborators.

  2. Brain derived neurotrophic factor mediated learning, fear acquisition and extinction as targets for developing novel treatments for anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anxiety and obsessive-compulsive related disorders are highly prevalent and disabling disorders for which there are still treatment gaps to be explored. Fear is a core symptom of these disorders and its learning is highly dependent on the activity of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Should BDNF-mediated fear learning be considered a target for the development of novel treatments for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive related disorders? We review the evidence that suggests that BDNF expression is necessary for the acquisition of conditioned fear, as well as for the recall of its extinction. We describe the findings related to fear learning and genetic/epigenetic manipulation of Bdnf expression in animals and BDNF allelic variants in humans. Later, we discuss how manipulation of BDNF levels represents a promising potential treatment target that may increase the benefits of therapies that extinguish previously conditioned fear.

  3. The effect of the video game Quizlet on the acquisition of science vocabulary for children with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Deborah Ann

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the learning video game Quizlet on students with learning disabilities in the science classroom. Specifically this study investigated (a) student academic performance, (b) student on-task behavior, and (c) student satisfaction using the learning video game. Student academic performance was measured in terms of vocabulary acquisition, and student engagement was measured in relation to on-task behaviors. Seven middle school students, three female and four male participated in the study. A single subject design with ABABAB phases and maintenance data collection was utilized. Results show that all students increased their grades in science vocabulary and increased on-task behaviors. A follow-up student satisfaction survey determined that the intervention was acceptable to all students. Additional studies to assess the effects of Quizlet are recommended.

  4. UNVEILING THE VYGOTSKYANA CONCEPTION IN CONNECTION LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ariomar de Souza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article results from a literature search was undertaken in order to investigate the Vygotskyana conception about the relationship between learning and development, in order to understand the process of acquisition of knowledge held by the students in the apprehension of the object of study and finally, evaluate the role played by the teacher in the context. Conducted in the light of Historical-cultural Theory, this study was guided by the following questions: (1 As Vygotsky understands the relationship between learning and development? (2 This perspective how is the process of acquiring knowledge held by students in the apprehension of the object of study? (3 How important is the role of the teacher in this context? Concluded noting among other things that for Vygotsky the role of the teacher is crucial in the process of acquiring knowledge by the students, especially by identifying and acting on the Zone of Proximal Development of their students. Keywords: Learning. Development. Teacher.

  5. On Resource Acquisition in Adaptive Workplace-Embedded E-Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lokaiczyk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to address the idea of self-directed context-aware e-learning environments that tightly integrate into the electronic workplace of a knowledge worker. While developing the paradigm of informal, in-time e-learning on the workplace, the question appears where and how to acquire suitable learning material for the current learning need of the knowledge worker (KW. In contrast to traditional e-learning systems where didactically engineered courses address the user’s learning interest, we provide learning snippets that directly relate to potential short-term informational learning goals. We show ways of acquiring concepts from the work context the user potentially wants to learn about. For these concepts we determine different types of learning material from different sources that answer the current learning need about the concept.

  6. Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Vocabulary: Context of Learning Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Fang, Shin-Yi; Legault, Jennifer; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In an increasingly multilingual world, it is important to examine methods that may lead to more efficient second language learning, as well as to analyze the mechanisms by which successful learning occurs. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how different learning contexts can impact the learning of Mandarin Chinese as a second…

  7. Advancing Our Understanding of the Link between Statistical Learning and Language Acquisition: The Need for Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss

    2012-01-01

    Mastery of language can be a struggle for some children. Amongst those that succeed in achieving this feat there is variability in proficiency. Cognitive scientists remain intrigued by this variation. A now substantial body of research suggests that language acquisition is underpinned by a child's capacity for statistical learning (SL). Moreover, a growing body of research has demonstrated that variability in SL is associated with variability in language proficiency. Yet, there is a striking lack of longitudinal data. To date, there has been no comprehensive investigation of whether a capacity for SL in young children is, in fact, associated with language proficiency in subsequent years. Here we review key studies that have led to the need for this longitudinal research. Advancing the language acquisition debate via longitudinal research has the potential to transform our understanding of typical development as well as disorders such as autism, specific language impairment, and dyslexia.

  8. Relationship of biomedical science content acquisition performance to students' level of PBL group interaction: are students learning during PBL group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Laura M; Eckert, George J

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed biomedical science content acquisition from problem-based learning (PBL) and its relationship to students' level of group interaction. We hypothesized that learning in preparation for exams results primarily from individual study of post-case learning objectives and that outcomes would be unrelated to students' group involvement. During dental curricular years 1 and 2, student-generated biomedical learning issues (LIs) were identified from six randomly chosen PBL cases. Knowledge and application of case concepts were assessed with quizzes based on the identified LIs prior to dissemination of the learning objectives. Students and facilitators were surveyed on students' level of group involvement for the assessed LI topics. Year 1 students had significantly higher assessment scores (p=0.0001). For both student classes, means were significantly higher for the recall item (Q1) than for the application item (Q2). Q1 scores increased along with the student's reported role for Year 1 (p=0.04). However, there was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q1 for Year 2 (p=0.20). There was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q2 for Year 1 (p=0.09) or Year 2 (p=0.19). This suggests that students' level of group involvement on the biomedical learning issues did not significantly impact students' assessment performance.

  9. Learning to expand internationally : The pace and success of foreign acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadolska, A.

    2006-01-01

    In an era of rapid technological progress and major political and economic transformations accross the globe, the ability to acquire internationally becomes an important skill for internationalizing companies. Cross border mergers and acquisitions are growing rapidly in importance precisely becuase

  10. What is learned from repeated pairings? On the scope and generalizability of evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütter, Mandy; Kutzner, Florian; Fiedler, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    The investigation of evaluative conditioning (EC) has been mainly concerned with the conditioning of individual stimuli. Namely, a specific conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a positive or negative unconditioned stimulus and consequently acquires the valence of the unconditioned stimulus. In the present article, we expand the notion of EC to CS cues (e.g., gender) as distinguished from CS objects (e.g., an individual). We developed a conditioning paradigm that allows for the simultaneous investigation of both types of EC effects, evaluative identity conditioning and evaluative cue conditioning. The experiments demonstrate that EC has the potential to change attitudes not only toward CS individuals but also toward CS cues. We applied this twofold approach to both impoverished and more complex learning environments, demonstrating that evaluative identity conditioning is dependent on stimulus complexity while evaluative cue conditioning depends on the complexity of the stimulus context. The findings have distinct implications for the generalization of EC effects as well as for the investigation of EC.

  11. Effects of Repeated Cocaine Exposure on Habit Learning and Reversal by N-Acetylcysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbit, Laura H; Chieng, Billy C; Balleine, Bernard W

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse can result in a loss of control over both drug- and nondrug-related actions by accelerating the transition from goal-directed to habitual control, an effect argued to reflect changes in glutamate homeostasis. Here we examined whether exposure to cocaine accelerates habit learning and used in vitro electrophysiology to investigate its effects on measures of synaptic plasticity in the dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral (DLS) striatum, areas critical for actions and habits, respectively. We then administered N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in an attempt to normalize glutamate homeostasis and hence reverse the cellular and behavioral effects of cocaine exposure. Rats received daily injections of cocaine (30 mg/kg) for 6 days and were then trained to lever press for a food reward. We used outcome devaluation and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to assess the behavioral and cellular effects of cocaine exposure. We then examined the ability of NAC to reverse the effects of cocaine exposure on these measures. Cocaine treatment produced a deficit in goal-directed action, as assessed by outcome devaluation, and increased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the DMS but not in the DLS. Importantly, NAC treatment both normalized EPSC frequency and promoted goal-directed control in cocaine-treated rats. The promotion of goal-directed control has the potential to improve treatment outcomes in human cocaine addicts. PMID:24531561

  12. The Effects of Group Leader Learning Style on Student Knowledge Gain in a Leadership Camp Setting: A Repeated-Measures Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Terry, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many state FFA associations conduct summer camps focusing on leadership and personal development for FFA members. Interestingly, little research has been conducted on the impact or outcomes of these common activities. The purpose of this split-plot factorial repeated-measures experiment was to assess the level of campers' learning of the…

  13. Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the English Oral Reading Fluency of L2 Students with Specific Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi; Charalambous, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of new technologies has been extensively explored in different aspects of language learning pedagogy. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact Repeated Reading activity, supported by iPod Touch could have on the English Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of second language university students with Special…

  14. Protection Efficacy of the Extract of Ginkgo biloba against the Learning and Memory Damage of Rats under Repeated High Sustained +Gz Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-En Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated high sustained positive Gz (+Gz exposures are known for the harmful pathophysiological impact on the brain of rats, which is reflected as the interruption of normal performance of learning and memory. Interestingly, extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and cognition-enhancing effects. In this study, we are interested in evaluating the protective effects of EGb toward the learning and memory abilities. Morris Water Maze Test (MWM was used to evaluate the cognitive function, and the physiological status of the key components in central cholinergic system was also investigated. Our animal behavioral tests indicated that EGb can release the learning and memory impairment caused by repeated high sustained +Gz. Administration of EGb to rats can diminish some of the harmful physiological effects caused by repeated +Gz exposures. Moreover, EGb administration can increase the biological activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px but reduce the production of malondialdehyde (MDA. Taken together, our study showed that EGb can ameliorate the impairment of learning and memory abilities of rats induced by repeated high sustained +Gz exposure; the underlying mechanisms appeared to be related to the signal regulation on the cholinergic system and antioxidant enzymes system.

  15. Whole-brain functional connectivity during acquisition of novel grammar: Distinct functional networks depend on language learning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; de Rover, Mischa; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-03-01

    In an effort to advance the understanding of brain function and organisation accompanying second language learning, we investigate the neural substrates of novel grammar learning in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities (LAA). By means of an Independent Components Analysis, a data-driven approach to functional connectivity of the brain, the fMRI data collected during a grammar-learning task were decomposed into maps representing separate cognitive processes. These included the default mode, task-positive, working memory, visual, cerebellar and emotional networks. We further tested for differences within the components, representing individual differences between the High and Average LAA learners. We found high analytical abilities to be coupled with stronger contributions to the task-positive network from areas adjacent to bilateral Broca's region, stronger connectivity within the working memory network and within the emotional network. Average LAA participants displayed stronger engagement within the task-positive network from areas adjacent to the right-hemisphere homologue of Broca's region and typical to lower level processing (visual word recognition), and increased connectivity within the default mode network. The significance of each of the identified networks for the grammar learning process is presented next to a discussion on the established markers of inter-individual learners' differences. We conclude that in terms of functional connectivity, the engagement of brain's networks during grammar acquisition is coupled with one's language learning abilities.

  16. Integrating Telecollaboration for Intercultural Language Acquisition at Secondary Education : Lessons Learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregi Ondarra, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    The TILA project originated from the need to explore whether and how telecollaboration affects language learning processes for communication, intercultural understanding and motivation of youngsters learning foreign languages at secondary schools and to empower teachers to pioneer meaningful pedagog

  17. Integrating Telecollaboration for Intercultural Language Acquisition at Secondary Education : Lessons Learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregi Ondarra, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    The TILA project originated from the need to explore whether and how telecollaboration affects language learning processes for communication, intercultural understanding and motivation of youngsters learning foreign languages at secondary schools and to empower teachers to pioneer meaningful

  18. Half-Life Learning Curves in the Defense Acquisition Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    learning include Smith (1989); Belkaoui (1976, 1986); Nanda (1979); Pegels (1976); Richardson (1978); Towill, and Kaloo (1978); Womer (1979, 1981, 1984...analysis adjusted for learning. Management Science, 24(2), 149–160. Nanda , R. (1979). Using learning curves in integration of production resources

  19. Strategy Acquisition by Children with General Learning Difficulties through Metacognitive Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Melanie S.; Hessels, Marco G. P.; Hessels-Schlatter, Christine; Berger, Jean-Louis; Kipfer, Nadine M.; Buchel, Fredi P.

    2010-01-01

    Children with general learning difficulties commonly show lower school success and have a slower rate of learning. They show limited and inefficient strategy use in all kinds of tasks. Efficient strategy use requires a certain degree of metacognitive knowledge and executive control. A sample of 16 children (ages 8 to 12) with learning difficulties…

  20. The Role of Unconscious Information Processing in the Acquisition and Learning of Instructional Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Bakar, Zainudin Abu; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates how the unconscious information processing can create satisfactory learning outcomes, and can be used to ameliorate the challenges of teaching students to regulate their learning processes. The search for the ideal model of human information processing as regards achievement of teaching and learning objectives is a…

  1. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  2. The Acquisition of Place Names in Mother Tongue Learning: Some Observations on Children’s Spatial Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Reszegi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews and complements existing knowledge about the acquisition of proper names. On the basis of research into children’s language, it seems obvious today that the process of acquisition of proper names (anthroponyms is simultaneous to the acquisition of common nouns. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the separation of the two groups of nouns are controversial. Compared to the case of anthroponyms, learning toponyms is a more complicated and a longer-lasting process. In connection with this topic, researchers dealing with spatial cognition are focusing on spatial orientation, on the localisation of spatial information in the brain and on spatial language. They study neither the way children get to know the wider geographical environment, nor the way they acquire toponyms. The author seeks to obtain more information about the beginning of this process based on the study of two small children’s toponymic knowledge in connection with their acquisition of geographical common nouns and the development of spatial orientation. This makes it possible to draw preliminary conclusions about the specificity of the cognitive mechanisms ensuring the knowledge of geographical environment. The author suggests that the meaning of early toponyms is typically undergeneralised — children tend to interpret the names of cities/towns or streets by restricting them to a certain house. It has also been made evident that, at the age of 2–4 years, the relationship between places and persons is very tight (for instance, children connect the names of places to specific persons. The semantic contingencies can be explained by the fact that, in the case of children, the place concepts themselves (what is a city/town?, what is a street?, etc. have not been fully constructed yet, and that the elements of space are still not distinct entities.

  3. Designing an Assistive Learning Aid for Writing Acquisition: A Challenge for Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Seemab; Tariq, Rabbia; Tariq, Shehla; Latif, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    In Pakistan, the biggest challenge is to provide high quality education to the individuals with learning disabilities. Besides the well known affordance issue, there is a lack of awareness regarding the term dyslexia and remedial teaching training that causes the identification as well as remediation of the dyslexic individuals at early stages in Pakistan. The research was focused to exploit the benefits of using the modern mobile technology features in providing a learning platform for young dyslexic writers. Based on potential usability requirements of young dyslexic writers stated by remedial teachers of dyslexics, an android based application is designed and implemented using the usability engineering process model to encourage the learning process and help dyslexic children improve their fundamental handwriting skill. In addition, a handwriting learning algorithm based on concepts of machine learning is designed and implemented to decide the learning content, evaluate the learning performance, display the performance results and record the learning growth to show the strengths and weaknesses of a dyslexic child. The research was also aimed to assess the usability of the learner-centered application by the targeted population by conducting a user acceptance test to evaluate their learning experience and benefits of the developed application to dyslexic users. The results of the evaluation provided by the participants revealed that application has potential benefits to foster the learning process and help children with dyslexia by improving their foundational writing skills.

  4. Structure learning and the Occam's razor principle: a new view of human function acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Devika; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Mamassian, Pascal; Brenner, Eli; van Beers, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    We often encounter pairs of variables in the world whose mutual relationship can be described by a function. After training, human responses closely correspond to these functional relationships. Here we study how humans predict unobserved segments of a function that they have been trained on and we compare how human predictions differ to those made by various function-learning models in the literature. Participants' performance was best predicted by the polynomial functions that generated the observations. Further, participants were able to explicitly report the correct generating function in most cases upon a post-experiment survey. This suggests that humans can abstract functions. To understand how they do so, we modeled human learning using an hierarchical Bayesian framework organized at two levels of abstraction: function learning and parameter learning, and used it to understand the time course of participants' learning as we surreptitiously changed the generating function over time. This Bayesian model selection framework allowed us to analyze the time course of function learning and parameter learning in relative isolation. We found that participants acquired new functions as they changed and even when parameter learning was not completely accurate, the probability that the correct function was learned remained high. Most importantly, we found that humans selected the simplest-fitting function with the highest probability and that they acquired simpler functions faster than more complex ones. Both aspects of this behavior, extent and rate of selection, present evidence that human function learning obeys the Occam's razor principle.

  5. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition from Stories: Second and Fourth Graders Learn More from Listening than Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Lenhard, Wolfgang; Neudecker, Elisabeth; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Both reading and language experiences contribute to vocabulary development, but questions remain as to what effect each has and when. This article investigates the effects that reading, telling and sharing a story have on vocabulary acquisition. Children (N = 37) were told nine stories in a randomized, single-blind and counterbalanced 2 × 3 mixed…

  6. Learning to Believe: Challenges in Children's Acquisition of a World-Picture in Wittgenstein's "On Certainty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2015-01-01

    Wittgenstein scholars have tended to interpret the acquisition of certainties, and by extension, of a world-picture, as the achievement of a state in which these certainties are assimilated in a seemingly unconscious way as one masters language-games. However, it has not been stressed that the attainment of this state often involves facing a…

  7. Exceptional Rule Learning in a Longitudinal Case Study of Williams Syndrome: Acquisition of Past Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F.; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting reports of language ability in Williams syndrome (WS) are confusing and may hinder accurate clinical decisions with respect to therapeutic services and educational placements for children with WS.This longitudinal case study examined the acquisition of regular and irregular past tense verbs in a child with WS. The development of…

  8. Analysis of the Effect a Student-Centred Mobile Learning Instructional Method Has on Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Andrew; Daniels, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In this study a self-paced instructional method based on the use of Apple's iPod Touch personal mobile devices to deliver content was compared with a group-oriented instructional method of content delivery in terms of learner acquisition of course material. One hundred and twenty-two first-year Japanese university students in four classes were…

  9. The Effects of Individual Differences on Observational Learning in the Acquisition of a Teaching Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Mary Lou; And Others

    A study examined the effects of verbal and perceptual aptitudes in relation to the efficacy of two different kinds of modeling procedures (written and filmed presentations) in the acquisition of a teaching skill (analytic questioning). It was anticipated that for Ss receiving the film-mediated model, criterion scores would show stronger relation…

  10. Learning to Believe: Challenges in Children's Acquisition of a World-Picture in Wittgenstein's "On Certainty"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2015-01-01

    Wittgenstein scholars have tended to interpret the acquisition of certainties, and by extension, of a world-picture, as the achievement of a state in which these certainties are assimilated in a seemingly unconscious way as one masters language-games. However, it has not been stressed that the attainment of this state often involves facing a…

  11. English Speech Acquisition in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Learning Russian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Wright, Kira L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition in Russian-English (RE) bilingual children was investigated, exploring the effects of Russian phonetic and phonological properties on English single-word productions. Russian has more complex consonants and clusters and a smaller vowel inventory than English. Method: One hundred thirty-seven single-word samples…

  12. Language Learning in Mindbodyworld: A Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Based on recent research in cognitive science, interaction, and second language acquisition (SLA), I describe a sociocognitive approach to SLA. This approach adopts a "non-cognitivist" view of cognition: Instead of an isolated computational process in which input is extracted from the environment and used to build elaborate internal…

  13. Acquisition of Visual Perceptual Skills from Worked Examples: Learning to Interpret Electrocardiograms (ECGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berge, Kees; van Gog, Tamara; Mamede, Silvia; Schmidt, Henk G.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that for acquiring problem-solving skills, instruction consisting of studying worked examples is more effective and efficient for novice learners than instruction consisting of problem-solving. This study investigated whether worked examples would also be a useful instructional format for the acquisition of visual perceptual…

  14. Learning (Not) to Predict: Grammatical Gender Processing in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, this article investigates the predictive processing of gender agreement in adult second language (L2) acquisition. We test (1) whether instruction on lexical gender can lead to target predictive agreement processing and (2) how variability in lexical gender representations moderates L2 gender agreement processing. In a…

  15. Language Learning in Mindbodyworld: A Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Based on recent research in cognitive science, interaction, and second language acquisition (SLA), I describe a sociocognitive approach to SLA. This approach adopts a "non-cognitivist" view of cognition: Instead of an isolated computational process in which input is extracted from the environment and used to build elaborate internal…

  16. Utility of Krashen's Five Hypotheses in the Saudi Context of Foreign Language Acquisition/Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Malik Ajmal; Gulnaz, Fahmeeda; Ijaz, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the paradigm that has dominated the discipline of language teaching is the SLA theory and Krashen's five hypotheses which are still proving flexible to accommodate earlier reforms. This paper reviews second language acquisition (SLA) theory to establish an understanding of its role in the EFL/ESL classrooms. Other areas…

  17. Repeated testing improves achievement in a blended learning approach for risk competence training of medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, C; Juenger, J

    2017-09-26

    Adequate estimation and communication of risks is a critical competence of physicians. Due to an evident lack of these competences, effective training addressing risk competence during medical education is needed. Test-enhanced learning has been shown to produce marked effects on achievements. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated tests implemented on top of a blended learning program for risk competence. We introduced a blended-learning curriculum for risk estimation and risk communication based on a set of operationalized learning objectives, which was integrated into a mandatory course "Evidence-based Medicine" for third-year students. A randomized controlled trial addressed the effect of repeated testing on achievement as measured by the students' pre- and post-training score (nine multiple-choice items). Basic numeracy and statistical literacy were assessed at baseline. Analysis relied on descriptive statistics (histograms, box plots, scatter plots, and summary of descriptive measures), bootstrapped confidence intervals, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and effect sizes (Cohen's d, r) based on adjusted means and standard deviations. All of the 114 students enrolled in the course consented to take part in the study and were assigned to either the intervention or control group (both: n = 57) by balanced randomization. Five participants dropped out due to non-compliance (control: 4, intervention: 1). Both groups profited considerably from the program in general (Cohen's d for overall pre vs. post scores: 2.61). Repeated testing yielded an additional positive effect: while the covariate (baseline score) exhibits no relation to the post-intervention score, F(1, 106) = 2.88, p > .05, there was a significant effect of the intervention (repeated tests scenario) on learning achievement, F(1106) = 12.72, p blended learning approach can be improved significantly by implementing a test-enhanced learning design, namely repeated testing. As

  18. The influence of learning methods on collaboration: prior repeated retrieval enhances retrieval organization, abolishes collaborative inhibition, and promotes post-collaborative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congleton, Adam R; Rajaram, Suparna

    2011-11-01

    Research on collaborative memory has unveiled the counterintuitive yet robust phenomenon that collaboration impairs group recall. A candidate explanation for this collaborative inhibition effect is the disruption of people's idiosyncratic retrieval strategies during collaboration, and it is hypothesized that employing methods that improve one's organization protects against retrieval disruption. Here it is investigated how one's learning method during the study phase--defined as either repeatedly studying or repeatedly retrieving information--influences retrieval organization and what effects this has on collaborative recall and post-collaborative individual recall. Results show that repeated retrieval consistently eliminated collaborative inhibition. This enabled participants to gain the most from re-exposure to materials recalled by their partners that they themselves did not recall and led to improvements in their individual memory following collaboration. This repeated retrieval advantage stemmed from the preferential manner in which this learning method strengthened retrieval organization. Findings are also discussed that reveal a relationship between retrieval organization and the interaction observed between learning method and short versus long delay seen in the testing effect literature. Finally, results show that the elusive benefits of cross-cuing during collaboration may be best detected with a longer study-test delay. Together, these findings illuminate when and how collaboration can enhance memory.

  19. Modes of acquisition of health literacy skills in informal learning contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calha, António Geraldo Manso

    2014-12-01

    In this article we try to analyze the learning processes of health literacy skills in informal contexts. We intend to broaden the understanding of the learning process beyond the formal contexts, thus contributing to the elucidation of health professionals on how individuals acquire and manage their knowledge in health matters. Given our goal, we use an analytic corpus constituted by one hundred autobiographical narratives written between 2006 and 2011, in educational contexts but with recognized potential for use in different scientific fields, including health. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality.

  20. Modes of acquisition of health literacy skills in informal learning contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Geraldo Manso Calha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we try to analyze the learning processes of health literacy skills in informal contexts. We intend to broaden the understanding of the learning process beyond the formal contexts, thus contributing to the elucidation of health professionals on how individuals acquire and manage their knowledge in health matters. Given our goal, we use an analytic corpus constituted by one hundred autobiographical narratives written between 2006 and 2011, in educational contexts but with recognized potential for use in different scientific fields, including health. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii learning processes that result from problem solving; iii learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality.

  1. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C.; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  2. The importance of the form of student acquisition of data in physics learning cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, John W.; Abraham, Michael R.; Birnie, Howard H.

    The learning cycle is a method of teaching-it is also a curriculum organization principle. Although Jean Piaget contributed to its formation (Piaget, 1973), its present structure has to be attributed to Dr. Robert Karplus and the persons who developed the materials of the Science Curriculum Improvement Study. It was through the SCIS activities that many of us learned how to develop curricula and teach with the learning cycle.

  3. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  4. The Influence of Self-Regulated Learning and Prior Knowledge on Knowledge Acquisition in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how learners construct textbase and situation model knowledge in hypertext computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) and documented the influence of specific self-regulated learning (SRL) tactics, prior knowledge, and characteristics of the learner on posttest knowledge scores from exposure to a hypertext. A sample of 160…

  5. Integrating Telecollaboration for Intercultural Language Acquisition at Secondary Education: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregi, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    The TILA project originated from the need to explore whether and how telecollaboration affects language learning processes for communication, intercultural understanding and motivation of youngsters learning foreign languages at secondary schools and to empower teachers to pioneer meaningful pedagogical innovation in the curriculum of foreign…

  6. Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategy on Students' Acquisition and Practice of Scientific Skills in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatila, Hanadi; Al Husseiny, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Recent research findings have shown that cooperative learning improves students' thinking skills as it allows them to communicate actively with each other (Johnson, Johnson and Smith, 2014). Therefore, cooperative learning has been proposed by many educators to be implemented in classrooms to produce lifelong learners and critical thinkers…

  7. Distance Learning and Skill Acquisition in Engineering Sciences: Present State and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potkonjak, Veljko; Jovanovic, Kosta; Holland, Owen; Uhomoibhi, James

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an improved concept of software-based laboratory exercises, namely a Virtual Laboratory for Engineering Sciences (VLES). Design/methodology/approach: The implementation of distance learning and e-learning in engineering sciences (such as Mechanical and Electrical Engineering) is still far behind…

  8. The Relationship between Second Language Acquisition Theory and Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is the contrast between the theoretical landscape within view of language teaching professionals in 1991 and that of today. I argue that the pragmatic goal of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) developers and researchers to create and evaluate learning opportunities pushes them to consider a variety…

  9. The Role of Statistical Learning in the Acquisition of Motion Event Construal in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffers-Daller, Jeanine; Calude, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Learning to talk about motion in a second language is very difficult because it involves restructuring deeply entrenched patterns from the first language. In this paper we argue that statistical learning can explain why L2 learners are only partially successful in restructuring their second language grammars. We explore to what extent L2 learners…

  10. Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process-Level Model of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given…

  11. The Effects of Team-Based Learning on Social Studies Knowledge Acquisition in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Kent, Shawn C.; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Haynes, Martha; Fall, Anna-Mária; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie J.; Solis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of team-based learning implemented within 11th-grade social studies classes. A randomized blocked design was implemented with 26 classes randomly assigned to treatment or comparison. In the treatment classes teachers implemented team-based learning practices to support students in engaging in…

  12. Incidental vocabulary acquisition from stories: Second and fourth graders learn more from listening than reading

    OpenAIRE

    Suggate, Sebastian; Lenhard, W; Neudecker, E.; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Both reading and language experiences contribute to vocabulary development, but questions remain as to what effect each has and when. This article investigates the effects that reading, telling and sharing a story have on vocabulary acquisition. Children (N = 37) were told nine stories in a randomized, single-blind and counterbalanced 2 × 3 mixed design. The between-subjects variable was grade (2 vs 4) and the within-subjects factor was the story condition, being either read (adult read aloud...

  13. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  14. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  15. Reading to learn experimental practice: The role of text and firsthand experience in the acquisition of an abstract science principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Erica Kesin

    2008-10-01

    From the onset of schooling, texts are used as important educational tools. In the primary years, they are integral to learning how to decode and develop fluency. In the later elementary years, they are often essential to the acquisition of academic content. Unfortunately, many children experience difficulties with this process, which is due in large part to their unfamiliarity with the genre of academic texts. The articles presented in this dissertation share an underlying theme of how to develop children's ability to comprehend and learn from academic, and specifically, non-narrative texts. The first article reviews research on the development of non-narrative discourse to elucidate the linguistic precursors to non-narrative text comprehension. The second and third articles draw from an empirical study that investigated the best way to integrate text, manipulation, and first-hand experience for children's acquisition and application of an abstract scientific principle. The scientific principle introduced in the study was the Control of Variables Strategy (CVS), a fundamental idea underlying scientific reasoning and a strategy for designing unconfounded experiments. Eight grade 4 classes participated in the study (N = 129), in one of three conditions: (a) read procedural text and manipulate experimental materials, (b) listen to procedural text and manipulate experimental materials, or (c) read procedural text with no opportunity to manipulate experimental materials. Findings from the study indicate that children who had the opportunity to read and manipulate materials were most effective at applying the strategy to designing and justifying unconfounded experiments, and evaluating written and physical experimental designs; however, there was no effect of instructional condition on a written assessment of evaluating familiar and unfamiliar experimental designs one week after the intervention. These results suggest that the acquisition and application of an abstract

  16. Ontogeny of learning walks and the acquisition of landmark information in desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Pauline N; Christian, Marcelo; Müller, Valentin L; Rössler, Wolfgang; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-10-01

    At the beginning of their foraging lives, desert ants (Cataglyphis fortis) are for the first time exposed to the visual world within which they henceforth must accomplish their navigational tasks. Their habitat, North African salt pans, is barren, and the nest entrance, a tiny hole in the ground, is almost invisible. Although natural landmarks are scarce and the ants mainly depend on path integration for returning to the starting point, they can also learn and use landmarks successfully to navigate through their largely featureless habitat. Here, we studied how the ants acquire this information at the beginning of their outdoor lives within a nest-surrounding array of three artificial black cylinders. Individually marked 'newcomers' exhibit a characteristic sequence of learning walks. The meandering learning walks covering all directions of the compass first occur only within a few centimeters of the nest entrance, but then increasingly widen, until after three to seven learning walks, foraging starts. When displaced to a distant test field in which an identical array of landmarks has been installed, the ants shift their search density peaks more closely to the fictive goal position, the more learning walks they have performed. These results suggest that learning of a visual landmark panorama around a goal is a gradual rather than an instantaneous process. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Using Assistive Technology to Increase Vocabulary Acquisition and Engagement for Students with Learning Disabilities in the High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemrod, Tal

    There is a growing recognition of the importance and effectiveness of instruction in the STEM subjects, including science. The movement towards increased requirements and expectations in science presents a challenge to both students and teachers as many students with Learning Disabilities (LD) often particularly struggle in their science classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of an assistive technology (AT) intervention targeting the acquisition of science vocabulary for adolescents with LD in a general education secondary biology classroom. Participants for this study included 3 secondary students with LD who were enrolled in a biology class. An alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of a keyword mnemonic vocabulary intervention via index cards or iPod touch on student, vocabulary acquisition, academic engagement and disruptive behavior. All students' acquired the content vocabulary equally well during both conditions. When using the AT, students' engagement increased compared to baseline conditions. It was clear that the students had a strong interest in using AT to increase their grades and engagement, however the teachers had little access and training on using AT to support their students with disabilities.

  18. University Studies in Spain and based on the acquisition of skills Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario de Castro-Camero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The reform of university studies in Spain as a result of creation of the European Higher Education Area, is one of the most important of which are held in its history. It is only comparable with the transformation that universities experienced during the period of the Enlightenment. Their effects reach the degrees, Curriculum and teaching methodology. The University of this Century seeks to provide an education based on the acquisition of competences, bringing together knowledge, skills and attitudes. In this new context, the human dimension is as important as academic; consequently, both will have to find their opportunity for development in university classrooms.

  19. How many mechanisms are needed to analyze speech? A connectionist simulation of structural rule learning in artificial language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Aarre; Calvo, Paco

    2011-01-01

    Some empirical evidence in the artificial language acquisition literature has been taken to suggest that statistical learning mechanisms are insufficient for extracting structural information from an artificial language. According to the more than one mechanism (MOM) hypothesis, at least two mechanisms are required in order to acquire language from speech: (a) a statistical mechanism for speech segmentation; and (b) an additional rule-following mechanism in order to induce grammatical regularities. In this article, we present a set of neural network studies demonstrating that a single statistical mechanism can mimic the apparent discovery of structural regularities, beyond the segmentation of speech. We argue that our results undermine one argument for the MOM hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Newly learned word forms are abstract and integrated immediately after acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C; McMurray, Bob

    2016-04-01

    A hotly debated question in word learning concerns the conditions under which newly learned words compete or interfere with familiar words during spoken word recognition. This has recently been described as a key marker of the integration of a new word into the lexicon and was thought to require consolidation Dumay & Gaskell, (Psychological Science, 18, 35-39, 2007; Gaskell & Dumay, Cognition, 89, 105-132, 2003). Recently, however, Kapnoula, Packard, Gupta, and McMurray, (Cognition, 134, 85-99, 2015) showed that interference can be observed immediately after a word is first learned, implying very rapid integration of new words into the lexicon. It is an open question whether these kinds of effects derive from episodic traces of novel words or from more abstract and lexicalized representations. Here we addressed this question by testing inhibition for newly learned words using training and test stimuli presented in different talker voices. During training, participants were exposed to a set of nonwords spoken by a female speaker. Immediately after training, we assessed the ability of the novel word forms to inhibit familiar words, using a variant of the visual world paradigm. Crucially, the test items were produced by a male speaker. An analysis of fixations showed that even with a change in voice, newly learned words interfered with the recognition of similar known words. These findings show that lexical competition effects from newly learned words spread across different talker voices, which suggests that newly learned words can be sufficiently lexicalized, and abstract with respect to talker voice, without consolidation.

  1. The role of reward in word learning and its implications for language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés, Pablo; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Hielscher, Ulrike; Mestres-Missé, Anna; Tempelmann, Claus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Noesselt, Toemme

    2014-11-03

    The exact neural processes behind humans' drive to acquire a new language--first as infants and later as second-language learners--are yet to be established. Recent theoretical models have proposed that during human evolution, emerging language-learning mechanisms might have been glued to phylogenetically older subcortical reward systems, reinforcing human motivation to learn a new language. Supporting this hypothesis, our results showed that adult participants exhibited robust fMRI activation in the ventral striatum (VS)--a core region of reward processing--when successfully learning the meaning of new words. This activation was similar to the VS recruitment elicited using an independent reward task. Moreover, the VS showed enhanced functional and structural connectivity with neocortical language areas during successful word learning. Together, our results provide evidence for the neural substrate of reward and motivation during word learning. We suggest that this strong functional and anatomical coupling between neocortical language regions and the subcortical reward system provided a crucial advantage in humans that eventually enabled our lineage to successfully acquire linguistic skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Students' Personality Characteristics, Self-Perceived Competence and Learning Conceptions in the Acquisition and Development of Social Communicative Competence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakx, A. W. E. A.; Van der Sanden, J. M. M.; Sijtsma, K.; Croon, M. A.; Vermetten, Y. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    An important purpose of higher social work education is to guide students to acquire and develop social-communicative competencies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role students' personality characteristics, self-perceived communicative competence and learning conceptions play in the acquisition and development of…

  3. Transformation of the System of Values of Autonomous Learning for English Acquisition in Blended E-Studies for Adults: A Holistic Fractal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojare, Inara; Skrinda, Astrida

    2016-01-01

    The present study is aimed at creating a holistic fractal model (HFM) of autonomous learning for English acquisition in a blended environment of e-studies in adult non-formal education on the basis of the theories and paradigms of philosophy, psychology and education for sustainable development to promote the development of adult learners'…

  4. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  5. Simulation of skill acquisition in sequential learning of a computer game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Nielsen, Finn Ravnsbjerg; Rasmussen, Jens

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents some theoretical assumptions about the cognitive control mechanisms of subjects learning to play a computer game. A simulation model has been developed to investigate these assumptions. The model is an automaton, reacting to instruction-like cue action rules. The prototypical...

  6. Knowledge Acquisition in Biochemistry, Physiology and Anatomy within the Context of Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature on Problem-based learning (PBL) mostly paints a positive picture. If there were more evidence of the limitations of PBL, more could be done to apply the appropriate interventions to optimize the experience of PBL for students. The purpose of this article is to discuss second year medical students' perceptions of the…

  7. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test takers'…

  8. Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehri, Linnea C.

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic mapping (OM) involves the formation of letter-sound connections to bond the spellings, pronunciations, and meanings of specific words in memory. It explains how children learn to read words by sight, to spell words from memory, and to acquire vocabulary words from print. This development is portrayed by Ehri (2005a) as a sequence of…

  9. Learning to Match Auditory and Visual Speech Cues: Social Influences on Acquisition of Phonological Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Infants' language exposure largely involves face-to-face interactions providing acoustic and visual speech cues but also social cues that might foster language learning. Yet, both audiovisual speech information and social information have so far received little attention in research on infants' early language development. Using a preferential…

  10. Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

  11. Augmented Reality M-Learning to Enhance Nursing Skills Acquisition in the Clinical Skills Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bernard M.; Jackson, Cathryn; Wilson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a pilot research project designed to explore if new mobile augmented reality (AR) technologies have the potential to enhance the learning of clinical skills in the lab. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory action-research-based pilot study was undertaken to explore an initial proof-of-concept design in…

  12. Augmented Reality M-Learning to Enhance Nursing Skills Acquisition in the Clinical Skills Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bernard M.; Jackson, Cathryn; Wilson, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on a pilot research project designed to explore if new mobile augmented reality (AR) technologies have the potential to enhance the learning of clinical skills in the lab. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory action-research-based pilot study was undertaken to explore an initial proof-of-concept design in…

  13. Learning to Get Along: Language Acquisition and Literacy Development in a New Cultural Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Susi

    1998-01-01

    Examines the author's daughter's experiences of being socialized into the language of Iceland through the eight-year-old's immersion in Icelandic culture. Shows how play-based activities with native-speaking peers was critical to her language and literacy development. Argues that authentic activity in social life is the key to learning literacy…

  14. How to Learn the Natural Numbers: Inductive Inference and the Acquisition of Number Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Eric; Laurence, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Theories of number concepts often suppose that the natural numbers are acquired as children learn to count and as they draw an induction based on their interpretation of the first few count words. In a bold critique of this general approach, Rips, Asmuth, Bloomfield [Rips, L., Asmuth, J. & Bloomfield, A. (2006). Giving the boot to the bootstrap:…

  15. At the Interface between Language Testing and Second Language Acquisition: Language Ability and Context of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between latent components of academic English language ability and test takers' study-abroad and classroom learning experiences through a structural equation modeling approach in the context of TOEFL iBT® testing. Data from the TOEFL iBT public dataset were used. The results showed that test…

  16. The impact of the home learning environment in native- vs. second-language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders; Bleses, Dorthe; Dale, Philip S.

    ., 2007). However, little is known about the relative importance of the HLE for native- vs. second-language acquisition. This question was examined in 1,200 second-language and 8,000 native-language learners of Danish. The parents of the 3-5-year-old children completed a HLE questionnaire......The home literacy environment (HLE) has been shown to impact language and literacy skills in preschool-aged children via factors such as availability of books, frequency of reading and child age when parents began reading to the child (Burgess, Hecht, & Lonigan, 2002; Payne, Whitehurst, & Angell......, 1994). Many dual language learners (DLL) rely on interactions in the second language outside the home to acquire second-language proficiency, but the HLE also influences second-language development in DLL, whether the native language or the second language is the primary home language (Duursma et al...

  17. Metacognitive Knowledge in Relation to Inquiry Skills and Knowledge Acquisition Within a Computer-Supported Inquiry Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Ristić Dedić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines two components of metacognitive knowledge in the context of inquiry learning: metatask and metastrategic. Existing work on the topic has shown that adolescents often lacked metacognitive understanding necessary for optimal inquiry learning (Keselman & Kuhn, 2002; Kuhn, 2002a; Kuhn, Black, Keselman, & Kaplan, 2000, but demonstrated that engagement with inquiry tasks may improve it (Keselman, 2003; Kuhn & Pearsall, 1998.The aim of the study is to investigate the gains in metacognitive knowledge that occur as a result of repeated engagement with an inquiry learning task, and to examine the relationship between metacognitive knowledge and performance on the task.The participants were 34 eighth grade pupils, who participated in a self-directed experimentation task using the FILE programme (Hulshof, Wilhelm, Beishuizen, & van Rijn, 2005. The task required pupils to design and conduct experiments and to make inferences regarding the causal structure of a multivariable system. Pupils participated in four learning sessions over the course of one month. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed by the questionnaire before and after working in FILE.The results indicate that pupils improved in metacognitive knowledge following engagement with the task. However, many pupils showed insufficient metacognitive knowledge in the post-test and failed to apply newly achieved knowledge to the transfer task. Pupils who attained a higher level of metacognitive knowledge were more successful on the task than pupils who did not improve on metacognitive knowledge. A particular level of metacognitive understanding is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for successful performance on the task.

  18. Effect of Technology Enhanced Language Learning on Vocabulary Acquisition of EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hassan Taj

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the impact of a model, created with the help of computer and mobile phone, on the EFL vocabulary learning of the students at a public university on a Preparatory Year Program. The study used a quasi-experimental pretest posttest control group design. The participants were 122 students in their first year at a public university. Half of them (N = 61 were male and half were female (N = 61. Six weeks treatment period involved vocabulary learning activities presented through PCs in the language laboratory and receiving multi-glossed vocabulary cards on the mobile phones through a social networking mobile phone application WhatsApp. Findings suggested that performance of treatment group was significantly better than that of control group on achievement posttest. The impact of treatment was found gender neutral as male and female participants benefitted from it alike.

  19. The Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT): Normative Data and the Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2017-01-01

    Verbal learning tests (VLTs) are widely used to evaluate memory deficits in neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. However, their validity has been called into question by studies showing significant differences in VLT scores obtained by different examiners. Here we describe the computerized Bay Area Verbal Learning Test (BAVLT), which minimizes inter-examiner differences by incorporating digital list presentation and automated scoring. In the 10-min BAVLT, a 12-word list is presented on three acquisition trials, followed by a distractor list, immediate recall of the first list, and, after a 30-min delay, delayed recall and recognition. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the performance of 195 participants ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. Acquisition trials showed strong primacy and recency effects, with scores improving over repetitions, particularly for mid-list words. Inter-word intervals (IWIs) increased with successive words recalled. Omnibus scores (summed over all trials except recognition) were influenced by age, education, and sex (women outperformed men). In Experiment 2, we examined BAVLT test-retest reliability in 29 participants tested with different word lists at weekly intervals. High intraclass correlation coefficients were seen for omnibus and acquisition scores, IWIs, and a categorization index reflecting semantic reorganization. Experiment 3 examined the performance of Experiment 2 participants when feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury. Although 37% of simulated malingerers showed abnormal (p < 0.05) omnibus z-scores, z-score cutoffs were ineffective in discriminating abnormal malingerers from control participants with abnormal scores. In contrast, four malingering indices (recognition scores, primacy/recency effects, learning rate across acquisition trials, and IWIs) discriminated the two groups with 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Experiment 4 examined the performance of a small group of patients with mild or severe TBI. Overall

  20. Effects of Culture, Age, Gender, and Repeated Trials on Rote Song Learning Skills of Children 6-9 Years Old from England, Panama, Poland, Spain, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randall S.; Brotons, Melissa; Fyk, Janina; Castillo, Argelis

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effect of repeated trials on children aged six to nine from different countries learning a new song. States that: (1) culture influences responses; (2) rote singing improves with age; (3) girls responses are better; and (4) children repeat rhythms more accurately before they can pitch match melodic contours and precise pitches. (CMK)

  1. The Effects of Repeated Reading on the Fluency and Comprehension Skills of Elementary-Age Students with Learning Disabilities (LD), 2001-2011: A Review of Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Whitney D.; Boon, Richard T.; Spencer, Vicky G.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an extensive review of the literature on the use of repeated reading to improve the reading fluency and comprehension skills of elementary-age students with learning disabilities. A systematic review of the published literature from 2001 to 2011 was conducted and nineteen (N = 19) research-based repeated reading studies were…

  2. Mobile learning: a comparison of knowledge acquisition between two mobile course models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Giardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile has become the preferred way for internet access. This important change has generated transformations “equally important” in education and teaching fields, significantly increasing the importance of mobile learning. Using the User-Centered Design and Participatory Planning methodologies, 20 university students were involved in the mobile course model design, defined as “USiena model”. The objective of this research was to compare the model course designed with a model course used by other institutions present in iTunesU platform, hereinafter described as a “Sparring model”. Using the experimental method, 32 students were involved in a “pilot study” built to evaluate the learning level of both models, comparing the knowledge acquired by learners. The experimental hypothesis was that the USiena model, compared to the Sparring model, would facilitate the contents transmission to learners improving learning.  The results of the experimentation confirmed our hypothesis.Mobile learning: una comparazione sull’acquisizione della conoscenza utilizzando due modelli di corsoIl mobile è diventato la modalità privilegiata per l’accesso a internet. Questo importante cambiamento ha generato trasformazioni “altrettanto importanti” nel campo dell’istruzione e dell’insegnamento, facendo aumentare sensibilmente l’importanza dell’apprendimento in mobilità. Utilizzando le metodologie dello User-Centered Design e del Participatory Planning, 20 studenti universitari sono stati coinvolti nella progettazione di un modello di corso mobile, da ora in avanti definito come “modello USiena”. L’obiettivo della presente ricerca era di comparare il modello di corso che è stato progettato, con uno dei modelli di corso utilizzati da altre istituzioni presenti nella piattaforma iTunesU, di seguito descritto come “modello Sparring”. Utilizzando il metodo sperimentale, 32 studenti sono stati coinvolti in uno “studio pilota

  3. Efficient Learning for the Poor: New Insights into Literacy Acquisition for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadzi, Helen

    2008-11-01

    Reading depends on the speed of visual recognition and capacity of short-term memory. To understand a sentence, the mind must read it fast enough to capture it within the limits of the short-term memory. This means that children must attain a minimum speed of fairly accurate reading to understand a passage. Learning to read involves "tricking" the brain into perceiving groups of letters as coherent words. This is achieved most efficiently by pairing small units consistently with sounds rather than learning entire words. To link the letters with sounds, explicit and extensive practice is needed; the more complex the spelling of a language, the more practice is necessary. However, schools of low-income students often waste instructional time and lack reading resources, so students cannot get sufficient practice to automatize reading and may remain illiterate for years. Lack of reading fluency in the early grades creates inefficiencies that affect the entire educational system. Neurocognitive research on reading points to benchmarks and monitoring indicators. All students should attain reading speeds of 45-60 words per minute by the end of grade 2 and 120-150 words per minute for grades 6-8.

  4. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models.

  5. Non-Supervised Learning for Spread Spectrum Signal Pseudo-Noise Sequence Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Cheng; Na Yu,; Tai-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract¾An idea of estimating the direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) signal pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is presented. Without the apriority knowledge about the DSSS signal in the non-cooperation condition, we propose a self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network algorithm to detect and identify the PN sequence. A non-supervised learning algorithm is proposed according the Kohonen rule in SOFM. The blind algorithm can also estimate the PN sequence in a low signal-to-noise (SNR) and computer simulation demonstrates that the algorithm is effective. Compared with the traditional correlation algorithm based on slip-correlation, the proposed algorithm’s bit error rate (BER) and complexity are lower.

  6. The IceCube Data Acquisition Software: Lessons Learned during Distributed, Collaborative, Multi-Disciplined Software Development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Keith S; Beattie, Keith; Day Ph.D., Christopher; Glowacki, Dave; Hanson Ph.D., Kael; Jacobsen Ph.D., John; McParland, Charles; Patton Ph.D., Simon

    2007-09-21

    In this experiential paper we report on lessons learned during the development ofthe data acquisition software for the IceCube project - specifically, how to effectively address the unique challenges presented by a distributed, collaborative, multi-institutional, multi-disciplined project such as this. While development progress in software projects is often described solely in terms of technical issues, our experience indicates that non- and quasi-technical interactions play a substantial role in the effectiveness of large software development efforts. These include: selection and management of multiple software development methodologies, the effective useof various collaborative communication tools, project management structure and roles, and the impact and apparent importance of these elements when viewed through the differing perspectives of hardware, software, scientific and project office roles. Even in areas clearly technical in nature, success is still influenced by non-technical issues that can escape close attention. In particular we describe our experiences on software requirements specification, development methodologies and communication tools. We make observations on what tools and techniques have and have not been effective in this geographically disperse (including the South Pole) collaboration and offer suggestions on how similarly structured future projects may build upon our experiences.

  7. Phonological acquisition in preschoolers learning a second language via immersion: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raquel T

    2004-01-01

    Phonological development in first and second languages (L1 and L2 respectively) has not been extensively studied in young children who are acquiring a second language via immersion. This lack of information is unfortunate, as the number of children who are acquiring a second language in this context is growing and such children make up a part of the clinical caseload of many speech-language pathologists. To address the need for information regarding phonological development of children acquiring a second language in immersion, the present investigation sought to provide longitudinal data on the development of both L1 and L2 phonologies. Five preschoolers who were acquiring English as a L2 and who spoke different L1s participated in the study. A picture identification task was used to assess productive phonological skills in L1 and English. Analyses included a description of the children's phonetic inventories, accuracy rates, and non-target response patterns. Both within child (across languages) and between child comparisons were made to discern possible patterns of use and to identify factors that may impact phonological skill in the L1 and L2. Results of the investigation suggest that children who are learning a L2 utilize their knowledge of the L1 to aid them in acquiring the phonological system of the L2. At the same time, they appear to maintain, at least as measured via perceptual analysis of their speech, distinct phonological systems.

  8. Incidental Vocabulary Learning in Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review (Aprendizaje incidental de vocabulario en la adquisición de una segunda lengua: una revisión de literatura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo Ramos, Falcon Dario

    2015-01-01

    This literature review aims to analyze previous studies that address the incidental learning of vocabulary in second language acquisition. The articles included in this literature review look into the understanding of vocabulary learning through incidental means, the relationship of reading and incidental vocabulary learning, and the strategies…

  9. Second Language Acquisition Based on the Allosteric Learning Theory%基于变构学习理论的第二语言习得研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧

    2015-01-01

    Allosteric Learning Model is a complex explanation mode which regarded the language learning as the conversion of the concepts and emphasized the importance of the main concepts of the learner and learning environment.Existing second language vocabulary acquisition model is constructed on the linguistics and psychology bases, which mainly focuses on three aspects of input, interaction and output.Applying the allosteric learning theory to the second language acquisition can make up for the defects of the existing learning model, which is the learners’ concept system and the learning environment design and create a scenario of the knowledge reusing, making full use of learners’ concept to effectively promote second language acquisition.%变构学习模型是一个关于学习复杂性的解释模型,把学习看作是学习者概念系统的转换,强调学习者主体概念和学习环境的重要性。现有的第二语言词汇习得模型多在语言学和心理学研究的基础上建构,主要强调输入、交互和输出三个方面。在第二语言习得中融入变构学习理论将弥补已有学习模型在学习者主体概念和学习环境设计两方面的缺陷。创设学习者知识再运用情景,充分运用概念体,以有效地促进学习者的语言学习。

  10. Analysis of Learning Strategies in L2 Acquisition%二语习得中的学习策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽华

    2010-01-01

    Second language learning has been the concerned problem of teachers and students nowadays. Therefore,the study of learning strategies in L2 acquisition has drawn much attention. This paper discusses the issues covering the fundamental aspects: identification and classification of learning strategies,outlines the importance of learning strategies,and then introduces some approaches to teach strategies in the classroom.%目前,二语学习策略备受教师和学生关注.本文涉及学习策略的概念,讨论了学习策略的分类,概括了学习策略的重要性,并针对教学现状提出几点建议.

  11. Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide in an animal model of depression: Normalisation of learning behaviour and hippocampal serotonin 5-HT2 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Höllt, Volker; Grecksch, Gisela

    2014-06-01

    A re-balance of postsynaptic serotonin (5-HT) receptor signalling, with an increase in 5-HT1A and a decrease in 5-HT2A signalling, is a final common pathway multiple antidepressants share. Given that the 5-HT1A/2A agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), when repeatedly applied, selectively downregulates 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT1A receptors, one might expect LSD to similarly re-balance the postsynaptic 5-HT signalling. Challenging this idea, we use an animal model of depression specifically responding to repeated antidepressant treatment (olfactory bulbectomy), and test the antidepressant-like properties of repeated LSD treatment (0.13 mg/kg/d, 11 d). In line with former findings, we observe that bulbectomised rats show marked deficits in active avoidance learning. These deficits, similarly as we earlier noted with imipramine, are largely reversed by repeated LSD administration. Additionally, bulbectomised rats exhibit distinct anomalies of monoamine receptor signalling in hippocampus and/or frontal cortex; from these, only the hippocampal decrease in 5-HT2 related [(35)S]-GTP-gamma-S binding is normalised by LSD. Importantly, the sham-operated rats do not profit from LSD, and exhibit reduced hippocampal 5-HT2 signalling. As behavioural deficits after bulbectomy respond to agents classified as antidepressants only, we conclude that the effect of LSD in this model can be considered antidepressant-like, and discuss it in terms of a re-balance of hippocampal 5-HT2/5-HT1A signalling.

  12. Markedness and Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Byeon, Ja

    1999-01-01

    Discusses whether markedness is at work in second-language acquisition in the same way it is in first-language acquisition when Korean speakers learn English as a second language and English speakers learn Korean as a second language. Results are discussed in terms of no access to universal grammar, partial access to universal grammar, and access…

  13. Associative vocabulary learning : development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and co

  14. Associative vocabulary learning : development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and co

  15. Effects of a Vocabulary Acquisition and Assessment System on Students' Performance in a Blended Learning Class for English Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiyou; Chen, Yuhao; Ding, Zhuhui; Ruan, Meixian

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition and assessment are regarded as the key basis for the instruction of English as a second language. However, it is time-consuming, fallible and repetitive for the school teachers and parents to assess the proficiency of the students' vocabulary acquisition. We customized the open source course management system Moodle to build…

  16. Language Acquisition Theories and the Second Foreign Language Learning Models%语言习得理论与第二外语学习模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范荣玲

    2001-01-01

    Based on linguistice acquisition theory and from the respect of psychology,this paper analyses children's languageaequisition approaches and the learning models of the second foreign language. The paper draws a conclusion that although language acquisition differs from language learning ,its learning approaches bring light on the latter. Besides,the learning models of the second foreign language are not fixed or perfect methods,but with their positive effects,they can be applied to foreign language lèarning and be expected to achieve better results.%本文从心理学言语角度,以语言习得理论为基础,解析了儿童语言习得的方式和第二外语学习模式。文章指出语言学习不同于语言习得,但是后者的学习方式对前者具有很大的启发意义;第二外语学习模式也并不是一条完美而又固定的方法,但是却对外语学习起着积极的参考作用,能够帮助提高外语学习的效果。

  17. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    De Marcken, C

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unse...

  18. Recognition of the Second Language Acquisition and Language Learning%对二语习得与外语学得的再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽媛

    2015-01-01

    国内在讨论二语习得理论时,经常会混淆使用二语和外语,存在盲目应用二语习得成果的现象。本文将从定义上对狭义上的二语与外语、习得与学得进行区分,并根据目的、语言环境、动机等因素同对二语习得和外语学得进行详细的分析,从而有选择性地借鉴和吸收二语习得理论成果。%In China,the phenomena of confusing using second language and foreign language and of applying achievements blindly exist.This paper intends to distinguish foreign language and second language,acquisition and learning in terms of defi-nition and analyze second language acquisition and foreign language learning in details to absorb the results of second language acquisition selectively.

  19. Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that lateral paracapsular GABAergic synapses in the basolateral amygdala contribute to the acquisition and extinction of fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A M; Ariwodola, O J; Weiner, J L

    2016-01-01

    The lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA) is crucial to the acquisition and extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning, and synaptic plasticity in this region is considered to be a neural correlate of learned fear. We recently reported that activation of BLA β3-adrenoreceptors (β3-ARs) selectively enhances lateral paracapsular (LPC) feed-forward GABAergic inhibition onto BLA pyramidal neurons, and that intra-BLA infusion of a β3-AR agonist reduces measures of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior. Here, we utilized a combination of behavioral and electrophysiological approaches to characterize the role of BLA LPCs in the acquisition of fear and extinction learning in adult male Long-Evans rats. We report that intra-BLA microinjection of β3-AR agonists (BRL37344 or SR58611A, 1μg/0.5μL/side) prior to training fear conditioning or extinction blocks the expression of these behaviors 24h later. Furthermore,ex vivo low-frequency stimulation of the external capsule (LFS; 1Hz, 15min), which engages LPC synapses, induces LTP of BLA fEPSPs, while application of a β3-AR agonist (SR58611A, 5μM) induces LTD of fEPSPs when combined with LFS. Interestingly, fEPSP LTP is not observed in recordings from fear conditioned animals, suggesting that fear learning may engage the same mechanisms that induce synaptic plasticity at this input. In support of this, we find that LFS produces LTD of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (iLTD) at LPC GABAergic synapses, and that this effect is also absent following fear conditioning. Taken together, these data provide preliminary evidence that modulation of LPC GABAergic synapses can influence the acquisition and extinction of fear learning and related synaptic plasticity in the BLA.

  20. Lithium chloride administration prevents spatial learning and memory impairment in repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice by depressing apoptosis and increasing BDNF expression in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingyue; Jin, Wei; Zhao, Haifeng; Xiao, Yining; Jia, Yanqiu; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Jing; Meng, Nan; Lv, Peiyuan

    2015-09-15

    Lithium has been reported to have neuroprotective effects, but the preventive and treated role on cognition impairment and the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. In the present study, C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to repeated bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce the learning and memory deficits. 2 mmol/kg or 5 mmol/kg of lithium chloride (LiCl) was injected intraperitoneally per day before (for 7 days) or post (for 28 days) the operation. This repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) induced dynamic overexpression of ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and BDNF in hippocampus of mice. LiCl pretreatment and treatment significantly decreased the escape latency and increased the percentage of time that the mice spent in the target quadrant in Morris water maze. 2 mmol/kg LiCl evidently reversed the morphologic changes, up-regulated the survival neuron count and increased the BDNF gene and protein expression. 5 mmol/kg pre-LiCl significantly increased IR-stimulated reduce of Bcl-2/Bax and p-CREB/CREB. These results described suggest that pre-Li and Li treatment may induce a pronounced prevention on cognitive impairment. These effects may relay on the inhibition of apoptosis and increasing BDNF and p-CREB expression.

  1. 'Just a pinch of salt'. An experimental comparison of the effect of repeated exposure and flavor-flavor learning with salt or spice on vegetable acceptance in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Chabanet, Claire; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    Children's vegetable intake is below the recommended amounts. No studies to date have tested the relevance of using salt or spices to increase children's vegetable acceptance. Our objective was to compare the effect of repeated exposure (RE) and of flavor-flavor learning (FFL) on toddlers' acceptance of a non-familiar vegetable. Two unconditioned stimuli were used: salt and a salt-associated spice. Toddlers attending six nurseries were assigned to 3 groups in a between subject design. Groups were exposed 8 times to a basic salsify puree (0.2% salt w/w; RE group; n = 47), a salty salsify puree (0.5% salt w/w; FFL-Salt group; n = 54) or a spiced salsify puree (0.2% salt and 0.02% nutmeg w/w; FFL-Nutmeg group; n = 50). Acceptance (intake and liking) of the target vegetable (basic salsify puree) and of a control vegetable (carrot puree) was evaluated at pre-exposure, at each exposure of the learning period, at post-exposure, and at 1, 3 and 6 months after exposure. In all groups, intake of the target vegetable increased from pre- to post-exposure. This increase was significantly higher in the RE group (64 ± 11 g) than in the FFL-Salt group (23 ± 11 g) and marginally higher than in the FFL-Nutmeg group (36 ± 11 g). No difference between groups was observed on the increase in liking of the target vegetable from pre- to post-exposure. The increase of the target vegetable intake was still observed after 6 months for all groups. Thus, repeated exposure appears to be the simplest choice to increase vegetable intake on the short and long term in toddlers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  3. A Knowledge Acquisition Approach to Developing Mindtools for Organizing and Sharing Differentiating Knowledge in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Lin, Yu-Shih; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the importance and benefits of situating students in a real-world learning environment with access to digital-world resources. At the same time, researchers have indicated the need to develop learning guidance mechanisms or tools for assisting students to learn in such a complex learning scenario. In this study, a…

  4. Learning for Life, a Structured and Motivational Process of Knowledge Construction in the Acquisition/Learning of English as a Foreign Language in Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino-Garces, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    As language learning theory has shifted from a highly guided to a more open learning process, this paper presents the teaching/learning philosophy called Learning for Life (L for L) as a great way to motivate native Spanish speaker students learning English as a foreign language, and to help them be the constructors of their own knowledge. The…

  5. [E-learning in orthopedics and traumatology. A comparative pilot study on acceptance and knowledge acquisition among users and non-users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, E; Haberstroh, N; Sostmann, K; Perka, C; Putzier, M; Schmidmaier, G; Back, D A

    2014-07-01

    Additional internet-based learning tools (e-learning) are successfully used in the curricula of many disciplines and are highly accepted among students. However, in orthopedics and traumatology e-learning is underrepresented and scientific papers are rare. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate the acceptance of the e-learning module network for students in traumatology and orthopedics (NESTOR) among users and non-users and to analyze the effect of this additional learning tool on knowledge acquisition. A total of 544 students were asked to complete evaluation questionnaires at the end of two semesters using different ones for NESTOR users and non-users. The gain of knowledge was analyzed by two written knowledge tests (pre-post test, 20 multiple choice questions) at the beginning and end of the semester comparing these two groups. A total of 191 students took part in the evaluation and 152 completed both written tests. The NESTOR users showed a high acceptance of the e-learning system and non-users considered e-learning beneficial as well. Reasons given for not using NESTOR were lack of time, lack of information about the existence of NESTOR and a lack of interest in this discipline and e-learning in general. Both groups significantly increased their level of knowledge during the course of the semester (p orthopedics and traumatology. Based on experience and these results the permanent implementation of an additional e-learning module in the curriculum can be recommended for other faculties. In this process the critical comments of the non-users determined in the present study should be addressed.

  6. HOW MANY REPETITIONS OF CHILD CARE SKILLS ARE REQUIRED FOR HEALTH WORKER STUDENTS TO ACHIEVE PROFICIENCY? LEARNING CURVE PATTERNS IN CHILD CARE SKILLS ACQUISITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Zahra Emami; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Abadi, Fatemeh Sardar; Pour, Parastoo Majidi; Davoudi, Malihe; Banafsheh, Elahe

    2015-10-01

    The vulnerability of children under 5 years old requires paying more attention to the health of this group. In the Iranian health care system, health workers are the first line of human resources for health care in rural areas. Because most health workers begin working in conditions with minimal facilities, their clinical qualifications are crucial. The aim of this study was to determine the number of repetitions of child care skills, required for health worker students to achieve proficiency based on the learning curve. A time series research design was used. Participants in this study were first year health worker students enrolled in three health schools in 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of demographic information and a checklist evaluating the health worker students' clinical skills proficiency for child care. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) using descriptive and inferential statistics including Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests. Learning curve patterns in child care skills acquisition showed that for less than 20 and between 20 to 29 times, the level of skill acquisition had an upward slope. Between 30- 39 the learning curve was descending, however the slope became ascending once more and then it leveled off (with change of less than 5%). It seems that 40 repetitions of child care skills are sufficient for health worker students to achieve proficiency. This suggests that time, resources and additional costs for training health worker students' trainees can be saved by this level of repetition.

  7. Brain lateralisation and motor learning: selective effects of dominant and non-dominant hand practice on the early acquisition of throwing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Weigelt, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Findings from neurosciences indicate that the two brain hemispheres are specialised for the processing of distinct movement features. How this knowledge can be useful in motor learning remains unclear. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of initial practice with the dominant vs non-dominant hand on the acquisition of novel throwing skills. Within a transfer design two groups practised a novel motor task with the same amount of practice on each hand, but in opposite hand-order. In Experiment 1, participants acquired the position throw in basketball, which places high demands on throwing accuracy. Participants practising this task with their non-dominant hand first, before changing to the dominant hand, showed better skill acquisition than participants practising in opposite order. In Experiment 2 participants learned the overarm throw in team handball, which requires great throwing strength. Participants initially practising with their dominant hand benefited more from practice than participants beginning with their non-dominant hand. These results indicate that spatial accuracy tasks are learned better after initial practice with the non-dominant hand, whereas initial practice with the dominant hand is more efficient for maximum force production tasks. The effects are discussed in terms of brain lateralisation and bilateral practice schedules.

  8. Understanding the Changing Global Distribution of Radiocarbon: What are we learning from the WOCE and CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNichol, A. P.; Key, R. M.; Elder, K. L.; Von Reden, K. F.; Gagnon, A. R.; Burton, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    that area of the Pacific just east of the section. More examples of the changes that repeated sampling has revealed will be presented as well as a discussion of the implications of some of the most interesting observations.

  9. Effects of e-learning, lectures, and role playing on nursing students' knowledge acquisition, retention and satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pourghaznein, Tayebeh; Sabeghi, Hakimeh; Shariatinejad, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    .... Therefore, teachers are required to employ up to date methods in their teaching plans. This study evaluated the effects of e-learning, lectures, and role playing on nursing students' learning, retention, and satisfaction...

  10. Emergent Processes of Language Acquisition: Japanese Language Learning and the Consumption of Japanese Cultural Products in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Toyoshima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivation for learning a second language varies among individuals: some people enjoy the process of learning languages, while others learn a second language for practical reasons. Previous fieldwork research in Thailand has shown that many consumers of Japanese cultural products are also learners of the Japanese language. This suggests that Japanese cultural products motivate consumers to start studying Japanese and to continue learning it. In this study, two hypotheses will be posed in order to reveal the relationship between the consumption of Japanese cultural products and Japanese language learning: (1 exposure to Japanese cultural products induces Japanese language learning, and (2 Japanese language learning induces the consumption of other Japanese cultural products. Through questionnaire research conducted on university students in Thailand and through ethnographic data, this study attempts to examine the hypotheses and to demonstrate a continuous cycle model of Japanese language learning and the consumption of Japanese cultural ­products.

  11. An Annotated Bibliography on Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes representative literature in second language acquisition and learning. Writings by the major theorists and researchers were...Summaries of the articles are provided. Second language acquisition , Retention, Foreign language, Language. Interlanguage,

  12. Improved posttraumatic acquisition of a place learning task after repeated administration of a serotonergic agonist 8-OH-DPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mala, Hana; Mogensen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Introduction/Objectives Studies have indicated that serotonergic agonists may act neuroprotectively against neurochemical and mechanical injury to the brain, and diminish the negative consequences of secondary tissue response to the initial insult. Little is known about the mechanisms...... of such effects. Likewise, it is presently uncertain to what extent serotonergic agonists can reduce the functional consequences of focal brain injury. In this study, we have addressed the neuroprotective potential of 8-hydroxy-2-di-n-propylamino-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), which is a serotonin agonist binding....... The performance of the sham-operated controls was unaffected by 8-OH-DPAT treatment.   Conclusion: Serotonergic agonists represent a new target for potential therapeutic strategies in the treatment of consequences after brain injury. In particular, 5-HT1A receptor agonists appear promising, and more research...

  13. Friends: Words - Melting Pot for Vocabulary Learning Feasibility Report of English Communicative Lexical Acquisition for English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钦白兰

    2009-01-01

    Lexical acquisition plays an essential part in getting any natural language processing system to function in the real world. [Branimir Boguraev, 1996:4] In China, English major undergraduates turn to various kinds of vocabulary pamphlets for vocabulary accumulation. However, enormous efforts produce dubious outcomes. This paper provides an efficient way to these L2 learners to gain access to real language acquisition. It sets out with empirical research on the script of Friends, then along with a brief overview on related findings, it concludes that watching Friends results in better communication.

  14. Learning Prosody and Fluency Characteristics of Second Language Speech: The Effect of Experience on Child Learners' Acquisition of Five Suprasegmentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Baker, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    This study examined second language (L2) experience effects on children's acquisition of fluency-(speech rate, frequency, and duration of pausing) and prosody-based (stress timing, peak alignment) suprasegmentals. Twenty Korean children (age of arrival in the United States = 7-11 years, length of US residence = 1 vs. 11 years) and 20 age-matched…

  15. Educational Outcomes of Small-Group Discussion Versus Traditional Lecture Format in Dental Students' Learning and Skills Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Scott, Raymond; Peters, Ove A; McClain, Elizabeth; Gluskin, Alan H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this prospective quantitative study was to compare the effect of different instructional formats on dental students' skills and knowledge acquisition for access cavity preparation. All first-year dental students were invited to participate in this study conducted during the four consecutive two-week endodontic rotation courses at the University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in spring semester 2015. Four alphabetically distributed intact groups of students were randomly allocated to two groups (n=70 each) that participated in either small-group discussion or a traditional lecture on access preparation. The first outcome measure was skill acquisition, measured by the quality of access cavities prepared in extracted teeth at the conclusion of the session. Two blinded raters scored direct observations on a continuous scale. Knowledge, the second outcome measure, was scored with a multiple-choice and open-ended question test at the end of each two-week session. Data were obtained for 134 of the 140 students, for a 96% response rate. The results showed that students in the small-group discussion groups scored significantly higher than those in the lecture groups when skill performance was tested (p=8.9 × 10(-7)). However, no significant differences were found in the acquisition of knowledge between the two groups on the written test. Active student participation was significantly related to improved manual skill acquisition, but the format of the session does not seem to have had a direct influence on acquired knowledge.

  16. Pre-Service Teacher Beliefs about Language Learning: The Second Language Acquisition Course as an Agent for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This large mixed methods study investigated the effects of the introductory second language acquisition (SLA) course on the beliefs of pre-service teachers (n = 381) enrolled over a three-year period at a state university in California. Pre- to post-course paired sample t-tests that were run on 23 beliefs statements from a widely used survey…

  17. Similarities and Variation in Noun and Verb Acquisition: A Crosslinguistic Study of Children Learning German, Korean, and Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; Lee, Hae-Wook; Pae, Soyeong

    2007-01-01

    The present study focuses on noun and verb processing during language acquisition, whereby the word production and the word comprehension of preschool children of different ages were investigated across three languages. Two hypotheses were put forward: first, given that languages differ with respect to the clarity of the noun-verb distinction and…

  18. Lessons for WAC/WID from Language Learning Research: Multicompetence, Register Acquisition, and the College Writing Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Navarro, Nela

    2011-01-01

    This article is a collaboration between WAC/WID and second language acquisition (SLA) specialists. It examines alternate disciplinary notions of the place of writing among other skills and adapts concepts from SLA theory and pedagogy with the goal of providing new interdisciplinary options for WAC/WID research and classroom practice.

  19. 二语习得学习负动机研究述评%Review on Learning Negative Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鸣霄; 张立杰

    2015-01-01

    When the learning motivation of language learners is affected by negative internal and external factors,learning neg-ative motivation will occur.This paper makes a systemic literature review of learning negative motivation in second language ac-quisition from two perspectives:the application of mainstream motivation theories in negative motivation researches and the sig-nificance of negative motivation empirical researches'effect on foreign language teaching.It also points out the significance of language learning motivation-stimulating strategies.%语言学习者自身学习动机受到内部因素及外部因素的负面作用时,就会促使负动机(demotivation)的产生。本文从主流动机理论在负动机研究中的应用及负动机实证研究对外语教学的意义两个角度对二语学习负动机的研究进行了系统的文献回顾,并指出了语言动机激发策略对外语教学的意义。

  20. Effects of e-learning, lectures, and role playing on nursing students’ knowledge acquisition, retention and satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghaznein, Tayebeh; Sabeghi, Hakimeh; Shariatinejad, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nursing education can maintain its dynamic quality when it moves toward innovation and modern methods of teaching and learning. Therefore, teachers are required to employ up to date methods in their teaching plans. This study evaluated the effects of e-learning, lectures, and role playing on nursing students’ learning, retention, and satisfaction. Methods: Sixty nursing students were selected as an experiment and control groups during two consecutive semesters. The educational content was presented as e-learning and role playing during one semester (experiment group) and as lectures in the next semester (control group). A questionnaire containing three parts was used to assess demographics, learning and satisfaction statuses. The questionnaire also included a final openended question to evaluate the students’ ideas about the whole course. Results: The mean scores of posttest were 16.13 ± 1.37 using role playing, 15.50 ± 1.44 using e-learning and 16.45 ± 1.23 using lectures. The differences between the mean scores of posttest and pretest were 12.84 ± 1.43, 12.56 ± 1.57, and 13.73 ± 1.53 in the mentioned methods, respectively. Lectures resulted in significantly better learning compared to role playing and e-learning. In contrast, retention rates were significantly lower using lectures than using role playing and e-learning. Students’ satisfaction from e-learning was significantly lower than lecturing and role playing. Conclusion: Due to the lower rates of retention following lectures, the teachers are recommended to use student- centered approaches in their lectures. Since students’ satisfaction with e-learning was lower than the other methods, further studies are suggested to explore the problems of e-learning in Iran. PMID:26000257

  1. A Comparison of the lexical processing in Children’s Word Acquisition and in Adults’ Word Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟卉欣

    2008-01-01

    Children can acquire knowledge of their mother tongue easily in a relatively short time,whereas adults are too inferior to bear the comparison in learning a second language.This paper sets out to study the background and process of children’s and adults’ language learning,make comparison and contrast,and find out an effective way to promote adults’ second language learning.

  2. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  3. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  4. Universals of Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Works on second language acquisition theories, affective variables and communicative competence, and interlanguage were compiled as a result of a symposium on universals of second language acquisition at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The papers include: "On the Variability of Interlangauge Systems" (Elaine Tarone); "Memory, Learning, and…

  5. Language Acquisition, Pidgins and Creoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wode, Henning

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that structural universals between different-based pidgins result from universal linguo-cognitive processing strategies which are employed in learning languages. Some of the strategies occur in all types of acquisition, and others are more applicable to L2 type acquisition. Past research is discussed, and some exemplary data are given.…

  6. The Role of Individual Variables in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小玲

    2015-01-01

    The study of Second language acquisition varies greatly but one concern is the variables of language learning. The paper illustrates three individual variables in second language acquisition: language aptitude, attitude and learning strategies.

  7. The Role of Individual Variables in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小玲

    2015-01-01

    The study of Second language acquisition varies greatly but one concern is the variables of language learning.The paper illustrates three individual variables in second language acquisition:language aptitude,attitude and learning strategies.

  8. International ESL Graduate Student Perceptions of Online Learning in the Context of Second Language Acquisition and Culturally Responsive Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fujuan; Nabb, Lee; Aagard, Steven; Kim, Kioh

    2010-01-01

    The development of technology has made adult and higher education learning opportunities increasingly more accessible to a growing number of people. With the number of courses steadily increasing to meet students' needs and demands, and because programs are likewise changing to incorporate more online learning opportunities, international, English…

  9. Syntactic Islands and Learning Biases: Combining Experimental Syntax and Computational Modeling to Investigate the Language Acquisition Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa; Sprouse, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The induction problems facing language learners have played a central role in debates about the types of learning biases that exist in the human brain. Many linguists have argued that some of the learning biases necessary to solve these language induction problems must be both innate and language-specific (i.e., the Universal Grammar (UG)…

  10. The Relationship between an Online Synchronous Learning Environment and Knowledge Acquisition Skills and Traits: The Blackboard Collaborate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, John; Politis, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Online learning is becoming more attractive to perspective students because it offers them greater accessibility, convenience and flexibility to study at a reduced cost. While these benefits may attract prospective learners to embark on an online learning environment there remains little empirical evidence relating the skills and traits of…

  11. Syntactic Islands and Learning Biases: Combining Experimental Syntax and Computational Modeling to Investigate the Language Acquisition Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa; Sprouse, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The induction problems facing language learners have played a central role in debates about the types of learning biases that exist in the human brain. Many linguists have argued that some of the learning biases necessary to solve these language induction problems must be both innate and language-specific (i.e., the Universal Grammar (UG)…

  12. Effects of learning content in context on knowledge acquisition and recall: a pretest-posttest control group design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, E.M.; Bruin, A.B. De; Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Puts, G.C.; Leppink, J.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that learning in context increases performance. This study investigates the relationship between the characteristics of a paper-patient context (relevance and familiarity), the mechanisms through which the cognitive dimension of context could improve learning (act

  13. English Acquisition in Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周自强

    2013-01-01

    In the course of learning English in classroom, students cultivate their ability to use the language. But that ability does not mean they are able to acquire that language in a communicative way, because the acquisition of language in classroom is mainly for the purpose of learning. It starts and ends in a particular circumstance-the classroom. In that case, analyzed and dis-cussed is the universal feature of English acquisition in classroom and its effects on practical use respectively.

  14. Learning, neural plasticity and sensitive periods: implications for language acquisition, music training and transfer across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Erin J; Hutka, Stefanie A; Williams, Lynne J; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-11-20

    Sensitive periods in human development have often been proposed to explain age-related differences in the attainment of a number of skills, such as a second language (L2) and musical expertise. It is difficult to reconcile the negative consequence this traditional view entails for learning after a sensitive period with our current understanding of the brain's ability for experience-dependent plasticity across the lifespan. What is needed is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying auditory learning and plasticity at different points in development. Drawing on research in language development and music training, this review examines not only what we learn and when we learn it, but also how learning occurs at different ages. First, we discuss differences in the mechanism of learning and plasticity during and after a sensitive period by examining how language exposure versus training forms language-specific phonetic representations in infants and adult L2 learners, respectively. Second, we examine the impact of musical training that begins at different ages on behavioral and neural indices of auditory and motor processing as well as sensorimotor integration. Third, we examine the extent to which childhood training in one auditory domain can enhance processing in another domain via the transfer of learning between shared neuro-cognitive systems. Specifically, we review evidence for a potential bi-directional transfer of skills between music and language by examining how speaking a tonal language may enhance music processing and, conversely, how early music training can enhance language processing. We conclude with a discussion of the role of attention in auditory learning for learning during and after sensitive periods and outline avenues of future research.

  15. Learning, neural plasticity and sensitive periods: implications for language acquisition, music training and transfer across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jacquelyn White

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive periods in human development have often been proposed to explain age-related differences in the attainment of a number of skills, such as a second language and musical expertise. It is difficult to reconcile the negative consequence this traditional view entails for learning after a sensitive period with our current understanding of the brain’s ability for experience-dependent plasticity across the lifespan. What is needed is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying auditory learning and plasticity at different points in development. Drawing on research in language development and music training, this review examines not only what we learn and when we learn it, but also how learning occurs at different ages. First, we discuss differences in the mechanism of learning and plasticity during and after a sensitive period by examining how language exposure versus training forms language-specific phonetic representations in infants and adult second language learners, respectively. Second, we examine the impact of musical training that begins at different ages on behavioural and neural indices of auditory and motor processing as well as sensorimotor integration. Third, we examine the extent to which childhood training in one auditory domain can enhance processing in another domain via the transfer of learning between shared neuro-cognitive systems. Specifically, we review evidence for a potential bi-directional transfer of skills between music and language by examining how speaking a tonal language may enhance music processing and, conversely, how early music training can enhance language processing. We conclude with a discussion of the role of attention in auditory learning for learning during and after sensitive periods and outline avenues of future research.

  16. Learning, neural plasticity and sensitive periods: implications for language acquisition, music training and transfer across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Erin J.; Hutka, Stefanie A.; Williams, Lynne J.; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive periods in human development have often been proposed to explain age-related differences in the attainment of a number of skills, such as a second language (L2) and musical expertise. It is difficult to reconcile the negative consequence this traditional view entails for learning after a sensitive period with our current understanding of the brain’s ability for experience-dependent plasticity across the lifespan. What is needed is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying auditory learning and plasticity at different points in development. Drawing on research in language development and music training, this review examines not only what we learn and when we learn it, but also how learning occurs at different ages. First, we discuss differences in the mechanism of learning and plasticity during and after a sensitive period by examining how language exposure versus training forms language-specific phonetic representations in infants and adult L2 learners, respectively. Second, we examine the impact of musical training that begins at different ages on behavioral and neural indices of auditory and motor processing as well as sensorimotor integration. Third, we examine the extent to which childhood training in one auditory domain can enhance processing in another domain via the transfer of learning between shared neuro-cognitive systems. Specifically, we review evidence for a potential bi-directional transfer of skills between music and language by examining how speaking a tonal language may enhance music processing and, conversely, how early music training can enhance language processing. We conclude with a discussion of the role of attention in auditory learning for learning during and after sensitive periods and outline avenues of future research. PMID:24312022

  17. The Internet as an informal learning environment: Assessing knowledge acquisition of science and engineering students using constructivist and objectivist formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargis, Jace

    This study examined the effects of two different instructional formats on Internet WebPages in an informal learning environment. The purpose of this study is to (a) identify optimal instructional formats for on-line learning; (b) identify the relationship between post-assessment scores and the student's gender, age or racial identity; (c) examine the effects of verbal aptitudes on learning in different formats; (d) identify relationships between computer attitudes and achievement; and (e) identify the potential power for self-regulated learning and self-efficacy on Internet WebPages. Two learning strategy modules were developed; a constructivist and an objectivist instruction module. The study program consisted of an on-line consent form; a computer attitude survey; a Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire; a verbal aptitude test; a pre-assessment; instructional directions followed by the instructional module and a post-assessment. The study tested 145 post-secondary science and engineering participants from the University of Florida. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups or a control in a pretest/posttest design. An analysis of covariance with general linear models was used to account for effects of individual difference variables and aptitude treatment interaction (ATI). This statistical procedure was used to determine the relationships among the dependent variable, the achievement on each of the formats and the independent variables, attitudes, gender, racial identity, verbal aptitudes, and self-regulated learning/self-efficacy. Significant results at alpha = .05 were found for none of these variables. However, a linear prediction of age shows that older participants scored higher on the post-assessment after completing the objectivist module. Although there were no significant differences between the learning format and the variables, there was a difference between the modules and the control. Therefore, it is possible that

  18. Effects of Learning Together, Constructive Controversy in Students' Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills in Peace Education Aspect of Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Adenrele Adetoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of two cooperative learning strategies (Learning Together and Constructive Controversy on students’ learning outcomes in Peace Education at Ogun State Junior Secondary School (JSS Level in Nigeria. A sample size of 99 students participated in the experiment from three public JSS in the state. Using Analysis of covariance for testing two null hypotheses, it was discovered that there were no significant main effects on the knowledge (F(2,78=1.429,P>0.05 and conflict resolution skills (F(2,78=0.021, P>0.05 of the students in Peace education aspect of Social Studies. However, the Multiple Classification Analysis of the adjusted post-test mean knowledge scores (14.546 of the students treated with constructive controversy was the highest while that of the students treated with learning together (70.76 was the best in conflict resolution skills. It was therefore recommended that cooperative learning strategies (especially learning together and constructive controversy should always be combined with the conventional method for teaching peace education aspect of social studies.

  19. An evaluation of a structured learning program as a component of the clinical practicum in undergraduate nurse education: A repeated measures analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Elizabeth; Murphy, Maria; MacDonald, Lee; Pascoe, Elizabeth; Storen, Heather; Scanlon, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that nursing students experience stress and anxiety and a reduction in self-efficacy when undertaking clinical placements. Previous reports have identified that a structured three-day program within the Bachelor of Nursing (BN) clinical practicum reduces the students self-report of anxiety and increases self-efficacy. However, it is unreported whether these improved outcomes are sustained for the duration of the clinical placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the duration of the effect of a three-day structured learning program within the clinical placement on final year Bachelor of Nursing student's report of anxiety and self-efficacy pre- and post-program participation in this intervention and following completion of the clinical practicum. A repeated measures design. University-based Clinical School of Nursing, acute care clinical practicum. Final year Bachelor of Nursing students. The intervention comprised the three-day program on starting the clinical practicum. A questionnaire included the anxiety subscale of The Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale (The HAD) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES-12). The questionnaire was completed on day one (time one), upon completion of the three-day program (time two) and upon completion of placement on day 18 (time three). The questionnaire response rate varied over time. There was a statistically significant effect in reducing anxiety over time: F(1.73,74.46)=25.20, plearning program and the benefit of the intervention is sustained for the clinical placement duration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of learning content in context on knowledge acquisition and recall: a pretest-posttest control group design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; de Bruin, Anique B H; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Puts, Ghita C W M; Leppink, Jimmie; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2015-08-15

    It is generally assumed that learning in context increases performance. This study investigates the relationship between the characteristics of a paper-patient context (relevance and familiarity), the mechanisms through which the cognitive dimension of context could improve learning (activation of prior knowledge, elaboration and increasing retrieval cues), and test performance. A total of 145 medical students completed a pretest of 40 questions, of which half were with a patient vignette. One week later, they studied musculoskeletal anatomy in the dissection room without a paper-patient context (control group) or with (ir)relevant-(un)familiar context (experimental groups), and completed a cognitive load scale. Following a short delay, the students completed a posttest. Surprisingly, our results show that students who studied in context did not perform better than students who studied without context. This finding may be explained by an interaction of the participants' expertise level, the nature of anatomical knowledge and students' approaches to learning. A relevant-familiar context only reduced the negative effect of learning the content in context. Our results suggest discouraging the introduction of an uncommon disease to illustrate a basic science concept. Higher self-perceived learning scores predict higher performance. Interestingly, students performed significantly better on the questions with context in both tests, possibly due to a 'framing effect'. Since studies focusing on the physical and affective dimensions of context have also failed to find a positive influence of learning in a clinically relevant context, further research seems necessary to refine our theories around the role of context in learning.

  1. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...

  2. Acquisition of nonlinear forward optics in generative models: two-stage "downside-up" learning for occluded vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satohiro; Watanabe, Masataka

    2011-03-01

    We propose a two-stage learning method which implements occluded visual scene analysis into a generative model, a type of hierarchical neural network with bi-directional synaptic connections. Here, top-down connections simulate forward optics to generate predictions for sensory driven low-level representation, whereas bottom-up connections function to send the prediction error, the difference between the sensory based and the predicted low-level representation, to higher areas. The prediction error is then used to update the high-level representation to obtain better agreement with the visual scene. Although the actual forward optics is highly nonlinear and the accuracy of simulated forward optics is crucial for these types of models, the majority of previous studies have only investigated linear and simplified cases of forward optics. Here we take occluded vision as an example of nonlinear forward optics, where an object in front completely masks out the object behind. We propose a two-staged learning method inspired by the staged development of infant visual capacity. In the primary learning stage, a minimal set of object basis is acquired within a linear generative model using the conventional unsupervised learning scheme. In the secondary learning stage, an auxiliary multi-layer neural network is trained to acquire nonlinear forward optics by supervised learning. The important point is that the high-level representation of the linear generative model serves as the input and the sensory driven low-level representation provides the desired output. Numerical simulations show that occluded visual scene analysis can indeed be implemented by the proposed method. Furthermore, considering the format of input to the multi-layer network and analysis of hidden-layer units leads to the prediction that whole object representation of partially occluded objects, together with complex intermediate representation as a consequence of nonlinear transformation from non-occluded to

  3. Input Skewedness, Consistency, and Order of Frequent Verbs in Frequency-Driven Second Language Construction Learning: A Replication and Extension of Casenhiser and Goldberg (2005) to Adult Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Recent usage-based models of language acquisition research has found that three frequency manipulations; (1) skewed input (Casenhiser & Goldberg 2005), (2) input consistency (Childers & Tomasello 2001), and (3) order of frequent verbs (Goldberg, Casenhiser, & White 2007) facilitated construction learning in children. The present paper addresses…

  4. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  5. Autonomous Learning for English Acquisition in Blended e-Studies for Adults within the Context of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojare, Inara

    2016-01-01

    Personality integration and self-realisation in the global economy and coevolution with multilingual cultural environment of sustainable learning society by means of technologies actualise the paradigm shift in science, and create the necessity for transdisciplinary research to resolve the problem of transformation of the system of values in the…

  6. English 2.0: Learning and Acquisition of English in the Networked Globe with the Connectivist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Aras; Ataizi, Murat

    2015-01-01

    English is one of the most spoken languages in the world and widely accepted as a foreign language in many parts of the world. However, though there has been a high demand for English as a foreign language in the 21st century, it has still been taught or learned through traditional methods and conventional pedagogical approaches. In the digital…

  7. Pre-learning stress that is temporally removed from acquisition exerts sex-specific effects on long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Warnecke, Ashlee J; Woelke, Sarah A; Burke, Hanna M; Frigo, Rachael M; Pisansky, Julia M; Lyle, Sarah M; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2013-02-01

    We have examined the influence of sex and the perceived emotional nature of learned information on pre-learning stress-induced alterations of long-term memory. Participants submerged their dominant hand in ice cold (stress) or warm (no stress) water for 3 min. Thirty minutes later, they studied 30 words, rated the words for their levels of emotional valence and arousal and were then given an immediate free recall test. Twenty-four hours later, participants' memory for the word list was assessed via delayed free recall and recognition assessments. The resulting memory data were analyzed after categorizing the studied words (i.e., distributing them to "positive-arousing", "positive-non-arousing", "negative-arousing", etc. categories) according to participants' valence and arousal ratings of the words. The results revealed that participants exhibiting a robust cortisol response to stress exhibited significantly impaired recognition memory for neutral words. More interestingly, however, males displaying a robust cortisol response to stress demonstrated significantly impaired recall, overall, and a marginally significant impairment of overall recognition memory, while females exhibiting a blunted cortisol response to stress demonstrated a marginally significant impairment of overall recognition memory. These findings support the notion that a brief stressor that is temporally separated from learning can exert deleterious effects on long-term memory. However, they also suggest that such effects depend on the sex of the organism, the emotional salience of the learned information and the degree to which stress increases corticosteroid levels.

  8. Verb Inflection in German-Learning Children with Typical and Atypical Language Acquisition: The Impact of Subsyllabic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Susan; Hohle, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that high phonotactic frequencies facilitate the production of regularly inflected verbs in English-learning children with specific language impairment (SLI) but not with typical development (TD). We asked whether this finding can be replicated for German, a language with a much more complex inflectional verb paradigm…

  9. Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills within Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve…

  10. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  11. Peer-Monitoring vs. Micro-Script Fading for Enhancing Knowledge Acquisition when Learning in Computer-Supported Argumentation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyias, Yannis; Demetriadis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has strongly emphasized the value of providing student support with micro-scripts, which should withdraw (fade-out) allowing students to practice the acquired skills. However, research on fading shows conflicting results and some researchers suggest that the impact of fading is enhanced…

  12. Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills within Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve…

  13. Learning of a simple grapho-motor task by young children and adults: Similar acquisition but age-dependent retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eJulius

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many new skills are acquired during early childhood. Typical laboratory skill learning tasks are not applicable for developmental studies that involve children younger than 8 years of age. It is not clear whether young children and adults share a basic underlying skill learning mechanism. In the present study, the learning and retention of a simple grapho-motor pattern were studied in three age groups: 5-6 years, 7-8 years, and 19-29 years. Each block of the task consists of identical patterns arranged in a spaced writing array. Progression across the block involves on-page movements while producing the pattern, and off-page movements between patterns. The participants practiced the production of the pattern using a digitizing tablet and were tested at 24 hours and two weeks post-practice. All age groups produced the task blocks more quickly with practice, and the learning rate was inversely related to the initial production time across and within the groups. All groups exhibited additional gains 24 hours post-practice that were well retained 2 weeks later. The accuracy of the participants was maintained throughout the two-week period. These findings suggest that young children and young adults use a similar mechanism when learning the task. A separate analysis of the on-page and off-page movement times per block indicated that during retention testing, the 6-year-olds spent more time off-page than when tested at 24 hours post-practice, thus supporting the notion that an age advantage may exists in the long-term retention of skills due to planning-dependent aspects.

  14. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  15. Student Modelling for Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes the student model of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system that is based on current theories in the field of second-language acquisition. Highlights include acquisition order of the target rules; language learning strategies; language transfer; language awareness; and student reactions. (Contains seven…

  16. On Vocabulary Acquisition by Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 南二丽

    2006-01-01

    It is admitted that vocabulary acquisition, as the smallest unit in English leaning, is the most basic, decisive yet difficult part. Yet vocabulary acquisition has always obsessed and fascinated Chinese learners of English. This paper mainly presents a discussion of English vocabulary acquisition by Chinese learners in the respect of vocabulary size and correct use. Through the analysis of the problems existing in the present vocabulary learning and teaching, author also presents some learning strategies to expand vocabulary size.

  17. Attentional Learning Helps Language Acquisition Take Shape for Atypically Developing Children, Not Just Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Charlotte; Allen, Melissa L; Lewis, Charlie

    2016-10-01

    The shape bias-generalising labels to same shaped objects-has been linked to attentional learning or referential intent. We explore these origins in children with typical development (TD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disorders (DD). In two conditions, a novel object was presented and either named or described. Children selected another from a shape, colour or texture match. TD children choose the shape match in both conditions, children with DD and 'high-verbal mental age' (VMA) children with ASD (language age > 4.6) did so in the name condition and 'low-VMA' children with ASD never showed the heuristic. Thus, the shape bias arises from attentional learning in atypically developing children and is delayed in ASD.

  18. Verb inflection in German-learning children with typical and atypical language acquisition: the impact of subsyllabic frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Susan; Höhle, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that high phonotactic frequencies facilitate the production of regularly inflected verbs in English-learning children with specific language impairment (SLI) but not with typical development (TD). We asked whether this finding can be replicated for German, a language with a much more complex inflectional verb paradigm than English. Using an elicitation task, the production of inflected nonce verb forms (3(rd) person singular with -t suffix) with either high- or low-frequency subsyllables was tested in sixteen German-learning children with SLI (ages 4;1-5;1), sixteen TD-children matched for chronological age (CA) and fourteen TD-children matched for verbal age (VA) (ages 3;0-3;11). The findings revealed that children with SLI, but not CA- or VA-children, showed differential performance between the two types of verbs, producing more inflectional errors when the verb forms resulted in low-frequency subsyllables than when they resulted in high-frequency subsyllables, replicating the results from English-learning children.

  19. Combining video instruction followed by voice feedback in a self-learning station for acquisition of Basic Life Support skills: a randomised non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpotos, Nicolas; Lemoyne, Sabine; Calle, Paul A; Deschepper, Ellen; Valcke, Martin; Monsieurs, Koenraad G

    2011-07-01

    Current computerised self-learning (SL) stations for Basic Life Support (BLS) are an alternative to instructor-led (IL) refresher training but are not intended for initial skill acquisition. We developed a SL station for initial skill acquisition and evaluated its efficacy. In a non-inferiority trial, 120 pharmacy students were randomised to IL small group training or individual training in a SL station. In the IL group, instructors demonstrated the skills and provided feedback. In the SL group a shortened Mini Anne™ video, to acquire the skills, was followed by Resusci Anne Skills Station™ software (both Laerdal, Norway) with voice feedback for further refinement. Testing was performed individually, respecting a seven week interval after training for every student. One hundred and seventeen participants were assessed (three drop-outs). The proportion of students achieving a mean compression depth 40-50mm was 24/56 (43%) IL vs. 31/61 (51%) SL and 39/56 (70%) IL vs. 48/61 (79%) SL for a mean compression depth ≥ 40 mm. Compression rate 80-120/min was achieved in 49/56 (88%) IL vs. 57/61 (93%) SL and any incomplete release (≥ 5 mm) was observed in 31/56 (55%) IL and 35/61 (57%) SL. Adequate mean ventilation volume (400-1000 ml) was achieved in 29/56 (52%) IL vs. 36/61 (59%) SL. Non-inferiority was confirmed for depth and although inconclusive, other areas came close to demonstrate it. Compression skills acquired in a SL station combining video-instruction with training using voice feedback were not inferior to IL training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Young Instrumentalists’ Music Literacy Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Blix, Hilde Synnøve

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this article is to present and discuss the findings of a research project concerning music literacy acquisition among young beginners on music instruments. The reported project examines the learning strategies that young students use in order to make sense of notated music in the first year of training. Theories from the research field of language learning are applied to illuminate music literacy as a learning process. Observations and interviews were used to collect da...

  1. Educational Games as Stand-Alone Learning Tools and Their Motivational Effect on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Perceived Learning Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Ferrer, José Ramón

    2017-01-01

    According to different authors, computer games not only teach contents and skills, but also do so in a more efficient manner, allowing long-lasting learning. However, there is still little consensus on this matter as different studies put their educational benefits into question, especially when used without instructional support. An empirical…

  2. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  3. A Study of Students' Learning Styles, Discipline Attitudes and Knowledge Acquisition in Technology-Enhanced Probability and Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Nicolas; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2011-01-01

    Many modern technological advances have direct impact on the format, style and efficacy of delivery and consumption of educational content. For example, various novel communication and information technology tools and resources enable efficient, timely, interactive and graphical demonstrations of diverse scientific concepts. In this manuscript, we report on a meta-study of 3 controlled experiments of using the Statistics Online Computational Resources in probability and statistics courses. Web-accessible SOCR applets, demonstrations, simulations and virtual experiments were used in different courses as treatment and compared to matched control classes utilizing traditional pedagogical approaches. Qualitative and quantitative data we collected for all courses included Felder-Silverman-Soloman index of learning styles, background assessment, pre and post surveys of attitude towards the subject, end-point satisfaction survey, and varieties of quiz, laboratory and test scores. Our findings indicate that students' learning styles and attitudes towards a discipline may be important confounds of their final quantitative performance. The observed positive effects of integrating information technology with established pedagogical techniques may be valid across disciplines within the broader spectrum courses in the science education curriculum. The two critical components of improving science education via blended instruction include instructor training, and development of appropriate activities, simulations and interactive resources. PMID:21603097

  4. A Study of Students' Learning Styles, Discipline Attitudes and Knowledge Acquisition in Technology-Enhanced Probability and Statistics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Nicolas; Dinov, Ivo D

    2010-09-01

    Many modern technological advances have direct impact on the format, style and efficacy of delivery and consumption of educational content. For example, various novel communication and information technology tools and resources enable efficient, timely, interactive and graphical demonstrations of diverse scientific concepts. In this manuscript, we report on a meta-study of 3 controlled experiments of using the Statistics Online Computational Resources in probability and statistics courses. Web-accessible SOCR applets, demonstrations, simulations and virtual experiments were used in different courses as treatment and compared to matched control classes utilizing traditional pedagogical approaches. Qualitative and quantitative data we collected for all courses included Felder-Silverman-Soloman index of learning styles, background assessment, pre and post surveys of attitude towards the subject, end-point satisfaction survey, and varieties of quiz, laboratory and test scores. Our findings indicate that students' learning styles and attitudes towards a discipline may be important confounds of their final quantitative performance. The observed positive effects of integrating information technology with established pedagogical techniques may be valid across disciplines within the broader spectrum courses in the science education curriculum. The two critical components of improving science education via blended instruction include instructor training, and development of appropriate activities, simulations and interactive resources.

  5. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  6. 知识库存对SNS企业知识社区中E-Learning知识获取的影响%Effects of knowledge inventory on knowledge acquisition via E-Learning in SNS oriented enterprise knowledge community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冰; 张辰彦

    2013-01-01

    SNS (social network service,SNS)企业知识社区的认知、应用以及研究都处于起步阶段.本文研究目的是通过构建E-Learning知识获取过程计算模型,结合实验仿真,研究知识库存对SNS企业知识社区中E-Learning知识获取关键因素的影响.首先,识别SNS企业知识社区中E-Learning知识获取的关键因素,包括知识获取目标、知识获取基础和知识获取绩效;接着,基于知识获取关键因素,应用多主体建模思想,建立E-Learning知识获取的计算模型;第三,进行实验仿真,以知识需求为驱动,研究微观层面上的个体E-Learning知识获取行为经过知识交互后涌现出来的宏观特点.研究结果有助于企业关注知识库存对SNS企业知识社区中E-Learning知识获取的影响,采取适当策略实现企业E-Learning目标.%Awareness, application and research on social network service (SNS) oriented enterprise knowledge community are at the initial stage. By computation modelling and experimental simulation, the purpose of this paper is to research effects of knowledge inventory on knowledge acquisition via E-Learning of SNS oriented enterprise knowledge community. On basis of literature review, firstly, key factors in knowledge acquisition via E-Learning were identified, including goal, base and performance of knowledge acquisition. Then based on identified key factors, computation model for knowledge acquisition via E-Learning was constructed by multi-agent modelling idea. Thirdly, driven by knowledge demand, simulation was implemented to research macro characteristics of knowledge acquisition via E-Learning emerged by the interaction of individuals in micro level. Research results can help companies focus on effects of knowledge inventory on knowledge acquisition via E-Learning in SNS oriented enterprise knowledge community, so that appropriate strategies may be adopted to achieve business objectives of E-Learning.

  7. Acquisitions by EMNCs in Developed Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Elia, Stefano; Bertoni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Building on an organisational learning perspective, we argue that emerging market firms’ international experience and home-country characteristics are core sources of learning. Furthermore, we argue that these factors constitute important determinants of emerging market firms’ acquisition behaviour...... in developed countries (south-north acquisitions). We test our hypotheses on a sample of 808 south-north acquisitions. The acquisitions were undertaken in Europe, Japan and North America (Canada and the US) between 1999 and 2008 by firms from the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China....... As suggested by the internationalisation process model, our results show that emerging market firms undertake acquisitions in developed countries in an incremental fashion. Acquisition experience in developed markets increases the likelihood of exploitative expansion, while acquisition experience in developing...

  8. Twenty-Five Years Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm to Study Language Acquisition: What Have We Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Ma, Weiyi; Song, Lulu; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2013-05-01

    The intermodal preferential looking paradigm (IPLP) has proven to be a revolutionary method for the examination of infants' emerging language knowledge. In the IPLP, infants' language comprehension is measured by their differential visual fixation to two images presented side-by-side when only one of the images matches an accompanying linguistic stimulus. Researchers can examine burgeoning knowledge in the areas of phonology, semantics, syntax, and morphology in infants not yet speaking. The IPLP enables the exploration of the underlying mechanisms involved in language learning and illuminates how infants identify the correspondences between language and referents in the world. It has also fostered the study of infants' conceptions of the dynamic events that language will express. Exemplifying translational science, the IPLP is now being investigated for its clinical and diagnostic value. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Bootstrapping language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Omri; Kwiatkowski, Tom; Smith, Nathaniel J; Goldwater, Sharon; Steedman, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms). Starting from these assumptions, we develop a Bayesian probabilistic account of semantically bootstrapped first-language acquisition in the child, based on techniques from computational parsing and interpretation of unrestricted text. Our learner jointly models (a) word learning: the mapping between components of the given sentential meaning and lexical words (or phrases) of the language, and (b) syntax learning: the projection of lexical elements onto sentences by universal construction-free syntactic rules. Using an incremental learning algorithm, we apply the model to a dataset of real syntactically complex child-directed utterances and (pseudo) logical forms, the latter including contextually plausible but irrelevant distractors. Taking the Eve section of the CHILDES corpus as input, the model simulates several well-documented phenomena from the developmental literature. In particular, the model exhibits syntactic bootstrapping effects (in which previously learned constructions facilitate the learning of novel words), sudden jumps in learning without explicit parameter setting, acceleration of word-learning (the "vocabulary spurt"), an initial bias favoring the learning of nouns over verbs, and one-shot learning of words and their meanings. The learner thus demonstrates how statistical learning over structured representations can provide a unified account for these seemingly disparate phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  11. Computational models of syntactic acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles

    2012-03-01

    The computational approach to syntactic acquisition can be fruitfully pursued by integrating results and perspectives from computer science, linguistics, and developmental psychology. In this article, we first review some key results in computational learning theory and their implications for language acquisition. We then turn to examine specific learning models, some of which exploit distributional information in the input while others rely on a constrained space of hypotheses, yet both approaches share a common set of characteristics to overcome the learning problem. We conclude with a discussion of how computational models connects with the empirical study of child grammar, making the case for computationally tractable, psychologically plausible and developmentally realistic models of acquisition. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:205-213. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1154 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. Mergers + acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  13. Consumption Skill Acquisition in Ski Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas; Wieser, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Remedying the absence of a cultural theory of consumption skill acquisition, we use video data to explore how consumers learn in ski schools. We identify six modes of skill acquisition and theorize the interplay between the sensori-motor system, the conscious state of skillful coping, and the soc......Remedying the absence of a cultural theory of consumption skill acquisition, we use video data to explore how consumers learn in ski schools. We identify six modes of skill acquisition and theorize the interplay between the sensori-motor system, the conscious state of skillful coping...

  14. Differences between Children’s first Language Acquisition and Adults’ second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜燕燕

    2013-01-01

    Discuss the differences between children’s first language acquisition and adults’second language acquisition from four aspects: age, motivation, environment, learning process and content in order to help adults to learn L2 more efficiently by applying some of the knacks for L1 to L2.

  15. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  16. Teaching and Learning the Language of Science: A Case Study of Academic Language Acquisition in a Dual Language Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Robin Margaretha

    English language learners (EL) are the fastest growing sub-group of the student population in California, yet ELs also score the lowest on the science section of the California Standardized Tests. In the area of bilingual education, California has dramatically changed its approach to English learners since the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998, which called for most EL instruction to be conducted in English (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). In reality, this means that EL students are often placed in programs that focus on basic language skills rather than rigorous content, meaning that they are not getting access to grade level science content (Lee & Fradd, 1998). As a result, many EL students exit eighth grade without a strong foundation in science, and they continue to score below their English-speaking peers on standardized achievements. While the usefulness of the academic language construct remains controversial (Bailey, 2012), the language used in science instruction is nevertheless often unfamiliar to both EL and English proficient students. The discourse is frequently specialized for discipline-specific interactions and activities (Bailey, 2007; Lemke, 1990). This qualitative case study examined academic language instruction in three middle school science classrooms at a dual language charter school. The goal was to understand how teachers integrate academic language and content for linguistically diverse students. The findings fom this study indicate that targeting language instruction in isolation from science content instruction prohibits students from engaging in the "doing of science" and scientific discourse, or the ability to think, reason, and communicate about science. The recommendations of this study support authentically embedding language development into rigorous science instruction in order to maximize opportunities for learning in both domains.

  17. Acquisition of Motor and Cognitive Skills through Repetition in Typically Developing Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Magallón

    Full Text Available Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience.The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC. Ninety TDC children aged 6-12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance.TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task.These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures.

  18. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    and functioning of provisions of European federal corporate law and internationally accepted principles of the law of obligations. This book, however, is not about clarification of the reasons that urge for M&A operations, nor is it about judging the outcome of the transactions. It is about synthesizing......MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS: Counseling and Choice of Method describes and analyzes the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. The focus is aimed and maintained at application......, on the one hand, the methods of M&A and, on the other hand, several selected key elements. Any participating party - as well as their respective advisers - must be aware of these elements prior, throughout, and after the transaction: consideration, succession, taxes and fiscal neutrality, group...

  19. Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear) reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder. However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a "rehearsed" CS+ as compared to a "non-rehearsed" CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal "purely mental." In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally

  20. Repeated activation of a CS-US-contingency memory results in sustained conditioned responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els eJoos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka & Zinbarg, 2006. One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder.However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a CS-US-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a ‘rehearsed’ CS+ as compared to a ‘non-rehearsed’ CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal ‘purely mental’. In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally rehearse

  1. 组织学习影响组织创造力的知识获取路径研究%Research on the Knowledge Acquisition Path of the Impacts of Organizational Learning on Organizational Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新梅; 白杨

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the relationship between organizational learning style and organizational creativity, based on the knowledge-based theory, this study attempts to explore the inner mechanism between organizational learning style and organizational creativity from the perspective of external knowledge acquisition. The research constructs the external knowledge acquisition path of how organizational learning impacts organizational creativity according to the significant difference in information content between market knowledge and technological knowledge. The survey collected 275 valid enterprise samples, employing structural e-quation modeling method for statistical analysis of sample data, Results show that exploration learning promotes technological knowledge acquisition through affecting market knowledge acquisition, and ultimately exerts an impact on the path of organizational creativity, while exploitation learning affects organizational creativity mainly through promoting technological knowledge acquisition. Technological knowledge and market knowledge acquisition play different mediating roles in the impact of organizational learning on organizational creativity, and compared to exploitation learning, exploration learning makes a more effective use of external knowledge acquisition and thus affects organizational creativity.%为了探明组织学习方式与组织创造力之间的相关关系,基于知识的基础观理论,尝试从外部知识获取的视角出发,探索组织学习方式与组织创造力之间的内在机理,根据市场知识与技术知识信息偏重的不同,构建组织学习方式影响组织创造力的外部知识获取路径.采用问卷调查收集275个有效的企业样本,运用结构方程模型方法对样本数据进行统计分析.研究结果表明,探索式学习通过影响市场知识获取进而推动技术知识获取,最终影响组织创造力的作用路径,利用式学习则主要通过对技术知识获取的

  2. The Effects of Foreign Language Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Miao-ru

    2013-01-01

    Foreign language motivation is regarded as one source of individual differences in second language acquisition. Learn-ing motivation is a dynamic mechanism which gives rise to learning activities. Learners ’motivation is a decisive factor for the suc-cess of second language acquisition.

  3. Absence of verbal recall or memory for symptom acquisition in fear and trauma exposure: a conceptual case for fear conditioning and learned nonuse in assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, A Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Absence of memory or verbal recall for symptom acquisition in fear and trauma exposure, as well as absence of successful coping behavior for life events, is associated with a number of diagnoses, including traumatic brain injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, pain, and anxiety. The difficulty with diagnosis and treatment planning based on the absence of recall, memory, and successful coping behavior is threefold: (1) these assessments do not distinguish between disruption of behavior and lack of capacity, (2) the absence of verbal recall and memory complicates cognitive-based treatment, and (3) a confounding issue is the same absent behavior can be observed at different times and contexts. While memory of the specific details of the initial traumatic event(s) may not be available to verbal report, the existence of time- and context-dependent relationships for the initial as well as subsequent experiences is arguable. The absence of memory or lack of verbal recall does not rule out measurable physiological bodily responses for the initial trauma(s), nor does it help to establish the effects of subsequent experiences for symptom expression. Also, the absence of memory must include the prospect of fear-based learning that does not require or involve the cortex. It is posited that the literatures of fear conditioning and learned nonuse provide complementary illustrations of how the time and context of the initial trauma(s) and subsequent experiences affect behavior, which is not dependent on the effected individual being able to provide a memory-based verbal report. The replicated clinical application demonstrates that, without scientific demonstration, neither neuroanatomy nor verbal report can be assumed sufficient to predict overt behavior or physiologic responses. For example, while commonly assumed to be predictively so, autonomic nervous system innervation is insufficient to define the unique stimulus- and context-dependent physiological responses of an

  4. Usage-Based vs. Rule-Based Learning: The Acquisition of Word Order in "Wh"-Questions in English and Norwegian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Marit

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to language acquisition in relation to children's acquisition of word order in "wh"-questions in English and Norwegian. While generative models assert that children set major word order parameters and thus acquire a rule of subject-auxiliary inversion or generalized verb second (V2) at an early stage, some…

  5. Sleep dissolves illusion: sleep withstands learning of visuo-tactile-proprioceptive integration induced by repeated days of rubber hand illusion training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyasu Honma

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration is a key factor in establishing bodily self-consciousness and in adapting humans to novel environments. The rubber hand illusion paradigm, in which humans can immediately perceive illusory ownership to an artificial hand, is a traditional technique for investigating multisensory integration and the feeling of illusory ownership. However, the long-term learning properties of the rubber hand illusion have not been previously investigated. Moreover, although sleep contributes to various aspects of cognition, including learning and memory, its influence on illusory learning of the artificial hand has not yet been assessed. We determined the effects of daily repetitive training and sleep on learning visuo-tactile-proprioceptive sensory integration and illusory ownership in healthy adult participants by using the traditional rubber hand illusion paradigm. Subjective ownership of the rubber hand, proprioceptive drift, and galvanic skin response were measured to assess learning indexes. Subjective ownership was maintained and proprioceptive drift increased with daily training. Proprioceptive drift, but not subjective ownership, was significantly attenuated after sleep. A significantly greater reduction in galvanic skin response was observed after wakefulness compared to after sleep. Our results suggest that although repetitive rubber hand illusion training facilitates multisensory integration and physiological habituation of a multisensory incongruent environment, sleep corrects illusional integration and habituation based on experiences in a multisensory incongruent environment. These findings may increase our understanding of adaptive neural processes to novel environments, specifically, bodily self-consciousness and sleep-dependent neuroplasticity.

  6. Sleep dissolves illusion: sleep withstands learning of visuo-tactile-proprioceptive integration induced by repeated days of rubber hand illusion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Yoshiike, Takuya; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Multisensory integration is a key factor in establishing bodily self-consciousness and in adapting humans to novel environments. The rubber hand illusion paradigm, in which humans can immediately perceive illusory ownership to an artificial hand, is a traditional technique for investigating multisensory integration and the feeling of illusory ownership. However, the long-term learning properties of the rubber hand illusion have not been previously investigated. Moreover, although sleep contributes to various aspects of cognition, including learning and memory, its influence on illusory learning of the artificial hand has not yet been assessed. We determined the effects of daily repetitive training and sleep on learning visuo-tactile-proprioceptive sensory integration and illusory ownership in healthy adult participants by using the traditional rubber hand illusion paradigm. Subjective ownership of the rubber hand, proprioceptive drift, and galvanic skin response were measured to assess learning indexes. Subjective ownership was maintained and proprioceptive drift increased with daily training. Proprioceptive drift, but not subjective ownership, was significantly attenuated after sleep. A significantly greater reduction in galvanic skin response was observed after wakefulness compared to after sleep. Our results suggest that although repetitive rubber hand illusion training facilitates multisensory integration and physiological habituation of a multisensory incongruent environment, sleep corrects illusional integration and habituation based on experiences in a multisensory incongruent environment. These findings may increase our understanding of adaptive neural processes to novel environments, specifically, bodily self-consciousness and sleep-dependent neuroplasticity.

  7. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  8. Motor learning cannot explain stuttering adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatagiri, Horabail S; Nataraja, Nuggehalli P; Deepthi, M

    2013-08-01

    When persons who stutter (PWS) read a text repeatedly, there is a progressive reduction in stutter frequency over the course of three to five readings. Recently, this phenomenon has been attributed by some researchers to motor learning-the acquisition of relatively permanent motor skills that facilitate fluency through practice in producing words. The current study tested this explanation. 23 PWS read prose passages five times in succession. The number of 'new' and 'old' stutters during repeated readings (words stuttered in the current reading but spoken fluently in the previous reading and words stuttered also in the previous reading) were analyzed. If motor learning facilitated fluency during repeated readings in PWS, words read fluently in a reading should not be stuttered in a later reading in significant numbers. Contrary to this prediction, there was no statistical difference in the number of new words stuttered across five readings. A plausible alternative explanation, which requires further study to verify, is offered.

  9. A cautionary note regarding drug and brain lesion studies that use swimming pool tasks: partial reinforcement impairs acquisition of place learning in a swimming pool but not on dry land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C L; Kolb, B; Whishaw, I Q

    2000-07-01

    Spatial tasks are used widely in neurobiological studies because it is thought that they provide an unbiased assessment of the integrity of neural structures that mediate spatial learning. For example, in the Morris swimming pool place task, animals are required to locate a hidden platform in a swimming pool in relation to environmental cues. Treatments that result in an animal's failure to find the platform are assumed to reflect defects in the function of neural systems involved in spatial learning. The present study demonstrates, however, that an animal's reinforcement history can contribute to its spatial performance. Animals were trained in the Morris place task with the platform present on 100, 75 or 50% of trials. Relative to the 100% group, the 75% group was impaired in place acquisition, and the 50% group failed to learn. Even placing the 50% group animals onto the platform at the completion of an unsuccessful trial failed to improve acquisition. Animals trained to search for food on an identical dry maze problem were not affected by similar reinforcement schedules. The present findings demonstrate that the Morris swimming pool place task does not provide an unbiased assessment of spatial learning: A treatment effect may be confounded with reinforcement history. The results are discussed in relation to widespread applications of the Morris place task to neurobiological problems.

  10. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  11. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  12. Managing in a merger and acquisition era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdren, R C

    1990-01-01

    Medical group administrators are quickly learning what big business has known for years-mergers and acquisitions represent a new and powerful option. If this option is to be employed successfully, however, group management has to understand the terms and be prepared well before merger or acquisition talk begins.

  13. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  14. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  15. 75 FR 57690 - Acquisition Regulation: Sustainable Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Parts 907, 923, 936, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB95 Acquisition Regulation: Sustainable Acquisition AGENCY... (DOE) is amending the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to implement Executive Order... to leverage agency acquisitions to foster markets for sustainable technologies and energy...

  16. Second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    This dissertation is a legal dogmatic thesis, the goal of which is to describe and analyze the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. Having regard to the topic of the dissertation...... the focus is aimed and maintained at application and functioning of provisions of European federal corporate law and internationally accepted principles of the law of obligations. This study, however, is not about clarification of the reasons that urge for M&A operations, nor is it about judging the results...... of the transactions. This study is about synthesizing, on the one hand, the methods of M&A, and, on the other hand, several selected key elements, which any participating party, as well as their respective advisers, must be aware of, prior, throughout, and after the transaction: consideration, succession, taxes...

  18. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  19. Acquisition in different and special subject areas

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Learn how acquisitions librarians successfully serve specialized users! In this book, you'll find profiles, methods, and processes for acquisitions in specialized subject areas, such as local and regional poetry, oceanography, educational information in electronic formats, popular fiction, regional and ethnic materials, and more. Seasoned acquisitions librarians share their experiences in gathering the hard-to-find materials their libraries' highly specialized clients need to access. You'll also examine issues surrounding the acquisition of new reference tools that are vital in today's emergi

  20. Standardized and Repeatable Technology Evaluation for Cybersecurity Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    the Computer Network Defense- Cyber Security Division (Code 58200), SSC Pacific, San Diego, CA. The SSC Pacific Naval Innovative Science and...adopted requirements. Once a cyber solution is identified as needed by information security personnel (even if funding is available) the procurement...incorporating new technology to address new cyber threats . While contracts are being worked out, the organization is effectively limited in its capability to

  1. Maternal Voluntary Exercise during Pregnancy Enhances the Spatial Learning Acquisition but not the Retention of Memory in Rat Pups via a TrkB-mediated Mechanism: The Role of Hippocampal BDNF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar M Akhavan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: The effect of maternal voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF level in rat offspring was studied. In addition, the possible role of hippocampal BDNF receptors in maternal exercise induced enhancement of learning in the rat pups was investigated.   Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats have been randomly assigned to sedentary control or voluntary exercise groups. Each of the exercising pregnant rats was given access to a cage that was equipped with a running wheel until the end of their pregnancy. On post natal day (PND 36, two groups consisted of 7 male rat pups in each group from sedentary or exercised mothers were sacrificed and the hippocampus was dissected for BDNF proteins level determination. Also, bilateral injection of K252a to the hippocampus was used to block the hippocampal BDNF action on PND59 in the rat pups. Results: Voluntary exercise during pregnancy significantly increased the level of BDNF protein in the hippocampus of the rat pups on PND36 compared to the control group (P=0.048. Inhibiting BDNF action abolished the exercise-induced improvement of learning acquisition in offspring in training trials (P=0.0001. No difference was observed in the platform location latency and the time spent in the target in the probe test between two groups. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that voluntary exercise during pregnancy via a TrkB-mediated mechanism enhances the spatial learning acquisition, however, not the retention of memory in the rat pups.

  2. A review of spelling acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Cohn, Abigail C.

    2013-01-01

    This review article discusses how empirical data on the acquisition of spelling by children inform the question of the psycholinguistic validity of the phoneme, a concept central (at least implicitly) to most phonological theories. The paper reviews data on children's early spelling attempts...... literacy factors into modeling phonological knowledge. In this article, we show that the spelling acquisition data support and are best accounted for by models allowing for a hierarchy of representations, that learning to read and write has a profound effect on the phonological knowledge of an adult...

  3. Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya

    2015-01-01

    Second language acquisition is a complex process which involves various factors. The factors can be put into two cate⁃gories:social factors and learner factors. Each category includes a number of factors. The factors such as motivation, age, learning strategies and others such as personality, aptitude are also mutually related. Among all of those factors, motivation plays a very im⁃portant role in the second language acquisition. In this essay, the author will discuss the key factors that affect the outcome of the process.

  4. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  5. The acquisition of plural marking in English and German revisited: schemata versus rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpcke, K M

    1998-06-01

    This article contributes to a debate in the linguistic and psychological literature that centres around the representation of morphologically complex words in the grammar and in the lexicon. The issue is whether inflectional morphology is rule-based (i.e. symbolically represented), or whether the assumption of pattern association is more adequate to account for the facts. On the basis of the analysis of acquisitional data the article strongly argues for the latter alternative. In a classic experiment that helped shape the development of acquisition theory Berko (1958) reported substantial support for ITEM-AND-PROCESS rules in the acquisition of plural morphology in English. A large part of her results were zero responses (repetition of the stimulus). A reinterpretation of these zero responses in light of schema theory and the cue strength hypothesis shows a striking departure from randomness. Berko's subjects tended to repeat stimuli just to the extent that these already resembled a plural schema. A reinterpretation of data reported in Innes (1974) achieved compatible results. This data set is far more extensive than Berko's and is used in the present study to put the schema model to a more stringent test. A reinterpretation of a parallel experiment with German children, using the cue strength analysis of the more complex plural morphology of German yielded parallel results. Finally, natural acquisitional data obtained from seven German speaking children aged between 2;1 and 2;9 are analysed. Again, strong support is found for the schema model. It is suggested that a schema-learning mechanism may underlie the acquisition of morphology, even when the end product of the learning process involves item-and-process rules, as in the case of English plural formation. In a schema-learning model, the child builds schematic representations for possible singular and plural lexical items as whole gestalts, and attempts to map concrete forms onto these schemata in deciding

  6. Integrating Computer Assisted Language Learning into Out-of-Class Extended Learning: The Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the Oral Reading Fluency of English for Specific Academic Purposes Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi

    2015-01-01

    By using the formative experiment, this study investigated how an instructional intervention, consisting of a Repeated Reading (RR) technique and an iPod Touch, helped achieve a valued pedagogical goal, that of enhancing the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of sixteen English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) first-year university students. Students…

  7. Usage-based vs. rule-based learning: the acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, Marit

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to language acquisition in relation to children's acquisition of word order in wh-questions in English and Norwegian. While generative models assert that children set major word order parameters and thus acquire a rule of subject-auxiliary inversion or generalized verb second (V2) at an early stage, some constructivist work argues that English-speaking children are simply reproducing frequent wh-word+auxiliary combinations in the input. The paper questions both approaches, re-evaluates some previous work, and provides some further data, concluding that the acquisition of wh-questions must be the result of a rule-based process. Based on variation in adult grammars, a cue-based model to language acquisition is presented, according to which children are sensitive to minor cues in the input, called micro-cues. V2 is not considered to be one major parameter, but several smaller-scale cues, which are responsible for children's lack of syntactic (over-)generalization in the acquisition process.

  8. 2017 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2017 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  9. 2016 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2016 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  10. Acquisition of Turkish grammatical morphology by children with developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarlar, Funda; Johnston, Judith R

    2011-01-01

    Many children with specific language impairment, Down syndrome or autism spectrum disorder have difficulty learning grammatical morphology, especially forms associated with the verb phrase. However, except for Hebrew, the evidence thus far has come from Indo-European languages. This study investigates the acquisition of grammatical morphology by Turkish-speaking children with developmental disorders. Syntactic, perceptual and usage features of this non-Indo-European language were predicted to lead to patterns of atypical learning that would challenge and broaden current views. Language samples were collected from 30 preschoolers learning Turkish: ten with developmental disorders, ten matched by age and ten by length of utterance. T-SALT then generated mean length of utterance, the total number of noun errors, the total number of verb errors and the per cent use in obligatory contexts for noun suffixes. Analyses also looked at the potential effects of input frequency on order of acquisition. Turkish children in the MLU-W control group, aged 3;4, used noun and verb suffixes with virtually no errors. Children in the group with atypical language showed more, and more persistent, morphological errors than either age or language peers, especially on noun suffixes. Children in the ALD and MLU-W groups were acquiring noun case suffixes in an order that is strongly related to input frequencies. These findings seem to reflect the influence of salience, regularity and frequency on language learning. Typical child-adult discourse patterns as well as the canonical SOV Turkish word order make verb suffixes perceptually salient, available in working memory and frequently repeated. The findings support the view that the language patterns seen in children with atypical development will differ from one language type to the next. They also suggest that regardless of language or syntactic class, children will have greater difficulty with those features of grammar that have higher

  11. Single and repeated sevoflurane or desflurane exposure does not impair spatial memory performance of young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicaslan, Alper; Belviranli, Muaz; Okudan, Nilsel; Nurullahoglu Atalik, Esra

    2013-12-01

    Volatile anesthetics are known to disturb the spatial memory in aged rodents, but there is insufficient information on their effects on young adult rodents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single and repeated exposure to desflurane and sevoflurane on spatial learning and memory functions in young adult mice. Balb/c mice (2 months old) were randomly divided into six equal groups (n = 8). The groups with single inhalation were exposed to 3.3% sevoflurane or 7.8% desflurane or vehicle gas for 4 h, respectively. The groups with repeated inhalation were exposed to 3.3% sevoflurane or 7.8% desflurane or vehicle gas for 2 h a day during 5 consecutive days. Spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze 24 h after exposure. In the learning phase, the parameters associated with finding the hidden platform and swimming speed, and in the memory phase, time spent in the target quadrant and the adjacent quadrants, were assessed and compared between the groups. In the 4-day learning process, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of mean latency to platform, mean distance traveled and average speed (P > 0.05). During the memory-test phase, all mice exhibited spatial memory, but there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of time spent in the target quadrant (P > 0.05). Sevoflurane and desflurane anesthesia did not impair acquisition learning and retention memory in young adult mice.

  12. Viewing Krashen's Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis from the Aspect of Intralingual Transfer%从语内迁移看Krashen的习得—学习假说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金娜莉

    2012-01-01

    According to Krashen there are two independent approaches to develop second language ability. One is "acquisition" which is a subconscious process; the other is "learning" which involves consciousness. Krashen assumes "acquisition" is much more important than "learning". This paper presents a review of Krashen's Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis by means of analyzing intralingual transfer in second language acquisition. The analysis indicates "acquisition" involves consciousness too and that "acquisition" interacts with "learning" which also plays a significant role in second language acquisition.%Krashen的习得—学习假说以有无意识为标准将"习得"与"学习"区分为两个独立的发展第二语言能力的途径,并指出习得比学习重要得多。本文试图通过对二语习得中被视为重要错误来源的语内迁移现象的分析来谈谈对该假说的一些个人看法。从语内迁移看,"习得"过程也是有"意识"参与的,"习得"和"学习"互相联系,并且"学习"的作用不容忽视。

  13. No childhood advantage in the acquisition of skill in using an artificial language rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferman, Sara; Karni, Avi

    2010-10-27

    A leading notion is that language skill acquisition declines between childhood and adulthood. While several lines of evidence indicate that declarative ("what", explicit) memory undergoes maturation, it is commonly assumed that procedural ("how-to", implicit) memory, in children, is well established. The language superiority of children has been ascribed to the childhood reliance on implicit learning. Here we show that when 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and young adults were provided with an equivalent multi-session training experience in producing and judging an artificial morphological rule (AMR), adults were superior to children of both age groups and the 8-year-olds were the poorest learners in all task parameters including in those that were clearly implicit. The AMR consisted of phonological transformations of verbs expressing a semantic distinction: whether the preceding noun was animate or inanimate. No explicit instruction of the AMR was provided. The 8-year-olds, unlike most adults and 12-year-olds, failed to explicitly uncover the semantic aspect of the AMR and subsequently to generalize it accurately to novel items. However, all participants learned to apply the AMR to repeated items and to generalize its phonological patterns to novel items, attaining accurate and fluent production, and exhibiting key characteristics of procedural memory. Nevertheless, adults showed a clear advantage in learning implicit task aspects, and in their long-term retention. Thus, our findings support the notion of age-dependent maturation in the establishment of declarative but also of procedural memory in a complex language task. In line with recent reports of no childhood advantage in non-linguistic skill learning, we propose that under some learning conditions adults can effectively express their language skill acquisition potential. Altogether, the maturational effects in the acquisition of an implicit AMR do not support a simple notion of a language skill learning advantage

  14. No childhood advantage in the acquisition of skill in using an artificial language rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ferman

    Full Text Available A leading notion is that language skill acquisition declines between childhood and adulthood. While several lines of evidence indicate that declarative ("what", explicit memory undergoes maturation, it is commonly assumed that procedural ("how-to", implicit memory, in children, is well established. The language superiority of children has been ascribed to the childhood reliance on implicit learning. Here we show that when 8-year-olds, 12-year-olds and young adults were provided with an equivalent multi-session training experience in producing and judging an artificial morphological rule (AMR, adults were superior to children of both age groups and the 8-year-olds were the poorest learners in all task parameters including in those that were clearly implicit. The AMR consisted of phonological transformations of verbs expressing a semantic distinction: whether the preceding noun was animate or inanimate. No explicit instruction of the AMR was provided. The 8-year-olds, unlike most adults and 12-year-olds, failed to explicitly uncover the semantic aspect of the AMR and subsequently to generalize it accurately to novel items. However, all participants learned to apply the AMR to repeated items and to generalize its phonological patterns to novel items, attaining accurate and fluent production, and exhibiting key characteristics of procedural memory. Nevertheless, adults showed a clear advantage in learning implicit task aspects, and in their long-term retention. Thus, our findings support the notion of age-dependent maturation in the establishment of declarative but also of procedural memory in a complex language task. In line with recent reports of no childhood advantage in non-linguistic skill learning, we propose that under some learning conditions adults can effectively express their language skill acquisition potential. Altogether, the maturational effects in the acquisition of an implicit AMR do not support a simple notion of a language skill

  15. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  16. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  17. Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…

  18. Hypertext Interface Design and Structural Knowledge Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneman, Philip A.; Jonassen, David H.

    Hypertext is well-suited for educational applications where open learning and knowledge exploration is desired. In such applications, principles of good hypertext interface design should be employed to avoid navigational problems so as to maximize learning. Interface design, however, may also directly enhance acquisition of a particular knowledge…

  19. Skills Acquisition Based on Collaborative Virtual Learning Environment:the Concept, Characteristics and Influencing Factors%协同虚拟学习环境下技能习得:概念、特征与影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱军

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative virtual learning environment is a combination of collaborative working technology , virtual reality technology and distributed computing systems.It is a new kind of intelligent learning environment which has distinct characteristics with the advantages of not being replaced by traditional skills training system in terms of openness , interactivity and security.The paper discusses the concept and characteristic of skills acquisition under collaborative virtual learning environment based on the reflection on deviations and deficiencies of traditional skills training system , analyzes the influencing factors of skills acquisition from training contents , training system and objects, and puts forward the research emphasis and direction of collaborative virtual learning environment in the future.%协同虚拟学习环境是协同工作技术、虚拟现实技术和分布式计算系统的结合,是一种新型的智慧学习环境,在开放性、交互性、安全性等方面具有传统技能训练系统不可替代的优势,并具有鲜明特征。在反思传统技能训练系统的偏差与不足基础上,探讨协同虚拟学习环境下技能习得的概念和特征,并从培训内容、培训系统和培训对象三方面分析技能习得的影响因素,最后提出协同虚拟学习环境未来的研究重点和发展方向。

  20. Implicit and Explicit Cognitive Processes in Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Studies on vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have revealed that a large amount of vocabulary is learned without an overt intention, in other words, incidentally. This article investigates the relevance of different lexical processing strategies for vocabulary acquisition when reading a text for comprehension among 24 advanced…

  1. Reflections on How Color Term Acquisition Is Constrained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    Compared with object word learning, young children typically find learning color terms to be a difficult linguistic task. In this reflections article, I consider two questions that are fundamental to investigations into the developmental acquisition of color terms. First, I consider what constrains color term acquisition and how stable these…

  2. Natural selection of the critical period for language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, N. L.; Nowak, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The language acquisition period in humans lasts about 13 years. After puberty it becomes increasingly difficult to learn a language. We explain this phenomenon by using an evolutionary framework. We present a dynamical system describing competition between language acquisition devices, which differ in the length of the learning period. There are two selective forces that play a role in determining the critical learning period: (i) having a longer learning period increases the accuracy of language acquisition; (ii) learning is associated with certain costs that affect fitness. As a result, there exists a limited learning period which is evolutionarily stable. This result is obtained analytically by means of a Nash equilibrium analysis of language acquisition devices. Interestingly, the evolutionarily stable learning period does not maximize the average fitness of the population. PMID:11375108

  3. Trait anxiety and goal difficulty on learning to climb the Bachman ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Jaqueline F O; Barros, Joao A C; Meira, Cassio M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effects of trait anxiety and goal setting on learning of the Bachman ladder. It was hypothesized that easy goals would increase learning for individuals with high trait anxiety while hard goals would increase learning for individuals with low trait anxiety. 80 high school students (40 boys, 40 girls; M age = 15 yr., SD = 1.0) filled out the Brazilian State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for trait anxiety. The experiment was divided into four phases: acquisition, immediate transfer (after 5 min.), delayed transfer, and retention (after 24 hr.). On the transfer phases, the participants started climbing the ladder with the foot opposite of that used in acquisition. Participants were assigned to one of four experimental groups combining high and low anxiety traits and hard and easy goals. Variances were analyzed with repeated measurements on the last factor of all phases. The results showed the performance increased during the acquisition phase and no effects were observed in any phases.

  4. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  5. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  6. Orexin A-mediated AKT signaling in the dentate gyrus contributes to the acquisition, expression and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sui-Jun; Cui, Yu; Huang, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Jiang, Jin-Xiang; Xin, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), a critical brain region contributing to learning and memory, is involved in the addiction and relapse to abused drugs. Emerging studies also suggest the role of orexin signaling in the rewarding behavior induced by repeated exposure to opiates. In the present study, we investigated the dynamic adaptation of orexin signaling in the DG and its functional significance in the acquisition, expression, maintenance of and relapse to rewarding behavior induced by morphine. Repeated place conditioning with morphine significantly increased the orexin A content released from the lateral hypothalamic area projecting neurons into the DG. Local infusions of orexin A into the DG sensitized the acquisition of and relapse to the conditioned place preference induced by morphine. The application of the orexin receptor type 1 (OXR1) antagonist SB334867 significantly abolished the acquisition, expression and maintenance of the conditioned place preference induced by repeated exposure to morphine. Furthermore, the significant increase of the phosphorylation of AKT in the DG was associated with preference for the morphine-paired chamber in rats, which was reversed by the local administration of an OXR1 antagonist. Thus, these findings suggested that the dynamic upregulation of orexin A signaling, via the AKT pathway in the DG, may promote the acquisition and maintenance of opioid-induced craving behaviors and may increase sensitivity to the rewarding effect of subsequent opioids.

  7. Cross-border acquisition abandonment and completion : The effect of institutional differences and organizational learning in the international business service industry, 1981-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikova, Desislava; Sahib, Padma Rao; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    Based on the concepts of North's (1990) political economy of national institutions and economic behavior, we investigate how formal and informal institutional features influence the likelihood that a cross-border acquisition deal will be completed, as well as the time taken for its completion after

  8. Learning-Dependent Potentiation in the Vibrissal Motor Cortex Is Closely Related to the Acquisition of Conditioned Whisker Responses in Behaving Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Garcia, Jose Maria; Troncoso, Julieta; Munera, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The role of the primary motor cortex in the acquisition of new motor skills was evaluated during classical conditioning of vibrissal protraction responses in behaving mice, using a trace paradigm. Conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation elicited a characteristic field potential in the vibrissal motor cortex, which was dependent on the synchronized…

  9. Learning-Dependent Potentiation in the Vibrissal Motor Cortex Is Closely Related to the Acquisition of Conditioned Whisker Responses in Behaving Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Garcia, Jose Maria; Troncoso, Julieta; Munera, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The role of the primary motor cortex in the acquisition of new motor skills was evaluated during classical conditioning of vibrissal protraction responses in behaving mice, using a trace paradigm. Conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation elicited a characteristic field potential in the vibrissal motor cortex, which was dependent on the synchronized…

  10. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  11. Changes in striatal dopamine release associated with human motor-skill acquisition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kawashima

    Full Text Available The acquisition of new motor skills is essential throughout daily life and involves the processes of learning new motor sequence and encoding elementary aspects of new movement. Although previous animal studies have suggested a functional importance for striatal dopamine release in the learning of new motor sequence, its role in encoding elementary aspects of new movement has not yet been investigated. To elucidate this, we investigated changes in striatal dopamine levels during initial skill-training (Day 1 compared with acquired conditions (Day 2 using (11C-raclopride positron-emission tomography. Ten volunteers learned to perform brisk contractions using their non-dominant left thumbs with the aid of visual feedback. On Day 1, the mean acceleration of each session was improved through repeated training sessions until performance neared asymptotic levels, while improved motor performance was retained from the beginning on Day 2. The (11C-raclopride binding potential (BP in the right putamen was reduced during initial skill-training compared with under acquired conditions. Moreover, voxel-wise analysis revealed that (11C-raclopride BP was particularly reduced in the right antero-dorsal to the lateral part of the putamen. Based on findings from previous fMRI studies that show a gradual shift of activation within the striatum during the initial processing of motor learning, striatal dopamine may play a role in the dynamic cortico-striatal activation during encoding of new motor memory in skill acquisition.

  12. Confidence-Based Feature Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; MacGlashan, James

    2010-01-01

    Confidence-based Feature Acquisition (CFA) is a novel, supervised learning method for acquiring missing feature values when there is missing data at both training (learning) and test (deployment) time. To train a machine learning classifier, data is encoded with a series of input features describing each item. In some applications, the training data may have missing values for some of the features, which can be acquired at a given cost. A relevant JPL example is that of the Mars rover exploration in which the features are obtained from a variety of different instruments, with different power consumption and integration time costs. The challenge is to decide which features will lead to increased classification performance and are therefore worth acquiring (paying the cost). To solve this problem, CFA, which is made up of two algorithms (CFA-train and CFA-predict), has been designed to greedily minimize total acquisition cost (during training and testing) while aiming for a specific accuracy level (specified as a confidence threshold). With this method, it is assumed that there is a nonempty subset of features that are free; that is, every instance in the data set includes these features initially for zero cost. It is also assumed that the feature acquisition (FA) cost associated with each feature is known in advance, and that the FA cost for a given feature is the same for all instances. Finally, CFA requires that the base-level classifiers produce not only a classification, but also a confidence (or posterior probability).

  13. The effects of types of reflective scaffolding and language proficiency on the acquisition of physics knowledge in a game-based learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsu-Ting

    With the capability of creating a situated and engaging learning environment, video games have been considered as a powerful tool to enhance students' learning outcomes and interest in learning. Yet, little empirical evidence exists to support the effectiveness of video games in learning. Particularly, little attention has been given to the design of specific game elements. Focusing on middle school students, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of representations of reflective scaffolds (verbal and visual) on students' learning outcomes, game performance, and level of engagement in a video game for physics learning. In addition, the role of students' level of English proficiency was examined to understand whether the effects of reflective scaffolds were influenced by students' language proficiency. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 playtested the game with target players and led to game modification for its use in Study 2, which focused on the effects of different types of reflective scaffolds and level of English proficiency. The results of Study 2 showed that students who received both verbal and visual reflective scaffolds completed the most levels compared to the other groups in the given time. No significant effect of type of reflective scaffolds were found on learning outcomes despite the fact that the pattern of the learning outcomes across conditions was close to prediction. Participants' engagement in gameplay was high regardless of the type of scaffolds they received, their interest in learning physics, and their prior knowledge of physics. The results of video analysis also showed that the game used in this study was able to engage students not only in gameplay but also in learning physics. Finally, English proficiency functioned as a significant factor moderating the effects of scaffolds, learning outcomes and game performance. Students with limited English proficiency benefited more from visual reflective scaffolds than

  14. Acquisition Support Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Principles of Effective Acquisition © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 31 Summary The SEI, through the Acquisition Support Program , works directly...2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 1 Acquisition Support Program Overview Brian Gallagher Director, Acquisition Support Program 9 March, 2006...MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition Support Program Overview 5a. CONTRACT

  15. Explaining phenomena of first and second language acquisition with the constructs of implicit and explicit learning: The virtues and pitfalls of a two-system view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Rebuschat, P.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines to what extent Krashen’s (1981) distinction between acquired (implicit) and learned (explicit) knowledge can be upheld from a usage-based view on first and second language learning and in the light of recent advancement in (neuro)cognitive research on artificial grammar learnin

  16. Research on the Learning Effects of Multimedia Assisted Instruction on Mandarin Vocabulary Acquisition for Vietnamese Students (Part II): A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yuan; Chung, Wan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the effects of using multimedia assisted instruction for Mandarin vocabulary learning by Vietnamese students with the assistance of the ASSURE model. The aim is to understand the difficulties encountered by these students and the effects during the learning progress of multimedia assisted instruction. In order to fulfill the…

  17. Orthographic Knowledge and Lexical Form Influence Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-03-01

    Many adults struggle with second language acquisition, but learn new native-language words relatively easily. We investigated the role of sublexical native-language patterns on novel word acquisition. Twenty English monolinguals learned 48 novel written words in five repeated testing blocks. Half were orthographically wordlike (e.g., nish, high neighborhood density and high segment/bigram frequency), while half were not (e.g., gofp, low neighborhood density and low segment/bigram frequency). Participants were faster and more accurate at recognizing and producing wordlike items, indicating a native-language similarity benefit. Individual differences in memory and vocabulary size influenced learning, and error analyses indicated that participants extracted probabilistic information from the novel vocabulary. Results suggest that language learners benefit from both native-language overlap and regularities within the novel language.

  18. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: The Air Force Needs to Adopt an Incremental Approach to Future Acquisition Planning to Enable Incorporation of Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Acquisitions, Technology, and Logistics directed the Air Force to introduce a competitive procurement environment for up to 14 launches.11... competition in the launch industry is a high priority for the service, and not requiring DOD-approved business systems is a key advantage of...program is the primary provider launches for military and intelligence satellites. The Air Force is working to introduce competition into the program

  19. Critical period effects in second language learning: the influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J S; Newport, E L

    1989-01-01

    Lenneberg (1967) hypothesized that language could be acquired only within a critical period, extending from early infancy until puberty. In its basic form, the critical period hypothesis need only have consequences for first language acquisition. Nevertheless, it is essential to our understanding of the nature of the hypothesized critical period to determine whether or not it extends as well to second language acquisition. If so, it should be the case that young children are better second language learners than adults and should consequently reach higher levels of final proficiency in the second language. This prediction was tested by comparing the English proficiency attained by 46 native Korean or Chinese speakers who had arrived in the United States between the ages of 3 and 39, and who had lived in the United States between 3 and 26 years by the time of testing. These subjects were tested on a wide variety of structures of English grammar, using a grammaticality judgment task. Both correlational and t-test analyses demonstrated a clear and strong advantage for earlier arrivals over the later arrivals. Test performance was linearly related to age of arrival up to puberty; after puberty, performance was low but highly variable and unrelated to age of arrival. This age effect was shown not to be an inadvertent result of differences in amount of experience with English, motivation, self-consciousness, or American identification. The effect also appeared on every grammatical structure tested, although the structures varied markedly in the degree to which they were well mastered by later learners. The results support the conclusion that a critical period for language acquisition extends its effects to second language acquisition.

  20. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  1. Language acquisition is model-based rather than model-free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Felix Hao; Mintz, Toben H

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) propose that learning language is learning to process language. However, we believe that the general-purpose prediction mechanism they propose is insufficient to account for many phenomena in language acquisition. We argue from theoretical considerations and empirical evidence that many acquisition tasks are model-based, and that different acquisition tasks require different, specialized models.

  2. Profile of reading accuracy acquisition of students from elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the profile of reading accuracy acquisition of children from the elementary school, considering word extension and syllabic structure. This study counted on 29 children from the third grade and 28 from the fourth grade of the Brazilian elementary school, with mean age of 8:5 and 9:3 years, respectively, who did not present learning disorders. All participants underwent oral reading assessment through texts according to each school level. The texts were analyzed considering the range of word length and syllabic structure. The performance of the students was analyzed according to the accuracy percentage concerning word length and syllabic structure. All data underwent statistical analysis. We noticed that the variability in the percentage increased due to the number of syllables, with more incidences of error in students from the third year. Furthermore, data pointed out greater accuracy of students from the fourth year with regard to word length and syllabic structure. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated interaction effect between both groups and the studied variables. This study showed evidence that word length is a strong factor to reading accuracy acquisition in Brazilian Portuguese. In addition, words with syllabic structure different from the pattern commonly seen in the Portuguese language are more difficult to be read by children of lower schooling levels.

  3. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  4. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  5. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  6. Empirical studies on self-reliant acquisition of knowledge and skills at learning stations dedicated to photovoltaics; Empirische Untersuchungen zum selbstaendigen Wissens- und Koennenserwerb an Lernstationen im Themenbereich ''Photovoltaik''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bien, Nguyen

    2007-10-15

    This book presents teaching concepts for the self-reliant acquisition of knowledge and skills around the topic of photovoltaics at learning stations and in teacher-centered classroom work. These concepts have been developed by the author and proven in practical school teaching and pedagogic training. The book thus makes a contribution to contemporary competence research. Its most important results are as follows: It is shown that the choice of photovoltaics as a subject matter is justifiable from a societal viewpoint as well as in respect of pedagogic theory and subject didactics. It is shown that the particle model can be used to describe the design and functioning of solar cells in physics lessons (elementary explanation of conduction processes in semiconductors). Analyses of pupils' prior experience with photovoltaics show that this is of a phenomenological nature. These empirical studies have shown a large learning increment in pupils both during work at the learning stations and in teacher-centered classroom work. The results show that pupils of forms ten and eleven are capable of acquiring new knowledge and skills in a self-reliant manner. The tasks to be performed at the individual stations were analysed by the author and other experts with respect to their demands on pupils' competence. It transpired that the experts were largely of the same opinion when it came to assigning the tasks involved to the four competence areas. Large differences were seen in the assignment of tasks to the different types of demands.

  7. The Differences between Second Language Learning and Skill Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超

    2008-01-01

    People learn things all their lives. They learn various skills in order to live.. In these skills there are language learning and many other kinds of learning. This paper is intended to show some differences between second language learning and skill learning. Theories on Second Language Acquisition and Motor Skill learning are introduced exclusively.

  8. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  9. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  10. Theories of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, H J; Howell, R W

    1971-03-01

    Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.

  11. The Differences between Emergentism & Skill Acquisition Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemeh Kharaghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both emergentism and skill acquisition theory developed in the same field (cognitive theories and as an attempt to replace Universal grammar-based approaches, there are some differences between these two theories. The differences lie under their different models of knowledge representation and their diverse degree of emphasis on the role of input. In addition, skill acquisition considers the process of learning while emergentism considers input and output, and what goes on in between has not been considered. Finally it should be mentioned that these two theories take different views towards the learning process. 

  12. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  13. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  14. Playing at Serial Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.J. Smit (Han); T. Moraitis (Thras)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral biases can result in suboptimal acquisition decisions-with the potential for errors exacerbated in consolidating industries, where consolidators design serial acquisition strategies and fight escalating takeover battles for platform companies that may determine their future co

  15. Touchscreen assays of learning, response inhibition, and motivation in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D; Bergman, Jack; Coyle, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in precision gene editing have led to the emergence of the marmoset as an experimental subject of considerable interest and translational value. A better understanding of behavioral phenotypes of the common marmoset will inform the extent to which forthcoming transgenic mutants are cognitively intact. Therefore, additional information regarding their learning, inhibitory control, and motivational abilities is needed. The present studies used touchscreen-based repeated acquisition and discrimination reversal tasks to examine basic dimensions of learning and response inhibition. Marmosets were trained daily to respond to one of the two simultaneously presented novel stimuli. Subjects learned to discriminate the two stimuli (acquisition) and, subsequently, with the contingencies switched (reversal). In addition, progressive ratio performance was used to measure the effort expended to obtain a highly palatable reinforcer varying in magnitude and, thereby, provide an index of relative motivational value. Results indicate that rates of both acquisition and reversal of novel discriminations increased across successive sessions, but that rate of reversal learning remained slower than acquisition learning, i.e., more trials were needed for mastery. A positive correlation was observed between progressive ratio break point and reinforcement magnitude. These results closely replicate previous findings with squirrel monkeys, thus providing evidence of similarity in learning processes across nonhuman primate species. Moreover, these data provide key information about the normative phenotype of wild-type marmosets using three relevant behavioral endpoints.

  16. Contingency awareness shapes acquisition and extinction of emotional responses in a conditioning model of pain-related fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eLabrenz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental learning process, fear conditioning promotes the formation of associations between predictive cues and biologically-significant signals. In its application to pain, conditioning may provide important insight into mechanisms underlying pain-related fear, although knowledge especially in interoceptive pain paradigms remains scarce. Furthermore, while the influence of contingency awareness on excitatory learning is subject of ongoing debate, its role in pain-related acquisition is poorly understood and essentially unknown regarding extinction as inhibitory learning. Therefore, we addressed the impact of contingency awareness on learned emotional responses to pain- and safety-predictive cues in a combined dataset of two pain-related conditioning studies.In total, 75 healthy participants underwent differential fear acquisition, during which rectal distensions as interoceptive unconditioned stimuli (US were repeatedly paired with a predictive visual cue (conditioned stimulus; CS+ while another cue (CS- was presented unpaired. During extinction, both CS were presented without US. CS valence, indicating learned emotional responses, and CS-US contingencies were assessed on visual analogue scales. Based on an integrative measure of contingency accuracy, a median-split was performed to compare groups with low versus high contingency accuracy regarding learned emotional responses. To investigate predictive value of contingency accuracy, regression analyses were conducted. Highly accurate individuals revealed more pronounced negative emotional responses to CS+ and increased positive responses to CS- when compared to participants with low contingency accuracy. Following extinction, highly accurate individuals had fully extinguished pain-predictive cue properties, while exhibiting persistent positive emotional responses to safety signals. In contrast, individuals with low accuracy revealed equally positive emotional responses to both, CS+ and

  17. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I-V and P-V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I-V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  18. A review of spelling acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Cohn, Abigail C.

    2013-01-01

    literacy factors into modeling phonological knowledge. In this article, we show that the spelling acquisition data support and are best accounted for by models allowing for a hierarchy of representations, that learning to read and write has a profound effect on the phonological knowledge of an adult......This review article discusses how empirical data on the acquisition of spelling by children inform the question of the psycholinguistic validity of the phoneme, a concept central (at least implicitly) to most phonological theories. The paper reviews data on children's early spelling attempts...... as well as on the development of spelling proficiency. The evidence highlighted in the paper presents a number of challenges for many conceptions of the phoneme, which do not account for the complexity of the developmental data. A synthetic interpretation of the apparently contradictory evidence...

  19. Music and early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability - one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

  20. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K. Brandt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability—one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, the authors challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, the authors present evidence that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

  1. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development. PMID:22973254

  2. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  3. Influences of an acoustic signal with ultrasound components on the acquisition of a defensive conditioned reflex in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loseva, E V; Alekseeva, T G

    2007-06-01

    The effects of short (90 sec) exposures to a complex acoustic signal with ultrasound components on the acquisition of a defensive conditioned two-way avoidance reflex using an electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus in a shuttle box were studied in female Wistar rats. This stimulus induced audiogenic convulsions of different severities in 59% of the animals. A scale for assessing the ability of rats to acquire the conditioned two-way avoidance reflex was developed. Presentation of the complex acoustic signal was found to be a powerful stressor for Wistar rats, preventing the acquisition of the reflex in the early stages (four and six days) after presentation. This effect was independent of the presence and severity of audiogenic convulsions in the rats during presentation of the acoustic signal. On repeat training nine days after the acoustic signal (with the first session after four days), acquisition of the reflex was hindered (as compared with controls not presented with the acoustic signal). However, on repeat training at later time points (1.5 months after the complex acoustic signal, with the first session after six days), the rats rapidly achieved the learning criterion (10 correct avoidance responses in a row). On the other hand, if the acoustic signal was presented at different times (immediately or at three or 45 days) after the first training session, the animals' ability to acquire the reflex on repeat training was not impaired at either the early or late periods after exposure to the stressor. These results suggest that the complex acoustic signal impairs short-term memory (the process of acquisition of the conditioned two-way avoidance reflex at the early post-presentation time point) but has no effect on long-term memory or consolidation of the memory trace.

  4. The role of plastic changes in the motor cortex and spinal cord for motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive changes of the efficacy of neural circuitries at different sites of the central nervous system is the basis of acquisition of new motor skills. Non-invasive human imaging and electrophysiological experiments have demonstrated that the primary motor cortex and spinal cord circuitries...... are key players in the early stages of skill acquisition and consolidation of motor learning. Expansion of the cortical representation of the trained muscles, changes in corticomuscular coupling and changes in stretch reflex activity are thus all markers of neuroplastic changes accompanying early skill...... acquisition. We have shown in recent experiments that sensory feedback from the active muscles play a surprisingly specific role at this stage of learning. Following motor skill training, repeated activation of sensory afferents from the muscle that has been involved in a previous training session, interfered...

  5. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  6. Placing a Hand in the Fire: Assessing the Impact of a YouTube Experiential Learning Project on Viral Marketing Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nathaniel J.; Campbell, Colin; Bal, Anjali S.; Piercy, Niall

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an experiential learning social media project that was integrated into a graduate marketing class. As part of the semester-long project, students were required to work within a team and create a spoof video, which was posted on YouTube. Students' success was partially determined by the…

  7. Underspecification-Based Grammatical Feedback Generation Tailored to the Learner's Current Acquisition Level in an e-Learning System for German as Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbusch, Karin; Cameran, Christel-Joy; Härtel, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We present a new feedback strategy implemented in a natural language generation-based e-learning system for German as a second language (L2). Although the system recognizes a large proportion of the grammar errors in learner-produced written sentences, its automatically generated feedback only addresses errors against rules that are relevant at…

  8. Placing a Hand in the Fire: Assessing the Impact of a YouTube Experiential Learning Project on Viral Marketing Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nathaniel J.; Campbell, Colin; Bal, Anjali S.; Piercy, Niall

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an experiential learning social media project that was integrated into a graduate marketing class. As part of the semester-long project, students were required to work within a team and create a spoof video, which was posted on YouTube. Students' success was partially determined by the…

  9. La evaluación de la persistencia basada en una tarea (The assessment of persistence based on an acquisition-extinction learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Hernández López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design an objective task to assess persistence as a personality variable. The conditions for assessing behavioral persistence were analyzed according to the concepts of motivational persistence, obstinate persistence and exploratory persistence. A free operant procedure with an acquisition and an extinction phase was used as a possible context for assessing persistence. The results show that the designed task enabled the measurement of the three variables of persistence in the sample studied. Internal consistency indexes were .928 for motivational persistence, .683 and .580 for the two indicators of obstinate persistence, and .905 for exploratory persistence. The relationships between each persistence variable and the initial motivation of the participants are consistent with those described in the literature.

  10. Theories of early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, K

    1997-07-01

    What features of brain processing and neural development support linguistic development in young children? To what extent is the profile and timing of linguistic development in young children determined by a pre-ordained genetic programme? Does the environment play a crucial role in determining the patterns of change observed in children growing up? Recent experimental, neuroimaging and computational studies of developmental change in children promise to contribute to a deeper understanding of how the brain becomes wired up for language. In this review, the muttidisciplinary perspectives of cognitive neuroscience, experimental psycholinguistics and neural network modelling are brought to bear on four distinct areas in the study of language acquisition: early speech perception, word recognition, word learning and the acquisition of grammatical inflections. It is suggested that each area demonstrates how linguistic development can be driven by the interaction of general learning mechanisms, highly sensitive to particular statistical regularities in the input, with a richly structured environment which provides the necessary ingredients for the emergence of linguistic representations that support mature language processing. Similar epigenetic principles, guiding the emergence of linguistic structure, apply to all these domains, offering insights into phenomena ranging from the precocity of young infant's sensitivity to speech contrasts to the complexities of the problem facing the young child learning the arabic plural.

  11. Incidental Lexicon Acquisition through Playful Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Wilhelm Ansteeg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational game which aids learners with foreign lexicon acquisition while entertaining them at the same time. An overview over existing language learning tools is given, and a general platform for educational games for second language acquisition (SLA is described. It introduces a specific prototype video game which teaches Italian vocabulary to the user. The application puts learning at the core of its game mechanics and combines it with a narrative and role-playing elements. In a user study, the game is compared to two other learning methods with focus on long term retention of vocabulary and enjoyment of the exercise. The game is found to perform within 10% of the efficiency of pure vocabulary learning exercises, while being considerably more enjoyable to the user.

  12. Watching the brain during meaning acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres-Missé, Anna; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2007-08-01

    Acquiring the meaning of a new word in a foreign language can be achieved either by rote memorizing or, similar to meaning acquisition during infancy, by extracting it from context. Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning. Here we demonstrate, using event-related brain potentials, the rapid development of a brain signature related to lexical and semantic processing during contextual word learning. Healthy volunteers engaged in a simple word-learning task were required to discover the meaning of a novel word from a context during silent reading. After 3 exposures, brain potentials to novel words in meaningful contexts were indistinguishable from real words, although this acquisition effect was not observed for novel words, for which sentence contexts allowed no meaning derivation. Furthermore, when the learned novel words were presented in isolation, an activation of their corresponding meaning was observed, although this process was slower than for real words.

  13. Iconicity and Sign Lexical Acquisition: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    The study of iconicity, defined as the direct relationship between a linguistic form and its referent, has gained momentum in recent years across a wide range of disciplines. In the spoken modality, there is abundant evidence showing that iconicity is a key factor that facilitates language acquisition. However, when we look at sign languages, which excel in the prevalence of iconic structures, there is a more mixed picture, with some studies showing a positive effect and others showing a null or negative effect. In an attempt to reconcile the existing evidence the present review presents a critical overview of the literature on the acquisition of a sign language as first (L1) and second (L2) language and points at some factor that may be the source of disagreement. Regarding sign L1 acquisition, the contradicting findings may relate to iconicity being defined in a very broad sense when a more fine-grained operationalisation might reveal an effect in sign learning. Regarding sign L2 acquisition, evidence shows that there is a clear dissociation in the effect of iconicity in that it facilitates conceptual-semantic aspects of sign learning but hinders the acquisition of the exact phonological form of signs. It will be argued that when we consider the gradient nature of iconicity and that signs consist of a phonological form attached to a meaning we can discern how iconicity impacts sign learning in positive and negative ways. PMID:28824480

  14. The Influence of Cultural Cognition on Acquisition of Japanese and Learning Strategies%文化认知对日语习得的影响及策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小俞

    2016-01-01

    语言和文化是不可分割的整体,在日语学习中,往往先学习语言后补充文化,重视语言轻视文化的现象时有发生,给日语习得带来很大的影响。文章从语言与文化的关系出发认识文化对日语习得的重要性,针对文化缺失现象及其影响探索相应的学习策略,从而使学习者真正地习得日语。%Language and culture are inseparable. However, actual Japanese teaching attaches more importance to language learning and ignores the learning of culture, leading to the disconnection between language and culture and failure of communication. This paper studies how importantly cultural cognition will influence language acquisition from the relationship between language and culture, analyzes the cultural deficiency in actual Japanese teaching, puts forward appropriate measures to increase the awareness and enhance the students' intercultural communicative competence.

  15. Training and Doctrine Command Acquisition Management and Oversight Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    CLM013-Work-Breakdown Structure CLM031- Improved Statement of Work ACQ265-Mission Focused Services Acquisition Army eLearning https...usarmy.skillport.com/skillportfe/main.action?content=search# CLC013-Performance-based Services Acquisition CLM031- Improved Statement of Work ACQ265-Mission...SES’s strategic issues to improve the quality of the acquisition documents generated by TRADOC personnel. Educating personnel and providing templates

  16. Rethinking theory and practice: pre-registration student nurses experiences of simulation teaching and learning in the acquisition of clinical skills in preparation for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Angela; Garside, Joanne; Prescott, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK) simulation learning has been recognised in the form of a regulatory agreement that may replace hours from clinical practice. This integration has become an embedded feature of the pre-registration nursing programme at a University in the North of England, along with strategic investment in staff and simulation suites developed to underpin this curriculum change albeit in the absence of sparse empirical evidence, hence the rationale for the study which was designed to explore the relationship between simulation, theory and practice. The study features a thematic analysis of evaluation questionnaires from pre-registration student nurses (n=>500) collected over a 2 year period which informed subsequent focus group interviews to explore the themes in more detail. Consistent data findings were the students' positive response to simulation as a learning approach facilitating the application of theory in a safe controlled environment. Students reported that they felt prepared for practice, recognising that simulated learning improved their humanistic and problem solving abilities as well as the development of psychomotor, technical skills, and overall confidence. The theory-practice gap is a recurring narrative in the nursing literature, the findings of this study recognises that simulation offers an opportunity to enact the integration of theory and practice illuminating this relationship in a controlled environment thus, reinforcing the theory-practice relationship for nursing students.

  17. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  18. Second Language Acquisition Theory and Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers on second language acquisition and instruction from the University of Wisconsin at Madison symposium include the following: "Learning and Teaching: The Necessary Intersection" (Susan M. Gass); "Reenvisioning the Second Language Classroom: A Vygotskian Approach" (Linda Schinke-Llano); "The FOCAL SKILLS…

  19. Chinese Oil Giants on Overseas Acquisition Spree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaocheng

    2012-01-01

    Energy security is a priority and concern for China. In recent years, China's big three oil companies China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (Sinopec) and China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) - have been learning a great deal about doing business abroad, and have emerged as significant players in global mergers and acquisitions in upstream oil and natural gas.

  20. Cerebral Dominance, Language Acquisition, and Foreign Accents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovel, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Implicit in the discussion of views taken by Wolfe, Geschwind, and Newmark is a claim that no learning theory based solely on "nurture" can account for the fact that language acquisition in childhood is a trait, in adulthood a skill. The child can master the language system completely, regardless of his intellectual capacity or his social…