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Sample records for repeatability relative standard

  1. Effect of Repeated Simulations by Standardized Patients on Intercase Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study using five Southern Illinois University senior medical school classes (n=350 students) investigated whether having a standardized patient simulate a case repeatedly in postclerkship medical student evaluation affects the measure's reliability. Results suggest that repeated simulation had little or no effect on intercase reliability of…

  2. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  3. Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.

    2006-01-01

    The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Reliability and criterion-related validity of a new repeated agility test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Fessi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the reliability and the criterion-related validity of a new repeated sprint T-test (RSTT that includes intense multidirectional intermittent efforts. The RSTT consisted of 7 maximal repeated executions of the agility T-test with 25 s of passive recovery rest in between. Forty-five team sports players performed two RSTTs separated by 3 days to assess the reliability of best time (BT and total time (TT of the RSTT. The intra-class correlation coefficient analysis revealed a high relative reliability between test and retest for BT and TT (>0.90. The standard error of measurement (<0.50 showed that the RSTT has a good absolute reliability. The minimal detectable change values for BT and TT related to the RSTT were 0.09 s and 0.58 s, respectively. To check the criterion-related validity of the RSTT, players performed a repeated linear sprint (RLS and a repeated sprint with changes of direction (RSCD. Significant correlations between the BT and TT of the RLS, RSCD and RSTT were observed (p<0.001. The RSTT is, therefore, a reliable and valid measure of the intermittent repeated sprint agility performance. As this ability is required in all team sports, it is suggested that team sports coaches, fitness coaches and sports scientists consider this test in their training follow-up.

  5. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  6. Repeated count surveys help standardize multi-agency estimates of American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Nathan J.; Gardner, Beth; Schweitzer, Sara H.; Boettcher, Ruth; Wilke, Alexandra L.; Addison, Lindsay; Swilling, William R.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    The extensive breeding range of many shorebird species can make integration of survey data problematic at regional spatial scales. We evaluated the effectiveness of standardized repeated count surveys coordinated across 8 agencies to estimate the abundance of American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) breeding pairs in the southeastern United States. Breeding season surveys were conducted across coastal North Carolina (90 plots) and the Eastern Shore of Virginia (3 plots). Plots were visited on 1–5 occasions during April–June 2013. N-mixture models were used to estimate abundance and detection probability in relation to survey date, tide stage, plot size, and plot location (coastal bay vs. barrier island). The estimated abundance of oystercatchers in the surveyed area was 1,048 individuals (95% credible interval: 851–1,408) and 470 pairs (384–637), substantially higher than estimates that did not account for detection probability (maximum counts of 674 individuals and 316 pairs). Detection probability was influenced by a quadratic function of survey date, and increased from mid-April (~0.60) to mid-May (~0.80), then remained relatively constant through June. Detection probability was also higher during high tide than during low, rising, or falling tides. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were validated at 13 plots by exhaustive productivity studies (2–5 surveys wk−1). Intensive productivity studies identified 78 breeding pairs across 13 productivity plots while the N-mixture model abundance estimate was 74 pairs (62–119) using only 1–5 replicated surveys season−1. Our results indicate that standardized replicated count surveys coordinated across multiple agencies and conducted during a relatively short time window (closure assumption) provide tremendous potential to meet both agency-level (e.g., state) and regional-level (e.g., flyway) objectives in large-scale shorebird monitoring programs.

  7. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  8. Reliability and criterion-related validity of a new repeated agility test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makni, E; Jemni, M; Elloumi, M; Chamari, K; Nabli, MA; Padulo, J; Moalla, W

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the reliability and the criterion-related validity of a new repeated sprint T-test (RSTT) that includes intense multidirectional intermittent efforts. The RSTT consisted of 7 maximal repeated executions of the agility T-test with 25 s of passive recovery rest in between. Forty-five team sports players performed two RSTTs separated by 3 days to assess the reliability of best time (BT) and total time (TT) of the RSTT. The intra-class correlation coefficient analysis revealed a high relative reliability between test and retest for BT and TT (>0.90). The standard error of measurement (repeated linear sprint (RLS) and a repeated sprint with changes of direction (RSCD). Significant correlations between the BT and TT of the RLS, RSCD and RSTT were observed (prepeated sprint agility performance. As this ability is required in all team sports, it is suggested that team sports coaches, fitness coaches and sports scientists consider this test in their training follow-up. PMID:27274109

  9. Archery performance level and repeatability of event-related EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, A R; Ertan, H; Korkusuz, F

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the repeatability of electromyographic linear envelopes (LE) of archery groups. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals of musculus flexor digitorum superficialis (MFDS) and extensor digitorum (MED) of 23 participants (seven skilled, six beginner archers and ten non-archers) were recorded during archery shooting. Two-second periods (clicker falls at first second) of 12 shots' EMG data were recorded, full-wave rectified and filtered (60 ms moving-average filter) for each participant's drawing arm. Repeatability was investigated by using a statistical criterion, variance ratio (VR). Archers' performances were evaluated in terms of FITA scores. The results showed that FITA scores were significantly correlated to the VRs of MFDS and MED. EMG LEs were more repeatable among archers than non-archers. Therefore, we inferred that VRs of MFDS and MED might be important variables for (a) assessing shooting techniques, (b) evaluation of archers' progress, and (c) selection of talented archers.

  10. PSSRdb: a relational database of polymorphic simple sequence repeats extracted from prokaryotic genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Pankaj; Chaitanya, Pasumarthy S.; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu A

    2010-01-01

    PSSRdb (Polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeats database) (http://www.cdfd.org.in/PSSRdb/) is a relational database of polymorphic simple sequence repeats (PSSRs) extracted from 85 different species of prokaryotes. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the tandem repeats of nucleotide motifs of the sizes 1–6 bp and are highly polymorphic. SSR mutations in and around coding regions affect transcription and translation of genes. Such changes underpin phase variations and antigenic variations seen in s...

  11. Repeatability of contrast sensitivity testing in patients with age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Kara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the intrasession and intersession repeatability of contrast sensitivity (CS measurements in patients with glaucoma, cataract, or age-related macular degeneration (AMD and healthy controls. Methods: CS measurements were performed using the OPTEC-Functional Vision Analyzer (FVA, which uses a standardized and closed (view-in system. Measurements for patients with glaucoma, cataract, or AMD and healthy controls were repeated within 30 minutes (intrasession and during two sessions (intersession, separated by one week to one month. Test-retest reliability and correlation were measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and coefficient of repeatability (COR. Results: Ninety subjects (90 eyes with visual acuity of 0.17 logMAR or higher in the cataract group or 0.00 logMAR in the other groups were included. During the first session, the ICC values were 0.87, 0.90, 0.76, and 0.69, and COR values were 0.24, 0.20, 0.38, and 0.25 for the control, glaucoma, cataract, and AMD groups, respectively. The reliability scores significantly improved during the second session, except in the glaucoma group. There was an acceptable floor effect and no ceiling effect at higher frequencies in the glaucoma and AMD groups. Conclusion: In subjects with good visual acuity, the FVA system is useful for evaluating CS and demonstrates good repeatability, as shown by ICC and COR. Because there is no ceiling effect, this system is beneficial for evaluation of early changes in CS, particularly in patients with glaucoma or AMD.

  12. Frequency of Repeated Courses Its Relation to Persistence and Performance in Lebanon's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Nauffal, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between the frequency of repeating courses and students' performance in college. The study uses cohort data from academic years 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004. We compared those who had repeated one, two and three courses on GPA and whether a relation exists of those who graduated/did not…

  13. The Influence of Relational Knowledge and Executive Function on Preschoolers' Repeating Pattern Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Loehr, Abbey M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Children's knowledge of repeating patterns (e.g., ABBABB) is a central component of early mathematics, but the developmental mechanisms underlying this knowledge are currently unknown. We sought clarity on the importance of relational knowledge and executive function (EF) to preschoolers' understanding of repeating patterns. One hundred…

  14. Critical nucleus size for disease-related polyglutamine aggregation is repeat length dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Karunakar; Jayaraman, Murali; Sahoo, Bankanidhi; Kodali, Ravindra; Wetzel, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Since polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregate formation has been implicated as playing an important role in expanded CAG repeat diseases, it is important to understand the biophysics underlying the initiation of aggregation. Previously we showed that relatively long polyQ peptides aggregate by nucleated growth polymerization and a monomeric critical nucleus. We show here that, over a short repeat length range from Q26 to Q23, the size of the critical nucleus for aggregation increases from monomeric t...

  15. Assessment of radiographic film repeats rate and its related causes within hospitals in Sari during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Fallah Mohamadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 8 April, 2009 ; Accepted 27 May, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Radiographic film repeat rate assessment is performed to appropriate profiting of existence resources in therapeutic wards. Multiple exposures of x-ray generators due to repeated radiographic examination can lead to amortization of the radiographic facilities and decrease their longevity and also increases the cost of facilities repair. On the other hand, its therapeutic services are necessary to be carried out for patients as soon as possible. Recognition of radiographic film repeat rate and its related causes will help to eliminate the problems and are cost effective.Materials and methods: In this descriptive study, samples were garnered with data collection and non random model during three months in eight radiographic rooms and four darkrooms belonging to four governmental hospitals, namely Imam Khomeini, Booali Sina, Fatemh Zahra and Zare in Sari. All rejected radiographic films were seen by resident experts in each center and information was entered into designed forms. Radiographic repeat rates were calculated through data available from all recipients and the number of used films. In this article, related causes responsible for repeated radiographic examination including errors in selection of exposure factors (over exposure and under exposure, positioning, centering, film size, equipment, processing or darkroom, movement and others were assessed.Results: In four hospitals, 36,758 films were received during investigation and the number of repeated films was 2,155 (5.9 % were estimated as radiographic repeat rate. The maximum repeat rate belonged to Booali sina Hospital (7.2 % and the minimum one was Zare Hospital (0.7 %. The most important causes were due to over exposure selection (1.4 % and the least one was due to improper selection of film size (0.08 %. The percentage of other factors include, under exposure selection (1.12%, centering (0.92%, others (0

  16. Aerobic Capacity is Related to Repeated Sprint Ability with Sprint Distances Less Than 40 Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANDERS, GABRIEL J.; TURNER, ZACHARY; BOOS, BRIAN; PEACOCK, COREY A.; PEVELER, WILLARD; LIPPING, ALAR

    2017-01-01

    Research is inconclusive regarding the association between aerobic fitness (objectively measured VO2max) and repeated sprint performance when the sprints are less than 40 meters. Soccer athletes must be able to repeat sprints without significant decreases in speed and strength and conditioning coaches need to better understand if aerobic fitness is related to repeated sprint ability (RSA). Twenty (10 male, 10 female) Division I soccer athletes first completed a graded maximal treadmill test to measure VO2max. Then on a separate day, athletes completed the RSA test. The RSA test consisted of 10, 30-meter sprints which athletes repeated every 30 seconds. There were significant negative correlations (r ≤ −0.69, P distances are less than 40 meters.

  17. Aerobic Capacity is Related to Repeated Sprint Ability with Sprint Distances Less Than 40 Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Turner, Zachary; Boos, Brian; Peacock, Corey A; Peveler, Willard; Lipping, Alar

    2017-01-01

    Research is inconclusive regarding the association between aerobic fitness (objectively measured VO2max) and repeated sprint performance when the sprints are less than 40 meters. Soccer athletes must be able to repeat sprints without significant decreases in speed and strength and conditioning coaches need to better understand if aerobic fitness is related to repeated sprint ability (RSA). Twenty (10 male, 10 female) Division I soccer athletes first completed a graded maximal treadmill test to measure VO2max. Then on a separate day, athletes completed the RSA test. The RSA test consisted of 10, 30-meter sprints which athletes repeated every 30 seconds. There were significant negative correlations (r ≤ -0.69, P sprint times and average sprint time. More aerobically fit Division I soccer athletes were faster at all time points during the RSA test. Aerobic fitness is associated with faster sprint times during a more anaerobic RSA test when sprint distances are less than 40 meters.

  18. Standards for Educational Public Relations and Communications Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, Marsha A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and program. Includes reactions and comments about new Association standards from seven superintendents and four school public-relations professionals. (PKP)

  19. Standards for Educational Public Relations and Communications Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, Marsha A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and program. Includes reactions and comments about new Association standards from seven superintendents and four school public-relations professionals. (PKP)

  20. Relation of cardiac abnormalities and CTG-repeat size in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Gharehbaghi-Schnell, E; Stöllberger, C; Fheodoroff, K; Seiser, A

    2001-05-01

    It is unclear if the severity of cardiac involvement in patients with myotonic dystrophy (MD) is related to the size of the CTG-repeat expansion. This open, uncontrolled, observational, prospective study aimed to find out if there is a relation between the severity of cardiac involvement in MD and the CTG-repeat size. In 21 patients with MD, (8 women, 13 men, aged 11-88 years) a detailed cardiologic examination, including history, clinical examination, electrocardiography (ECG), transthoracic echocardiography and ambulatory 24-h ECG, was carried out and cardiac involvement was assessed according to a previously described scoring system. Additionally, the CTG-repeat size was determined from nuclear DNA of blood leukocytes. The correlation between the CTG-repeat size and the mean heart rate, PQ-interval, QTc-interval, fractional shortening, left ventricular enddiastolic diameter, septal thickness, posterior wall thickness, mean heart rate on 24-h ECG and cardiac involvement score was r=0.47, r=0.086, r=0.11, r=-0.27, r=-0.34, r=-0.06, r=-0.12, r=0.16 and r=0.09 (all p>0.05), respectively. In patients 21-30, 31-40 and 41-50 years of age, cardiac involvement increased with increasing CTG-repeat size. In younger patients, the number of CTG-repeats needed to develop a reasonable cardiac involvement was higher than in older patients. Depending on age, cardiac involvement increases with increasing CTG-repeat size obtained from blood leukocytes in patients with MD.

  1. Ups and Downs: Mechanisms of Repeat Instability in the Fragile X-Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Nan Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fragile X-related disorders (FXDs are a group of clinical conditions resulting from the expansion of a CGG/CCG-repeat tract in exon 1 of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene. While expansions of the repeat tract predominate, contractions are also seen with the net result being that individuals can show extensive repeat length heterogeneity in different tissues. The mechanisms responsible for expansion and contraction are still not well understood. This review will discuss what is known about these processes and current evidence that supports a model in which expansion arises from the interaction of components of the base excision repair, mismatch repair and transcription coupled repair pathways.

  2. Critical nucleus size for disease-related polyglutamine aggregation is repeat length dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Karunakar; Jayaraman, Murali; Sahoo, Bankanidhi; Kodali, Ravindra; Wetzel, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Since polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregate formation has been implicated as playing an important role in expanded CAG repeat diseases, it is important to understand the biophysics underlying the initiation of aggregation. Previously we showed that relatively long polyQ peptides aggregate by nucleated growth polymerization and a monomeric critical nucleus. We show here that, over a short repeat length range from Q26 to Q23, the size of the critical nucleus for aggregation increases from monomeric to dimeric to tetrameric. This variation in nucleus size suggests a common duplex anti-parallel β-sheet framework for the nucleus, and further supports the feasibility of an organized monomeric aggregation nucleus for longer polyQ repeat peptides. The data also suggest that a change in aggregation nucleus size may play a role in the pathogenicity of polyQ expansion in this series of familial neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21317897

  3. Reactions to the New Standards for School Public Relations Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2002-01-01

    Reactions by 10 individuals associated with the "Journal of School Public Relations" to new National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and programs. Includes general reactions, impact of the standards, possible ambiguity, adding or eliminating standards, and…

  4. Reactions to the New Standards for School Public Relations Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Theodore J.

    2002-01-01

    Reactions by 10 individuals associated with the "Journal of School Public Relations" to new National School Public Relations Association standards for school public relations and communications professionals and programs. Includes general reactions, impact of the standards, possible ambiguity, adding or eliminating standards, and influence on…

  5. PSSRdb: a relational database of polymorphic simple sequence repeats extracted from prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Chaitanya, Pasumarthy S; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu A

    2011-01-01

    PSSRdb (Polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeats database) (http://www.cdfd.org.in/PSSRdb/) is a relational database of polymorphic simple sequence repeats (PSSRs) extracted from 85 different species of prokaryotes. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the tandem repeats of nucleotide motifs of the sizes 1-6 bp and are highly polymorphic. SSR mutations in and around coding regions affect transcription and translation of genes. Such changes underpin phase variations and antigenic variations seen in some bacteria. Although SSR-mediated phase variation and antigenic variations have been well-studied in some bacteria there seems a lot of other species of prokaryotes yet to be investigated for SSR mediated adaptive and other evolutionary advantages. As a part of our on-going studies on SSR polymorphism in prokaryotes we compared the genome sequences of various strains and isolates available for 85 different species of prokaryotes and extracted a number of SSRs showing length variations and created a relational database called PSSRdb. This database gives useful information such as location of PSSRs in genomes, length variation across genomes, the regions harboring PSSRs, etc. The information provided in this database is very useful for further research and analysis of SSRs in prokaryotes.

  6. Repeatability and relative validity of a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire among French adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Barrat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A 50-item self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was developed for French adults, to assess the intake of energy, 10 macronutrients, 11 vitamins, and 11 minerals, and to be used in the context of a medical consultation. Objective: To assess the repeatability and relative validity of this FFQ compared to a 7-day diet record (7-DR. Design: A total of 54 and 100 French adults were included in the repeatability and validation studies, respectively. Repeatability was assessed using two FFQs, the second carried out 3 weeks after the first. In the validation study, subjects first completed the FFQ, then the 7-DR the following week. Energy and nutrient intakes were compared using Pearson correlation. The degree of misclassification by the FFQ, compared to the 7-DR, was calculated by a contingency table of quintiles. Bland–Altman plots assessed the correlation between FFQ and 7-DR across the intake range. Results: Repeatability for intake, explored by Pearson correlation, was 0.62–0.90 (median: 0.81. Relative validity, as determined by Pearson correlation for the nutrient intake derived from the FFQ and 7-DR, was 0.36–0.80 (0.64. The FFQ tended to report higher fiber and micronutrient intake than 7-DR. Misclassification into opposite quintiles ranged 0–6% (1%, whereas classification into same or adjacent quintiles ranged 59–83% (74%. Bland–Altman plots showed good agreement for most nutrients across the range of intake. Conclusion: This new FFQ showed a high repeatability and good relative validity, and thanks to its short length, should be a useful tool for rapidly evaluating the nutrient intake of French adults.

  7. Fatigue in repeated-sprint exercise is related to muscle power factors and reduced neuromuscular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Hamer, Peter; Bishop, David

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between each individual's anaerobic power reserve (APR) [i.e., the difference between the maximum anaerobic (Pana) and aerobic power (Paer)] and fatigability during repeated-sprint exercise and (2) to examine the acute effects of repeated sprints on neuromuscular activity, as evidenced by changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. Eight healthy males carried out tests to determine Pana (defined as the highest power output attained during a 6-s cycling sprint), Paer (defined as the highest power output achieved during a progressive, discontinuous cycling test to failure) and a repeated cycling sprint test (10 x 6-s max sprints with 30 s rest). Peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) were calculated for each maximal 6-s cycling bout. Root mean square (RMS) was utilized to quantify EMG activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of the right leg. Over the ten sprints, PPO and MPO decreased by 24.6 and 28.3% from the maximal value (i.e., sprint 1), respectively. Fatigue index during repeated sprints was significantly correlated with APR (R = 0.87; P < 0.05). RMS values decreased over the ten sprints by 14.6% (+/-6.3%). There was a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) between the changes in MPO and EMG RMS from the vastus lateralis muscle during the ten sprints. The individual advantage in fatigue-resistance when performing a repeated sprint task was related with a lower anaerobic power reserve. Additionally, a suboptimal net motor unit activity might also impair the ability to repeatedly generate maximum power outputs.

  8. The Effect of Standard Strength vs. Contrast Strength Training on the Development of Sprint, Agility, Repeated Change of Direction, and Jump in Junior Male Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Mehréz; Negra, Yassine; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2017-04-01

    Hammami, M, Negra, Y, Shephard, RJ, and Chelly, MS. The effect of standard strength vs. contrast strength training on the development of sprint, agility, repeated change of direction, and jump in junior male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 901-912, 2017-The aim was to compare the impact of 2 differing strength training (ST) programs on the athletic performance of junior male soccer players at a critical phase during their competitive season. Participants aged 16.0 ± 0.5 years were randomly assigned between control (C, n = 12), standard ST (n = 16), and contrast strength training (CST, n = 16), each performed twice a week. Athletic performance was assessed before and after the intervention using 8 tests: 40-m sprint, 4 × 5-m sprint (S4 × 5), 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with 180° turns (S180°), 9-3-6-3-9 m sprint with backward and forward running (SBF), repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSSA), repeated change of direction (RCOD), squat jump (SJ), and countermovement jump (CMJ). The control group's (CG) performance tended to improve in some tests and decrease in others, but these changes were not statistically significant. Both training programs enhanced all sprint performances relative to controls (p ≤ 0.05). The strength training group (SG) and the CST group (CSG) increased significantly in S180°, SBF, and S4 × 5 relative to CG, although the S4 × 5 also increased in CSG relative to SG (p ≤ 0.05). No intergroup difference of RSSA performance was observed. The RCOD parameters increased significantly in CSG relative to both SG and CG (p ≤ 0.05). The SJ and CMJ height increased significantly in both experimental groups (p < 0.000). We conclude that during the competitive season, some measures of athletic performance in male soccer players were increased more by 8 weeks of CST than by ST.

  9. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  10. Standard Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The terms and their definitions given herein represent terminology relating to wear and erosion of solid bodies due to mechanical interactions such as occur with cavitation, impingement by liquid jets or drops or by solid particles, or relative motion against contacting solid surfaces or fluids. This scope interfaces with but generally excludes those processes where material loss is wholly or principally due to chemical action and other related technical fields as, for instance, lubrication. 1.2 This terminology is not exhaustive; the absence of any particular term from this collection does not necessarily imply that its use within this scope is discouraged. However, the terms given herein are the recommended terms for the concepts they represent unless otherwise noted. 1.3 Certain general terms and definitions may be restricted and interpreted, if necessary, to make them particularly applicable to the scope as defined herein. 1.4 The purpose of this terminology is to encourage uniformity and accuracy ...

  11. Development and characterization of simple sequence repeats for Bipolaris sorokiniana and cross transferability to related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajolu, Oluseyi L; Wadl, Phillip A; Vu, Andrea L; Gwinn, Kimberly D; Scheffler, Brian E; Trigiano, Robert N; Ownley, Bonnie H

    2013-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were developed from a small insert genomic library for Bipolaris sorokiniana, a mitosporic fungal pathogen that causes spot blotch and root rot in switchgrass. About 59% of sequenced clones (n = 384) harbored SSR motifs. After eliminating redundant sequences, 196 SSR loci were identified, of which 84.7% were dinucleotide repeats and 9.7% and 5.6% were tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Primer pairs were designed for 105 loci and 85 successfully amplified loci. Sixteen polymorphic loci were characterized with 15 B. sorokiniana isolates obtained from infected switchgrass plant materials collected from five states in USA. These loci successfully cross-amplified isolates from at least one related species, including Bipolaris oryzae, Bipolaris spicifera and Bipolaris victoriae, that causes leaf spot on switchgrass. Haploid gene diversity per locus across all isolates studied varied 0.633-0.861. Principal component analysis of SSR data clustered isolates according to their respective species. These SSR markers will be a valuable tool for genetic variability and population studies of B. sorokiniana and related species that are pathogenic on switchgrass and other host plants. In addition, these markers are potential diagnostic tools for species in the genus Bipolaris.

  12. Standardized Relative Quantification of Immunofluorescence Tissue Staining

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Oriol Arqués, Irene Chicote, Stephan Tenbaum, Isabel Puig & Héctor G. Palmer ### Abstract The detection of correlations between the expression levels or sub-cellular localization of different proteins with specific characteristics of human tumors, such as e.g. grade of malignancy, may give important hints of functional associations. Here we describe the method we use for relative quantification of immunofluorescence staining of tumor tissue sections, which allows us to co...

  13. Age-related differences in repeated-sprint ability in highly trained youth football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Inigo; Spencer, Matt; Santisteban, Juanma; Goiriena, Juan Jose; Bishop, David

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the age-related differences in repeated-sprint ability and blood lactate responses in 134 youth football players. Players from the development programme of a professional club were grouped according to their respective under-age team (U-11 to U-18). Following familiarization, the participants performed a repeated-sprint ability test [6 x 30-m sprints 30 s apart, with active recovery (2.0-2.2 m . s(-1)) between sprints]. The test variables were total time, percent sprint decrement, and post-test peak lactate concentration. Total time improved from the U-11 to U-15 age groups (range 33.15 +/- 1.84 vs. 27.25 +/- 0.82 s), whereas no further significant improvements were evident from U-15 to U-18. No significant differences in percent sprint decrement were reported among groups (range 4.0 +/- 1.0% to 5.5 +/- 2.1%). Post-test peak lactate increased from one age group to the next (range 7.3 +/- 1.8 to 12.6 +/- 1.6 mmol . l(-1)), but remained constant when adjusted for age-related difference in body mass. Peak lactate concentration was moderately correlated with sprint time (r = 0.70, P > 0.001). Our results suggest that performance in repeated-sprint ability improves during maturation of highly trained youth football players, although a plateau occurs from 15 years of age. In contrast to expectations based on previous suggestions, percent sprint decrement during repeated sprints did not deteriorate with age.

  14. Characterisation data of simple sequence repeats of phages closely related to T7M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiao-Yin Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coliphages T7M and T3, Yersinia phage ϕYeO3-12, and Salmonella phage ϕSG-JL2 share high homology in genomic sequences. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are found in their genomes and variations of SSRs among these phages are observed. Analyses on regions of sequences in T7M and T3 genomes that are likely derived from phage recombination, as well as the counterparts in ϕYeO3-12 and ϕSG-JL2, have been discussed by Lin in “Simple sequence repeat variations expedite phage divergence: mechanisms of indels and gene mutations” [1]. These regions are referred to as recombinant regions. The focus here is on SSRs in the whole genome and regions of sequences outside the recombinant regions, referred to as non-recombinant regions. This article provides SSR counts, relative abundance, relative density, and GC contents in the complete genome and non-recombinant regions of these phages. SSR period sizes and motifs in the non-recombinant regions of phage genomes are plotted. Genomic sequence changes between T7M and T3 due to insertions, deletions, and substitutions are also illustrated. SSRs and nearby sequences of T7M in the non-recombinant regions are compared to the sequences of ϕYeO3-12 and ϕSG-JL2 in the corresponding positions. The sequence variations of SSRs due to vertical evolution are classified into four categories and tabulated: (1 insertion/deletion of SSR units, (2 expansion/contraction of SSRs without alteration of genome length, (3 changes of repeat motifs, and (4 generation/loss of repeats.

  15. Repeat-mediated epigenetic dysregulation of the FMR1 gene in the Fragile X-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eUsdin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fragile X-related disorders are members of the Repeat Expansion Diseases, a group of genetic conditions resulting from an expansion in the size of a tandem repeat tract at a specific genetic locus. The repeat responsible for disease pathology in the Fragile X-related disorders is CGG/CCG and the repeat tract is located in the 5’ UTR of the FMR1 gene, whose protein product FMRP, is important for the proper translation of dendritic mRNAs in response to synaptic activation. There are two different pathological FMR1 allele classes that are distinguished only by the number of repeats. Premutation alleles have 55-200 repeats and confer risk of Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency. Full mutation alleles on the other hand have >200 repeats and result in Fragile X syndrome, a disorder that affects learning and behavior. Different symptoms are seen in carriers of premutation and full mutation alleles because the repeat number has paradoxical effects on gene expression: Epigenetic changes increase transcription from premutation alleles and decrease transcription from full mutation alleles. This review will cover what is currently known about the mechanisms responsible for these changes in FMR1 expression and how they may relate to other Repeat Expansion Diseases that also show repeat-mediated changes in gene expression.

  16. Standard Penetration Test and Relative Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-02-01

    laboratorio ejecutados con un penetr6metro est’tico pequeno. INTRODUCTION One of the main problems encountered in subsoil e’xploration is in situ...would be more valid. REFERENCES Burmister, D. M. �), "The Grading-Density Relation of Gr•anular Materials ." Proc,.edings of the American Society for...Reclamation (1953), "Second Progress Report of Re- search of the Penetration Resistance Method of Subsurface Explora- tion," Report No. EM-356. Design and Construction Division, Earth Materials Laboratory, Denver,

  17. Relation between repeatability and speed of robot-based systems for composite aircraft production through multilateration sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, M.; Perner, M.; Krombholz, C.; Beykirch, B.

    2015-03-01

    Fiber composites are becoming increasingly important in different fields of lightweight application. To guarantee the estimated demand of components made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics the use of industrial robots is suggested in production. High velocity of the layup process is addressed to significantly increase the production rate. Today, the layup of the fiber material is performed by gantry systems. They are heavy weight, slow and the variety of possible part shapes is limited. Articulated robots offer a huge operational area in relation to their construction size. Moreover, they are flexible enough to layup fiber material into different shaped molds. Thus, standard articulated robots are less accurate and more susceptible to vibration than gantry systems. Therefore, this paper illustrates an approach to classify volumetric errors to obtain a relation between the achievable speed in production and precision. The prediction of a precision at a defined speed is the result. Based on the measurement results the repeatability of the robotic unit within the workspace is calculated and presented. At the minimum speed that is applicable in production the repeatability is less than 30 mm. Subsequently, an online strategy for path error compensation is presented. The approach uses a multilateration system that consists of four laser tracer units and measures the current absolute position of a reflector mounted at the end-effector of the robot. By calculating the deviation between the planned and the actual position a compensated motion is applied. The paper concludes with a discussion for further investigations.

  18. Repeated experimental fires and window of disturbance in relation to runoff in a Mediterranean shrubland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gimeno-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on exploring the effect of repeated experimental fires on post-fire runoff generation through a sixteen years monitoring runoff yield from erosion plots (eight years after the first fire and other eight years after the second one in a Mediterranean shrubland area (La Concordia Experimental Station, considering the fire severity and the post-fire erosive rainfall events. The conceptual framework of the window of disturbance is used to analyze how long the runoff yield in burned plots shows clear differences respect to the unburned ones, as well as, the recovery-rate model for multiple fire events. Results show that the effect of repeated fires on runoff yield is related to a combination of fire severity, climatic conditions (mainly rainfall intensity, I30, soil hydrological properties (infiltration capacity, steady state infiltration and soil water retention capacity, and rate of vegetation recovery. Eight years after the first fire, even though soil hydrological properties are recovered as well as vegetation cover did, rainfall events with I30 ≥20 mm h-1 still promoted differences between burned and control plots. The second post-fire disturbance period was associated with the low vegetation recovery, and also with rainfall events with I30 ≥20 mm h-1 even seven years after the repeated fires.

  19. Prolonged repeated acupuncture stimulation induces habituation effects in pain-related brain areas: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  20. The First Molecular Identification of an Olive Collection Applying Standard Simple Sequence Repeats and Novel Expressed Sequence Tag Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Mousavi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Germplasm collections of tree crop species represent fundamental tools for conservation of diversity and key steps for its characterization and evaluation. For the olive tree, several collections were created all over the world, but only few of them have been fully characterized and molecularly identified. The olive collection of Perugia University (UNIPG, established in the years’ 60, represents one of the first attempts to gather and safeguard olive diversity, keeping together cultivars from different countries. In the present study, a set of 370 olive trees previously uncharacterized was screened with 10 standard simple sequence repeats (SSRs and nine new EST-SSR markers, to correctly and thoroughly identify all genotypes, verify their representativeness of the entire cultivated olive variation, and validate the effectiveness of new markers in comparison to standard genotyping tools. The SSR analysis revealed the presence of 59 genotypes, corresponding to 72 well known cultivars, 13 of them resulting exclusively present in this collection. The new EST-SSRs have shown values of diversity parameters quite similar to those of best standard SSRs. When compared to hundreds of Mediterranean cultivars, the UNIPG olive accessions were splitted into the three main populations (East, Center and West Mediterranean, confirming that the collection has a good representativeness of the entire olive variability. Furthermore, Bayesian analysis, performed on the 59 genotypes of the collection by the use of both sets of markers, have demonstrated their splitting into four clusters, with a well balanced membership obtained by EST respect to standard SSRs. The new OLEST (Olea expressed sequence tags SSR markers resulted as effective as the best standard markers. The information obtained from this study represents a high valuable tool for ex situ conservation and management of olive genetic resources, useful to build a common database from worldwide olive

  1. Prolonged repeated acupuncture stimulation induces habituation effects in pain-related brain areas: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfu Li

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36. Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  2. Simple sequence repeat markers useful for sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi and related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odvody Gary N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew in Texas has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathotype in the causal organism, Peronosclerospora sorghi. These observations and the difficulty in resolving among phylogenetically related downy mildew pathogens dramatically point out the need for simply scored markers in order to differentiate among isolates and species, and to study the population structure within these obligate oomycetes. Here we present the initial results from the use of a biotin capture method to discover, clone and develop PCR primers that permit the use of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites to detect differences at the DNA level. Results Among the 55 primers pairs designed from clones from pathotype 3 of P. sorghi, 36 flanked microsatellite loci containing simple repeats, including 28 (55% with dinucleotide repeats and 6 (11% with trinucleotide repeats. A total of 22 microsatellites with CA/AC or GT/TG repeats were the most abundant (40% and GA/AG or CT/TC types contribute 15% in our collection. When used to amplify DNA from 19 isolates from P. sorghi, as well as from 5 related species that cause downy mildew on other hosts, the number of different bands detected for each SSR primer pair using a LI-COR- DNA Analyzer ranged from two to eight. Successful cross-amplification for 12 primer pairs studied in detail using DNA from downy mildews that attack maize (P. maydis & P. philippinensis, sugar cane (P. sacchari, pearl millet (Sclerospora graminicola and rose (Peronospora sparsa indicate that the flanking regions are conserved in all these species. A total of 15 SSR amplicons unique to P. philippinensis (one of the potential threats to US maize production were detected, and these have potential for development of diagnostic tests. A total of 260 alleles were obtained using 54 microsatellites primer combinations, with an average of 4.8 polymorphic markers per SSR across 34

  3. A novel methylation PCR that offers standardized determination of FMR1 methylation and CGG repeat length without southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Marina; Boon, Elles M J; Filipovic-Sadic, Stela; van Bunderen, Patrick A; Gennaro, Elena; Cao, Ru; Latham, Gary J; Hadd, Andrew G; Coviello, Domenico A

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and associated disorders are characterized by the number of CGG repeats and methylation status of the FMR1 gene for which Southern blot (SB) historically has been required for analysis. This study describes a simple PCR-only workflow (mPCR) to replace SB analysis, that incorporates novel procedural controls, treatment of the DNA in separate control and methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease reactions, amplification with labeled primers, and two-color amplicon sizing by capillary electrophoresis. mPCR was evaluated in two independent laboratories with 76 residual clinical samples that represented typical and challenging fragile X alleles in both males and females. mPCR enabled superior size resolution and analytical sensitivity for size and methylation mosaicism compared to SB. Full mutation mosaicism was detected down to 1% in a background of 99% normal allele with 50- to 100-fold less DNA than required for SB. A low level of full mutation mosaicism in one sample was detected using mPCR but not observed using SB. Overall, the sensitivity for detection of full mutation alleles was 100% (95% CI: 89%-100%) with an accuracy of 99% (95% CI: 93%-100%). mPCR analysis of DNA from individuals with Klinefelter and Turner syndromes, and DNA from sperm and blood, were consistent with SB. As such, mPCR enables accurate, sensitive, and standardized methods of FMR1 analysis that can harmonize results across different laboratories.

  4. Stability of relative oxygen pulse curve during repeated maximal cardiopulmonary testing in professional soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Perim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET, stroke volume can be indirectly assessed by O2 pulse profile. However, for a valid interpretation, the stability of this variable over time should be known. The objective was to analyze the stability of the O2 pulse curve relative to body mass in elite athletes. VO2, heart rate (HR, and relative O2 pulse were compared at every 10% of the running time in two maximal CPETs, from 2005 to 2010, of 49 soccer players. Maximal values of VO2 (63.4 ± 0.9 vs 63.5 ± 0.9 mL O2•kg-1•min-1, HR (190 ± 1 vs188 ± 1 bpm and relative O2 pulse (32.9 ± 0.6 vs 32.6 ± 0.6 mL O2•beat-1•kg-1 were similar for the two CPETs (P > 0.05, while the final treadmill velocity increased from 18.5 ± 0.9 to 18.9 ± 1.0 km/h (P < 0.01. Relative O2 pulse increased linearly and similarly in both evaluations (r² = 0.64 and 0.63 up to 90% of the running time. Between 90 and 100% of the running time, the values were less stable, with up to 50% of the players showing a tendency to a plateau in the relative O2 pulse. In young healthy men in good to excellent aerobic condition, the morphology of the relative O2 pulse curve is consistent up to close to the peak effort for a CPET repeated within a 1-year period. No increase in relative O2pulse at peak effort could represent a physiologic stroke volume limitation in these athletes.

  5. Who Repeats Algebra I, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated? REL 2015-059

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony B.; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This REL West study explores the prevalence of students repeating Algebra I, who is most likely to repeat the course, and the level of improvement for students who repeat. Using six years of data from a cohort of 3,400 first-time seventh grade students in a California school district, authors found that 44 percent of students repeated algebra I.…

  6. Comparative semi-automated analysis of (CAG) repeats in the Huntington disease gene: use of internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L C; Hegde, M R; Herrera, G; Stapleton, P M; Love, D R

    1999-08-01

    Huntington disease (HD) belongs to the group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by unstable expanded trinucleotide repeats. In the case of HD, the expansion of a CAG repeat occurs in the IT15 gene. The detection of the expanded CAG repeats has usually involved the electrophoretic separation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification products using conventional agarose and acrylamide gel electrophoresis. We have undertaken the comparative analysis of sizing CAG repeats of the IT15 gene using radioactive and fluorescent PCR amplification, and the subsequent separation of these products by slab gel and capillary electrophoresis. The assays have been performed on both cloned and sequenced CAG repeats, as well as genomic DNA from HD patients with a wide range of repeat lengths. The mobility of the CAG repeat amplification products of the IT15 gene is greater using capillary electrophoresis compared to slab gel electrophoresis. The analysis of 40 DNA samples from HD patients indicates that the mobility difference increases with the length of the repeat. However, we have devised an allele ladder for sizing the CAG repeats. This ladder provides a mandatory internal calibration system for diagnostic purposes and enables the confident use of either capillary or slab gel electrophoresis for sizing HD alleles.

  7. Higher Grades and Repeated Recurrence of Hepatic Encephalopathy May Be Related to High Serum Manganese Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobtan, Abdelrahman A; El-Kalla, Ferial S; Soliman, Hanan H; Zakaria, Soha S; Goda, Mohamed A

    2016-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious complication of liver failure. Until now, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms are not fully determined. It has been demonstrated that manganese plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Therefore, we studied manganese levels in serum of cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy in relation to grading and recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. One hundred persons were enrolled in the study, 80 cirrhotic patients with or without encephalopathy and 20 healthy controls. Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed clinically and by laboratory findings. Serum manganese levels were measured in all participants. The grading of hepatic encephalopathy was significantly correlated to the severity of liver dysfunction. The mean serum manganese level was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls and in cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy than in those without encephalopathy. It was also significantly higher in patients with advanced grading of hepatic encephalopathy. Serum manganese level was positively correlated to number of recurrences of encephalopathy during a 6-month follow-up period. Serum manganese levels were able to predict recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy within 6 months following the episode. Serum manganese levels are positively correlated to the modified Child-Pugh score of cirrhosis as well as grading and number of recurrences of hepatic encephalopathy. Higher manganese levels seem to be related to worsening of the condition, and its measurement may be used as a predictor of repeated recurrences.

  8. Sequence-structure-function relations of the mosquito leucine-rich repeat immune proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povelones Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery and characterisation of factors governing innate immune responses in insects has driven the elucidation of many immune system components in mammals and other organisms. Focusing on the immune system responses of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, has uncovered an array of components and mechanisms involved in defence against pathogen infections. Two of these immune factors are LRIM1 and APL1C, which are leucine-rich repeat (LRR containing proteins that activate complement-like defence responses against malaria parasites. In addition to their LRR domains, these leucine-rich repeat immune (LRIM proteins share several structural features including signal peptides, patterns of cysteine residues, and coiled-coil domains. Results The identification and characterisation of genes related to LRIM1 and APL1C revealed putatively novel innate immune factors and furthered the understanding of their likely molecular functions. Genomic scans using the shared features of LRIM1 and APL1C identified more than 20 LRIM-like genes exhibiting all or most of their sequence features in each of three disease-vector mosquitoes with sequenced genomes: An. gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparative sequence analyses revealed that this family of mosquito LRIM-like genes is characterised by a variable number of 6 to 14 LRRs of different lengths. The "Long" LRIM subfamily, with 10 or more LRRs, and the "Short" LRIMs, with 6 or 7 LRRs, also share the signal peptide, cysteine residue patterning, and coiled-coil sequence features of LRIM1 and APL1C. The "TM" LRIMs have a predicted C-terminal transmembrane region, and the "Coil-less" LRIMs exhibit the characteristic LRIM sequence signatures but lack the C-terminal coiled-coil domains. Conclusions The evolutionary plasticity of the LRIM LRR domains may provide templates for diverse recognition properties, while their coiled-coil domains could be involved in the formation

  9. Plasmodium alveolins possess distinct but structurally and functionally related multi-repeat domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khattaf, Fatimah S; Tremp, Annie Z; Dessens, Johannes T

    2015-02-01

    The invasive and motile life stages of malaria parasites (merozoite, ookinete and sporozoite) possess a distinctive cortical structure termed the pellicle. The pellicle is characterised by a double-layered 'inner membrane complex' (IMC) located underneath the plasma membrane, which is supported by a cytoskeletal structure termed the subpellicular network (SPN). The SPN consists of intermediate filaments, whose major constituents include a family of proteins called alveolins. Here, we re-appraise the alveolins in the genus Plasmodium with respect to their repertoire, structure and interrelatedness. Amongst 13 family members identified, we distinguish two domain types that, albeit distinct at the primary structure level, are structurally related and contain tandem repeats with a consensus 12-amino acid periodicity. Analysis in Plasmodium berghei of the most divergent alveolin, PbIMC1d, reveals a zoite-specific expression in ookinetes and a subcellular localisation in the pellicle, consistent with its predicted role as a SPN component. Knockout of PbIMC1d gives rise to a wild-type phenotype with respect to ookinete morphogenesis, tensile strength, gliding motility and infectivity, presenting the first example of apparent functional redundancy amongst alveolin family members.

  10. Comparison of xanthans by the relative abundance of its six constituent repeating units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.M.; Gruppen, H.; Sworn, G.; Schols, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Five xanthans were hydrolyzed to their repeating units using cellulases. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with online electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry and evaporative light scattering detection was used to analyze the oligomers released. It was concluded that six different pe

  11. Semantic relations cause interference in spoken language comprehension when using repeated definite references, not pronouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePeters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents’ status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1 in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2 repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3 long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis.

  12. Semantic Relations Cause Interference in Spoken Language Comprehension When Using Repeated Definite References, Not Pronouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sara A; Boiteau, Timothy W; Almor, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The choice and processing of referential expressions depend on the referents' status within the discourse, such that pronouns are generally preferred over full repetitive references when the referent is salient. Here we report two visual-world experiments showing that: (1) in spoken language comprehension, this preference is reflected in delayed fixations to referents mentioned after repeated definite references compared with after pronouns; (2) repeated references are processed differently than new references; (3) long-term semantic memory representations affect the processing of pronouns and repeated names differently. Overall, these results support the role of semantic discourse representation in referential processing and reveal important details about how pronouns and full repeated references are processed in the context of these representations. The results suggest the need for modifications to current theoretical accounts of reference processing such as Discourse Prominence Theory and the Informational Load Hypothesis.

  13. Repeated measures of serum glucose and insulin in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi; Caan, Bette J; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Gunter, Marc J; Ho, Gloria Y F; Rodriguez, Beatriz L; Shikany, James M; Strickler, Howard D; Vitolins, Mara Z; Rohan, Thomas E

    2009-12-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that circulating glucose and insulin may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. However, few cohort studies have examined breast cancer risk in association with glucose and insulin levels, and studies to date have had only baseline measurements of exposure. We conducted a longitudinal study of postmenopausal breast cancer risk using the 6% random sample of women in the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials whose fasting blood samples, provided at baseline and at years 1, 3 and 6, were analyzed for glucose and insulin. In addition, a 1% sample of women in the observational study, who had glucose and insulin measured in fasting blood samples drawn at baseline and in year 3, were included in the analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of baseline and follow-up measurements of serum glucose and insulin with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Among 5,450 women with baseline serum glucose and insulin values, 190 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained over a median of 8.0 years of follow-up. The highest tertile of baseline insulin, relative to the lowest, was associated with a 2-fold increase in risk in the total population (multivariable hazard ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.39-3.53) and with a 3-fold increase in risk in women who were not enrolled in the intervention arm of any clinical trial (multivariable hazard ratio 3.15, 95% confidence interval 1.61-6.17). Glucose levels showed no association with risk. Analysis of the repeated measurements supported the results of the baseline analysis. These data suggest that elevated serum insulin levels may be a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer.

  14. Relative Telomere Repeat Mass in Buccal and Leukocyte-Derived DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnicum, Casey T.; Dolan, Conor V.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Weber, Zachary M.; Petersen, Jason L.; Beck, Jeffrey J.; Codd, Veryan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Davies, Gareth E.; Ehli, Erik A.

    2017-01-01

    Telomere length has garnered interest due to the potential role it may play as a biomarker for the cellular aging process. Telomere measurements obtained from blood-derived DNA are often used in epidemiological studies. However, the invasive nature of blood draws severely limits sample collection, particularly with children. Buccal cells are commonly sampled for DNA isolation and thus may present a non-invasive alternative for telomere measurement. Buccal and leukocyte derived DNA obtained from samples collected at the same time period were analyzed for telomere repeat mass (TRM). TRM was measured in buccal-derived DNA samples from individuals for whom previous TRM data from blood samples existed. TRM measurement was performed by qPCR and was normalized to the single copy 36B4 gene relative to a reference DNA sample (K562). Correlations between TRM from blood and buccal DNA were obtained and also between the same blood DNA samples measured in separate laboratories. Using the classical twin design, TRM heritability was estimated (N = 1892, MZ = 1044, DZ = 775). Buccal samples measured for TRM showed a significant correlation with the blood-1 (R = 0.39, p < 0.01) and blood-2 (R = 0.36, p < 0.01) samples. Sex and age effects were observed within the buccal samples as is the norm within blood-derived DNA. The buccal, blood-1, and blood-2 measurements generated heritability estimates of 23.3%, 47.6% and 22.2%, respectively. Buccal derived DNA provides a valid source for the determination of TRM, paving the way for non-invasive projects, such as longitudinal studies in children. PMID:28125671

  15. Young investigator challenge: Atypia of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA: Standardized terminology without standardized management--a closer look at repeat FNA and quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Tamar C; Aziz, Mohamed S; Coutsouvelis, Constantinos; Rosen, Lisa; Rafael, Oana C; Souza, Fabiola; Jelloul, Fatima-Zahra; Klein, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    The Bethesda system (TBS) for the reporting of thyroid cytopathology established the category of atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) with a 7% target rate and a 5% to 15% implied malignancy risk. Recent literature has reported a broad range of AUS rates, subsequent malignancy rates, and discrepant results from repeat fine-needle aspiration (FNA) versus surgical follow-up. Therefore, this study examined AUS data from the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine to determine the best clinical follow-up. Thyroid aspirates interpreted as AUS in 2012-2014 at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine were collected. Repeat FNA and surgical follow-up data were tabulated to establish AUS, secondary AUS (diagnosed upon repeat FNA follow-up of a primary FNA AUS diagnosis), atypia of undetermined significance/malignancy (AUS:M) ratios (according to the TBS categories), and malignancy rates for AUS. The AUS rate was 8.5% (976/11,481), and there was follow-up data for 545 cases. The AUS:M ratio was 2.0. Repeat FNA was performed for 281 cases; 57 proceeded to surgical intervention. Repeat FNA reclassified 71.17% of the cases. The malignancy rates for AUS cases proceeding directly to surgery and for those receiving a surgical intervention after a repeat AUS diagnosis were 33.33% and 43.75%, respectively. Repeat FNA resulted in definitive diagnostic reclassification for 67.61% of primary AUS cases and reduced the number of patients triaged to surgery, with 56.58% of the cases recategorized as benign. Cases undergoing surgery after repeat AUS had a higher malignancy rate than those going straight to surgery, and this emphasizes the value of repeat FNA in selecting surgical candidates. In addition, this study highlights the utility of AUS rate monitoring as a quality measure that has contributed to the ability of the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine to adhere closely to TBS recommendations. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Repeat-mediated genetic and epigenetic changes at the FMR1 locus in the Fragile X-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eUsdin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Fragile X-related disorders are a group of genetic conditions that include the neurodegenerative disorder, Fragile X-associated tremor and ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, the fertility disorder, Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI and the intellectual disability, Fragile X syndrome (FXS. The pathology in all these diseases is related to the number of CGG/CCG-repeats in the 5’ UTR of the FMR1 gene. The repeats are prone to continuous expansion and the increase in repeat number has paradoxical effects on gene expression increasing transcription on mid-sized alleles and decreasing it on longer ones. In some cases the repeats can simultaneously both increase FMR1 mRNA production and decrease the levels of the FMR1 gene product, FMRP. Since FXTAS and FXPOI result from the deleterious consequences of the expression of elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA and FXS is caused by reduced FMRP levels, the clinical picture is turning out to be more complex than once appreciated. Added complications are generated by the fact that increasing repeat numbers make the alleles somatically unstable, generating resulting in individuals sometimes having a complex mixture of different sized alleles. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the eponymous fragile site, once thought to be no more than a useful diagnostic criterion, may have clinical consequences for females who inherit chromosomes that express this site. This review will cover what is currently known about the mechanisms responsible for repeat instability, for the repeat-mediated epigenetic changes that affect expression of the FMR1 gene, and for chromosome fragility. It will also touch on what current and future options are for ameliorating some of these effects.

  17. Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Yim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally, they have their own problems and shortcomings. However, a common set of the principles expressed in them will be highlighted here, because they are still relevant, and many of them will be more relevant in the future. Some of the interesting contents will be selected and described. After that, the morality of one recent event related to whole-genome sequencing and person-identifiable genetic data will be explored based on those international standards.

  18. Relations between the technological standards and technological appropriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto PRADO GUERRERO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the educational practices of using Blackboard in blended learning environments with students of higher education to understand the relationship between technological appropriation and standards of educational technology. To achieve that goal, the following research question was raised: ¿To what extent are the standards of education technology with the appropriation of technology in blended learning environments in higher educa­tion related? The contextual framework of this work includes the following topics: the institution, teaching, teachers and students. The design methodology that was used is of a correlation type. Correlations were carried out to determine the frequency and level in the technological standards as well as the appropriation of technology. In the comparison of the results obtained by the students, the teachers and the platform; we found that students in the school study showed a high degree of technology ownership and this was the same for the performance shown on the technological standards. It was established that teachers play a key role in developing the techno­logical appropriation of students and performance in technology standards.

  19. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). METHODS: A prospective study consisting of patients with...

  20. Development of a Standard for the Health Hazard Assessment of Mechanical Shock and Repeated Impact in Army Vehicles, Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    0.3 to 0.7 m.s- 2 , 73% reported pain (Johanning et al. 1991). Flamenco dancers are exposed to repeated impacts through their dancing and roughly one...Dominguez, R., Voloshin, A., and Frankel, V.H. 1988. Musculoskeletal demands on flamenco dancers: a clinical and biomechanical study. Foot and Ankle

  1. Repeated FcεRI triggering reveals modified mast cell function related to chronic allergic responses in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurmond, Jolien; Habets, Kim L L; Tatum, Zuotian; Schonkeren, Joris J; Hoen, Peter A C 't; Huizinga, Tom W J; Laros, Jeroen F J; Toes, René E M; Kurreeman, Fina

    2016-09-01

    Activation of mast cells through FcεRI plays an important role in acute allergic reactions. However, little is known about the function of mast cells in patients with chronic allergic inflammation or the effect of repeated FcεRI triggering occurring in such responses. We aimed to identify changes in mast cell function after repeated FcεRI triggering and to correlate these changes to chronic allergic responses in tissue. Human cord blood-derived mast cells were treated for 2 weeks with anti-IgE. The function of naive or treated mast cells was analyzed by means of RNA sequencing, quantitative RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and functional assays. Protein secretion was measured with ELISAs and multiplex assays. We observed several changes in mast cell function after repeated anti-IgE triggering. Although the acute response was dampened, we identified 289 genes significantly upregulated after repeated anti-IgE. Most of these genes (84%) were not upregulated after a single anti-IgE stimulus, indicating a significantly different response mode characterized by increased antigen presentation, response to bacteria, and chemotaxis. Changes in mast cell function were related to changes in expression of the transcription factors RXRA and BATF and others. Importantly, we found a substantial overlap between genes upregulated after repeated anti-IgE triggering and genes upregulated in tissue from patients with chronic allergy, in particular those of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Our study provides evidence for intrinsic modulation of mast cell function on repeated FcεRI-mediated activation. The overlap with gene expression in tissues is suggestive of a direct link between repeated IgE-mediated activation of mast cells and chronic allergy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and characterization of simple sequence repeats for Bipolaris sokiniana and cross transferability to related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were developed from a small insert genomic library for Bipolaris sorokiniana, a mitosporic fungal pathogen that causes spot blotch and root rot in switchgrass. About 59% of sequenced clones (n=384) harbored various SSR motifs. After eliminating the redundant seq...

  3. Relative subtest scatter in the WAIS-IV standardization sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Laurence M; Binder, Adrienne L

    2011-01-01

    The frequencies of differences between highest and lowest subtest scores as a function of highest subtest score (relative scatter), are reported for the standardization sample of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV). Large differences between highest and lowest subtest scores were common. The degree of relative scatter was related to the height of the highest subtest score. For the 10 core WAIS-IV subtests, the correlation between the level of the highest subtest score and the amount of scatter was r = .62; for all 15 subtests the correlation was. 63. The level of the highest subtest score was more strongly related to scatter than was Full Scale IQ. Clinical implications for inferring cognitive impairment and estimating premorbid abilities are discussed. When considering the possibility of acquired cognitive impairment, we recommend caution in the interpretation of subtest score differences.

  4. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  5. HSE management standards and stress-related work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Robert; McHugh, Marie; McCrory, Mark

    2009-12-01

    The UK Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) Management Standards (MS) approach has been developed to help organizations manage potential sources of work-related stress. Although there is general support for the assessment model adopted by this approach, to date, there has been no empirical investigation of the relationship between the actual MS (as measured by the final revised version of the HSE Indicator Tool) and stress-related work outcomes. To investigate the relationship between the HSE MS and the following stress-related work outcomes: 'job satisfaction', job-related anxiety and depression and errors/near misses. An anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed by either e-mail or post to all employees within a community-based Health and Social Services Trust. Respondents completed the HSE Indicator Tool, a job-related anxiety and depression scale, a job satisfaction scale and an aggregated measure of the number of errors/near misses witnessed. Associations between the HSE Indicator Tool responses and stress-related work outcomes were analysed with regression statistics. A total of 707 employees completed the questionnaire, representing a low response rate of 29%. Controlling for age, gender and contract type, the HSE MS (as measured by the HSE Indicator Tool) were positively associated with job satisfaction and negatively associated with 'job-related anxiety', 'job-related depression' and 'witnessed errors/near misses'. This study provides empirical evidence to support the use of the MS approach in tackling workplace stress.

  6. Structural Analyses of the Ankyrin Repeat Domain of TRPV6 and Related TRPV Ion Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, C.B.; Huang, R.J.; Lishko, P.V.; Wang, R.R.; Gaudet, R. (Harvard)

    2008-06-03

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are cation channels composed of a transmembrane domain flanked by large N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains. All members of the vanilloid family of TRP channels (TRPV) possess an N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD). The ARD of mammalian TRPV6, an important regulator of calcium uptake and homeostasis, is essential for channel assembly and regulation. The 1.7 A crystal structure of the TRPV6-ARD reveals conserved structural elements unique to the ARDs of TRPV proteins. First, a large twist between the fourth and fifth repeats is induced by residues conserved in all TRPV ARDs. Second, the third finger loop is the most variable region in sequence, length and conformation. In TRPV6, a number of putative regulatory phosphorylation sites map to the base of this third finger. Size exclusion chromatography and crystal packing indicate that the TRPV6-ARD does not assemble as a tetramer and is monomeric in solution. Adenosine triphosphate-agarose and calmodulin-agarose pull-down assays show that the TRPV6-ARD does not interact with either ligand, indicating a different functional role for the TRPV6-ARD than in the paralogous thermosensitive TRPV1 channel. Similar biochemical findings are also presented for the highly homologous mammalian TRPV5-ARD. The implications of the structural and biochemical data on the role of the ankyrin repeats in different TRPV channels are discussed.

  7. The Publication and Distribution of Chinese Standards and Other Standards-related Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Demei

    2005-01-01

    @@ Standards Press of China (SPC), founded in October 1963, is the only publication center in China licensed to publish national standards, trade standards, and books concerned with standardization, quality, and other science and technology. The main publications are as following:

  8. Dynamic damage and stress-strain relations of ultra-high performance cementitious composites subjected to repeated impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-high performance cementitious composites (UHPCC) were prepared by replacing 60% of cement with ultra-fine industrial waste powders.The dynamic damage and compressive stress-strain relations of UHPCC were studied using split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB).The damage of UHPCC subjected to repeated impact was measured by the ultrasonic pulse velocity method.Results show that the dynamic damage of UHPCC increases linearly with impact times and the abilities of repeated impact resistance of UHPCC are improved with increasing fiber volume fraction.The stress waves on impact were recorded and the average stress,strain and strain rate of UHPCC were calculated based on the wave propagation theory.The effects of strain rate,fibers volume fraction and impact times on the stress-strain relations of UHPCC were studied.Results show that the peak stress and elastic modulus decrease while the strain rate and peak strain increase gradually with increasing impact times.

  9. Variability and repeatability in gestation length related to litter performance in female pigs on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Koketsu, Y

    2007-07-15

    Forecasting gestation length (GL) in sows enables producers to be prepared to provide assistance at farrowing, or for timely treatment to induce parturition. The objectives of the present study were to determine GL across parities, the repeatability and correlation of the GL, and associations of GL with the three litter size variables (total pigs born, pigs born alive, and dead piglets) and longevity. This study was conducted on 94 farms and encompassed 66,254 farrowing records of 13,715 sows born during 1999. Variance components and correlation analyses were used to determine the repeatability and the correlations of GL. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze associations of GL with litter size variables and longevity. The mean of GL across parities was from 115.2 to 115.4 d. The proportions of GL 114, 115, and 116 d for all farrowing events were 19.2, 30.8, and 22.2%, respectively. The GL between parities were correlated (0.40/=117 d (P<0.01). Sows with GL

  10. Standard general relativity from Chern-Simons gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurieta, F. [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad, Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Rivera 2850, Concepcion (Chile); Minning, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Perez, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein, Institut. Am Muehlenberg1, D-14476 Golm bei Potsdam (Germany); Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad, Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Rivera 2850, Concepcion (Chile); Salgado, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)], E-mail: pasalgad@udec.cl

    2009-07-13

    Chern-Simons models for gravity are interesting because they provide a truly gauge-invariant action principle in the fiber-bundle sense. So far, their main drawback has largely been its perceived remoteness from standard General Relativity, based on the presence of higher powers of the curvature in the Lagrangian (except, remarkably, for three-dimensional spacetime). Here we report on a simple model that suggests a mechanism by which standard General Relativity in five-dimensional spacetime may indeed emerge at a special critical point in the space of couplings, where additional degrees of freedom and corresponding 'anomalous' Gauss-Bonnet constraints drop out from the Chern-Simons action. To achieve this goal, both the Lie algebra g and the symmetric g-invariant tensor that define the Chern-Simons Lagrangian are constructed by means of the Lie algebra S-expansion method with a suitable finite Abelian semigroup S. The results are generalized to arbitrary odd dimensions, and the possible extension to the case of eleven-dimensional supergravity is briefly discussed.

  11. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    OpenAIRE

    Ana ePalomino; Francisco Javier ePavon; Eduardo eBlanco Calvo; Antonia eSerrano; Sergio eArrabal; Patricia eRivera; Antonio eVargas; Ainhoa eBilbao; Leticia eRubio; Fernando eRodriguez de Fonseca; Juan eSuarez

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid recept...

  12. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie; Sagoo, Mandeep S; Tufail, Adnan; Balaggan, Kamaljit S; Patel, Praveen J

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). A prospective study consisting of patients with active nAMD enrolled in the Distance of Choroid Study at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Patients underwent three 12×9 mm macular raster scans using the deep range imaging (DRI) OCT-1 SS-OCT (Topcon) device in a single imaging session. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were calculated for the ETDRS macular subfields. Repeatability was calculated according to methods described by Bland and Altman. 39 eyes of 39 patients with nAMD were included with a mean (±SD) age of 73.9 (±7.2) years. The mean (±SD) retinal thickness of the central macular subfield was 225.7 μm (±12.4 μm). The repeatability this subfield, expressed as a percentage of the mean central macular subfield thickness, was 23.2%. The percentage repeatability of the other macular subfields ranged from 13.2% to 28.7%. The intrasession coefficient of repeatability of choroidal thickness of the central macular subfield was 57.2 μm with a mean choroidal thickness (±SD) of 181 μm (±15.8 μm). This study suggests that a change >23.2% of retinal thickness and 57.2 μm choroidal thickness in the central macular subfield is required to distinguish true clinical change from measurement variability when using the DRI OCT-1 device to manage patients with nAMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Absence, extended absence, and repeat tardiness related to asthma status among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizan, Samina S; Shendell, Derek G; Rhoads, George G

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to examine potential associations between absence, extended (repeated) absence, tardiness, and repeated tardiness from school and doctor-diagnosed asthma. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data collected in fall 2007 on 914 4th and 5th grade school children from seven randomly selected participating schools in DeKalb County, GA. ANOVA was used to compare attendance metrics for race, gender, and asthma status groups. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests were also done because distributions of attendance metrics were skewed. We tallied daily absence data during the study period and examined absence by day of week. We also compared the variation of the weekly rate of absence and tardiness for students with asthma versus students without asthma over the study period. The mean days of absence in 86 students with asthma was 2.73 days compared with 1.89 days for 828 children without asthma (p = .004). There was no significant difference in mean days of tardiness by asthma status. The difference in the number of instances of 2+ consecutive days of absence (extended absence) by asthma status was not significant. Students with asthma were more likely to be absent on Mondays (p = .005), Tuesdays (p = .001), and Fridays (p = .02) than students without asthma. The weekly rate of tardiness for students with asthma trended with the general student study population over the study period, whereas the weekly rate of absence did not. Asthma was associated with increased 1-day absences but not longer absences or tardiness.

  14. Standard guide for corrosion-related failure analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers key issues to be considered when examining metallic failures when corrosion is suspected as either a major or minor causative factor. 1.2 Corrosion-related failures could include one or more of the following: change in surface appearance (for example, tarnish, rust, color change), pin hole leak, catastrophic structural failure (for example, collapse, explosive rupture, implosive rupture, cracking), weld failure, loss of electrical continuity, and loss of functionality (for example, seizure, galling, spalling, swelling). 1.3 Issues covered include overall failure site conditions, operating conditions at the time of failure, history of equipment and its operation, corrosion product sampling, environmental sampling, metallurgical and electrochemical factors, morphology (mode) or failure, and by considering the preceding, deducing the cause(s) of corrosion failure. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibili...

  15. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  16. DNA dynamics is likely to be a factor in the genomic nucleotide repeats expansions related to diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boian S Alexandrov

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeats sequences (TRS represent a common type of genomic DNA motif whose expansion is associated with a large number of human diseases. The driving molecular mechanisms of the TRS ongoing dynamic expansion across generations and within tissues and its influence on genomic DNA functions are not well understood. Here we report results for a novel and notable collective breathing behavior of genomic DNA of tandem TRS, leading to propensity for large local DNA transient openings at physiological temperature. Our Langevin molecular dynamics (LMD and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulations demonstrate that the patterns of openings of various TRSs depend specifically on their length. The collective propensity for DNA strand separation of repeated sequences serves as a precursor for outsized intermediate bubble states independently of the G/C-content. We report that repeats have the potential to interfere with the binding of transcription factors to their consensus sequence by altered DNA breathing dynamics in proximity of the binding sites. These observations might influence ongoing attempts to use LMD and MCMC simulations for TRS-related modeling of genomic DNA functionality in elucidating the common denominators of the dynamic TRS expansion mutation with potential therapeutic applications.

  17. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ePalomino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression (CB1 receptors and enzymes that produce (DAGLα/β and NAPE-PLD and degrade (MAGL and FAAH eCB were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system (glutamate synthesizing enzymes LGA and KGA, mGluR3/5 metabotropic receptors, and NR1/2A/2B/2C-NMDA and GluR1/2/3/4-AMPA ionotropic receptor subunits and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-AG production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and glutamate systems. Repeated cocaine results in normalization of glutamate receptor expression, although sustained changes in eCB is observed. We suggest that cocaine-induced alterations to cerebellar eCB should be considered when analyzing the adaptations imposed by psychostimulants that

  18. Repeated modification of early limb morphogenesis programmes underlies the convergence of relative limb length in Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Thomas J; Revell, Liam J; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J; Losos, Jonathan B

    2012-02-22

    The independent evolution of similar morphologies has long been a subject of considerable interest to biologists. Does phenotypic convergence reflect the primacy of natural selection, or does development set the course of evolution by channelling variation in certain directions? Here, we examine the ontogenetic origins of relative limb length variation among Anolis lizard habitat specialists to address whether convergent phenotypes have arisen through convergent developmental trajectories. Despite the numerous developmental processes that could potentially contribute to variation in adult limb length, our analyses reveal that, in Anolis lizards, such variation is repeatedly the result of changes occurring very early in development, prior to formation of the cartilaginous long bone anlagen.

  19. New extended standard model, dark matters and relativity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Kwang

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional quantized space model is newly introduced as the extended standard model. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. Electric (EC), lepton (LC) and color (CC) charges are defined to be the charges of the x1x2x3, x4x5x6 and x7x8x9 warped spaces, respectively. Then, the lepton is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) correlated state which makes 3x3 = 9 leptons and the quark is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) - xk(CC) correlated state which makes 3x3x3 = 27 quarks. The new three bastons with the xi(EC) state are proposed as the dark matters seen in the x1x2x3 space, too. The matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, dark matter and dark energy, hadronization, the big bang, quantum entanglement, quantum mechanics and general relativity are briefly discussed in terms of this new model. The details can be found in the article titled as ``journey into the universe; three-dimensional quantized spaces, elementary particles and quantum mechanics at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Hwang2''.

  20. Comparisons of ANS, ASME, AWS, and NFPA standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800, and related documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Spiesman, J.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ANS, ASME, AWS and NFPA standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  1. Standardization in smart grids. Introduction to IT-related methodologies, architectures and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslar, Mathias; Specht, Michael; Daenekas, Christian; Trefke, Joern; Rohjans, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Rosinger, Christine; Bleiker, Robert [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Introduction to Standardization for Smart Grids. Presents a tutorial and best practice of Smart Grid Prototype Projects. Written by leading experts in the field. Besides the regulatory and market aspects, the technical level dealing with the knowledge from multiple disciplines and the aspects of technical system integration to achieve interoperability and integration has been a strong focus in the Smart Grid. This topic is typically covered by the means of using (technical) standards for processes, data models, functions and communication links. Standardization is a key issue for Smart Grids due to the involvement of many different sectors along the value chain from the generation to the appliances. The scope of Smart Grid is broad, therefore, the standards landscape is unfortunately very large and complex. This is why the three European Standards Organizations ETSI, CEN and CENELEC created a so called Joint Working Group (JWG). This was the first harmonized effort in Europe to bring together the needed disciplines and experts delivering the final report in May 2011. After this approach proved useful, the Commission used the Mandate M/490: Standardization Mandate to European Standardization Organizations (ESOs) to support European Smart Grid deployment. The focal point addressing the ESO's response to M/490 will be the CEN, CENELEC and ETSI Smart Grids Coordination Group (SG-CG). Based on this mandate, meaningful standardization of architectures, use cases, communication technologies, data models and security standards takes place in the four existing working groups. This book provides an overview on the various building blocks and standards identified as the most prominent ones by the JWG report as well as by the first set of standards group - IEC 61850 and CIM, IEC PAS 62559 for documenting Smart Grid use cases, security requirements from the SGIS groups and an introduction on how to apply the Smart Grid Architecture Model SGAM for utilities. In addition

  2. Binary trading relations and the limits of EDI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Jan; Truex, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a critical examination of electronic data interchange (EDI) standards and their application in different types of trading relationships. It argues that EDI standards are not directly comparable to more stable sets of technical standards in that they are dynamically tested...... and negotiated in use with each trading exchange. It takes the position that EDI standards are an emergent language form and must mean different things at the institutional and local levels. Using the lens of emergent linguistic analysis it shows how the institutional and local levels must always be distinct...

  3. Binary trading relations and the limits of EDI standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Jan; Truex, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a critical examination of electronic data interchange (EDI) standards and their application in different types of trading relationships. It argues that EDI standards are not directly comparable to more stable sets of technical standards in that they are dynamically tested...... and negotiated in use with each trading exchange. It takes the position that EDI standards are an emergent language form and must mean different things at the institutional and local levels. Using the lens of emergent linguistic analysis it shows how the institutional and local levels must always be distinct...

  4. The Function of Repeating: The Relation between Word Class and Repetition Type in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, Anthony P.; Jones, Robin M.; Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is already known that preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) tend to stutter on function words at the beginning of sentences. It is also known that phonological errors potentially resulting in part-word repetitions tend to occur on content words. However, the precise relation between word class and repetition type in preschool-age…

  5. Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Useful for Sorghum Downy Mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent outbreak of sorghum downy mildew, in Texas, has led to the discovery of both metalaxyl resistance and a new pathotype in the causal organism, Peronosclerospora sorghi. These observations and the difficulty in resolving among phylogenetically related downy mildew pathogens dramatically poin...

  6. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH-Based Karyotyping Reveals Rapid Evolution of Centromeric and Subtelomeric Repeats in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata-Otsubo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based karyotyping is a powerful cytogenetics tool to study chromosome organization, behavior, and chromosome evolution. Here, we developed a FISH-based karyotyping system using a probe mixture comprised of centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats, 5S rDNA, and chromosome-specific BAC clones in common bean, which enables one to unambiguously distinguish all 11 chromosome pairs. Furthermore, we applied the karyotyping system to several wild relatives and landraces of common bean from two distinct gene pools, as well as other related Phaseolus species, to investigate repeat evolution in the genus Phaseolus. Comparison of karyotype maps within common bean indicates that chromosomal distribution of the centromeric and subtelomeric satellite repeats is stable, whereas the copy number of the repeats was variable, indicating rapid amplification/reduction of the repeats in specific genomic regions. In Phaseolus species that diverged approximately 2–4 million yr ago, copy numbers of centromeric repeats were largely reduced or diverged, and chromosomal distributions have changed, suggesting rapid evolution of centromeric repeats. We also detected variation in the distribution pattern of subtelomeric repeats in Phaseolus species. The FISH-based karyotyping system revealed that satellite repeats are actively and rapidly evolving, forming genomic features unique to individual common bean accessions and Phaseolus species.

  7. Comparison of intraclass correlation coefficient estimates and standard errors between using cross-sectional and repeated measurement data: the Safety Check cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward H; Wasserman, Richard; Barkin, Shari

    2011-03-01

    Designing cluster randomized trials in clinical studies often requires accurate estimates of intraclass correlation, which quantifies the strength of correlation between units, such as participants, within a cluster, such as a practice. Published ICC estimates, even when available, often suffer from the problem of wide confidence intervals. Using data from a national, randomized, controlled study concerning violence prevention for children--the Safety Check--we compare the ICC values derived from two approaches only baseline data and using both baseline and follow-up data. Using a variance component decomposition approach, the latter method allows flexibility in handling complex data sets. For example, it allows for shifts in the outcome variable over time and for an unbalanced cluster design. Furthermore, we evaluate the large-sample formula for ICC estimates and standard errors using the bootstrap method. Our findings suggest that ICC estimates range from 0.012 to 0.11 for providers within practice and range from 0.018 to 0.11 for families within provider. The estimates derived from the baseline-only and repeated-measurements approaches agree quite well except in cases in which variation over repeated measurements is large. The reductions in the widths of ICC confidence limits from using repeated measurement over baseline only are, respectively, 62% and 42% at the practice and provider levels. The contribution of this paper therefore includes two elements, which are a methodology for improving the accuracy of ICC, and the reporting of such quantities for pediatric and other researchers who are interested in designing clustered randomized trials similar to the current study.

  8. Prolonged Repeated Acupuncture Stimulation Induces Habituation Effects in Pain-Related Brain Areas: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. PMID:24821143

  9. Setting Minimum Standards for Measuring Public Relations Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmann, Walter K.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the new 28-page booklet defining "Guidelines and Standards for Measuring and Evaluating PR Effectiveness." States that it is the result of a nine-month project carried out by an eight-member task force. (PA)

  10. Effects of acute versus repeated cocaine exposure on the expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in the mouse cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Ana; Pavón, Francisco-Javier; Blanco-Calvo, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Arrabal, Sergio; Rivera, Patricia; Alén, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rubio, Leticia; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Growing awareness of cerebellar involvement in addiction is based on the cerebellum’s intermediary position between motor and reward, potentially acting as an interface between motivational and cognitive functions. Here, we examined the impact of acute and repeated cocaine exposure on the two main signaling systems in the mouse cerebellum: the endocannabinoid (eCB) and glutamate systems. To this end, we investigated whether eCB signaling-related gene and protein expression {cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptors and enzymes that produce [diacylglycerol lipase alpha/beta (DAGLα/β) and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD)] and degrade [monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amino hydrolase (FAAH)] eCB} were altered. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression of relevant components of the glutamate signaling system [glutamate synthesizing enzymes liver-type glutaminase isoform (LGA) and kidney-type glutaminase isoform (KGA), metabotropic glutamatergic receptor (mGluR3/5), NMDA-ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NR1/2A/2B/2C) and AMPA-ionotropic receptor subunits (GluR1/2/3/4)] and the gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, because noradrenergic terminals innervate the cerebellar cortex. Results indicated that acute cocaine exposure decreased DAGLα expression, suggesting a down-regulation of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) production, as well as gene expression of TH, KGA, mGluR3 and all ionotropic receptor subunits analyzed in the cerebellum. The acquisition of conditioned locomotion and sensitization after repeated cocaine exposure were associated with an increased NAPE-PLD/FAAH ratio, suggesting enhanced anandamide production, and a decreased DAGLβ/MAGL ratio, suggesting decreased 2-AG generation. Repeated cocaine also increased LGA gene expression but had no effect on glutamate receptors. These findings indicate that acute cocaine modulates the expression of the eCB and

  11. Sustained downregulation of YY1-associated protein-related protein gene expression in rat hippocampus induced by repeated electroconvulsive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Takayuki; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Mariko; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Junji

    2011-01-01

    YY1AP-related protein (YARP) is a structural homolog of YY1-associated protein (YY1AP), which has a YY1-binding domain. During perinatal development, YARP mRNA expression is increased at a late stage of embryonic neurogenesis. It is not known whether YARP expression is regulated during adult neurogenesis. Electroconvulsive shock (ECS), a model for a highly effective depression treatment, is known to induce hippocampal neurogenesis after repeated treatment, so we employed ECS to measure the expression of YARP mRNA. Northern blots revealed significantly decreased expression of the YARP gene after repeated ECS but not single ECS. In situ hybridization clearly demonstrated a reduction of YARP mRNA expression in the CA (CA1, CA2, and CA3) subfields. Although clonic-tonic seizure was induced not only by ECS but also by injection of kainic acid to the striatum, the regulation of YARP mRNA expression was different between ECS and kainic acid. YARP mRNA was decreased only by the ECS method, suggesting that YARP expression is different at embryonic and adult neurogenic stage.

  12. Ozone decomposition kinetics on alumina: effects of ozone partial pressure, relative humidity and repeated oxidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature kinetics of gas-phase ozone loss via heterogeneous interactions with thin alumina films has been studied in real-time using 254nm absorption spectroscopy to monitor ozone concentrations. The films were prepared from dispersions of fine alumina powder in methanol and their surface areas were determined by an in situ procedure using adsorption of krypton at 77K. The alumina was found to lose reactivity with increasing ozone exposure. However, some of the lost reactivity could be recovered over timescales of days in an environment free of water, ozone and carbon dioxide. From multiple exposures of ozone to the same film, it was found that the number of active sites is large, greater than 1.4x1014 active sites per cm2 of surface area or comparable to the total number of surface sites. The films maintain some reactivity at this point, which is consistent with there being some degree of active site regeneration during the experiment and with ozone loss being catalytic to some degree. The initial uptake coefficients on fresh films were found to be inversely dependent on the ozone concentration, varying from roughly 10-6 for ozone concentrations of 1014 molecules/cm3 to 10-5 at 1013 molecules/cm3. The initial uptake coefficients were not dependent on the relative humidity, up to 75%, within the precision of the experiment. The reaction mechanism is discussed, as well as the implications these results have for assessing the effect of mineral dust on atmospheric oxidant levels.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases and related genes in plants:A phylogenomic approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Shi; Hongwen Huang; Michael J.Sanderson; Frans E.Tax

    2014-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinases (RLKs), evolutionarily related LRR receptor-like proteins (RLPs) and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) have important roles in plant signaling, and their gene subfamilies are large with a complicated history of gene duplication and loss. In three pairs of closely related lineages, including Arabidopsis thaliana and A. lyrata (Arabidopsis), Lotus japonicus, and Medicago truncatula (Legumes), Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, and O. sativa ssp. indica (Rice), we find that LRR RLKs comprise the largest group of these LRR-related subfamilies, while the related RLCKs represent the smal est group. In addition, comparison of orthologs indicates a high frequency of reciprocal gene loss of the LRR RLK/LRR RLP/RLCK subfamilies. Furthermore, pairwise comparisons show that reciprocal gene loss is often associated with lineage-specific duplication(s) in the alternative lineage. Last, analysis of genes in A. thaliana involved in development revealed that most are highly conserved orthologs without species-specific duplication in the two Arabidopsis species and originated from older Arabidopsis-specific or rosid-specific duplications. We discuss potential pitfal s related to functional prediction for genes that have undergone frequent turnover (duplications, losses, and domain architecture changes), and conclude that prediction based on phylogenetic relationships wil likely outperform that based on sequence similarity alone.

  14. Investigative study of standards for Digital Repositories and related services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulonneau, Muriel; André, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applic

  15. The Rhetoric of Arrogance: The Public Relations Response of the Standard Oil Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Josh

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates one of the earliest American public relations debacles (ending in the dissolution of the Standard Oil Trust in 1911). Presents background on Standard Oil and offers an overview Ida Tarbell's influential "History of the Standard Oil company." Argues that Standard failed to respond to these accounts adequately, reinforcing…

  16. Changes in repeated-sprint performance in relation to change in locomotor profile in highly-trained young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of changes in maximal aerobic (MAS) and sprinting (MSS) speeds and the anaerobic reserve (ASR) on repeated-sprint performance. Two hundred and seventy highly-trained soccer players (14.5 ± 1.6 year) completed three times per season (over 5 years) a maximal incremental running test to approach MAS, a 40-m sprint with 10-m splits to assess MSS and a repeated-sprint test (10 × 30-m sprints), where best (RSb) and mean (RSm) sprint times, and percentage of speed decrement (%Dec) were calculated. ASR was calculated as MSS-MAS. While ∆RSb were related to ∆MSS and ∆body mass (r(2) = 0.42, 90%CL[0.34;0.49] for the overall multiple regression, n = 334), ∆RSm was also correlated with ∆MAS and ∆sum of 7 skinfolds (r(2) = 0.43 [0.35;0.50], n = 334). There was a small and positive association between ∆%Dec and ∆MAS (r(2) = 0.02 [-0.07;0.11], n = 334). Substantial ∆MSS and ∆MAS had a predictive value of 70 and 55% for ∆RSm, respectively. Finally, ∆ASR per se was not predictive of ∆RSm (Cohen's = +0.8 to -0.3 with increased ASR), but the greater magnitude of ∆RSm improvement was observed when MSS, MAS and ASR increased together (0.8 vs. +0.4 with ASR increased vs. not, additionally to MSS and MAS). Low-cost field tests aimed at assessing maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds can be used to monitor ∆RS performance.

  17. Investigative study of standards for digital repositories and related services

    CERN Document Server

    Foulonneau, Muriel; Badolato, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    This study is meant for institutional repository managers, service providers, repository software developers and generally, all players taking an active part in the creation of the digital repository infrastructure for e-research and e-learning. It reviews the current standards, protocols and applications in the domain of digital repositories. Special attention is being paid to the interoperability of repositories to enhance the exchange of data in repositories. It aims to stimulate discussion about these topics and supports initiatives for the integration of and, where needed, development of

  18. A consolidated and standardized relational database for ER data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygmunt, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The three US Department of Energy (DOE) installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Y-12, and K-25) were established during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project that ``built the bomb.`` That research, and work in more recent years, has resulted in the generation of radioactive materials and other toxic wastes. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems manages the three Oak Ridge installations (as well as the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at the DOE plants in Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky). DOE Oak Ridge Operations has been mandated by federal and state agreements to provide a consolidated repository of environmental data and is tasked to support environmental data management activities at all five installations. The Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) was initiated to fulfill these requirements. The primary use of OREIS data is to provide access to project results by regulators. A secondary use is to serve as background data for other projects. This paper discusses the benefits of a consolidated and standardized database; reasons for resistance to the consolidation of data; implementing a consolidated database, including attempts at standardization, deciding what to include in the consolidated database, establishing lists of valid values, and addressing quality control (QC) issues; and the evolution of a consolidated database, which includes developing and training a user community, dealing with configuration control issues, and incorporating historical data. OREIS is used to illustrate these topics.

  19. Relating Admissibility Standards for Digital Evidence to Attack Scenario Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Attackers tend to use complex techniques such as combining multi-step, multi-stage attack with anti-forensic tools to make it difficult to find incriminating evidence and reconstruct attack scenarios that can stand up to the expected level of evidence admissibility in a court of law. As a solution, we propose to integrate the legal aspects of evidence correlation into a Prolog based reasoner to address the admissibility requirements by creating most probable attack scenarios that satisfy admissibility standards for substantiating evidence. Using a prototype implementation, we show how evidence extracted by using forensic tools can be integrated with legal reasoning to reconstruct network attack scenarios. Our experiment shows this implemented reasoner can provide pre-estimate of admissibility on a digital crime towards an attacked network.

  20. 77 FR 16551 - Standards for Private Laboratory Analytical Packages and Introduction to Laboratory Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Standards for Private Laboratory Analytical Packages and Introduction to Laboratory Related Portions of the Food Modernization Safety Act for Private Laboratory... Administration (FDA) is announcing two meetings entitled ``Standards for Private Laboratory Analytical...

  1. Optimization of standard in-house 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat typing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its direct application to clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L; Akkerman, Onno W; Schürch, Anita C; Mulder, Arnout; van der Werf, Tjip S; van der Zanden, Adri G M; van Ingen, Jakko; van Soolingen, Dick

    2014-05-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing with a panel of 24 loci is the current gold standard in the molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. However, because of technical problems, a part of the loci often cannot be amplified by multiplex PCRs. Therefore, a considerable number of single-locus PCRs have to be performed for the loci with missing results, which impairs the laboratory work flow. Therefore, the original in-house method described by Supply et al. in 2006 was reevaluated. We modified seven primers and the PCR master mixture and obtained a strongly optimized in-house 24-locus VNTR typing method. The percentage of instantly complete 24-locus VNTR patterns detected in the routine flow of typing activities increased to 84.7% from the 72.3% obtained with the typing conducted with the commercially available Genoscreen MIRU-VNTR typing kit. The analytical sensitivity of the optimized in-house method was assessed by serial dilutions of M. tuberculosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A 1:10 dilution of the different strains tested was the lowest dilution for the detection of a complete 24-locus VNTR pattern. The optimized in-house 24-locus VNTR typing method will reduce the turnaround time of typing significantly and also the financial burden of these activities.

  2. The relation between bone demineralization, physical activity and anthropometric standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barbosa Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to verify the correlation between bone mineral density and the level of physical activity, as well as the food intake and the anthropometric parameters. It intended to analyse the bone mineral density (BMD of menopausal women through the bone densitometry test (DO in the lumbar region (L1 to L4, femoral neck and total femur, and also use Bouchard’s self-recall of daily activities; employing the food record from Buker and Stuart to dose and quantify the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. The data were analysed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test, and default value of α = 0.05 was set to compare the BMD averages. It was observed that one hundred percent of the assessed individuals had a BMD level below the average fixed by WHO: 14.4% with osteopenia and 85.6% with osteoporosis; a lower BMD in the femoral area (0.721g and the biggest loss among the sedentary ones (0.698g. It was noticed that there was a correlation between the physical activities and the BMD only when associated with anthropometric standards and the daily ingestion of vitamin D.

  3. Global expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St Clair Dina A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR-encoding genes comprise the largest class of plant disease resistance genes. The 149 NBS-LRR-encoding genes and the 58 related genes that do not encode LRRs represent approximately 0.8% of all ORFs so far annotated in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. Despite their prevalence in the genome and functional importance, there was little information regarding expression of these genes. Results We analyzed the expression patterns of ~170 NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis Col-0 using multiple analytical approaches: expressed sequenced tag (EST representation, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS, microarray analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE PCR, and gene trap lines. Most of these genes were expressed at low levels with a variety of tissue specificities. Expression was detected by at least one approach for all but 10 of these genes. The expression of some but not the majority of NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes was affected by salicylic acid (SA treatment; the response to SA varied among different accessions. An analysis of previously published microarray data indicated that ten NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes exhibited increased expression in wild-type Landsberg erecta (Ler after flagellin treatment. Several of these ten genes also showed altered expression after SA treatment, consistent with the regulation of R gene expression during defense responses and overlap between the basal defense response and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Enhancer trap analysis indicated that neither jasmonic acid nor benzothiadiazole (BTH, a salicylic acid analog, induced detectable expression of the five NBS-LRR-encoding genes and one TIR-NBS-encoding gene tested; however, BTH did induce detectable expression of the other TIR-NBS-encoding gene analyzed. Evidence for alternative mRNA polyadenylation sites was observed for many of the tested genes. Evidence for

  4. Declining trend in the use of repeat computed tomography for trauma patients admitted to a level I trauma center for traffic-related injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psoter, Kevin J., E-mail: kevinp2@u.washington.edu [Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Box 357236, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Roudsari, Bahman S., E-mail: roudsari@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology, Comparative Effectiveness, Cost and Outcomes Research Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Graves, Janessa M., E-mail: janessa@u.washington.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Mack, Christopher, E-mail: cdmack@uw.edu [Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Jarvik, Jeffrey G., E-mail: jarvikj@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology and Department of Neurological Surgery, Comparative Effectiveness, Cost and Outcomes Research Center, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359960, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: To evaluate the trend in utilization of repeat (i.e. ≥2) computed tomography (CT) and to compare utilization patterns across body regions for trauma patients admitted to a level I trauma center for traffic-related injuries (TRI). Materials and Methods: We linked the Harborview Medical Center trauma registry (1996–2010) to the billing department data. We extracted the following variables: type and frequency of CTs performed, age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, injury mechanism and severity, length of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and final disposition. TRIs were defined as motor vehicle collisions, motorcycle, bicycle and pedestrian-related injuries. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between utilization of different body region repeat (i.e. ≥2) CTs and year of admission, adjusting for patient and injury-related characteristics that could influence utilization patterns. Results: A total of 28,431 patients were admitted for TRIs over the study period and 9499 (33%) received repeat CTs. From 1996 to 2010, the proportion of patients receiving repeat CTs decreased by 33%. Relative to 2000 and adjusting for other covariates, patients with TRIs admitted in 2010 had significantly lower odds of undergoing repeat head (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.76), pelvis (OR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.27–0.52), cervical spine (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12–0.43), and maxillofacial CTs (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10–0.57). However, they had higher odds of receiving repeat thoracic CTs (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.02–3.38). Conclusion: A significant decrease in the utilization of repeat CTs was observed in trauma patients presenting with traffic-related injuries over a 15-year period.

  5. Declining trend in the use of repeat computed tomography for trauma patients admitted to a level I trauma center for traffic-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoter, Kevin J; Roudsari, Bahman S; Graves, Janessa M; Mack, Christopher; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the trend in utilization of repeat (i.e. ≥2) computed tomography (CT) and to compare utilization patterns across body regions for trauma patients admitted to a level I trauma center for traffic-related injuries (TRI). We linked the Harborview Medical Center trauma registry (1996-2010) to the billing department data. We extracted the following variables: type and frequency of CTs performed, age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, injury mechanism and severity, length of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and final disposition. TRIs were defined as motor vehicle collisions, motorcycle, bicycle and pedestrian-related injuries. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between utilization of different body region repeat (i.e. ≥2) CTs and year of admission, adjusting for patient and injury-related characteristics that could influence utilization patterns. A total of 28,431 patients were admitted for TRIs over the study period and 9499 (33%) received repeat CTs. From 1996 to 2010, the proportion of patients receiving repeat CTs decreased by 33%. Relative to 2000 and adjusting for other covariates, patients with TRIs admitted in 2010 had significantly lower odds of undergoing repeat head (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.76), pelvis (OR=0.37; 95% CI: 0.27-0.52), cervical spine (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.12-0.43), and maxillofacial CTs (OR=0.24; 95% CI: 0.10-0.57). However, they had higher odds of receiving repeat thoracic CTs (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.02-3.38). A significant decrease in the utilization of repeat CTs was observed in trauma patients presenting with traffic-related injuries over a 15-year period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in Soluble-N in Forest and Pasture Soils after Repeated Applications of Tannins and Related Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Halvorson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannins (produced by plants can reduce the solubility of soil-N. However, comparisons of tannins to related non-tannins on different land uses are limited. We extracted soluble-N from forest and pasture soils (0–5 cm with repeated applications of water (Control or solutions containing procyanidin from sorghum, catechin, tannic acid, β-1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-D-glucose (PGG, gallic acid, or methyl gallate (10 mg g−1 soil. After eight treatments, samples were rinsed with cool water (23°C and incubated in hot water (16 hrs, 80°C. After each step, the quantity of soluble-N and extraction efficiency compared to the Control was determined. Tannins produced the greatest reductions of soluble-N with stronger effects on pasture soil. Little soluble-N was extracted with cool water but hot water released large amounts in patterns influenced by the previous treatments. The results of this study indicate hydrolyzable tannins like PGG reduce the solubility of labile soil-N more than condensed tannins like sorghum procyanidin (SOR and suggest tannin effects will vary with land management. Because they rapidly reduce solubility of soil-N and can also affect soil microorganisms, tannins may have a role in managing nitrogen availability and retention in agricultural soils.

  7. Standardized reporting for rapid relative effectiveness assessments of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijnen, Sarah; Pasternack, Iris; Van de Casteele, Marc; Rossi, Bernardette; Cangini, Agnese; Di Bidino, Rossella; Jelenc, Marjetka; Abrishami, Payam; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Seyfried, Hans; Wildbacher, Ingrid; Goettsch, Wim G

    2014-11-01

    Many European countries perform rapid assessments of the relative effectiveness (RE) of pharmaceuticals as part of the reimbursement decision making process. Increased sharing of information on RE across countries may save costs and reduce duplication of work. The objective of this article is to describe the development of a tool for rapid assessment of RE of new pharmaceuticals that enter the market, the HTA Core Model® for Rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessment (REA) of Pharmaceuticals. Eighteen member organisations of the European Network of Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) participated in the development of the model. Different versions of the model were developed and piloted in this collaboration and adjusted accordingly based on feedback on the content and feasibility of the model. The final model deviates from the traditional HTA Core Model® used for assessing other types of technologies. This is due to the limited scope (strong focus on RE), the timing of the assessment (just after market authorisation), and strict timelines (e.g. 90 days) required for performing the assessment. The number of domains and assessment elements was limited and it was decided that the primary information sources should preferably be a submission file provided by the marketing authorisation holder and the European Public Assessment Report. The HTA Core Model® for Rapid REA (version 3.0) was developed to produce standardised transparent RE information of pharmaceuticals. Further piloting can provide input for possible improvements, such as further refining the assessment elements and new methodological guidance on relevant areas.

  8. European standardization for the management of space-related projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa IDZIKOWSKA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A project is a temporary endeavour designed to produce a unique product, service or result, with a defined beginning and end (usually constrained by time, funding or deliverables, which is undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. Space projects involve a complex process and usually take many years to be developed. The development of complex project requires the cooperation of several organizations, which share a common goal: namely, to create a product that satisfies the consumer’s needs (technical performance within cost and schedule constraints. To reach this goal, corresponding technical activities, as well as human and financial resources, need to be organized and coordinated in a wellorganized manner. Project management is the discipline of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and finalizing the work of a team in the achievement of specific goals and meeting specific success criteria. This involves the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements. The paper is a review of how issues related to space management requirements has been addressed in Europe.

  9. Repeated High-Intensity Effort Activity in Relation to Tries Scored and Conceded during Rugby League Match-Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Gahan, Caleb W

    2015-09-21

    To examine the nature and frequency of rugby league repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) activity in relation to tries scored and conceded in successful and unsuccessful teams. One-hundred and eighty-five semi-professional rugby league players (mean ± SD age: 23.7 ± 3.2 yr) from 11 teams participated in this study. Global positioning system (GPS) data was collected during 21 matches. Data were analysed for the total number of RHIE bouts, efforts per bout, duration of efforts and recovery between efforts. Using notational analysis, a RHIE bout frequency distribution, representing 0-60s, 61-120s, 121-180s, 181-240s, and 241-300s prior to scoring and conceding a try was established. Over 50% of RHIE bouts occurred within five minutes of a try. Bottom 4 teams performed a greater proportion of bouts within five minutes of a try than Top 4 teams (61.5% vs. 48.2%, effect size, ES = 0.69 ± 0.28, p=0.0001). Top 4 teams performed a greater number of RHIE bouts per conceded try (3.0 ± 2.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.7, ES = 0.74 ± 0.51, pteams performed a greater number of RHIE bouts per try scored (3.6 ± 2.5 vs. 2.1 ± 1.7, ES = 0.70 ± 0.71, p=0.10). The majority of rugby league RHIE bouts occur at critical periods during match-play. Successful rugby league teams perform more RHIE bouts prior to conceding tries, while unsuccessful teams perform more bouts prior to scoring tries. These findings demonstrate that unsuccessful teams are required to work harder to score tries while successful teams work harder to prevent tries.

  10. A randomised controlled trial of repeated filmed social contact on reducing mental illness-related stigma in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, S; Yamaguchi, S; Ojio, Y; Ohta, K; Shimada, T; Watanabe, K; Thornicroft, G; Ando, S

    2016-12-19

    Public stigma alters attitudes towards people with mental illness, and is a particular concern for young people since most mental health problems occur in adolescence and young adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term effects of repeated filmed social contact (FSC) on reducing mental health-related stigma among young adults in the general population, compared with self-instructional Internet search (INS) and control interventions. This study is a parallel-group randomised controlled trial over 12 months conducted in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 259 university students (male n = 150, mean age = 20.0 years, s.d. = 1.2) were recruited from 20 colleges and universities between November 2013 and July 2014, without being provided information about the mental health-related survey or trial. Participants were assigned to one of three groups before completion of the baseline survey (FSC/INS/control = 89/83/87). The FSC group received a computer-based 30-min social contact film with general mental health education and five follow-up web-based FSCs at 2-month intervals. The INS group undertook a 30-min search for mental health-related information with five follow-up web-based reminders for self-instructional searches at 2-month intervals. The control group played PC games and had no follow-up intervention. The main outcome measures were the future (intended behaviour) domain of the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale at 12 months after the intervention. Analysis was conducted in September 2015. At the 12-month follow-up, 218 participants completed the survey (84.1%, 75:70:73). The FSC group showed the greatest change at the 12-month follow-up (FSC: mean change 2.11 [95% CI 1.49, 2.73], INS: 1.04 [0.29, 1.80], control: 0.71 [0.09, 1.33]; FSC v. INS p = 0.037, FSC v. controls p = 0.004). No adverse events were reported during the follow-up period. FSC was more successful in reducing stigma at 12 months after intervention than INS or control interventions. FSC could

  11. Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01

    This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

  12. 77 FR 50757 - Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Charging Standard Administrative Fees for Nonprogram-Related Information AGENCY: Social Security... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Huelskamp, Social Security Administration, Office of Finance, 6401... request for information is for any purpose not directly related to the administration of the...

  13. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when using...... that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes...... in population studies. When studying a single 24 h sample from one individual, there was a 15-20% risk that the sample was incomplete. In this case a bias of approximately 25% was introduced when using volume standardization, whereas the uncertainty related to creatinine standardization was independent...

  14. NODC Standard Product: US Navy Geosat Enhanced JGM-3 Geophysical Data Records (GDR) from the Geodetic and Exact Repeat Missions (NODC Accession 0053056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a copy of the NODC CD_ROM product titled 'Enhanced JGM-3 Geophysical Data Records (GDRs) from the Geodetic and Exact Repeat Missions' that...

  15. Variability of United States isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina based on simple sequence repeats and cross genus transferability to related Botryosphaeraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve simple sequence repeat (SSRs) loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of 109 isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina collected from different geographical regions and host species throughout the United States (U.S.). Genetic diversity was assessed using Nei’s minimum genetic distance and th...

  16. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  17. New Standards relative to water meters; La futura normative relativa a contadores de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Cabeza, I. M.

    2003-07-01

    New standards relative to water meters no-existent till now are being developed in Europe. Nowadays there is specific European legislation but it is obsolete due to the constant evolution of the technology. The future Measuring Instrument Directive will need European harmonized standards to complement it and these standards will be included in the national normative body of each Member State. (Author) 6 refs.

  18. 76 FR 14777 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Labor Relations Authority AGENCY... Authority (FLRA), with the concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), is adopting as final, without change, the interim FLRA rule that supplements the executive-branch-wide Standards of...

  19. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive...

  20. Vaginismus and dyspareunia : Relationship with general and sex-related moral standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance beh

  1. Vaginismus and dyspareunia : Relationship with general and sex-related moral standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Relatively strong adherence to conservative values and/or relatively strict sex-related moral standards logically restricts the sexual repertoire and will lower the threshold for experiencing negative emotions in a sexual context. In turn, this may generate withdrawal and avoidance beh

  2. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  3. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when using...... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...... increase in convenience for the participants, when collecting small volumes rather than complete 24 h samples....

  4. NODC Standard Product: US Navy Geosat altimeter T2 Geophysical Data Records for the Exact Repeat Mission (6 disc set) (NODC Accession 0053521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a copy of the NODC CD-ROM product titled US Navy Geosat altimeter T2 GDRs for the Exact Repeat Mission for the time period of November 08,...

  5. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  6. Repeated high-speed activities during youth soccer games in relation to changes in maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Simpson, B M; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in highly-trained young soccer players whether substantial changes in either maximal sprinting speed (MSS) or maximal aerobic speed (as inferred from peak incremental test speed, V(Vam-Eval)) can affect repeated high-intensity running during games. Data from 33 players (14.5±1.3 years), who presented substantial changes in either MSS or V(Vam-Eval) throughout 2 consecutive testing periods (~3 months) were included in the final analysis. For each player, time-motion analyses were performed using a global positioning system (1-Hz) during 2-10 international club games played within 1-2 months from/to each testing period of interest (n for game analyzed=109, player-games=393, games per player per period=4±2). Sprint activities were defined as at least a 1-s run at intensities higher than 61% of individual MSS. Repeated-sprint sequences (RSS) were defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive sprints interspersed with a maximum of 60 s of recovery. Improvements in both MSS and V(Vam-Eval) were likely associated with a decreased RSS occurrence, but in some positions only (e. g., - 24% vs. - 3% for improvements in MSS in strikers vs. midfielders, respectively). The changes in the number of sprints per RSS were less clear but also position-dependent, e. g., +7 to +12% for full-backs and wingers, - 5 to - 7% for centre-backs and midfielders. In developing soccer players, changes in repeated-sprint activity during games do not necessarily match those in physical fitness. Game tactical and strategic requirements are likely to modulate on-field players' activity patterns independently (at least partially) of players' physical capacities.

  7. Molecular cloning and long terminal repeat sequences of human endogenous retrovirus genes related to types A and B retrovirus genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M.

    1986-06-01

    By using a DNA fragment primarily encoding the reverse transcriptase (pol) region of the Syrian hamster intracisternal A particle (IAP; type A retrovirus) gene as a probe, human endogenous retrovirus genes, tentatively termed HERV-K genes, were cloned from a fetal human liver gene library. Typical HERV-K genes were 9.1 or 9.4 kilobases in length, having long terminal repeats (LTRs) of ca. 970 base pairs. Many structural features commonly observed on the retrovirus LTRs, such as the TATAA box, polyadenylation signal, and terminal inverted repeats, were present on each LTR, and a lysine (K) tRNA having a CUU anticodon was identified as a presumed primer tRNA. The HERV-K LTR, however, had little sequence homology to either the IAP LTR or other typical oncovirus LTRs. By filter hybridization, the number of HERV-K genes was estimated to be ca. 50 copies per haploid human genome. The cloned mouse mammary tumor virus (type B) gene was found to hybridize with both the HERV-K and IAP genes to essentially the same extent.

  8. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  9. Standards-Based External Exams and Students' Science-Related Career Expectations: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong Won

    2016-01-01

    Students' science-related career expectations are important for predicting their future science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related educational and occupational attainments. This study examines the degree to which standards-based external examinations are associated with a student's propensity for pursuing science-related…

  10. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  11. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  12. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  13. No evidence that 2D:4D is related to the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eHönekopp

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The length ratio of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D is a putative marker of prenatal testosterone (T effects. The number of CAG repeats (CAGn in the AR gene is negatively correlated with T sensitivity in vitro. Results regarding the relationship between 2D:4D and CAGn are mixed but have featured prominently in arguments for and against the validity of 2D:4D. Here, I present random-effects meta-analyses on 14 relevant samples with altogether 1,904 subjects. Results were homogeneous across studies. Even liberal estimates (upper limit of the 95% CI were close to zero and therefore suggested no substantial relationship of CAGn with either right-hand 2D:4D, left-hand 2D:4D, or the difference between the two. However, closer analysis of the effects of CAGn on T dependent gene activation in vitro and of relationships between CAGn and T dependent phenotypic characteristics suggest that normal variability of CAGn has mostly no, very small, or inconsistent effects. Therefore, the lack of a clear association between CAGn and 2D:4D has no negative implications for the latter’s validity as a marker of prenatal T effects.

  14. Technical Review of Law Enforcement Standards and Guides Relative to Incident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Salter, R.; Stanton, J. R.; Fisher, D.

    2009-03-24

    In an effort to locate potential law enforcement-related standards that support incident management, a team from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contacted representatives from the National Institute of Standards-Office of Law Enforcement Standards (NIST-OLES), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Secret Service, ASTM International committees that have a law enforcement focus, and a variety of individuals from local and regional law enforcement organizations. Discussions were held with various state and local law enforcement organizations. The NIJ has published several specific equipment-related law enforcement standards that were included in the review, but it appears that law enforcement program and process-type standards are developed principally by organizations that operate at the state and local level. Input is provided from state regulations and codes and from external non-government organizations (NGOs) that provide national standards. The standards that are adopted from external organizations or developed independently by state authorities are available for use by local law enforcement agencies on a voluntary basis. The extent to which they are used depends on the respective jurisdictions involved. In some instances, use of state and local disseminated standards is mandatory, but in most cases, use is voluntary. Usually, the extent to which these standards are used appears to depend on whether or not jurisdictions receive certification from a “governing” entity due to their use and compliance with the standards. In some cases, these certification-based standards are used in principal but without certification or other compliance monitoring. In general, these standards appear to be routinely used for qualification, selection for employment, and training. In these standards, the term “Peace Officer” is frequently used to refer to law enforcement personnel. This technical review of national law

  15. Digital Image Analysis of Flowering in the Repeat-Blooming Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) in Relation to Climatic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, L. M.; Kurc, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that phenology (seasonal timing of life cycle events) is an effective integrator of the impacts of climate change on natural systems. Thus, understanding the climate signals that activate plant phenological responses (e.g., flowering and leaf production) will allow for improved modeling efforts and more effective ecosystem management strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change. With warmer and drier weather patterns predicted for the Desert Southwest in the coming century it can be expected that plant phenological patterns will be altered as a result. The most dominant and widespread shrub species of the warm desert ecosystems of North America is the creosotebush (Larrea tridentata). Consequently, creosotebush has a major impact on the structure, functioning, and flow of resources (i.e., carbon, water, and energy) in these regions, and when in bloom serves as an abundant and reliable food source for hundreds of pollinating insects that synchronize their emergence with flowering time. In this study, we hypothesize that frequency, duration and abundance of flowers in the repeat-blooming creosotebush are regulated by (1) temperature during the spring and (2) soil moisture below the depth of atmospheric demand in the summer. We make use of daily digital images from three stations at the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. These stations are located within the footprint of an eddy covariance tower, where continuous records of precipitation, air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture at various depths, and net radiation are also being collected. Unlike more discrete methods used to observe seasonal changes in vegetation, use of daily images results in a continuous record that can be directly compared to micrometeorological data, allowing us to evaluate the bloom-up response of creosotebush alongside (1) air temperature, (2) soil temperature, and (3) soil water content fluctuations across time. We show that this

  16. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  17. 12 CFR 335.121 - Listing standards related to audit committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Listing standards related to audit committees. 335.121 Section 335.121 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND... audit committees. The provisions of the applicable SEC regulation under section 10(A)(m) of the...

  18. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Proposed Rule #0... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... corridors, and risk adjustment consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  19. Evidence of Shifting Standards in Judgments of Male and Female Parents' Job-Related Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuegen, Kathleen; Endicott, Nicole F.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis, derived from the shifting standards model of stereotyping, that parenthood would polarize judgments of men's and women's job-related ability. One hundred thirty-five attorneys evaluated the resume of a recent law school graduate. The resume depicted the graduate as male or female and as either single or married with two…

  20. 45 CFR 148.170 - Standards relating to benefits for mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to Benefits § 148.170 Standards relating to benefits for mothers and newborns. (a) Hospital length of... hospital, the hospital length of stay begins at the time the mother or newborn is admitted as a hospital...) Discharge of newborn. If a decision to discharge a newborn child earlier than the period specified in...

  1. Effect of variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the human dopamine transporter gene on conflict information processing according to event-related potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyu Han; Yuping Wang; Xin Wang; Ying Liu

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine transporter(DAT)is responsible for dopamine reuptake from the synaptic cleft.A variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the DAT gene is related to DAT availability and has been associated with cognition.With the advantage of high-time resolution,event-related potential is an important method to study the time course of human information processing.Previous results have suggested that dopamine exhibits a close relationship with conflicting information processing.Therefore,the present study assumed that conflicting information processing could be influenced by DAT variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism.To confirm this,the present study analyzed the influence of DAT genotypes on N270,which is presumed to reflect neural activity of conflict information processing in young healthy adults.A S1-S2 matching task was performed in healthy adults with 10/10 genotype(n = 14)and 10/9genotypes(n = 14),respectively,when event-related potentials were recorded.Results demonstrated that subjects with the 10/10 genotype exhibited shorter N270 latency and quicker reaction times compared with subjects with the 10/9 genotype.There were no differences in N270amplitude between the two genotypes.These results suggested that 10/10 genotype subjects more efficiently processed conflict information.

  2. Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal and Choroidal Thickness Metric Repeatability in Age-related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie

    2016-01-01

    ) macular subfields. Center point thickness and total macular volume were also included in the analysis. Manual subfoveal choroidal thickness measurements were made by a masked observer. RESULTS: A total of 40 eyes of 40 patients were included in this analysis (mean [± standard deviation] age: 74.1 [± 7...... for the center point was 47.5 μm (95% CI 46.2-48.7 μm). Images were also reviewed for the presence of segmentation error in the central macular subfield, and after exclusion of these eyes the revised CR for this subfield was 13.7 μm (95% CI 13.3-14.1 μm). The intrasession CR of subfoveal choroidal thickness...... was 34.7 μm (95% CI 33.7-35.7 μm). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a change of greater than 31 μm in Spectralis SDOCT-derived retinal thickness measurement of the central macular subfield and 35 μm in subfoveal choroidal thickness is necessary to detect true clinical change associated with disease...

  3. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF.

  4. Repeated modification of early limb morphogenesis programmes underlies the convergence of relative limb length in Anolis lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Sanger, Thomas J.; Revell, Liam J.; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Losos, Jonathan B

    2011-01-01

    The independent evolution of similar morphologies has long been a subject of considerable interest to biologists. Does phenotypic convergence reflect the primacy of natural selection, or does development set the course of evolution by channelling variation in certain directions? Here, we examine the ontogenetic origins of relative limb length variation among Anolis lizard habitat specialists to address whether convergent phenotypes have arisen through convergent developmental trajectories. De...

  5. Relative pointing offset analysis of calibration targets with repeated observations with Herschel-SPIRE Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Valtchanov, Ivan; Polehampton, Edward; Benielli, Dominique; Fulton, Trevor; Imhof, Peter; Konopczynski, Tomasz; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Marchili, Nicola; Naylor, David; Swinyard, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to derive the relative pointing offsets for SPIRE Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) solar system object (SSO) calibration targets, which were observed regularly throughout the Herschel mission. We construct ratios of the spectra for all observations of a given source with respect to a reference. The reference observation is selected iteratively to be the one with the highest observed continuum. Assuming that any pointing offset leads to an overall shift of the continuum level, then these ratios represent the relative flux loss due to mispointing. The mispointing effects are more pronounced for a smaller beam, so we consider only the FTS short wavelength array (SSW, 958-1546 GHz) to derive a pointing correction. We obtain the relative pointing offset by comparing the ratio to a grid of expected losses for a model source at different distances from the centre of the beam, under the assumption that the SSW FTS beam can be well approximated by a Gaussian. In order to avoid dependency on the...

  6. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  7. Expression and sub-cellular localization of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains are related to antioxidant enzymes in human ependymoma and oligodendroglioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yi; Lin Liu; Okechi Humphrey; Qianxue Chen; Shulan Huang

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated correlations between the expression of leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domain 1 (LRIG1) and antioxidant enzymes and related proteins, including manganese superoxide dismutase, glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic or regulatory subunit, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, in both human ependymoma and oligodendroglioma. Results revealed that the cytoplasmic expression of LRIG1 was associated with expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit in the human ependymoma, while the nuclear expression of LRIG1 was associated with expression of thioredoxin reductase. In human oligodendroglioma, the cytoplasmic expression of LRIG1 was associated with expression of the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. Both the nuclear and perinuclear expressions of LRIG1 were associated with expression of glutamate cysteine ligase regulatory subunit. These results indicated that several antioxidant enzymes and related proteins contributed to LRIG1 expression, and that these may participate in the antioxidation of the cells.

  8. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  9. A new standard nomenclature for proteins related to Apx and Shroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staub Olivier

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shroom is a recently-described regulator of cell shape changes in the developing nervous system. This protein is a member of a small family of related proteins that are defined by sequence similarity and in most cases by some link to the actin cytoskeleton. At present these proteins are named Shroom, APX, APXL, and KIAA1202. In light of the growing interest in this family of proteins, we propose here a new standard nomenclature.

  10. Gravitational collapse with standard and dark energy in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gamal G.L.Nashed

    2012-01-01

    A perfect fluid with self-similarity of the second kind is studied within the framework of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR).A spacetime which is not asymptotically flat is derived.The energy conditions of this spacetime are studied.It is shown that after some time the strong energy condition is not enough to satisfy showing a transition from standard matter to dark energy.The singularities of this solution are discussed.

  11. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  12. Renormalization group: New relations between the parameters of the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez W., S. Rebeca; Kielanowski, Piotr; Mora, Gerardo; Bohm, Arno

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the renormalization group equations for the Standard Model at the one and two loops levels. At one loop level we find an exact constant of evolution built from the product of the quark masses and the gauge couplings g1 and g3 of the U (1) and SU (3) groups. For leptons at one loop level we find that the ratio of the charged lepton mass and the power of g1 varies ≃ 4 ×10-5 in the whole energy range. At the two loop level we have found two relations between the quark masses and the gauge couplings that vary ≃ 4% and ≃ 1%, respectively. For leptons at the two loop level we have derived a relation between the charged lepton mass and the gauge couplings g1 and g2 that varies ≃ 0.1%. This analysis significantly simplifies the picture of the renormalization group evolution of the Standard Model and establishes new important relations between its parameters. There is also included a discussion of the gauge invariance of our relations and its possible relation to the reduction of couplings method.

  13. Renormalization group: New relations between the parameters of the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rebeca Juárez W.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the renormalization group equations for the Standard Model at the one and two loops levels. At one loop level we find an exact constant of evolution built from the product of the quark masses and the gauge couplings g1 and g3 of the U(1 and SU(3 groups. For leptons at one loop level we find that the ratio of the charged lepton mass and the power of g1 varies ≃4×10−5 in the whole energy range. At the two loop level we have found two relations between the quark masses and the gauge couplings that vary ≃4% and ≃1%, respectively. For leptons at the two loop level we have derived a relation between the charged lepton mass and the gauge couplings g1 and g2 that varies ≃0.1%. This analysis significantly simplifies the picture of the renormalization group evolution of the Standard Model and establishes new important relations between its parameters. There is also included a discussion of the gauge invariance of our relations and its possible relation to the reduction of couplings method.

  14. From Classical to Discrete Gravity through Exponential Non-Standard Lagrangians in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ahmad El-Nabulsi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, non-standard Lagrangians have gained a growing importance in theoretical physics and in the theory of non-linear differential equations. However, their formulations and implications in general relativity are still in their infancies despite some advances in contemporary cosmology. The main aim of this paper is to fill the gap. Though non-standard Lagrangians may be defined by a multitude form, in this paper, we considered the exponential type. One basic feature of exponential non-standard Lagrangians concerns the modified Euler-Lagrange equation obtained from the standard variational analysis. Accordingly, when applied to spacetime geometries, one unsurprisingly expects modified geodesic equations. However, when taking into account the time-like paths parameterization constraint, remarkably, it was observed that mutually discrete gravity and discrete spacetime emerge in the theory. Two different independent cases were obtained: A geometrical manifold with new spacetime coordinates augmented by a metric signature change and a geometrical manifold characterized by a discretized spacetime metric. Both cases give raise to Einstein’s field equations yet the gravity is discretized and originated from “spacetime discreteness”. A number of mathematical and physical implications of these results were discussed though this paper and perspectives are given accordingly.

  15. Impact of volunteer-related and methodology-related factors on the reproducibility of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation: analysis of 672 individual repeated measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil, A.C.C.M. van; Greyling, A.; Zock, P.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Mensink, R.P.; Reesink, K.D.; Green, D.J.; Ghiadoni, L.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a popular technique to examine endothelial function in humans. Identifying volunteer and methodological factors related to variation in FMD is important to improve measurement accuracy and applicability. METHODS: Volunteer-related and

  16. Development of a Standard for the Health Hazard Assessment of Mechanical Shock and Repeated Impact in Army Vehicles, Phase 3, Pilot Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    distal end of the connection wires and sealed at the heat shrink interface . An amphenol electrical connector was attached at the distal end. Wires within...ODAU), computer adapter interface card, and data acquisition and analysis software. Instrumentation and Layout A block diagram of the instrumentation...and Chung-Cheng, H. 1986. Myoelectric analysis of the paraspinal musculature in relation to automobile driving. Spine 11(8):928-936. Hulshof, C. and

  17. GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis related to arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Meei-Maan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is a strong stimulus of heme oxygenase (HO-1 expression in experimental studies in response to oxidative stress caused by a stimulus. A functional GT-repeat polymorphism in the HO-1 gene promoter was inversely correlated to the development of coronary artery disease in diabetics and development of restenosis following angioplasty in patients. The role of this potential vascular protective factor in carotid atherosclerosis remains unclear. We previously reported a graded association of arsenic exposure in drinking water with an increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HO-1 genetic polymorphism and the risk of atherosclerosis related to arsenic. Methods Three-hundred and sixty-seven participants with an indication of carotid atherosclerosis and an additional 420 participants without the indication, which served as the controls, from two arsenic exposure areas in Taiwan, a low arsenic-exposed Lanyang cohort and a high arsenic-exposed LMN cohort, were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was evaluated using a duplex ultrasonographic assessment of the extracranial carotid arteries. Allelic variants of (GTn repeats in the 5'-flanking region of the HO-1 gene were identified and grouped into a short (S allele ( Results Analysis results showed that arsenic's effect on carotid atherosclerosis differed between carriers of the class S allele (OR 1.39; 95% CI 0.86-2.25; p = 0.181 and non-carriers (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.03-6.82; p = 0.044 in the high-exposure LMN cohort. At arsenic exposure levels exceeding 750 μg/L, difference in OR estimates between class S allele carriers and non-carriers was borderline significant (p = 0.051. In contrast, no such results were found in the low-exposure Lanyang cohort. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that at a relatively high level of arsenic exposure, carriers of the short (GTn allele (

  18. STANDARDIZATION THE SYSTEM OF ASSESSMENT FOR COMPETENCE AND RELATED OBJECTS BASED ON THE STANDARD ISO/IEC 24763

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V. Levin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main statements of the international standard ISO/IEC 24763, that defines the requirements to the competency framework and to the competency information management, description, evaluation and merging methods in different IT-systems. The necessity for competency evaluation IT-systems development is considered in terms of advanced staff training, creating e-portfolios and career development. 

  19. 77 FR 51798 - First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... AGENCY First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First External Review Draft. The Agency is...-001; July 2012), please contact Ms. Karen Wesson, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards...

  20. Quark-Lepton Mass Relation in a Realistic A4 Extension of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    King, S F; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2013-01-01

    We propose a realistic A4 extension of the Standard Model involving a particular quark-lepton mass relation, namely that the ratio of the third family mass to the geometric mean of the first and second family masses are equal for down-type quarks and charged leptons. This relation, which is approximately renormalization group invariant, is usually regarded as arising from the Georgi-Jarlskog relations, but in the present model there is no unification group or supersymmetry. In the neutrino sector we propose a simple modification of the so called Zee-Wolfenstein mass matrix pattern which allows an acceptable reactor angle along with a deviation of the atmospheric and solar angles from their bi-maximal values. Quark masses, mixing angles and CP violation are well described by a numerical fit.

  1. [Assessing work-related stress: an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatto, Francesco; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Blas, Lisa; Ferrante, Donatella

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary validation of an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool (IT), an instrument for assessing work-related stress at the organizational level, originally developed in Britain by the Health and Safety Executive. A scale that assesses the physical work environment has been added to the original version of the IT. 190 employees of the University of Trieste have been enrolled in the study. A confirmatory analysis showed a satisfactory fit of the eight-factors structure of the instrument. Further psychometric analysis showed adequate internal consistency of the IT scales and good criterion validity, as evidenced by the correlations with self-perception of stress, work satisfaction and motivation. In conclusion, the Indicator Tool proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of work-related stress at the organizational level, and it is also compatible with the instructions provided by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Circular letter 18/11/2010).

  2. Repeated measurement sampling in genetic association analysis with genotyping errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Renzhen; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2007-02-01

    Genotype misclassification occurs frequently in human genetic association studies. When cases and controls are subject to the same misclassification model, Pearson's chi-square test has the correct type I error but may lose power. Most current methods adjusting for genotyping errors assume that the misclassification model is known a priori or can be assessed by a gold standard instrument. But in practical applications, the misclassification probabilities may not be completely known or the gold standard method can be too costly to be available. The repeated measurement design provides an alternative approach for identifying misclassification probabilities. With this design, a proportion of the subjects are measured repeatedly (five or more repeats) for the genotypes when the error model is completely unknown. We investigate the applications of the repeated measurement method in genetic association analysis. Cost-effectiveness study shows that if the phenotyping-to-genotyping cost ratio or the misclassification rates are relatively large, the repeat sampling can gain power over the regular case-control design. We also show that the power gain is not sensitive to the genetic model, genetic relative risk and the population high-risk allele frequency, all of which are typically important ingredients in association studies. An important implication of this result is that whatever the genetic factors are, the repeated measurement method can be applied if the genotyping errors must be accounted for or the phenotyping cost is high.

  3. Current considerations related to physiological differences between the sexes and physical employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Delia; Gebhardt, Deborah L; Gaskill, Steven E; Roy, Tanja C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2016-06-01

    The use of physical employment standards (PES) has helped ensure that workers have the physical attributes necessary to complete their jobs in a safe and efficient manner. However, PES used in the selection processes have not always reflected the critical physical requirements of the job tasks. Women generally have smaller anthropometric stature than men, less muscle mass, and therefore less strength, power, and endurance, particularly in the upper body. Nonetheless, these attributes in themselves are not valid grounds for exclusion from employment in physically demanding occupations. Selection standards based upon size or strength, irrespective of the job requirements, have resulted in the barring of capable women from physically demanding jobs, claims of gender bias, and costly litigations. To ensure all individuals are provided with equal access to employment, accurate characterization of the critical physical requirements of the job is paramount. This paper summarizes the existing research related to disparities between the sexes that contribute to sex differences in job performance in physically demanding occupations including physical and legal factors. Strategies for mitigating these differences in the setting of PES and the meeting of minimum employment standards are discussed. Where available, injury rates for women and men in physically demanding occupations are presented and the etiology considered. Finally, areas for further research are identified.

  4. Systematic review: work-related stress and the HSE management standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, K; Limbert, C; Deacy, C; O'Reilly, A; Scott, S; Thirlaway, K

    2013-10-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has defined six management standards representing aspects of work that, if poorly managed, are associated with lower levels of employee health and productivity, and increased sickness absence. The HSE indicator tool aims to measure organizations' performance in managing the primary stressors identified by the HSE management standards. The aims of the study are to explore how the HSE indicator tool has been implemented within organizations and to identify contexts in which the tool has been used, its psychometric properties and relationships with alternative measures of well-being and stress. Studies that matched specific criteria were included in the review. Abstracts were considered by two researchers to ensure a reliable process. Full texts were obtained when abstracts met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen papers were included in the review. Using factor analysis and measures of reliability, the studies suggest that the HSE indicator tool is a psychometrically sound measure. The tool has been used to measure work-related stress across different occupational groups, with a clear relationship between the HSE tool and alternative measures of well-being. Limitations of the tool and recommendations for future research are discussed. The HSE indicator tool is a psychometrically sound measure of organizational performance against the HSE management standards. As such it can provide a broad overview of sources of work-related stress within organizations. More research is required to explore the use of the tool in the design of interventions to reduce stress, and its use in different contexts and with different cultural and gender groups.

  5. E-mailed standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Bouwman, Manon; Broeksteeg, Janneke; Schrieken, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 7-week standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress conducted via e-mail. A total of 342 people applied for treatment in reaction to a newspaper article. Initial screening reduced the sample to a heterogeneous (sub)clinical group of 239 participants. Participants were assigned randomly to a waiting list condition (n = 62), or to immediate treatment (n = 177). A follow-up was conducted 3 years after inception of the treatment. The outcome measures used were the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42) and the Emotional Exhaustion scale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS). Fifty participants (21%) dropped out. Both groups showed statistically significant improvements. Intention-to-treat analysis of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed that participants in the treatment condition improved significantly more than those in the waiting control condition (0.001 or = d > or = 0.5 (anxiety)). The between-group effects ranged from d = 0.6 (stress) to d = 0.1 (anxiety). At follow-up, the effects were more pronounced, but this result requires replication in view of high attrition at follow-up. The results warrant further research on Internet-driven standardized cognitive behavioural therapy for work-related stress. Such research should include the direct comparison of this treatment with face-to-face treatment, and should address the optimal level of therapist contact in Internet-driven treatment.

  6. Abnormal brain activation and connectivity to standardized disorder-related visual scenes in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Carina Yvonne; Feldker, Katharina; Neumeister, Paula; Zepp, Britta Maria; Peterburs, Jutta; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Straube, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of altered emotional processing in social anxiety disorder (SAD) is hampered by a heterogeneity of findings, which is probably due to the vastly different methods and materials used so far. This is why the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated immediate disorder-related threat processing in 30 SAD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) with a novel, standardized set of highly ecologically valid, disorder-related complex visual scenes. SAD patients rated disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes as more unpleasant, arousing and anxiety-inducing than HC. On the neural level, disorder-related as compared with neutral scenes evoked differential responses in SAD patients in a widespread emotion processing network including (para-)limbic structures (e.g. amygdala, insula, thalamus, globus pallidus) and cortical regions (e.g. dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and precuneus). Functional connectivity analysis yielded an altered interplay between PCC/precuneus and paralimbic (insula) as well as cortical regions (dmPFC, precuneus) in SAD patients, which emphasizes a central role for PCC/precuneus in disorder-related scene processing. Hyperconnectivity of globus pallidus with amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) additionally underlines the relevance of this region in socially anxious threat processing. Our findings stress the importance of specific disorder-related stimuli for the investigation of altered emotion processing in SAD. Disorder-related threat processing in SAD reveals anomalies at multiple stages of emotion processing which may be linked to increased anxiety and to dysfunctionally elevated levels of self-referential processing reported in previous studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Analysis of climate change impact on meteorological and hydrological droughts through relative standardized indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Patricia; Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Southern Mediterranean basins are prone to droughts, due to the high temporal and spatial rainfall variability. In addition, semiarid Mediterranean regions emerge as noticeable climate change hotspots, with high uncertainty about the impacts of climate change on future droughts. Standardized drought indices have been traditionally used to assess and identify drought events, because of their simplicity and flexibility to compare the departure from normal status across regions at different timescales. Nevertheless, the statistical foundation of these indices assumes stationarity for certain aspects of the cli-matic variables, which could not be longer adopted under climate change. Thus, in recent years several modifications have been proposed in order to cope with these limitations. This contribution provides a framework to analyze climate change impact on meteorological and hydrological droughts, considering the predicted shifts in precipitation and temperature and the uncertainty of the assumed distribution parameters. To characterize drought in a climate change context, relative standardized indices instead of the traditional ones are applied: Standardized Precipitation Index (rSPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (rSPEI) and a Standardized Flow Index (rSFI). The behavior of the rSPI versus the multiscalar rSPEI is contrasted. A modification of the Thornthwaite scheme is presented to improve the representation of the intra-annual variation of the potential evapotranspiration (PET) in continental climate areas. The uncertainty due to the selected hydrological model is assessed through the comparison of the performance and outcome of three conceptual lumped-parameter models (Temez, GR2M, and HBV-light). The Temez model was selected to obtain the runoff for the rSFI, given that it showed the best fitting in our case study. To address the uncertainty of the indices distribution parameters, bootstrapping was combined with the computation of the

  8. Relation between the national handbook of recommended methods for water data acquisition and ASTM standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Skinner, John V.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1950's, intense demands for water and growing concerns about declines in the quality of water generated the need for more water-resources data. About thirty Federal agencies, hundreds of State, county and local agencies, and many private organizations had been collecting water data. However, because of differences in procedures and equipment, many of the data bases were incompatible. In 1964, as a step toward establishing more uniformity, the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget, OMB) issued 'Circular A-67' which presented guidelines for collecting water data and also served as a catalyst for creating the Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC) within the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper discusses past, present, and future aspects of the relation between methods in the National Handbook and standards published by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Committee D-19 on Water's Subcommittee D-19.07 on Sediment, Geomorphology, and Open Channel Flow. The discussion also covers historical aspects of standards - development work jointly conducted by OWDC and ASTM.

  9. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene intron 4 variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in β-thalassemia major: relation to cardiovascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, Azza A G; Adly, Amira A M; Ismail, Eman A; Aly, Shereen H

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that generates nitric oxide, is a major determinant of endothelial function. Several eNOS gene polymorphisms have been reported as 'susceptibility genes' in various human diseases states, including cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal diseases. We studied the 27-base pair tandem repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of eNOS gene in 60 β-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients compared with 60 healthy controls and assessed its role in subclinical atherosclerosis and vascular complications. Patients were evaluated stressing on transfusion history, splenectomy, thrombotic events, echocardiography and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Analysis of eNOS intron 4 gene polymorphism was performed by PCR. No significant difference was found between β-TM patients and controls with regard to the distribution of eNOS4 alleles or genotypes. The frequency of eNOS4a allele (aa and ab genotypes) was significantly higher in β-TM patients with pulmonary hypertension or cardiomyopathy. Logistic regression analysis revealed that eNOS4a allele was an independent risk factor for pulmonary hypertension in β-TM patients [odds ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19-5.6; P < 0.001]. We suggest that eNOS intron 4 gene polymorphism is related to endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis and could be a possible genetic marker for prediction of increased susceptibility to cardiovascular complications.

  10. Gauge-Independent Scales Related to the Standard Model Vacuum Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Jose R.; Konstandin, Thomas; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The measured (central) values of the Higgs and top quark masses indicate that the Standard Model (SM) effective potential develops an instability at high field values. The scale of this instability, determined as the Higgs field value at which the potential drops below the electroweak minimum, is about $10^{11}$ GeV. However, such a scale is unphysical as it is not gauge-invariant and suffers from a gauge-fixing uncertainty of up to two orders of magnitude. Subjecting our system, the SM, to several probes of the instability (adding higher order operators to the potential; letting the vacuum decay through critical bubbles; heating up the system to very high temperature; inflating it) and asking in each case physical questions, we are able to provide several gauge-invariant scales related with the Higgs potential instability.

  11. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  12. Determine equilibrium dissociation constant of drug-membrane receptor affinity using the cell membrane chromatography relative standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weina; Yang, Liu; Lv, Yanni; Fu, Jia; Zhang, Yanmin; He, Langchong

    2017-06-23

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of drug-membrane receptor affinity is the basic parameter that reflects the strength of interaction. The cell membrane chromatography (CMC) method is an effective technique to study the characteristics of drug-membrane receptor affinity. In this study, the KD value of CMC relative standard method for the determination of drug-membrane receptor affinity was established to analyze the relative KD values of drugs binding to the membrane receptors (Epidermal growth factor receptor and angiotensin II receptor). The KD values obtained by the CMC relative standard method had a strong correlation with those obtained by the frontal analysis method. Additionally, the KD values obtained by CMC relative standard method correlated with pharmacological activity of the drug being evaluated. The CMC relative standard method is a convenient and effective method to evaluate drug-membrane receptor affinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The validity of a monitoring system based on routinely collected dairy cattle health data relative to a standardized herd check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of

  14. The Effect of the International Accounting Standards on the Related Party Transactions Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stauropoulos Antonios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Several recent North American corporate scandals have brought attention to the potential for accounting manipulations associated with Related Party Transactions (RPTs, which have lead to a decline in perceived earnings quality. We examine the value relevance of disclosed RPTs in Greek corporations. Approach: We focus on two types of RPTs: sales of goods and sales of assets, using a value relevance approach. Results: From 2002-2007, we find that the reported earnings of firms selling goods or assets to related parties exhibit a lower valuation coefficient than those of firms in Greece without such transactions. This result is not observed during 2005-2007 after a new fair value measurement rule for RPTs came into effect. Conclusion: Our evidence suggests that the new RPT regulation in Greece is perceived to be effective at reducing the potential misuse of RPTs for earnings management purposes. Since RPTs have been the subject of numerous scandals in North America, our evidence from the Greek stock markets suggests that new RPT accounting standards could prove an efficient solution to this issue.

  15. Non-standard employment relations and wages among school leavers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.R. de; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-standard (alternatively, flexible) employment has become common in the Netherlands, and viewed as an important weapon for combating youth unemployment. However, if such jobs are 'bad', non-standard employment becomes a matter of concern. In addition, non-standard employment may hit the least qua

  16. The association of insertions/deletions (INDELs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) with obesity and its related traits and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Yee-How

    2017-06-14

    Despite the fact that insertions/deletions (INDELs) are the second most common type of genetic variations and variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) represent a large portion of the human genome, they have received far less attention than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and larger forms of structural variation like copy number variations (CNVs), especially in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex diseases like polygenic obesity. This is exemplified by the vast amount of review papers on the role of SNPs and CNVs in obesity, its related traits (like anthropometric measurements, biochemical variables, and eating behavior), and its related complications (like hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance-collectively known as metabolic syndrome). Hence, this paper reviews the types of INDELs and VNTRs that have been studied for association with obesity and its related traits and complications. These INDELs and VNTRs could be found in the obesity loci or genes from the earliest GWAS and candidate gene association studies, like FTO, genes in the leptin-proopiomelanocortin pathway, and UCP2/3. Given the important role of the brain serotonergic and dopaminergic reward system in obesity susceptibility, the association of INDELs and VNTRs in these neurotransmitters' metabolism and transport genes with obesity is also reviewed. Next, the role of INS VNTR in obesity and its related traits is questionable, since recent large-scale studies failed to replicate the earlier positive associations. As obesity results in chronic low-grade inflammation of the adipose tissue, the proinflammatory cytokine gene IL1RA and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene IL4 have VNTRs that are implicated in obesity. A systemic proinflammatory state in combination with activation of the renin-angiotensin system and decreased nitric oxide bioavailability as found in obesity leads to endothelial dysfunction. This explains why VNTR and INDEL in eNOS and

  17. Effects of standard humic materials on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in juvenile swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Delannoy

    Full Text Available Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5 (SPAC were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n = 5 for each group. During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19,200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6,000 ng.g⁻¹ of NDL-PCBs to achieve an exposure dose of 1,200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg⁻¹ of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds.

  18. [Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion should include standards related to acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaiyu

    2016-03-01

    The development of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion should be in accord with the trend of standardization and internationalization of the science of acupuncture and moxibustion. Based on the arrangement of chapters and sections in the textbook, 29 national standards, 6 standards or guidelines made by World Health Or- ganization(WHO) and 1 standard out of International Standardization Organization (ISO) are classified and intro- duced. It is suggested that the above contents should be considered as the evidence when the textbook is reedited. Also, it is proposed that humanization should be supplemented and the newest research findings should be traced.

  19. Analysis of Chinese Accounting Standards for the Oil and Gas Industry and Related Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Accounting standards are the tools for distribution of the revenues. Their development trend is influenced by their stakeholders. The evolution of American oil and gas accounting standards has been shaped by the profit-maximizing process of American oil and gas company shareholders, which for outside lobbying relied on their huge capital and organization. The development and perfection of Chinese new oil and gas accounting standards should consider not only the criterion of standards but also the real political fact in China oil and gas industry. The research on oil and gas accounting standards is an academic study as well as a political analysis.

  20. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  1. Development of standards and a cost model for coal agglomeration and related studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G.; Kuby, O.A.; Korosi, F.A.; Paulin, M.O.

    1982-02-26

    Several topics concerning coal agglomeration and fixed-bed coal gasification, as they relate to an agglomeration-process development program presently being performed for the Department of Energy, are discussed in this report. Specific topics include an examination of the performance of coals in fixed-bed gasifiers, the development of properties' standards by which agglomerates produced in the program may be compared, the development of a cost model to judge the economic feasibility of coal agglomeration for potential users and the maximum binder levels to be considered in the program, the definition of a suitable briquette size for coal gasification, and a study of upgrading methods at the mines to improve agglomeration. Extensive property data and the results of a number of special tests on six coals (Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, Wyoming Bighorn subbituminous coal, Montana Rosebud No. 14 subbituminous coal, North Dakota Indian Head lignite and Pennsylvania Nanoth anthracite coal) and on FMC formcoke and Simplex briquettes are reported.

  2. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  3. Large-scale studies of the HphI insulin gene variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism in relation to Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S K; Gjesing, A P; Rasmussen, S K

    2004-01-01

    The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose-induced ins......The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose...

  4. The Relation of Standard Metabolic Rate to Water Temperature and Body Weight of Schlegels Black Rockfish (Sebastodes Fuscescens)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志敏; 孙耀; 张波; 唐启升

    2004-01-01

    Standard metabolic rates of Schlegels black rockfish with different body weights are determined in laboratory by using the flow-through respirometer at 11.2 ℃, 14.7 ℃, 18.0℃ and 23.6 ℃. The results indicate that the standard metabolic rates increase with the increase of body weight at different temperatures. Relationship between them could be described as Rs = a InW b. The mean of standard metabolic rate is significantly different among groups, but the b values are not. The standard metabolic rates of amended standard body weights decrease with the increase of temperature, and the mean of standard metabolic rate is also significantly different among groups when the standard body weights are 48.6 g, 147.9 g, and 243.1 g.Relationship between them could be described as Rsw = me-bT . The relations of standard metabolic rate ( Rs ) or relative metabolic rate ( Rs ) to body weight and temperature yield the following equations: Rs = 1.160 W0.752 e-9.494/7 and Rs1= 1.160 W0.254e-9.494/7.

  5. [Development of a software standardizing optical density with operation settings related to several limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Zuo-Heng; Wan, Cheng; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Jian-Ping; Wu, Hai-Wei

    2012-12-01

    To develop a software that can be used to standardize optical density to normalize the procedures and results of standardization in order to effectively solve several problems generated during standardization of in-direct ELISA results. The software was designed based on the I-STOD method with operation settings to solve the problems that one might encounter during the standardization. Matlab GUI was used as a tool for the development. The software was tested with the results of the detection of sera of persons from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas. I-STOD V1.0 (WINDOWS XP/WIN 7, 0.5 GB) was successfully developed to standardize optical density. A serial of serum samples from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas were used to examine the operational effects of I-STOD V1.0 software. The results indicated that the software successfully overcame several problems including reliability of standard curve, applicable scope of samples and determination of dilution for samples outside the scope, so that I-STOD was performed more conveniently and the results of standardization were more consistent. I-STOD V1.0 is a professional software based on I-STOD. It can be easily operated and can effectively standardize the testing results of in-direct ELISA.

  6. Clustering of Tuberculosis Cases Based on Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing in Relation to the Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, R.; Borgdorff, M.W.; Beer, J.L. de; Ingen, J. van; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    The population structure of 3,776 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was determined using variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing. The degree of clonality was so high that a more relaxed definition of clustering cannot be applied. Among recent immigrants with non-Euro-American isolates, transmi

  7. Repeat length variation in the 5'UTR of myo-inositol monophosphatase gene is related to phytic acid content and contributes to drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi-Saha, Archana; Reddy, Kandali S

    2015-09-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism plays a significant role in plant growth and development, and is also used as a precursor for many important metabolites, such as ascorbate, pinitol, and phytate. Phytate (inositol hexakisphosphate) is the major storage pool for phosphate in the seeds. It is utilized during seed germination and growth of the developing embryo. In addition, it is implicated in protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, a panel of chickpea accessions was used for an association analysis. Association analysis accounting for population structure and relative kinship identified alleles of a simple sequence repeat marker, NCPGR90, that are associated with both phytic acid content and drought tolerance. These alleles varied with respect to the dinucleotide CT repeats present within the marker. NCPGR90 located to the 5'UTR of chickpea myo-inositol monophosphatase gene (CaIMP) and showed transcript length variation in drought-tolerant and drought-susceptible accessions. CaIMP from a drought-tolerant accession with a smaller repeat was almost 2-fold upregulated as compared to a susceptible accession having a longer repeat, even under control non-stressed conditions. This study suggests an evolution of simple sequence repeat length variation in CaIMP, which might be regulating phytic acid levels to confer drought tolerance in natural populations of chickpea.

  8. A Prospective Study of Psychiatric Comorbidity and Recidivism Among Repeat DUI Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sarah E; Belkin, Katerina; LaPlante, Debi A; Bosworth, Leslie; Shaffer, Howard J

    2015-04-13

    Psychiatric comorbidity has emerged as a key element distinguishing DUI offenders from others, and, in some cases, distinguishing repeat offenders from first-time offenders. This paper utilizes a prospective design to determine whether the comorbid disorders identified among repeat DUI offenders can predict recidivism. Seven hundred forty-three repeat DUI offenders were recruited from a two-week inpatient treatment program at which they received a standardized mental health assessment and followed across five years post-treatment to track DUI offense, motor vehicle-related offenses, and general criminal offenses. Psychiatric comorbidity, though it did not predict DUI recidivism specifically, predicted criminal re-offense more generally. In addition, there was a specific relationship between lifetime attention deficit disorder and repeated motor vehicle-related offenses. These findings suggest that for many repeat offenders, DUI is one outlet in a constellation of criminal behavior, and that psychiatric comorbidity increases vulnerability for criminal re-offense.

  9. California residential energy standards: problems and recommendations relating to implementation, enforcement, and design. [Thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    Documents relevant to the development and implementation of the California energy insulation standards for new residential buildings were evaluated and a survey was conducted to determine problems encountered in the implementation, enforcement, and design aspects of the standards. The impact of the standards on enforcement agencies, designers, builders and developers, manufacturers and suppliers, consumers, and the building process in general is summarized. The impact on construction costs and energy savings varies considerably because of the wide variation in prior insulation practices and climatic conditions in California. The report concludes with a series of recommendations covering all levels of government and the building process. (MCW)

  10. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAT-TREATED ASH WOOD IN RELATION WITH STRUCTURAL TIMBER STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon HANNOUZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is an attractive method to enhance wood durability, and valorize local hardwood species with natural low durability. Yet no standard allows the certification of such products. This study first aims to observe the influence of heat treatment on the different mechanical properties. The standard mechanical tests; bending, tension parallel and perpendicular to grain, compression parallel and perpendicular to grain and shear, have been performed on native and heat-treated woods samples. The measurements are then compared to values of EN 338 standard. Results reveal that shear strength is the property most affected by heat treatment and that the modulus of elasticity perpendicular to grain is increased. The values given by EN 338 standard are generally safe with the exception of shear strength which is underestimated by current relationships. It is suggested that new relationships have to be provided for heat-treated wood, taking into account the loss of shear resistance.

  11. Using Repeat LiDAR Surveys to Determine the Geomorphic Changes Related the Removal of the Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, C. D.; Ely, L. L.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The removal of the Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon in October 2007 released an estimated 430,000 m3 of sand and gravel downstream. Field surveys by Major and others (Major and others, USGS Professional Paper 1792) following the dam removal documented deposition of nearly half of the eroded sediment (215,000 m3) in the first 2 km downstream of the dam within a year of breaching. However, the fate of more than 200,000 m3 of chiefly sand transported farther downstream is uncertain. In the current study, five sequential LiDAR data sets from 2006 to 2011 were used to quantify sediment storage and erosion in the 40 km from the former dam site to the confluence with the Columbia River to track the downstream movement of the sediment released from the reservoir. We hypothesized that a pulse of sediment from the dam removal would be distinguished by a successive downstream growth of sediment bars through time. The LiDAR imagery includes two data sets acquired before the dam removal and three afterward. Geomorphic Change Detection software (GCD) (gcd.joewheaton.org) was used to quantify the locations and volume of sediment erosion and deposition through the successive years of LiDAR imagery. GCD allows for error assessment of each LiDAR-derived digital elevation map (DEM) and propagates the combined errors when differencing two repeat surveys. This process allows creation of DEM of Difference (DoD) maps with associated uncertainty estimates. Preliminary results of the LiDAR analysis agree with the previous field estimates of deposition within the first 2 km from the former dam. Following the initial phase of deposition immediately downstream of the dam breach, the subsequent surveys (2008-2011) show an erosional front beginning to migrate downstream through the newly deposited sediment. Many of the sediment bars still remained in 2011, but were reduced in size. After calibrating the model in the 2-km reach below the dam, we analyzed the additional 38 km of channel

  12. The Application of Overdispersion and Generalized Estimating Equations in Repeated Categorical Data Related to the Sexual Behaviour Traits of Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilova, Abdullah; Yilmaz, Ayhan

    In this study, the Poison regression, negative binomial regression and generalized estimating equations were applied to the repeated measurements based on count data obtained from the sexual behaviors of ram lambs. Negative binomial regression was more effective to handle the over dispersion that causes bias in parameter estimations in Poison regression. The generalized estimating equations were used for analyzing repeated categorical data. GEE estimates were obtained by using the exchangeable working correlation. As a result of GEE analyses, it was concluded that flehmen lip curl response, tail raising, mount duration, vocalization and weight of the ram lamb were statistically important (p<0.05) for mount frequent. However, the anogenital sniff found be not significant.

  13. Use of a statistical model to predict the potential for repeated dose and developmental toxicity of dermally administered crude oil and relation to reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Richard H; Nicolich, Mark; Roy, Timothy; White, Russell; Daughtrey, Wayne C

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum (commonly called crude oil) is a complex substance primarily composed of hydrocarbon constituents. Based on the results of previous toxicological studies as well as occupational experience, the principal acute toxicological hazards are those associated with exposure by inhalation to volatile hydrocarbon constituents and hydrogen sulfide, and chronic hazards are associated with inhalation exposure to benzene and dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds. The current assessment was an attempt to characterize the potential for repeated dose and/or developmental effects of crude oils following dermal exposures and to generalize the conclusions across a broad range of crude oils from different sources. Statistical models were used to predict the potential for repeated dose and developmental toxicity from compositional information. The model predictions indicated that the empirical data from previously tested crude oils approximated a "worst case" situation, and that the data from previously tested crude oils could be used as a reasonable basis for characterizing the repeated dose and developmental toxicological hazards of crude oils in general.

  14. Dishwashing water recycling system and related water quality standards for military use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Verbyla, Matthew E; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Randall, Andrew A; Amundsen, Ted J; Zastrow, Dustin J

    2015-10-01

    As the demand for reliable and safe water supplies increases, both water quality and available quantity are being challenged by population growth and climate change. Greywater reuse is becoming a common practice worldwide; however, in remote locations of limited water supply, such as those encountered in military installations, it is desirable to expand its classification to include dishwashing water to maximize the conservation of fresh water. Given that no standards for dishwashing greywater reuse by the military are currently available, the current study determined a specific set of water quality standards for dishwater recycling systems for U.S. military field operations. A tentative water reuse standard for dishwashing water was developed based on federal and state regulations and guidelines for non-potable water, and the developed standard was cross-evaluated by monitoring water quality data from a full-scale dishwashing water recycling system using an innovative electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration process. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was also performed based on exposure scenarios derived from literature data. As a result, a specific set of dishwashing water reuse standards for field analysis (simple, but accurate) was finalized as follows: turbidity (reuse and will be expected to ensure that water quality is safe for field operations, but not so stringent that design complexity, cost, and operational and maintenance requirements will not be feasible for field use. In addition the parameters can be monitored using simple equipment in a field setting with only modest training requirements and real-time or rapid sample turn-around. This standard may prove useful in future development of civilian guidelines.

  15. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant...... CEN-standards are presented and a sample calculation of energy performance is made for a small single family house, an office building and an industrial building in three different geographical locations: Stockholm, Brussels, and Venice. The additional heat losses from heating systems can be 10...

  16. ILO standard setting, policy studies and technical cooperation relating to population issues and women.

    OpenAIRE

    Oppong C

    1993-01-01

    Examines the ILO's constitution, mandates and International Labour Standards in the areas of female worker protection, and promotion of equality and population. Highlights some current labour problems specific to women, including 'invisible' labour and its lack of documentation, the lack of equality, and the need for protection. Also highlights nine gender issues, both of labour and population. Bibliography, statistical tables and abstract in French.

  17. Setting Performance Standards: A Review of Related Literatures and Identification of Future Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Extremely high standards may also cause individuals to perceive the feedback system as unfair and not credible ( Dornbusch & Scott, 1975). Further...system fairness ( Dornbusch & Scott, 1975; Jacobs, Jacobs, Feldman, & Cavior, 1973), and increases performance by allowing people to make accurate...to internalize them (Erez & Kanfer, 1983). Third, reactions against the system may be less likely ( Dornbusch & Scott, 1975). The framing of

  18. 76 FR 50117 - Commission Rules and Forms Related to the FASB's Accounting Standards Codification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... paragraph 305(a) by removing ``FASB, Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 52, `Foreign Currency... paragraph 20 (December 1981)'' and adding in its place ``FASB ASC paragraph 830-20-35-3 (Foreign Currency... place ``FASB ASC Topic 830, Foreign Currency Matters''. 0 g. Amend Instruction 4.B. of the...

  19. Comparing Teachers' Literacy-Related Knowledge to Their State's Standards for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombes-Tolis, Jule; Feinn, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study compared elementary and special education teachers' knowledge of when K-3 students develop key reading competencies, their knowledge of who is responsible for teaching K-3 students key reading competencies, and teachers' perceptions of their own instructionally relevant competencies to those standards articulated within their state's…

  20. Development of BIATECH-54 standard mixtures for assessment of protein identification and relative expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Eugene; Hogan, Jason M; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Landorf, Elizabeth; Yakunin, Alexander F; Collart, Frank R; van Belle, Gerald

    2007-10-01

    Mixtures of known proteins have been very useful in the assessment and validation of methods for high-throughput (HTP) MS (MS/MS) proteomics experiments. However, these test mixtures have generally consisted of few proteins at near equal concentration or of a single protein at varied concentrations. Such mixtures are too simple to effectively assess the validity of error rates for protein identification and differential expression in HTP MS/MS studies. This work aimed at overcoming these limitations and simulating studies of complex biological samples. We introduced a pair of 54-protein standard mixtures of variable concentrations with up to a 1000-fold dynamic range in concentration and up to ten-fold expression ratios with additional negative controls (infinite expression ratios). These test mixtures comprised 16 off-the-shelf Sigma-Aldrich proteins and 38 Shewanella oneidensis proteins produced in-house. The standard proteins were systematically distributed into three main concentration groups (high, medium, and low) and then the concentrations were varied differently for each mixture within the groups to generate different expression ratios. The mixtures were analyzed with both low mass accuracy LCQ and high mass accuracy FT-LTQ instruments. In addition, these 54 standard proteins closely follow the molecular weight distributions of both bacterial and human proteomes. As a result, these new standard mixtures allow for a much more realistic assessment of approaches for protein identification and label-free differential expression than previous mixtures. Finally, methodology and experimental design developed in this work can be readily applied in future to development of more complex standard mixtures for HTP proteomics studies.

  1. A cross-sectional study on related risk factors of repeated induced abortion%重复人工流产相关危险因素的横向研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱勤芳; 陆新妹; 杨美芳; 沈芳荣; 冯亚红

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨首次人工流产女性与重复人工流产女性之间不同的个体行为和社会经济差异,确定重复流产的相关危险因素.方法:调查2009年8月~2010年7月接受人工流产治疗服务女性1 132名,年龄20 ~49岁,采用回归分析方法研究重复流产的相关危险因素.结果:接受问卷调查女性的重复流产率为48.45%,调查一年间重复流产率为15.85%;重复流产的危险因素,包括生育史(OR =2.45),未婚或缺乏感情基础(OR=2.14),无业或失业(OR=1.66),吸烟或成瘾性药物使用(OR=1.43),低学历教育水平(OR=1.5).其中部分女性(n=135)认为在经济条件允许或者建立婚姻关系后愿意继续妊娠.还有部分女性认为流产后未能获得相关避孕咨询,或采取不恰当的避孕方法,是重复流产的重要原因.结论:较高的女性重复流产比例,使开展流产后计划生育服务成为提高女性健康和生育质量的重要手段.虽然可以确定一些重复流产的相关危险因素,但是女性受到身心侵害的几率较高,所以预防非意愿妊娠需要全社会关心和努力.%Objective: To explore individual behavioral differences and socio - economic differences between the women of induced abortion for the first time and the women of repeated induced abortion, and confirm the related risk factors of repeated induced abortion. Methods; A total of 1 132 women aged 20 -49 years old receiving induced abortion from August 2009 to July 2010 were investigated , then regression analysis was conducted to research the related risk factors of repeated induced abortion. Results: The incidence of repeated induced abortion among the investigated women was 48.45% , and the incidence of repeated induced abortion during one year was 15. 85%. The risk factors of repeated induced abortion included reproductive history ( OR = 2. 45) , unmarried or lacking emotional foundation (OR=2.14), unemployment (OR = 1.66), smoking or abuse of addictive drugs

  2. Employees Training Evaluation related to the Competency Standards in the Steel and Metalworking Industry in Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guillermo Carreno-Bodensiek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a research process applied to a sample of companies in the steel and metalworking sector in Boyacá, Colombia. The active workers are evaluated over the Occupational Competency Standards related to their daily activities. It also aims to highlight the formation priority of human talent for business, according to build up a level of competitiveness. Also, seeks to meet the need to train and develop skills and competencies in the workforce, taking into account the concepts of experts about training and developing proposals for management. This research is consistent with global trends in education and the requirements of standardization of training, why diagnoses and designs are focused on the functions of the companies related to the Standards of Competency.

  3. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  4. Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and Related Assessment and Teacher Evaluation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Amy Roth; Drake, Corey; Choppin, Jeffrey; Davis, Jon D.; Magaña, Margarita V.; Carson, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    In this study, U.S. middle school teachers' perceptions of Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), CCSSM-related assessments, teacher evaluation processes, and resources for implementing CCSSM were investigated. Using a mixed methods design, a national sample of 366 teachers was surveyed, and 24 teachers were interviewed. Findings…

  5. Emerging diet-related surrogate end points for colorectal cancer: UK Food Standards Agency diet and colonic health workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanderson, P.; Johnson, I.T.; Mahters, J.C.; Powers, H.J.; Downes, C.S.; McGlynn, A.P.; Dare, R.; Kampman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating emerging diet-related surrogate end points for colorectal cancer (CRC). The workshop aimed to overview current research and establish priorities for future research. The workshop considered th

  6. Relations between the baryon quantum numbers of the Standard Model and of the rotating neutrino model

    CERN Document Server

    Vayenas, Constantinos G; Grigoriou, Dimitrios P

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the common features between the Standard Model taxonomy of particles, based on electric charge, strangeness and isospin, and the taxonomy emerging from the key structural elements of the rotating neutrino model, which describes baryons as bound states formed by three highly relativistic electrically polarized neutrinos forming a symmetric ring rotating around a central electrically charged or polarized lepton. It is shown that the two taxonomies are fully compatible with each other.

  7. Electrical safety of conducted electrical weapons relative to requirements of relevant electrical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin; Nerheim, Max; Kroll, Mark

    2013-01-01

    TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEW) deliver electrical pulses that can inhibit a person's neuromuscular control or temporarily incapacitate. TASER X26, X26P, and X2 are among CEW models most frequently deployed by law enforcement agencies. The X2 CEW uses two cartridge bays while the X26 and X26P CEWs have only one. The TASER X26P CEW electronic output circuit design is equivalent to that of any one of the two TASER X2 outputs. The goal of this paper was to analyze the nominal electrical outputs of TASER X26, X26P, and X2 CEWs in reference to provisions of several international standards that specify safety requirements for electrical medical devices and electrical fences. Although these standards do not specifically mention CEWs, they are the closest electrical safety standards and hence give very relevant guidance. The outputs of two TASER X26 and two TASER X2 CEWs were measured and confirmed against manufacturer and other published specifications. The TASER X26, X26P, and X2 CEWs electrical output parameters were reviewed against relevant safety requirements of UL 69, IEC 60335-2-76 Ed 2.1, IEC 60479-1, IEC 60479-2, AS/NZS 60479.1, AS/NZS 60479.2 and IEC 60601-1. Prior reports on similar topics were reviewed as well. Our measurements and analyses confirmed that the nominal electrical outputs of TASER X26, X26P and X2 CEWs lie within safety bounds specified by relevant requirements of the above standards.

  8. Blood Pressure Standards for Shiraz (Southern Iran) School Children in Relation to Height

    OpenAIRE

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad-Taghi; Zare, Marzie

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims at providing local reference values for blood pressure by height and determining distribution pattern of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6.5-11.5 elementary school children for the first time in Shiraz (Southern Iran). Methods Height, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured with standard methods in 2270 healthy school children (1174 boys, 1096 girls) who were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2003-2004 academic...

  9. Economic competitiveness gap related to the application of the GAEC standards of cross-compliance on farms: evaluation methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fedrizzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methods used in the monitoring carried out in the farms of the MO.NA.CO. project, to calculate the economic competitiveness gap faced by agricultural holdings that accede to the commitments imposed by the standards included in the project. The monitoring works were performed in agricultural holdings in relation to the particular reference condition of each standard. The processing of the information acquired allowed us to define the working times of each cultivation operation by means of the indications in the recommendations of the Associazione Italiana di Genio Rurale - Italian Rural Engineering Association, that considers the official methodology of the International Commission of the Organisation Scientifique du Travail en Agriculture (C.I.O.S.T.A.. The overall costs and revenues in case of compliance or non-compliance with the commitments of the standard were calculated by using Biondi’s methodology and other norms that indicate the technical and economic coefficients to be used in the calculations (EP 496.2 and D 497.4 ASAE standards. With the data related to the unit cost of ploughing a model Partial Least Squares (PLS has been achieved and validated, and it makes possible to predict the unit cost of this agricultural operation. Finally, the values of the variation of the economic competitiveness gap are reported for each standard.

  10. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  11. Examining database persistence of ISO/EN 13606 standardized electronic health record extracts: relational vs. NoSQL approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Lozano-Rubí, Raimundo; Serrano-Balazote, Pablo; Castro, Antonio L; Moreno, Oscar; Pascual, Mario

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this research is to compare the relational and non-relational (NoSQL) database systems approaches in order to store, recover, query and persist standardized medical information in the form of ISO/EN 13606 normalized Electronic Health Record XML extracts, both in isolation and concurrently. NoSQL database systems have recently attracted much attention, but few studies in the literature address their direct comparison with relational databases when applied to build the persistence layer of a standardized medical information system. One relational and two NoSQL databases (one document-based and one native XML database) of three different sizes have been created in order to evaluate and compare the response times (algorithmic complexity) of six different complexity growing queries, which have been performed on them. Similar appropriate results available in the literature have also been considered. Relational and non-relational NoSQL database systems show almost linear algorithmic complexity query execution. However, they show very different linear slopes, the former being much steeper than the two latter. Document-based NoSQL databases perform better in concurrency than in isolation, and also better than relational databases in concurrency. Non-relational NoSQL databases seem to be more appropriate than standard relational SQL databases when database size is extremely high (secondary use, research applications). Document-based NoSQL databases perform in general better than native XML NoSQL databases. EHR extracts visualization and edition are also document-based tasks more appropriate to NoSQL database systems. However, the appropriate database solution much depends on each particular situation and specific problem.

  12. National Technology Standards for K-12 Schools: A Case Study of Unresolved Issues in Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.; Sullivan, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses an important need--the dissemination of information relating to technology as a public relations tool--and the associated exigency for administrator and teacher technology training. Specifically, we identify the increased expectations for the performance of school leaders and teachers, as well as unresolved issues in public…

  13. Fermionic dispersion relations at finite temperature and non-vanishing chemical potentials in the minimal standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, J; Fonseca, F; Morales, John; Quimbay, Carlos; Fonseca, Frank

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the fermionic dispersion relations in the minimal standard model at finite temperature in presence of non-vanishing chemical potentials due to the CP-asymmetric fermionic background. The dispersion relations are calculated for a vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field equal to zero (unbroken electroweak symmetry). The calculation is performed in the real time formalism of the thermal field theory at one-loop order in a general $\\xi$ gauge. The fermionic self-energy is calculated at leading order in temperature and chemical potential and this fact permits us to obtain gauge invariant analytical expressions for the dispersion relations.

  14. Repeated measures of body mass index and C-reactive protein in relation to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Jørgensen, Torben; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been linked with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and both have been associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have used a single 'baseline' measurement and such analyses cannot account for possible changes in these which...... body mass index (BMI) and CRP with all-cause mortality and CVD. Being overweight (≥25-obese (≥30-....79-0.94) and 0.80 (0.72-0.89). A similar relationship was found, but only for overweight in Glostrup, HR (95 % CI) 0.88 (0.76-1.02); and moderately obese in Tromsø, HR (95 % CI) 0.79 (0.62-1.01). Associations were not evident between repeated measures of BMI and CVD. Conversely, increasing CRP concentrations...

  15. Relative plan robustness of step-and-shoot vs rotational intensity–modulated radiotherapy on repeat computed tomographic simulation for weight loss in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, David J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Beasley, William J. [The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Garcez, Kate; Lee, Lip W.; Sykes, Andrew J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Rowbottom, Carl G. [The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Slevin, Nicholas J., E-mail: nick.slevin@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Interfractional anatomical alterations may have a differential effect on the dose delivered by step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The increased degrees of freedom afforded by rotational delivery may increase plan robustness (measured by change in target volume coverage and doses to organs at risk [OARs]). However, this has not been evaluated for head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: A total of 10 patients who required repeat computed tomography (CT) simulation and replanning during head and neck IMRT were included. Step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT plans were generated from the original planning scan. The initial and second CT simulation scans were fused and targets/OAR contours transferred, reviewed, and modified. The plans were applied to the second CT scan and doses recalculated without repeat optimization. Differences between step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT for change in target volume coverage and doses to OARs between first and second CT scans were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: There were clinically relevant dosimetric changes between the first and the second CT scans for both the techniques (reduction in mean D{sub 95%} for PTV2 and PTV3, D{sub min} for CTV2 and CTV3, and increased mean doses to the parotid glands). However, there were no significant differences between step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT for change in any target coverage parameter (including D{sub 95%} for PTV2 and PTV3 and D{sub min} for CTV2 and CTV3) or dose to any OARs (including parotid glands) between the first and the second CT scans. Conclusions: For patients with head and neck cancer who required replanning mainly due to weight loss, there were no significant differences in plan robustness between step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT. This information is useful with increased clinical adoption of VMAT.

  16. STUDY OF STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE OF NAAG BHASMA IN RELATION TO ITS PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagad C. E.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Standard operating procedures (SOPs should to be designed, implemented and set for all Ayurvedic drugs one by one for globalization Ayurveda. In this study, an attempt has been made to introduce SOP for preparation of Naag Bhasma [NB] & its analytical study. Study was conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of NB was performed by following Samanya Shodhana, Jarana, Marana of Naag [Pb] & its analytical study. Naga Bhasma was prepared in two batches namely Batch A & B. In this method purified Haratala (Orpiment were taken as media. The percentage loss in the Naga Bhasma in Batch A was 63%, while in case of Batch B was 60.5%. Raw drugs, in process materials and the final products were analyzed physico-chemically and comparison was drawn to lay down pharmacopoeial standards. The average percentage purity of Naga decreased from 99.46% to 86.57% after Shodhana. The percentage of (Pb lead in Naga Bhasma was 58.4% and 57.89% respectively in Batch A and B. Both the Bhasmas were in PbS form chemically with other elements like Ca, Si, Fe, Al, K, As, Mg, Ni, Mn, Cd, Zn in trace amount.

  17. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  18. Evaluating a Sex Related Ability: Social Comparison with Similar Others and Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanna, Mark P.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reevaluate Festinger's similarity hypothesis and to investigate the relative strengths of the desire to compare with similar others and the desire to compare with those who are best off. (Author)

  19. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  20. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  1. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  2. Frequency standards based on ultracold atoms in tests of general relativity, navigation and gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, K. Yu.; Kudeyarov, K. S.; Kolachevsky, N. N.

    2017-06-01

    Research and development in the field of optical clocks based on ultracold atoms and ions have enabled the relative uncertainty in frequency to be reduced down to a few parts in 1018. The use of novel, precise frequency comparison methods opens up new possibilities for basic research (sensitive tests of general relativity, a search for a drift of fundamental constants and a search for ‘dark matter’) as well as for state-of-the-art navigation and gravimetry. We discuss the key methods that are used in creating precision clocks (including transportable clocks) based on ultracold atoms and ions and the feasibility of using them in resolving current relativistic gravimetry issues.

  3. Introducing Distance and Measurement in General Relativity: Changes for the Standard Tests and the Cosmological Large-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic motion in the gravitational field of a massive body is governed by the external metric of a spherically symmetric extended object. Consequently, any solution for the point-mass is inadequate for the treatment of such motions since it pertains to a fictitious object. I therefore develop herein the physics of the standard tests of General Relativity by means of the generalised solution for the field external to a sphere of incompressible homogeneous fluid.

  4. The Relations between Teasing and Bullying and Middle School Standardized Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Anna; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relations between the schoolwide prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) and schoolwide academic performance in a sample of 271 Virginia middle schools. In addition, the study examined the mediating effects of student engagement. A three-step sequence of path models investigated associations between schoolwide PTB and…

  5. 75 FR 60616 - Commission Guidance Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... example, states that the audit of the report required by Rule 17a-5(d) ``* * * shall be made in accordance... Exchange Act requires that the audit of certain over-the-counter derivative dealers ``* * * shall be made... Commission is considering a rulemaking project to update the audit and related attestation requirements under...

  6. 77 FR 17219 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... individuals and small businesses the same purchasing power as big businesses. The Departments of Health and... part of letter campaigns related to women's and mental health services, or were general comments on the... make fair enrollee risk comparison between excepted benefit plans and major medical plans difficult. We...

  7. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Safety I and C Related Verification and Validation Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, G.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness of safety I and C related verification and validation activities within nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. (Author)

  8. Prevention of work related musculoskeletal disorders : setting priorities using the standardized Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2001-01-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders constitute a major problem to modern society. They are a major cause of work absenteeism and disability, thus constituting one of the most expensive disease categories. There is a great need for effective ways to prevent or reduce musculoskeletal problems. Give

  9. Variability of United States isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina based on simple sequence repeats and cross genus transferability to related genera within botryosphaeriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Allen, Thomas; McNeill, David; Wang, Xinwang; Moulton, John K; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

    2010-09-01

    Twelve simple sequence repeat (SSRs) loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of 109 isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina collected from different geographical regions and host species throughout the United States (US). Genetic diversity was assessed using Nei's minimum genetic distance, and the usefulness of each locus was determined by calculating the polymorphism information content (PIC). A total of 98 alleles were detected and of these 31 were unique to individual genotypes. Eight of twelve loci were highly informative with PIC values greater than 0.50. The majority of pairwise comparisons of genetic distance were greater than 0.60 indicating moderate to high genetic diversity. Dendrograms based on the genetic dissimilarities were created for the 109 isolates of which 79 were from soybean. Some clustering by host and geography was noted, but, the dendrograms generally grouped isolates independent of host or geography. Additionally, sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) for 10 isolates revealed that all of these isolates were 99% similar. Three SSR loci from M. phaseolina were cross amplified in other genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae. This was the first study of genotyping and assessing genetic diversity of M. phaseolina isolates collected from a widespread host and geographic range across the US with SSRs. With an additional 34 loci publically available for M. phaseolina, the results indicate that previously developed SSRs from one species can be used in future population, ecological, and genetic studies of M. phaseolina and other genera within the Botryosphaeriaceae.

  10. Modes-of-Action Related to Repeated Dose Toxicity: Tissue-Specific Biological Roles of PPARγ Ligand-Dependent Dysregulation in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merilin Al Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive understanding of the precise mode of action/adverse outcome pathway (MoA/AOP of chemicals becomes a key step towards superseding the current repeated dose toxicity testing methodology with new generation predictive toxicology tools. The description and characterization of the toxicological MoA leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD are of specific interest, due to its increasing incidence in the modern society. Growing evidence stresses on the PPARγ ligand-dependent dysregulation as a key molecular initiating event (MIE for this adverse effect. The aim of this work was to analyze and systematize the numerous scientific data about the steatogenic role of PPARγ. Over 300 papers were ranked according to preliminary defined criteria and used as reliable and significant sources of data about the PPARγ-dependent prosteatotic MoA. A detailed analysis was performed regarding proteins which PPARγ-mediated expression changes had been confirmed to be prosteatotic by most experimental evidence. Two probable toxicological MoAs from PPARγ ligand binding to NAFLD were described according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD concepts: (i PPARγ activation in hepatocytes and (ii PPARγ inhibition in adipocytes. The possible events at different levels of biological organization starting from the MIE to the organ response and the connections between them were described in details.

  11. Second time around:Corticospinal responses following repeated sports-related concussions within the same season. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan J Pearce; Daniel T Corp; Charlotte B Davies; Brendan P Major; Jerome J Maller

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the degree of neurophysiological and cognitive performance changes resulting from repeat concussions sustained in a single season ofAustralianRules football. Methods:Three amateur football players were recruited after sustainingtwo concussions during a single season of playing.Each player was assessed at multiple time points by transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS) and electromyography, as well as tested for fine motor and cognitive performance after each concussion.Results:In all three cases, concussions resulted in reduction in fine dexterity and visuomotor reaction time, cognitive attention performance and increase in intracortical inhibition fromTMS.No changes in performance orTMS outcomes were found as a result of the order of the concussions.However, changes observed were dependent on the severity of the concussion.Conclusions:This multiple-case study has demonstrated that concussion result in increased intracortical inhibition and reduction in cognitive and motor performance. Further,TMS, in conjunction with tests of cognitive and motor performance, can be useful as a prognostic technique in assessing recovery from acute concussion injury.

  12. Hearing loss from gun and railroad noise--relations with ISO standard 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryter, K D

    1991-12-01

    Pure-tone hearing thresholds and anamnestic data pertaining to nosocusis and exposure to gun noise were analyzed for 9778 male railroad train-crew workers. A major portion of losses in hearing sensitivity due to railroad noise are obscured in comparisons of hearing levels of trainmen with the hearing levels of the unscreened samples of United States males given in Annex B, ISO 1999 [ISO 1999 (1990), "Acoustics--Determination of occupational noise exposure and estimation of noise-induced hearing impairment" (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva)]. Comparisons of the hearing levels, adjusted for nosocusis, of trainmen who had used no guns, with the hearing levels of otologically and noise screened males (Annex A, ISO 1999) reveal significant losses due to railroad noise. Additional losses were found at high frequencies in trainmen who had used guns. It appears that the effective Leq8h exposure level of trainmen to railroad noise is about 92 dBA, and 87-89 dBA to gun noise. These results are in general agreement with those of study of railway workers by Prosser et al. [Br. J. Audiol. 22, 85-91 (1988)]. Asymmetries in losses between the two ears, effects of ear protection, losses from nosocusis, and losses from sport, as compared to military, gun noise exposures, are examined.

  13. Prior information: how to beat the standard joint-measurement uncertainty relation

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, M J W

    2003-01-01

    The canonical joint measurement of position X and momentum P corresponds to measuring the commuting operators X_J=X+X', P_J=P-P', where the primed variables refer to an auxilary system in a minimum-uncertainty state. It is well known that Delta X_J Delta P_J >= hbar. Here it is shown that given the _same_ physical experimental setup, and information about the system_prior_ to measurement, one can make improved joint estimates X_est and P_est of X and P. These improved estimates are not only statistically closer to X and P: they satisfy Delta X_est Delta P_est >= hbar/4, where equality can be achieved in certain cases. Thus one can do up to four times better than the standard lower bound (where the latter corresponds to the limit of_no_ prior information). A formula is given for the optimal estimate of any observable, based on arbitrary measurement data and prior information about the state of the system, which generalises and provides a more robust interpretation of previous formulas for `local expectations' ...

  14. A standardized algorithm for determining the underlying cause of death in HIV infection as AIDS or non-AIDS related

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2011-01-01

    are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS or non......-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the CoDe procedures), local...

  15. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  16. Heuristic Evaluation of Ehealth Interventions: Establishing Standards That Relate to the Therapeutic Process Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Fred

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the number of available eHealth interventions aimed at treating behavioral and mental health challenges has been growing. From the perspective of health care providers, there is a need for eHealth interventions to be evaluated prior to clinical trials and for the limited resources allocated to empirical research to be invested in the most promising products. Following a literature review, a gap was found in the availability of eHealth interventions evaluation principles related to the patient experience of the therapeutic process. This paper introduces principles and concepts for the evaluation of eHealth interventions developed as a first step in a process to outline general evaluation guidelines that relate to the clinical context from health care providers’ perspective. Our approach was to conduct a review of literature that relates to the examination of eHealth interventions. We identified the literature that was most relevant to our study and used it to define guidelines that relate to the clinical context. We then compiled a list of heuristics we found to be useful for the evaluation of eHealth intervention products’ suitability for empirical examination. Four heuristics were identified with respect to the therapeutic process: (1) the product’s ease of use (ie, usability), (2) the eHealth intervention’s compatibility with the clinical setting, (3) the presence of tools that make it easier for the user to engage in therapeutic activities, and (4) the provision of a feasible therapeutic pathway to growth. We then used this set of heuristics to conduct a detailed examination of MyFitnessPal. This line of work could help to set the bar higher for product developers and to inform health care providers about preferred eHealth intervention designs. PMID:26764209

  17. What is a microsatellite: a computational and experimental definition based upon repeat mutational behavior at A/T and GT/AC repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Yogeshwar D; Strubczewski, Noelle; Hile, Suzanne E; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Eckert, Kristin A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellites are abundant in eukaryotic genomes and have high rates of strand slippage-induced repeat number alterations. They are popular genetic markers, and their mutations are associated with numerous neurological diseases. However, the minimal number of repeats required to constitute a microsatellite has been debated, and a definition of a microsatellite that considers its mutational behavior has been lacking. To define a microsatellite, we investigated slippage dynamics for a range of repeat sizes, utilizing two approaches. Computationally, we assessed length polymorphism at repeat loci in ten ENCODE regions resequenced in four human populations, assuming that the occurrence of polymorphism reflects strand slippage rates. Experimentally, we determined the in vitro DNA polymerase-mediated strand slippage error rates as a function of repeat number. In both approaches, we compared strand slippage rates at tandem repeats with the background slippage rates. We observed two distinct modes of mutational behavior. At small repeat numbers, slippage rates were low and indistinguishable from background measurements. A marked transition in mutability was observed as the repeat array lengthened, such that slippage rates at large repeat numbers were significantly higher than the background rates. For both mononucleotide and dinucleotide microsatellites studied, the transition length corresponded to a similar number of nucleotides (approximately 10). Thus, microsatellite threshold is determined not by the presence/absence of strand slippage at repeats but by an abrupt alteration in slippage rates relative to background. These findings have implications for understanding microsatellite mutagenesis, standardization of genome-wide microsatellite analyses, and predicting polymorphism levels of individual microsatellite loci.

  18. Tachyphylaxis associated with repeated epidural injections of lidocaine is not related to changes in distribution or the rate of elimination from the epidural space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogensen, T.; Simonsen, L.; Scott, N.B.; Henriksen, J.H.; Kehlet, H. (Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-08-01

    The relationship between tachyphylaxis (measured as a decrease in the rate of regression of sensory levels of analgesia) during repeated epidural injections of lidocaine and both the distribution of lidocaine within the epidural space (as measured by spread of simultaneous injection of the tracer technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA)) and elimination of lidocaine from the epidural space (as measured by serum concentrations of lidocaine) was investigated in 18 patients undergoing minor surgery during lumbar epidural analgesia. Twelve patients received four injections of 20 mL of 2% lidocaine at 2-hr intervals. Epidural distribution was assessed by injection of 99mTc-DTPA diluted in saline on the preoperative day and diluted in an equal volume of 2% lidocaine on the morning before surgery and again after the fourth injection of lidocaine 6 hr later. The distribution of 99mTc-DTPA in the epidural space was unchanged during the three measurements despite significant tachyphylaxis in both sensory analgesia and motor blockade (11 of 12 patients had sensory analgesia 2 hr after the first injection in contrast to only 3 of 12 patients during the third injection). In another six patients 20 mL of 2% lidocaine were injected three times at 2-hr intervals before surgery, with measurements of serum concentrations of lidocaine after the first and last injections. Despite tachyphylaxis (no patient had sensory analgesia 2 hr after the third injection), there was no difference in the rate of disappearance of lidocaine from the epidural space as assessed by plasma lidocaine concentration curves during the first and third injection (0.5 +/- 0.1 and 0.3 +/- 0.04 microgram.mL-1.min-1, respectively).

  19. 互助与志愿献机采血小板者再次献血意愿的比较%Comparison of repeated donation wills for apheresis platelet between mutual donors from the relatives and voluntary donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴次宁; 曹英; 席光湘; 田浩; 李书平

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较亲友互助献机采血小板者与志愿无偿献机采血小板者再次献血的意愿,分析两者是否存在差异.方法 自行设计调查表,对两类人群进行调查询问.调查内容包括献血者的一般情况,如性别、年龄、职业、文化程度、是否愿意再次献血等.共发出调查表4131份,收回3981份,有效调查表3820份,有效率95.95%.将调查结果录入电子表格进行统计分析.结果 亲友互助献机采血小板者再次献机采血小板的意愿低于志愿无偿献血小板者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 志愿无偿献血小板者为献血的主要人群,亲友互助献机采血小板者可作为血源不足时的补充,部分亲友互助献机采血小板者可通过招募再次献机采血小板.%Objective To compare the repeated donation wills for apheresis platelet between mutual donors from the relatives and voluntary donors and analyze the causes of the difference.Methods A self-designed questionnaire was used.The questions included the repeated donation will and the general situations,such as gender,age,occupation and education.A total of 4,131 questionnaires were sent out and 3981 returned,among which 3820 (95.95%) were valid.The results of questionnaire were statistically analyzed.Results There was a significant difference in repeated donation wills for apheresis platelet between mutual donors from relatives and voluntary donors.The repeated platelet donation wills in the voluntary donors were higher than that in the mutual donors.Conclusions The voluntary donors are the major population in the donation of apheresis platelet.Under the condition of platelet shortage,some mutual platelet donors may be recruited as repeated donor source.

  20. Translation of questionnaires measuring health related quality of life is not standardized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is growing awareness of the need to explore patient reported outcomes in clinical trials. In the Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group we are conducting several clinical trials in cooperation between Danish and Swedish surgical researchers, and we use questionnaires...... aimed at patients from both countries. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects. MAIN OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore which methodological measures were used in studies reporting...... translation of questionnaires. Furthermore, we wanted to make some methodological suggestions for clinical researchers who are faced with having to translate a questionnaire. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We designed a research study based on a survey of the literature and extracted data from published studies...

  1. A note on the mutual relation between thermodynamics, energy definitions and standard cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Moradpour, H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, by solving the Friedman and thermodynamic pressure equations simultaneously, we investigate the relation between the Friedman and thermodynamic pressure equations. Our investigation shows that a prefect fluid, as a suitable solution for the Friedman equations, cannot simultaneously satisfy the thermodynamic pressure equation and Friedman equations. Moreover, we consider various common energy definitions, such as the Komar mass, and try to simultaneously solve the Friedman and thermodynamic pressure equations for various fluids. Our investigation shows that the Komar mass leads to a solution which may unify the primary inflationary and the current accelerating eras into one model. Thereinafter, we consider a general form for the energy of cosmic fluid and combine it with the Friedman and thermodynamic pressure equations to get some new solutions. The cosmological consequences of found solutions are also addressed. In addition, by taking into account a cosmic fluid with the known equation of stat...

  2. Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Elements of management information related to OSI transport layer standards; Amendment 1: NCMS Management; Technical Corrigendum 1

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Elements of management information related to OSI transport layer standards; Amendment 1: NCMS Management; Technical Corrigendum 1

  3. Effects of ethanol on CYP2E1 levels and related oxidative stress using a standard balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, Ligia A; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Simon, Karin A; Schindler, Fernanda; Giavarotti, Leandro; Monteiro, Hugo P; Videla, Luis A; Junqueira, Virgínia B C

    2012-07-01

    Expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is very much influenced by nutritional factors, especially carbohydrate consumption, and various results concerning the expression of CYP2E1 were obtained with a low-carbohydrate diet. This study describes the effects of ethanol treatment on CYP2E1 levels and its relationship with oxidative stress using a balanced standard diet to avoid low or high carbohydrate consumption. Rats were fed for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks a commercial diet plus an ethanol-sucrose solution. The results have shown that ethanol administration was associated with CYP2E1 induction and stabilization without related oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that experimental models with a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet produce some undesirable CYP2E1 changes that are not present when a balanced standard diet is given.

  4. EBMT transplant centers with FACT-JACIE accreditation have significantly better compliance with related donor care standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Chloe; O'Donnell, Paul V; Kiefer, Deidre M; Yared, Jean; Norkin, Maxim; Anderlini, Paolo; Savani, Bipin N; Diaz, Miguel A; Bitan, Menachem; Halter, Joerg P; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; Shaw, Bronwen E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified healthcare practices that may place undue pressure on related donors (RDs) of hematopoietic cell products, and an increase in serious adverse events associated with morbidities in this population. As a result, specific requirements to safeguard RD health have been introduced to FACT-JACIE Standards, but the impact of accreditation on RD care has not previously been evaluated. A survey of transplant program directors of EBMT member centers was conducted by the Donor Health and Safety Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to test the hypothesis that RD care in FACT-JACIE accredited centers is more closely aligned with international consensus donor care recommendations than RD care delivered in centers without accreditation. Responses were received from 39% of 304 centers. Our results show that practice in accredited centers was much closer to recommended standards as compared to non-accredited centers. Specifically, a higher percentage of accredited centers use eligibility criteria to assess RDs (93% versus 78%; P=0.02) and a lower percentage have a single physician simultaneously responsible for a RD and their recipient (14% versus 35%; P=0.008). In contrast, where regulatory standards do not exist, both accredited and non-accredited centers fell short of accepted best practice. These results raise concerns that despite improvements in care, current practice can place undue pressure on donors, and may increase the risk of donation-associated adverse events. We recommend measures to address these issues through enhancement of regulatory standards as well as national initiatives to standardize RD care. PMID:26597079

  5. The Bland-Altman analysis: Does it have a role in assessing radiation dosimeter performance relative to an established standard?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.F., E-mail: robin.hill@email.cs.nsw.gov.a [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown NSW 2050 (Australia); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton BN1 9RR (United Kingdom); Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG (United Kingdom); Baldock, C. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Bland-Altman analysis is used to compare two different methods of measurement and to determine whether a new method of measurement may replace an existing accepted 'gold standard' method. In this work, Bland-Altman analysis has been applied to radiation dosimetry to compare the PTW Markus and Roos parallel plate ionisation chambers and a PTW PinPoint chamber against a Farmer type ionisation chamber which is accepted as the gold standard for radiation dosimetry in the clinic. Depth doses for low energy x-rays beams with energies of 50, 75 and 100 kVp were measured using each of the ionisation chambers. Depth doses were also calculated by interpolation of the data in the British Journal of Radiology (BJR) Report 25. From the Bland-Altman analysis, the mean dose difference between the two parallel plate chambers and the Farmer chambers was 1% over the range of depths measured. The PinPoint chamber gave significant dose differences compared to the Farmer chamber. There were also differences of up to 12% between the BJR Report 25 depth doses and the measured data. For the Bland-Altman plots, the lines representing the limits of agreement were selected to be a particular percentage agreement e.g. 1 or 2%, instead of being based on the standard deviation ({sigma}) of the differences. The Bland-Altman statistical analysis is a powerful tool for making comparisons of ionisation chambers with an ionisation chamber that has been accepted as a 'gold standard'. Therefore we conclude that Bland-Altman analysis does have a role in assessing radiation dosimeter performance relative to an established standard.

  6. Light Relations in a Plum Orchard Trellised Horizontally in Comparison with Standard, Central Leader Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Augustyn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plum trees of ‘Elena’, designed for mechanical harvesting with a straddle self-propelled harvester, were planted in 2008 in the experimental orchard at Dąbrowice at a distance of 4 × 1.5 and 2.0 m. The trees were trained to a central leader to a height of 2.7 m and 1.5 or 2.0 m spread. Plum trees designed for mechanical harvesting with a small tractor-driven harvester were spaced at 4 × 1.0 or 1.5 m and were trellised horizontally on wires stretched along rows 0.8 m above the ground. Fruits were harvested in 2012–2015. The cumulative yield from the trellised trees was only half of that from the trees trained to a central leader, whereas the fruit load index (weight of fruits per m3 canopy was the highest at 4 × 1.0 m. To explain this phenomenon, studies were conducted in 2015 on light relations in the two training systems. The studies revealed that light transmission has different patterns in the two training systems, but the level of light interception was nearly similar. Light distribution was more beneficial for photosynthesis in the central leader trees. The trees trained to a horizontal canopy had poor illumination at the canopy base. The main reason of low productivity of the horizontal canopy was low canopy volume.

  7. 43例重复异位妊娠发病相关因素分析%Analysis of the Relative Factors of the Onset of Repeated Ectopic Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫培培

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative factors of the onset of repeated ectopic pregnancy ( REP ).Methods In this paper,the clinical data of 43 cases with REP, the relationship between the treatment methods of the initial treatment of ectopic pregnancy ( EP )and the location of repeat ectopic pregnancy,the treatment of REP were analysed retrospectively.Results The incidence rate of REP was 13.56% ( 43/317 ).Every cases had chronic pelvic inflammatory disease history, and 37 cases had infertility history.38 cases had miscarriage history.Most REP happened in the last three years from the first time of ectopic pregnancy happened.The initial treatment and pelvic inflammation have influence on EP.Conclusion The risk factors of onset of REP involves several aspects as follows :repeated miscarriages, pelvic inflammation and infertility,etc.The initial treatment of ectopic pregnancy closely related to REP.%目的分析重复异位妊娠(REP)的发病相关因素.方法回顾性分析43例REP患者的临床资料,首次异位妊娠(EP)的治疗方法与REP发生部位的关系及REP的治疗情况.结果 REP的发生率为13.56%,所有患者都有盆腔炎史,37例有不孕症病史;既往有流产或宫腔操作史38例.多发生在距上次EP发生3年内,与首次EP的治疗方式有关,盆腔炎对REP有影响.结论 REP的发病相关因素是多方面的,反复流产、盆腔炎和不孕症是常见因素,与首次EP的治疗方式密切相关.

  8. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  9. Mucosal patterns of Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis without atrophy in the gastric corpus using standard endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shwu-Tzy; Wu; Chien-Hua; Chen; Yeh-Huang; Hung; Tsung-Hsun; Yang; Vun-Siew; Pang; Yung-Hsiang; Yeh

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To identify the mucosal patterns of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori )-related gastritis in the gastric corpus using standard endoscopy and to evaluate their reproducibility.METHODS:A total of 112 consecutive patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.The endoscopists classified the endoscopic findings into 4 patterns.In the second part of the study,90 images were shown to 3 endoscopists in order to evaluate the inter-observer and intra-observer variability in image assessment.RESULTS:The mucosal p...

  10. ANATOMICAL PROGRESSION OF CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE IN HUMANS AS SEEN BY PROSPECTIVE, REPEATED, QUANTITATED CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY - RELATION TO CLINICAL EVENTS AND RISK-FACTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LICHTLEN, PR; NIKUTTA, P; JOST, S; DECKERS, J; WIESE, B; RAFFLENBEUL, W; NELLESSEN, U; AMENDE, [No Value; HAMM, C; KALTENBACH, M; KLEPZIG, H; KOBER, G; BACHMANN, K; HAETINGER, S; WERNER, H; SCHMUTZLER, H; BIAS, H; SERRUYS, P; REIBER, H; BONNIER, H; MICHELS, R; TROQUAY, R; LIE, K; DEMUINCK, ED; SCHNEIDER, B; HECKER, H

    1992-01-01

    Background. At present, there is extensive knowledge on the clinical course of coronary artery disease (CAD), whereas data on the underlying anatomical changes and their relation to clinical events are still limited. Methods and Results. We investigated progression and regression of CAD prospectivel

  11. Approaches to statistical analysis of repeated echocardiographic measurements after myocardial infarction and its relation to heart failure : Application of a random-effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kam, PJ; Voors, AA; Brouwer, J; van Gilst, WH

    2002-01-01

    Background: Extensive left ventricular (LV) dilatation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with increased heart failure risk. Aims: To investigate whether the power to demonstrate the relation between LV dilatation and heart failure depends on the method applied to predict LV dilatation a

  12. Overview of an address and purpose of the workshop [ISO Workshop on address standards: Considering the issues related to an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This workshop was conceived with the aim of discussing what an address actually is and exploring the possibility of developing an international address standard across the various domains that use addresses. This paper attempts to provide...

  13. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  14. DAG expression: high-throughput gene expression analysis of real-time PCR data using standard curves for relative quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ballester

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR is still the gold-standard technique for gene-expression quantification. Recent technological advances of this method allow for the high-throughput gene-expression analysis, without the limitations of sample space and reagent used. However, non-commercial and user-friendly software for the management and analysis of these data is not available. RESULTS: The recently developed commercial microarrays allow for the drawing of standard curves of multiple assays using the same n-fold diluted samples. Data Analysis Gene (DAG Expression software has been developed to perform high-throughput gene-expression data analysis using standard curves for relative quantification and one or multiple reference genes for sample normalization. We discuss the application of DAG Expression in the analysis of data from an experiment performed with Fluidigm technology, in which 48 genes and 115 samples were measured. Furthermore, the quality of our analysis was tested and compared with other available methods. CONCLUSIONS: DAG Expression is a freely available software that permits the automated analysis and visualization of high-throughput qPCR. A detailed manual and a demo-experiment are provided within the DAG Expression software at http://www.dagexpression.com/dage.zip.

  15. Self-selection of standards by children: The relative effectiveness of pupil-selected and teacher-selected standards of performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, E. Anne; Creedon, Carol F.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the effects of contingent reinforcement under conditions of pupil-selected and teacher-selected performance standards upon pupils' academic response rates. The academic response rate was measured by the number of correct responses emitted per session. Thirty pupils (15 second-graders and 15 third-graders) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups, based on matched triplets. One group worked under pupil-selected standards; the second group worked under stan...

  16. Standardization of definitions, notions of educational activity and relations between the object and the subject educational services according to the international standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Василівна Матвійчук-Юдіна

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article involves basic problems of interpretation invariance of concepts regarding improving the quality of education in institutions of higher education in Ukraine. It gives an example of essential determinations, according to the international standards ISO 9001-10. It shows and describes the correlation between optimization of regulatory policy and international standards in order to improve the strategy of higher education development in Ukraine

  17. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  18. Linear and synchrosqueezed time-frequency representations revisited. Part I: Overview, standards of use, related issues and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Iatsenko, Dmytro; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Time-frequency representations (TFRs) of signals, such as windowed Fourier transform (WFT), wavelet transform (WT) and their synchrosqueezed variants (SWFT, SWT), provide powerful analysis tools. However, there are many important issues related to the practical use of TFRs that need to be clarified. Here we present a thorough review of these TFRs, summarizing all theoretical, practical and numerical aspects of their use, reconsidering some conventions and introducing new concepts and procedures. The purposes of this work are: (i) to provide a consistent overview of the computation, properties, and use of the (S)WFT/(S)WT methods; (ii) to establish general standards related to their use, both theoretical and practical; and (iii) to provide clean and optimized algorithms and MatLab codes, appropriate for any window or wavelet.

  19. Simultaneous determination of multiple sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products with one single reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Jing; An, Yue-Wei; Hu, Guang; Yin, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2013-02-06

    Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs) has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo), isozedoarondiol (Isoz), aerugidiol (Aeru), (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox), curcumenone (Curc), neocurdione (Neoc), germacrone (Germ) and furanodiene (Fura). Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131-1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available.

  20. A method to implement fine-grained access control for personal health records through standard relational database queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujansky, Walter V; Faus, Sam A; Stone, Ethan; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-10-01

    Online personal health records (PHRs) enable patients to access, manage, and share certain of their own health information electronically. This capability creates the need for precise access-controls mechanisms that restrict the sharing of data to that intended by the patient. The authors describe the design and implementation of an access-control mechanism for PHR repositories that is modeled on the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) standard, but intended to reduce the cognitive and computational complexity of XACML. The authors implemented the mechanism entirely in a relational database system using ANSI-standard SQL statements. Based on a set of access-control rules encoded as relational table rows, the mechanism determines via a single SQL query whether a user who accesses patient data from a specific application is authorized to perform a requested operation on a specified data object. Testing of this query on a moderately large database has demonstrated execution times consistently below 100ms. The authors include the details of the implementation, including algorithms, examples, and a test database as Supplementary materials.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin Herbal Medicines and Related Products with One Single Reference Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo, isozedoarondiol (Isoz, aerugidiol (Aeru, (4S,5S-(+-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox, curcumenone (Curc, neocurdione (Neoc, germacrone (Germ and furanodiene (Fura. Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131–1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S-(+-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available.

  2. Relative contributions of interface pressure, shear stress, and temperature on ischemic-induced, skin-reactive hyperemia in healthy volunteers: a repeated measures laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenbruch, Charlie; Tzen, Yi-Ting; Brienza, David; Karg, Patricia E; Lachenbruch, Peter A

    2015-02-01

    Although the primary risk factors for pressure ulcer development - pressure, shear, skin temperature, moisture, and friction - have been identified for decades, the relative contribution of each to this risk remains unclear. To confirm the results of and expand upon earlier research into the relative contributions of interface pressures, shear stress, and skin temperature among 4 healthy volunteers, a study involving 6 additional healthy 40- to 75-year-old volunteers was conducted and results of the 2 studies were pooled. All 3 variables (interface pressures, shear stress, and skin temperature) were systematically and randomly varied. In the prone position, volunteers each underwent 18 test conditions representing different combinations of temperature (28˚ C, 32˚ C, 36˚ C), pressure (8.0 and 13.3 kPa), and shear (0, 6.7, and 14.0 kPa) using a computer-controlled indenter applied to the sacrum for 20 minutes exerting weights of 100 g and 200 g to induce 0.98 N and 1.96 N of shear force, respectively. Each condition was tested twice, resulting in a total of 360 trials. Magnitude of postload reactive hyperemia as an index of ischemia was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Fixed effects regression models were used to predict 3 different indices of reactive hyperemic magnitude. Friedman tests were performed to compare the reactive hyperemia among 3 different skin temperatures or shear stresses under the same amount of localized pressure. In all regression models, pressure and temperature were highly significant predictors of the extent of reactive hyperemia (P pressure and shear stress, and the difference was more profound between 32˚ C and 36˚ C than between 28˚ C and 32˚ C. These results confirm that, in laboratory settings, temperature is an important factor in tissue ischemia. Additional studies examining the relative importance of pressure, shear, and temperature and potential effects of lowering temperature on tissue ischemia in healthy volunteers and

  3. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SINGLE VERSUS REPEATED ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL ON THE EXPRESSION OF ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM-RELATED GENES IN THE RAT AMYGDALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonia; Rivera, Patricia; Pavon, Francisco J.; Decara, Juan; Suárez, Juan; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Parsons, Loren H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous cannabinoids such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) exert important regulatory influences on neuronal signaling, participate in short- and long-term forms of neuroplasticity, and modulate stress responses and affective behavior in part through the modulation of neurotransmission in the amygdala. Alcohol consumption alters brain endocannabinoid levels, and alcohol dependence is associated with dysregulated amygdalar function, stress responsivity and affective control. Methods The consequence of long-term alcohol consumption on the expression of genes related to endocannabinoid signaling was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR analyses of amygdala tissue. Two groups of ethanol-exposed rats were generated by maintenance on an ethanol liquid diet (10%): one group received continuous access to ethanol for 15 days, while the second group was given intermittent access to the ethanol diet (5 days/week for 3 weeks). Control subjects were maintained on an isocaloric ethanol-free liquid diet. To provide an initial profile of acute withdrawal amygdala tissue was harvested following either 6 or 24 hours of ethanol withdrawal. Results Acute ethanol withdrawal was associated with significant changes in mRNA expression for various components of the endogenous cannabinoid system in the amygdala. Specifically, reductions in mRNA expression for the primary clearance routes for anandamide and 2-AG (FAAH and MAGL, respectively) were evident, as were reductions in mRNA expression for CB1, CB2 and GPR55 receptors. Although similar alterations in FAAH mRNA were evident following either continuous or intermittent ethanol exposure, alterations in MAGL and cannabinoid receptor-related mRNA (e.g. CB1, CB2, GPR55) were more pronounced following intermittent exposure. In general, greater withdrawal-associated deficits in mRNA expression were evident following 24 versus 6 hours of withdrawal. No significant changes in mRNA expression for enzymes involved in

  4. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M. F., E-mail: MFMoyers@roadrunner.com [Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai, China 201321 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. Methods: A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. Results: For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. Conclusions: The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote

  5. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  6. Science and Language for English Language Learners in Relation to Next Generation Science Standards and with Implications for Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Quinn, Helen; Valdes, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Council (2011) released "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" that is guiding the development of the Next Generation Science Standards, which are expected to be finalized in early 2013. This article addresses language demands and opportunities that are embedded in the science and engineering practices delineated in the…

  7. Science and Language for English Language Learners in Relation to Next Generation Science Standards and with Implications for Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okhee Lee; Helen Quinn; Guadalupe Valdés

    2013-01-01

    ...-intensive science and engineering practices. We propose that when students, especially English language learners, are adequately supported to "do" specific things with language, both science learning and language learning are promoted. We highlight implications for Common Core State Standards for English language arts and mathematics.

  8. Application of repeated passive source travel time tomography to reveal weak velocity changes related to the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Mw 9.0 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Gladkov, Valery; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Fathi, Ismail Husain

    2016-06-01

    Temporal changes of seismic velocities may provide important information on the processes that occur inside the Earth. However, using body wave data with passive sources faces the problem of an uneven distribution of rays, which may cause artifacts with stronger amplitudes than the actual velocity changes in the Earth. We propose an algorithm for the selection of similar data sets in different time periods that minimize the artifacts related to variable data distributions. In this study, we used the data of the Japan Meteorological Agency for several years before and after the Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki event that occurred on 11 March 2011. We performed careful testing using different synthetic models, showing that the selected data subsets allow detecting weak velocity changes with amplitudes above 0.2%. The analysis of the experimental data revealed important features associated with the stress and deformation distributions after the megathrust event. In the upper crust, we found a large zone along the coast with significant P velocity increase likely caused by compression of crustal rocks. This zone was cut by several elongated anomalies with local velocity decrease coinciding with the limits of the maximum slip area. These anomalies possibly mark the areas of major ruptures and deformations after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. In the coupling zone at a depth of 40 km, we observe a velocity decrease in the area of the Mw 7.7 aftershock representing strong fracturing in the focal zone. Beneath the volcanic arc, we observe significant (up to 0.5%) decrease of P velocity but less prominent S velocity changes.

  9. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Aldehydes in hydrothermal solution - Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties and relative stabilities at high temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Mitchell D.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-01-01

    Aldehydes are common in a variety of geologic environments and are derived from a number of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Experimental data for aqueous aldehydes were taken from the literature and used, along with parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state, to estimate standard partial molal thermodynamic data for aqueous straight-chain alkyl aldehydes at high temperatures and pressures. Examples of calculations involving aldehydes in geological environments are given, and the stability of aldehydes relative to carboxylic acids is evaluated. These calculations indicate that aldehydes may be intermediates in the formation of carboxylic acids from hydrocarbons in sedimentary basin brines and hydrothermal systems like they are in the atmosphere. The data and parameters summarized here allow evaluation of the role of aldehydes in the formation of prebiotic precursors, such as amino acids and hydroxy acids on the early Earth and in carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies.

  11. Analysis of complications of prone position in acute respiratory distress syndrome: quality standard, incidence and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové Ponseti, E; Villarrasa Millán, A; Ortiz Chinchilla, D

    The monitoring system based on standards of quality allows clinicians to evaluate and improve the patient's care. According to the quality indicators recommended by Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva Crítica y Unidades Coronarias, and due to the importance of prone position (PP) as a treatment in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, it is fundamental to keep accurate record of serious adverse events occurring during the prone position procedure and its posterior analysis. To establish fulfilment of the Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva Crítica y Unidades Coronarias standards of quality according to the register of serious complications. To identify the incidence of serious complications registered as well as to identify possible factors related to these complications. Retrospective, cross-sectionsl descriptive study, polyvalent ICU (16 beds). Study population Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with PP (January 2012-December 2013). Study variables PP recording, accidental extubation, removal of catheters, decubitus ulcers (DU), ETT obstruction, urgency of the procedure, hours in PP, nutritional intake, type of feeding tube, food regurgitation/retention and use of prokinetics/muscle relaxant. The study sample comprised 38 cases, with an adequate record of complications in 92.1% of the cases. DU were the only serious complication recorded, with a 25.7% incidence. Possible factors related to DU: more hours in PP in patients developing DU (p= .067). Less incidence of DU in well-nourished patients (p= .577). 82.9% of patients were not appropriately nourished. The percentage of records duly completed is very high. The presence of DU (grade 1-2 mostly) is to be noted. There is no stastistical significance, although a trend is obversed, between DU and hours in PP. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Steven D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held one week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions. PMID:17537583

  13. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held 1 week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

  14. Repeatability in the assessment of multi-segment foot kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Jaspers, Ellen; Atre, Ameya; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-02-01

    A recently published systematic review on 3D multi-segment foot models has illustrated the lack of repeatability studies providing evidence for appropriate clinical decision making. The aim of the current study was to assess the repeatability of the recently published model developed by Leardini et al. [10]. Foot kinematics of six healthy adults were analyzed through a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience and four test sessions. For the majority of the parameters moderate or good repeatability was observed for the within-day and between-day sessions. A trend towards consistently higher within- and between-day variability was observed for the junior compared to the senior clinician. The mean inter-session variability of the relative 3D rotations ranged between 0.9-4.2° and 1.6-5.0° for respectively the senior and junior clinician whereas for the absolute angles this variability increased to respectively 2.0-6.2° and 2.6-7.8°. Mean inter-therapist standard deviations ranged between 2.2° and 6.5° for the relative 3D rotations and between 2.8° and 7.6° for the absolute 3D rotations. The ratio of inter-therapist to inter-trial errors ranged between 1.8 and 5.5 for the relative 3D rotations and between 2.4 and 9.7 for the absolute 3D rotations. Absolute angle representation of the planar angles was found to be more difficult. Observations from the current study indicate that an adequate normative database can be installed in gait laboratories, however, it should be stressed that experience of therapists is important and gait laboratories should therefore be encouraged to put effort in training their clinicians.

  15. Fatigue and related factors among hotel workers: the effects of emotional labor and non-standard working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Jong; Moon, Hyun Jey; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed fatigue and its association with emotional labor and non-standard working hours among hotel workers. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,320 employees of five hotels located in Seoul. The questionnaire survey included questions concerning the participants' sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, emotional labor, and fatigue. Fatigue was assessed using the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (MFS). Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between fatigue and emotional labor. Among male workers, there was a significant association between fatigue and both emotional disharmony (OR=5.52, 95% CI=2.35-12.97) and emotional effort (OR=3.48, 95% CI=1.54-7.86). These same associations were seen among the female workers (emotional disharmony: OR=6.91, 95% CI=2.93-16.33; emotional effort: OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.00-5.16). These results indicate that fatigue is associated with emotional labor and, especially, emotional disharmony among hotel workers. Therefore, emotional disharmony management would prove helpful for the prevention of fatigue.

  16. The Meaning of Curriculum-Related Examination Standards in Scotland and England: A Home-International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Jo-Anne; Gray, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which examination standards are conceptualised and operationalised differently across nations has not been given sufficient attention. The international literature on standard-setting has been dominated by the psychometrics tradition. Broader conceptualisations of examination standards have been discussed in the literature in England,…

  17. Relative invasion risk for plankton across marine and freshwater systems: examining efficacy of proposed international ballast water discharge standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casas-Monroy

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.

  18. Myotonin protein-kinase [AGC]n trinucleotide repeat in seven nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G.; Sineo, L.; Pontieri, E. [Catholic Univ. of Rome (Italy)]|[Univ. of Milan (Italy)]|[Univ. Florence (Italy)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is due to a genomic instability of a trinucleotide [AGC]n motif, located at the 3{prime} UTR region of a protein-kinase gene (myotonin protein kinase, MT-PK). The [AGC] repeat is meiotically and mitotically unstable, and it is directly related to the manifestations of the disorder. Although a gene dosage effect of the MT-PK has been demonstrated n DM muscle, the mechanism(s) by which the intragenic repeat expansion leads to disease is largely unknown. This non-standard mutational event could reflect an evolutionary mechanism widespread among animal genomes. We have isolated and sequenced the complete 3{prime}UTR region of the MT-PK gene in seven primates (macaque, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, gibbon, owl monkey, saimiri), and examined by comparative sequence nucleotide analysis the [AGC]n intragenic repeat and the surrounding nucleotides. The genomic organization, including the [AGC]n repeat structure, was conserved in all examined species, excluding the gibbon (Hylobates agilis), in which the [AGC]n upstream sequence (GGAA) is replaced by a GA dinucleotide. The number of [AGC]n in the examined species ranged between 7 (gorilla) and 13 repeats (owl monkeys), with a polymorphism informative content (PIC) similar to that observed in humans. These results indicate that the 3{prime}UTR [AGC] repeat within the MT-PK gene is evolutionarily conserved, supporting that this region has important regulatory functions.

  19. [Prevention of fungal infections related to the water supply in French hospitals: proposal for standardization of methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Bousseau, Anne; Dalle, Frédéric; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Delhaes, Laurence; Machouart, Marie; Gari-Toussaint, Martine; Datry, Annick; Lacroix, Claire; Hennequin, Christophe; Toubas, Dominique; Morin, Odile

    2008-05-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the risk of fungal infections related to the water supply in several hospitals and to clarify the appropriate methodology in order to standardize the technical conditions of the controls and develop guidelines. It was conducted in 10 university hospital centers across the country from February 2004 through March 2005. A preliminary study allowed us to optimize the mycological analysis. The study was conducted under the same conditions as for bacteriological controls: water filtration through a cellulose acetate membrane cultured on agar. Departments with the highest patient risk were selected, including hematology, organ transplantation, and burn units. We selected 98 sites and sampled both water and water-related surfaces at each: three one-liter water samples (the first flow, cold and hot water) and two or three surface samples (inside the tap, pommel of the shower and siphon). At each site, a form was filled to specify its location in the unit, any water treatment (chlorine or other), filtering, and temperature. Water from taps equipped with sterilized filtration was sampled without the filter. There was a significant difference (p=0.039) in the number of positive cultures between the three types of water sampled: hot water (>50 degrees C) was colonized less often than first flow or cold water. Only 4% of the hot-water samples had positive cultures, compared to the 52% of the cold-water samples. Except in two hospitals with generalized contamination of the water pipes (one with Exophiala spp and the other with Fusarium spp), colonization was usually slight. Cold water was more colonized than hot water, but 79% of the samples yielded fewer than 5CFU/L. Dematiaceous hyphomycetes were isolated; Aspergillus spp were rare. The number of CFU in surface samples (that is, biofilms) was higher (mean=15 CFU per sample) but surfaces were positive less often than water (13% compared with 43% of all water samples). Sampling from siphons

  20. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  1. Particulate Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Issues and Research Needs Related to the Development of Air Quality Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Hessel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The health effects of particulate air pollution were highlighted at the Eighth Annual Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology, held in Edmonton, Alberta in August 1996. Despite consistent evidence for adverse respiratory and cardiovascular health effects related to particulate air pollution, there are significant gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms whereby particulate air pollution affects human health. Questions regarding the appropriate measure of dose for assessing exposures relevant to health outcomes and the methods used to analyze dose-response data remain unanswered. Health effects have been demonstrated across the range of exposures that have been examined, and further research in low exposure settings is necessary to explore the lower end of the dose-response curve. Although a significant body of literature has been generated, comprehensive risk assessments have not been undertaken. Examination of the chronic effects of particulate air pollution and identification of high risk populations are necessary. Although there are significant unanswered questions regarding the health effects of particulate air pollution, the available information suggests that particulate air pollution at levels consistent with current standards is associated with measurable health effects.

  2. Psychomotor performance in relation to acute oral administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Patrik; Gallinat, Jürgen; Weinberg, Gordon; Juckel, Georg; Gorynia, Inge; Stadelmann, Andreas M

    2009-08-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor performance are a consistent finding in schizophrenic patients as well as in chronic cannabis users. The high levels of central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum indicate their implication in the regulation of motor activity. Based on the close relationship between cannabis use, the endogenous cannabinoid system and motor disturbances found in schizophrenia, we expected that administration of cannabinoids may change pattern of psychomotor activity like in schizophrenic patients. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol. Psychomotor performance was assessed by using a finger tapping test series. Cannabis extract, but not Delta(9)-THC, revealed a significant reduction of right-hand tapping frequencies that was also found in schizophrenia. As to the pure Delta(9)-THC condition, left-hand tapping frequencies were correlated with the plasma concentrations of the Delta(9)-THC metabolite 11-OH-THC. These effects are thought to be related to cannabinoid actions on CB(1) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum. Our data further demonstrate that acute CB(1) receptor activation under the cannabis extract condition may also affect intermanual coordination (IMC) as an index of interhemispheric transfer. AIR-Scale scores as a measure of subjective perception of intoxication were dose-dependently related to IMC which was shown by an inverted U-curve. This result may be due to functional changes involving GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission within the corpus callosum.

  3. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  4. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Norwegian Passive House Criteria and of Criteria related to the Concept of International Passive House Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, Karin; Vestergaard, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard.......The analysis shows differences in definition of apssive house criterias. It also communicates issues os the passive house concept that are nor completely transferred by the Norwegian passive house standard....

  6. Safety critical systems handbook a straightforward guide to functional safety : IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems increasingly carry out safety functions to guard workers and the public against injury or death and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and this is the first comprehensive guide available to the revised standard. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers. * The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards* Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards* Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples...

  7. Standardized subsets of the HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel, accounting for atypical and duplicated samples and pairs of close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2006-11-01

    The HGDP-CEPH Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel is a widely-used resource for studies of human genetic variation. Here, pairs of close relatives that have been included in the panel are identified. Together with information on atypical and duplicated samples, the inferred relative pairs suggest standardized subsets of the panel for use in future population-genetic studies.

  8. Proportions of maxillary anterior teeth relative to each other and to golden standard in tabriz dental faculty students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnia, Fereydoun; Hafezeqoran, Ali; Mahboub, Farhang; Moslehifard, Elnaz; Koodaryan, Rodabeh; Moteyagheni, Rosa; Saleh Saber, Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Various methods are used to measure the size and form of the teeth, including the golden pro-portion, and the width-to-length ratio of central teeth, referred to as the golden standard. The aim of this study was to eval-uate the occurrence of golden standard values and golden proportion in the anterior teeth. Photographs of 100 dentistry students (50 males and 50 females) were taken under standard conditions. The visible widths and lengths of maxillary right and left incisors were calculated and the ratios were compared with golden standard. Data was analyzed using SPSS 14 software. Review of the results of the means showed statistically significant differences between the width ratio of right lateral teeth to the central teeth width with golden proportion (Pmean differences showed that the mean difference between proportion of right laterals to centrals with golden proportion was significant (Pgolden proportion among maxillary incisors. The review of results of mean differences for single samples showed that the mean differences between the proportion of width-to-length of left and right central teeth was statistically significant by golden standard (Pgolden standard exists. In the evaluation of the width-to-width and width-to-length proportions of maxillary incisors no golden proportions and standards were detected, respectively.

  9. Recent advancements in the Internet-of-Things related standards: A oneM2M perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hyuncheol Park; Hoichang Kim; Hotaek Joo; JaeSeung Song

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) devices are likely to be developed by using different technologies and standards. Such IoT devices are being deployed in large numbers in various domains; thus, collaboration between standards bodies to provide interoperability is a key to the success of IoT. This paper describes a recent effort in oneM2M to broaden the IoT ecosystem. Semanticsenabled IoT platforms allow IoT devices to understand the meaning of IoT data in a standard way. oneM2M interoperability speci...

  10. Recent advancements in the Internet-of-Things related standards: A oneM2M perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hyuncheol Park; Hoichang Kim; Hotaek Joo; JaeSeung Song

    2016-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) devices are likely to be developed by using different technologies and standards. Such IoT devices are being deployed in large numbers in various domains; thus, collaboration between standards bodies to provide interoperability is a key to the success of IoT. This paper describes a recent effort in oneM2M to broaden the IoT ecosystem. Semanticsenabled IoT platforms allow IoT devices to understand the meaning of IoT data in a standard way. oneM2M interoperability speci...

  11. 磁力仪发展及相关标准应用现状%Magnetometer and related standards development application situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志成

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces each development stage of magnetic instruments,and according to the investigation of application status of Magnetometer and related standards,points out the mechanical magnetometer has been obsolete ,and the related standard still involved mechanical magnetometer,standard is outdated and can't leading the exploration work,therefore,puts forward the advice on standard revision.%本文对各发展阶段的磁力仪进行了简单介绍,根据对磁力仪及相关标准的应用现状的调研,指出了机械式磁力仪已在实际应用中被淘汰,而相关标准仍涉及了机械式磁力仪,标准已过时,已不能指导生产,因此提出了修订相关标准的建议.

  12. SOT1, a pentatricopeptide repeat protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for correct processing of plastid 23S-4.5S rRNA precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjuan; Liu, Sheng; Ruwe, Hannes; Zhang, Delin; Melonek, Joanna; Zhu, Yajuan; Hu, Xupeng; Gusewski, Sandra; Yin, Ping; Small, Ian D; Howell, Katharine A; Huang, Jirong

    2016-03-01

    Ribosomal RNA processing is essential for plastid ribosome biogenesis, but is still poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that SUPPRESSOR OF THYLAKOID FORMATION1 (SOT1), a plastid-localized pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for maturation of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron. Loss of SOT1 function leads to slower chloroplast development, suppression of leaf variegation, and abnormal 23S and 4.5S processing. Predictions based on the PPR motif sequences identified the 5' end of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistronic precursor as a putative SOT1 binding site. This was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and by loss of the abundant small RNA 'footprint' associated with this site in sot1 mutants. We found that more than half of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistrons in sot1 mutants contain eroded and/or unprocessed 5' and 3' ends, and that the endonucleolytic cleavage product normally released from the 5' end of the precursor is absent in a sot1 null mutant. We postulate that SOT1 binding protects the 5' extremity of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron from exonucleolytic attack, and favours formation of the RNA structure that allows endonucleolytic processing of its 5' and 3' ends. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  14. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  15. Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in Discrimination of Sporadic and Outbreak-Related Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skurnik Mikael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the potential of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for discriminating 104 sporadic and outbreak-related Yersinia enterocolitica (YE bio/serotype 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 isolates. MLVA using six VNTR markers was performed in two separate multiplex PCRs, and the fluorescently labeled PCR products were accurately sized on an automated DNA sequencer. Results MLVA discriminated 82 sporadic YE 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 strains into 77 types, whereas PFGE with the restriction enzyme NotI discriminated the strains into 23 different PFGE pulsotypes. The discriminatory index for a sporadic strain was 0.862 for PFGE and 0.999 for MLVA. MLVA confirmed that a foodborne outbreak in the city of Kotka, Finland in 2003 had been caused by a multiresistant YE 4/O:3 strain that was distinctly different from those of epidemiologically unrelated strains with an identical PFGE pulsotype. The multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains (19% of the sporadic strains correlated significantly (p = 0.002 with travel abroad. All of the multiresistant Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to four PFGE pulsotypes that did not contain any susceptible strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid was related to changes in codons 83 or 87 that stemmed from mutations in the gyrA gene. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that resistance to CHL, STR, and SUL was carried by a conjugative plasmid. Conclusions MLVA using six loci had better discriminatory power than PFGE with the NotI enzyme. MLVA was also a less labor-intensive method than PFGE and the results were easier to analyze. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that a resistance plasmid can easily be transferred between Y. enterocolitica strains. Antimicrobial multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains was significantly associated with travel abroad.

  16. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  17. Standardization of immunoassay for CRM-related proteins in Japan: from evaluating CRM 470 to setting reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y; Ichihara, K

    2001-11-01

    The Japan National Institute of Health (JNIH), in close collaboration with academic societies, commercial companies, and the Japan Society of Medical Technologists, has led in the attempt to standardize plasma protein assays since the mid 1980s. Under a framework of global standardization, they used WHO primary reference materials to reduce discrepancies in values reported for proteins assayed using different systems, thus laying the foundations for a protein immunoassay standardization system in Japan. With the introduction of CRM 470 in 1993, the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS) has taken the initiative in promoting the use of the new material and bringing about the re-evaluation of all systems of quality assurance in clinical laboratories. This eventually led to the establishment of reference intervals in Japanese populations of children and adults after preparation of assigned calibrators from CRM 470 for each assay system. Here we review the history of a series of projects carried out in Japan and describe several remaining problems, through which we will attempt to evaluate the potential value of protein immunoassay standardization.

  18. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  19. Performance Degradation of the Repeated Recycled Aggregate Concrete with 70% Replacement of Three-generation Recycled Coarse Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Pinghua; ZHANG Xinxin; WU Junyong; WANG Xinjie

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using different generations recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) on structural concrete was fully evaluated by studying the performance of the recycled coarse aggregates and their corresponding concretes, the different generations of RCA were recycled by following the repeated mode of ‘concrete-waste concrete-coarse aggregate-concrete’. Moreover, the focus was on ‘three generations’ of repeated RCAs, the RCA was produced by crushing and regenerating the artiifcial accelerated degraded concrete, the process was designed to follow the nature degradation of the concrete with a coupling action of accelerated carbonation and bending load. The properties ofx-generation (x=1, 2 or 3) of repeated RCA were systematically investigated and the compressive and splitting tensile strengths of relating structural concretes(with 70% replacement ofx-generation of RCA) were studied accordingly. The results show a competent compressive and splitting tensile strength of 30 MPa at 28th day of structural concretes with all generations of repeated RAC. And the gradual degraded performance of the repeated RCAs was observed with an increased numbers of repetition (1﹥2﹥3 generations), the overall performances of all repeated RCAs fulifll the ClassⅢaccording to Chinese Standards GB25177-2010. Our gained insight demonstrates a feasibility of using at least 3 generations of repeated RCA for the production of normal structural concrete.

  20. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  1. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  2. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  3. The excess of small inverted repeats in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses have shown that there is a large excess of perfect inverted repeats in many prokaryotic genomes but not in eukaryotic ones. This difference could be due to a genuine difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes or to differences in the methods and types of data analyzed--full genome versus protein coding sequences. We used simulations to show that the method used previously tends to underestimate the expected number of inverted repeats. However, this bias is not large and cannot explain the excess of inverted repeats observed in real data. In contrast, our method is unbiased. When both methods are applied to bacterial protein coding sequences they both detect an excess of inverted repeats, which is much lower than previously reported in whole prokaryotic genomes. This suggests that the reported large excess of inverted repeats is due to repeats found in intergenic regions. These repeats could be due to transcription factor binding sites, or other types of repetitive DNA, on opposite strands of the DNA sequence. In contrast, the smaller, but significant, excess of inverted repeats that we report in protein coding sequences may be due to sequence-directed mutagenesis (SDM). SDM is a process where one copy of a small, imperfect, inverted repeat corrects the other copy via strand misalignment, resulting in a perfect repeat and a series of mutations. We show by simulation that even very low levels of SDM, relative to the rate of point mutation, can generate a substantial excess of inverted repeats.

  4. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  5. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  6. Dollars, Distinction, or Duty? The Meaning of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards for Teachers' Work and Collegial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Dorothea; Sykes, Gary; McCrory, Raven; Cannata, Marisa; Frank, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is the most prominent contemporary effort to professionalize teaching. Along with identifying exceptional teachers, the NBPTS seeks to alter teachers' work by establishing a cadre of expert teachers capable of and obligated to leading school improvement efforts. This article reports…

  7. GIS Education at Geographical Departments in Japanese Universities in Relation to the Japan Standard GIS Core Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Midori; Oguchi, Takashi; Okabe, Atsuyuki; Sadahiro, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) education in Japan lags far behind that in Western developed countries. As such the development of systematic GIS education in Japanese universities, including the preparation of a GIS standard curriculum, becomes an urgent issue. This article examines the present situation and recent trends of GIS education in…

  8. GIS Education at Geographical Departments in Japanese Universities in Relation to the Japan Standard GIS Core Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Midori; Oguchi, Takashi; Okabe, Atsuyuki; Sadahiro, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) education in Japan lags far behind that in Western developed countries. As such the development of systematic GIS education in Japanese universities, including the preparation of a GIS standard curriculum, becomes an urgent issue. This article examines the present situation and recent trends of GIS education in…

  9. 75 FR 39252 - Release of Final Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... ``cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or... Pekar, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (Mail code C504-06), U.S. Environmental Protection... scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health...

  10. 40 CFR 1039.515 - What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards? (a) General provisions. The provisions in 40 CFR 86.1370-2007 apply for determining whether an... the provisions of 40 CFR 86.1360-2007(c). One of the following provisions applies: (1) If the C speed... connecting the following two points on a plot of speed-vs.-power: (i) 30% of maximum power at the B...

  11. Population-wide weight loss and regain in relation to diabetes burden and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba 1980-2010: repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Manuel; Bilal, Usama; Orduñez, Pedro; Benet, Mikhail; Morejón, Alain; Caballero, Benjamín; Kennelly, Joan F; Cooper, Richard S

    2013-04-09

    To evaluate the associations between population-wide loss and gain in weight with diabetes prevalence, incidence, and mortality, as well as cardiovascular and cancer mortality trends, in Cuba over a 30 year interval. Repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends. Cuba and the province of Cienfuegos, from 1980 to 2010. Measurements in Cienfuegos included a representative sample of 1657, 1351, 1667, and 1492 adults in 1991, 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. National surveys included a representative sample of 14 304, 22 851, and 8031 participants in 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. Changes in smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, and body weight were tracked from 1980 to 2010 using national and regional surveys. Data for diabetes prevalence and incidence were obtained from national population based registries. Mortality trends were modelled using national vital statistics. Rapid declines in diabetes and heart disease accompanied an average population-wide loss of 5.5 kg in weight, driven by an economic crisis in the mid-1990s. A rebound in population weight followed in 1995 (33.5% prevalence of overweight and obesity) and exceeded pre-crisis levels by 2010 (52.9% prevalence). The population-wide increase in weight was immediately followed by a 116% increase in diabetes prevalence and 140% increase in diabetes incidence. Six years into the weight rebound phase, diabetes mortality increased by 49% (from 9.3 deaths per 10 000 people in 2002 to 13.9 deaths per 10 000 people in 2010). A deceleration in the rate of decline in mortality from coronary heart disease was also observed. In relation to the Cuban experience in 1980-2010, there is an association at the population level between weight reduction and death from diabetes and cardiovascular disease; the opposite effect on the diabetes and cardiovascular burden was seen on population-wide weight gain.

  12. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  13. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  14. Accuracy and repeatability of a new method for measuring facet loads in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Derek C; Niosi, Christina A; Zhu, Qingan A; Oxland, Thomas R; Wilson, David R

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the repeatability and accuracy of a relatively new, resistance-based sensor (Tekscan 6900) for measuring lumbar spine facet loads, pressures, and contact areas in cadaver specimens. Repeatability of measurements in the natural facet joint was determined for five trials of four specimens loaded in pure moment (+/- 7.5 N m) flexibility tests in axial rotation and flexion-extension. Accuracy of load measurements in four joints was assessed by applying known compressive loads of 25, 50, and 100 N to the natural facet joint in a materials testing machine and comparing the known applied load to the measured load. Measurements of load were obtained using two different calibration approaches: linear and two-point calibrations. Repeatability for force, pressure, and area (average of standard deviation as a percentage of the mean for all trials over all specimens) was 4-6% for axial rotation and 7-10% for extension. Peak resultant force in axial rotation was 30% smaller when calculated using the linear calibration method. The Tekscan sensor overestimated the applied force by 18 +/- 9% (mean+/-standard deviation), 35 +/- 7% and 50 +/- 9% for compressive loads of 100, 50, and 25 N, respectively. The two-point method overestimated the loads by 35 +/- 16%, 45 +/- 7%, and 56 +/- 10% for the same three loads. Our results show that the Tekscan sensor is repeatable. However, the sensor measurement range is not optimal for the small loads transmitted by the facets and measurement accuracy is highly dependent on calibration protocol.

  15. Standardized and Repeatable Technology Evaluation for Cybersecurity Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    the Computer Network Defense- Cyber Security Division (Code 58200), SSC Pacific, San Diego, CA. The SSC Pacific Naval Innovative Science and...adopted requirements. Once a cyber solution is identified as needed by information security personnel (even if funding is available) the procurement...incorporating new technology to address new cyber threats . While contracts are being worked out, the organization is effectively limited in its capability to

  16. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  17. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of rep...

  18. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, H. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-01-21

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  19. A "Common" Vision of Instruction? An Analysis of English/Language Arts Professional Development Materials Related to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Emily; Benko, Susanna L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the stances put forward by a selection of professional development resources interpreting the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (ELA) teachers, and to analyse where these resources stand in relation to research in ELA. Specifically, we analyse resources written by English educators…

  20. Assessment of the Adequacy of Instructional Resources in Business Education Programmes Relative to NCCE Standards for Colleges of Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyesom, Moses; Okolocha, Chimezie Comfort

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the adequacy of instructional resources available for business education programmes at the colleges of education in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria in relation to the standards stipulated by the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). The study adopted the ex-post facto research design and was guided by five…

  1. Repeatability of the evaluation of systemic microvascular endothelial function using laser doppler perfusion monitoring: clinical and statistical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tibiriçá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An awareness of the repeatability of biological measures is required to properly design and calculate sample sizes for longitudinal interventional studies. We investigated the day-to-day repeatability of measures of systemic microvascular reactivity using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring. METHODS: We performed laser Doppler perfusion monitoring in combination with skin iontophoresis using acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside as well as post-occlusive reactive and thermal hyperemia twice within two weeks. The repeatability was assessed by calculating the within-subject standard deviations, limits of agreement, typical errors and intra-class correlation coefficients between days 1 and 2. The ratio of the within-subject standard deviation to the mean values obtained on days 1 and 2 (within-subject standard deviation/GM was used to determine the condition with the best repeatability. RESULTS: Twenty-four healthy subjects, aged 24.6 + 3.8 years, were recruited. The area under the curve of the vasodilatory response to post-occlusive reactivity showed marked variability (within-subject standard deviation/GM = 0.83, while the area under the curve for acetylcholine exhibited less variability (within-subject standard deviation/ GM = 0.52 and was comparable to the responses to sodium nitroprusside and thermal treatment (within-subject standard deviations/GM of 0.67 and 0.56, respectively. The area under the blood flow/time curve for vasodilation during acetylcholine administration required the smallest sample sizes, the area under the blood flow/time curve during post-occlusive reactivity required the largest sample sizes, and the area under the blood flow/time curves of vasodilation induced by sodium nitroprusside and thermal treatment required intermediate sizes. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the importance of random error related to the day-to-day repeatability of laser Doppler perfusion monitoring, we propose an original and robust statistical

  2. Relative efficiency of North Carolina designs I and II and standard design III in three wheat crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S

    1979-01-01

    The efficiency of three analyses, namely, Designs I and II of Comstock and Robinson (1952) and standard Design III analysis of Kearsey and Jinks (1968), was compared in the F2s of three wheat crosses (Norteno 67 x HD 1982, HD 1982 x Moti and Sonalika x Moti) for plant height, spikelets per spike and yield per plant. The three analyses showed a remarkable agreement in estimating the additive (D) component for all three characters in all three crosses. But, as regards the estimation of dominance ] (H) component, standard Design III analysis proved to be more efficient than the other two analyses in crosses 2 (HD 1982 x Moti) and 3 (Sonalika x Moti) for all three characters except spikelets per spike in cross 3.

  3. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  4. Le Higgs et le quark top dans le formalisme des relations de dispersion et le modèle standard

    CERN Document Server

    Bouayed, Noureddine

    The mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking responsible for the generation of masses for both the bosons and the fermions of the Standard Model remains a mystery, especially that the Higgs has still not been discovered. In this thesis I concentrate on the study of the scalar sector of the Standard Model where the Higgs with the other Goldstone Boson reside. This sector can best be probed through the massive vector bosons and the top quark. The former, for their privileged coupling to the Higgs and because their longitudinal mode represents the Goldstone Bosons, and the top, because of its very strong Yukawa coupling, are very sensitive to the mechanism of symmetry breaking. I first focus on a situation where the Higgs is light and study the processes ${W^-W^+ \\to t\\bar{t}}$ and ${ZZ \\to t\\bar{t}}$. In order to unambiguously reveal a sign of New Physics, the Standard Model needs to be predicted precisely. In a first step I therefore study the electroweak and QCD one-loop corrections for these processes. Thi...

  5. On the role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, L; Dür, W; Kraus, B

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory, and (ii) introducing two new operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e. without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an o...

  6. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    and cost-effectiveness. For new and existing buildings this requires a calculation of the energy performance of the building including heating, ventilation, cooling and lighting systems, based on primary energy. Each building must have an energy certificate and regular inspections of heating, cooling...... and ventilation systems must be performed. The present paper will present the method for calculating the energy performance for heating systems. The relevant CEN-standards are presented and a sample calculation of energy performance is made for a small family house in different geographical locations: Stockholm...

  7. 男乳癌与 AR 基因 CAG 重复多态性的相关性研究%Related research of male breast cancer and CAG repeat polymorphism of AR gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔佳琳; 黄睿; 姜永冬; 韩继广; 牛明; 魏巍; 郑伟; 宋燕妮

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨雄激素受体( AR)基因外显子CAG重复频数多态性与男性乳腺癌(男乳癌)发病风险的关系。方法研究对象为40例男性乳腺癌患者和40例男性健康者,从外周血提取DNA,对AR基因外显子CAG编码序列进行PCR扩增、测序和计算CAG重复频数,用χ2检验和Logistic回归分析AR基因CAG重复频数长度对男乳癌发病风险的影响。结果男性乳腺癌病例组和对照组CAG重复频数长度存在差异,其差异具有统计学意义,CAG重复频数长度超过22男性乳腺癌发病风险是重复频数长度少于21的3.52倍(OR=3.52,P=0.036)。结论 AR基因CAG重复频数长度是预测男性乳腺癌发病风险的指标,较长(超过22)的CAG重复序列可增加男乳癌的发病风险。%Objectiv e To investigate the correlation between ( CAG) n repeat polymorphism of androgen receptor(AR)geneandmalebreastcancer.Methods 40casesofmalebreastcancerand40controlswerecol-lected.DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the AR gene CAG coding exon sequences for PCR amplifica -tion,sequencing and calculated the number of CAG repeats frquency .χ2 test and Logistic regression analysis were used assess the AR gene CAG repeat length frequency affect the number of male breast cancer risk .Results There was statistically significant difference in male breast cancer cases and controls the number of CAG repeat length frequency.Man for whom the(CAG)n≥22 repeat sequence had 3.52 times risk of male breast compared (CAG)n≤22(OR=3.52,P=0.036).Conclusion AR gene CAG repeat length is a predictor of the frequency of male breast cancer risk .Longer CAG repeats can increase the risk of male breast cancer .

  8. Situation of China's solar water heater industry, related national standards, testing and the Golden Sun certification program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; H.Druck; H.Muller-Steinhagen

    2008-01-01

    China is the largest solar water heater producer and market in the world. Despite the fast growth and an installed capacity that accounts for the majority of the global gross, China's per capita solar hot water capacity is still very low, implying a huge margin of market potential; and the recognition of the industry in the global market is handicapped by the scattered scale of production and inconsistent product quality. To ensure continued growth of China's solar water heating (SWH) industry, Chinese Government has established a series of national SWH standards, three national testing centers, and a certification program to lay the foundation for the development of the Golden Sun product labeling system. China General Certification Center (CGC) developed the Golden Sun product certification and labeling system on a pass/fail basis evaluating with established criteria. The system was designed to help manufacturers acclimate to explicit consistent requirements and to identify and fix the deficiencies in the design and execution of the program itself. Timely revision and integration of the national standards are recommended to accommodate the test procedures and requirements to new technologies and the evolving SWH market. Strict implementation of the Golden Sun certification and labeling system are suggested to avail improving the quality control and forging internationally reputable brands of Chinese solar water heating products.

  9. Preparation and Standard Formation Enthalpy of 2-Amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine and Its Related Complexes of Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN San-ping; WEI Qing; JIAO Bao-juan; GAO Sheng-li

    2003-01-01

    The complexes of hydrous copper chloride and copper nitrate with 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine(ADMP) were prepared via reflux in alcohol. The compositions of the complexes were identified as Cu(ADMP)2Cl2*2H2O(b) and Cu(ADMP)(NO3)2*H2O(c) by chemical and elemental analyses. The complexes were characterized by IR, XPS, 1H NMR and TG-DTG techniques. The constant-volume combustion energies of ADMP and the complexes, ΔcE, were determined by a precise rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. They were (-3664.53±1.18), (-4978.47±2.72) and (-1696.70±1.36) Kj/mol, respectively. Their standard enthalpies of combustion, ΔcH0m, and standard enthalpies of formation, ΔfH0m, were calculated to be (-3666.39±1.18), (-4977.23±2.72), (-1691.12±1.36) Kj/mol and (19.09±1.43), (-2041.80±3.29), (-2397.24±1.65) Kj/mol, respectively.

  10. 热处理废气治理及环保标准%Handling of Exhaust Gas Originating from Heat Treatment and Related Environmental Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏永辉; 苏兴武; 沈合利; 王红伟; 张峦

    2015-01-01

    The main source of exhaust gas in heat treatment trade and the standards related to exhaust gas discharging were introduced.The ways of handling exhaust gas were put forward.The exhaust gas originating from heat treatment should be strictly handled according to the relevant environmental standard,rendering discharged exhaust gas up to the standard.%介绍了热处理行业废气的主要来源及废气排放的相关标准,提出了治理废气的方法。热处理废气应该严格按相关的环保标准进行处理,使废气排放达标。

  11. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  12. Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2014-03-01

    We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.

  13. Towards Quantum Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisin, Nicolas

    2009-05-01

    The ultimate limit of direct point to point quantum key distribution is around 300-500 km. Longer distances fiber-based quantum communication will require both high-fidelity entanglement swapping and multi-mode quantum memories. A new protocol for an efficient multimode quantum memory based on atomic ensembles has been developed and demonstrated. The rare-earth ions ensemble is ``frozen'' in a crystal inside a cryostat. The protocol, named AFC (Atomic Frequency Comb) is inspired from photon echoes, but avoids any control light pulse after the single-photon(s) is (are) stored in the medium, thus avoiding any noise due to fluorescence. First results on the new protocol for quantum memories in Nd:YVO4 doped crystals demonstrate a quantum light-matter interface at the single-photon level. The coherence of the re-emitted photons is investigated in an interference experiment showing net visibilities above 95%. Further results in Nd:YSO (Geneva), Tm:YAG (Paris) and Pr:YSO (Lund) shall also be presented. Many hundreds of km long quantum communication is a long term objective. Many of the necessary building blocks have been demonstrated, but usually in independent experiments and with insufficient fidelities and specifications to meet the goal. Still, today's the roadmap is relatively clear and a lot of interesting physics shall be found along the journey.

  14. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  15. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  16. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  17. Repeatability of testing a small broadband sensor in the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory Underground Vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, Adam; Holland, Austin; Wilson, David

    2017-01-01

    Variability in seismic instrumentation performance plays a fundamental role in our ability to carry out experiments in observational seismology. Many such experiments rely on the assumed performance of various seismic sensors as well as on methods to isolate the sensors from nonseismic noise sources. We look at the repeatability of estimating the self‐noise, midband sensitivity, and the relative orientation by comparing three collocated Nanometrics Trillium Compact sensors. To estimate the repeatability, we conduct a total of 15 trials in which one sensor is repeatedly reinstalled, alongside two undisturbed sensors. We find that we are able to estimate the midband sensitivity with an error of no greater than 0.04% with a 99th percentile confidence, assuming a standard normal distribution. We also find that we are able to estimate mean sensor self‐noise to within ±5.6  dB with a 99th percentile confidence in the 30–100‐s‐period band. Finally, we find our relative orientation errors have a mean difference in orientation of 0.0171° from the reference, but our trials have a standard deviation of 0.78°.

  18. Students as Non-Standard Employees. Exploring Work Related Issues in Students’ Perceptions on their Term-time Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of an explorative study that aimed at exploring work related issues in students’ perceptions of their job as atypical employees. An individual picture of the experienced work reality of students is drawn according to work task, flexible working hours, instructions...... and training opportunities, students’ relations to other employees, and social integration. By adopting a qualitative design, I was able to emphasize the subjective perspective of students describing their very own experiences as flexible workers. The study revealed various perceptions of students working...

  19. Measurements of the intensity noise of a broadly tunable, erbium-doped fiber ring laser, relative to the standard quantum limit

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Steve; Dawson, Jay W.; Park, Namkyoo; Vahala, Kerry J.

    1992-01-01

    The intensity noise of an erbium-doped fiber ring laser is measured relative to the standard quantum limit. Over a tuning range of 24 nm, the noise power is within 20 dB of the shot noise floor and varies linearly with laser output power. Oscillations in the noise power spectrum are observed and attributed to beating of the lasing mode with other, strongly damped cavity modes.

  20. [Poverty and Health: The Living Standard Approach as a Supplementary Concept to Measure Relative Poverty. Results from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP 2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, T-K

    2016-06-01

    A common indicator of the measurement of relative poverty is the disposable income of a household. Current research introduces the living standard approach as an alternative concept for describing and measuring relative poverty. This study compares both approaches with regard to subjective health status of the German population, and provides theoretical implications for the utilisation of the income and living standard approach in health research. Analyses are based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) from the year 2011 that includes 12 290 private households and 21106 survey members. Self-rated health was based on a subjective assessment of general health status. Income poverty is based on the equalised disposable income and is applied to a threshold of 60% of the median-based average income. A person will be denoted as deprived (inadequate living standard) if 3 or more out of 11 living standard items are lacking due to financial reasons. To calculate the discriminate power of both poverty indicators, descriptive analyses and stepwise logistic regression models were applied separately for men and women adjusted for age, residence, nationality, educational level, occupational status and marital status. The results of the stepwise regression revealed a stronger poverty-health relationship for the living standard indicator. After adjusting for all control variables and the respective poverty indicator, income poverty was statistically not significantly associated with a poor subjective health status among men (OR Men: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00-1.77) and women (OR Women: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.78-1.22). In contrast, the association between deprivation and subjective health status was statistically significant for men (OR Men: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57-2.52) and women (OR Women: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.76-2.64). The results of the present study indicate that the income and standard of living approach measure different dimensions of poverty. In comparison to the income approach, the living

  1. Features and trends of IEC particular standards for medical equipment related to diagnostic x-ray based on IEC 60601-1 :2005 Ed. 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ji; Kim, Jung Min; Choi, In Seok; Yoon, Yong Su; Seo, Deok Nam; Kim, Jung Su [Dept. of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Young; Park, Sung Yong [Korea Testing Laboratory, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    IEC publications have applied in many countries all over the world such as Europe or Japan and these also have been published as industrial standards (KS) and notifications of Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) in Korea. As the general standard of IEC 60601 series for medical electric (ME) equipment was revised as 3rd edition in 2005, additional and particular standards have been revised or established newly. Under these circumstances, it is importance for manufacturing and assembling companies or authorized testing companies to understand the trend for revisions of IEC publications. Therefore in this study, the latest version of 3 IEC standards related to medical X-ray equipment : IEC 60601-2-44 for X-ray equipment for computed tomography (CT), IEC 60601-2-45 for mammographic X-ray equipment and IEC 60601-2-54 for X-ray equipment for radiography or radioscopy were covered and analyzed for trends and features accompanied by revision based on IEC 60601-1 3rd Ed. As KFDA notifications in force have referred to the particular standards based on 2nd edition of IEC 60601-1, those revised version of 3 particular standards were compared to KFDA notifications in force. The features of the latest standards applying IEC 60601-1 3rd Ed were shown as following: 1) Requirements for mechanical hazards, especially (motorized) moving parts were emphasized. 2) Indication and recording of patient dose were required. 3) Risk management process was introduced and enabled to monitor potential risks systematically. 4) DR system (digital radiography system) as well as analogue system (film-screen system) was included in the scope. Presently, KFDA will revise the notifications applying the particular standards based on IEC 60601-1 3rd Ed in a few years. Therefore the features of particular standards applying IEC 60601-1 3rd Ed was expected to help manufacturers, assemblers or testing companies of medical electric equipment understand IEC publications or KFDA notifications slated to

  2. Interpretation of 10 Gigabit Copper Cable Related Standard%万兆铜缆相关规范解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健

    2012-01-01

    对布线行业标准规范《万兆铜缆系统工程设计、施工与检测技术白皮书》进行了导读。介绍了万兆铜缆的定义、技术指标,万兆以太网的应用。万兆铜缆的测试、施工注意事项,指出万兆铜缆也可以选择非屏蔽产品,并对万兆铜缆的前景作了展望。%The generic cabling industry standards " 10 gigabit copper cable systems engineering design, construction and test technology white paper" were introduced. The definition and technical index of 10 gigabit copper cable, the application of 10 gigabit ethernet, matters needing attention of 10 gigabit copper cable test, construction were given. It was pointed out that the 10 gigabit copper cable can also choose a shielding products, and the 10 gigabit copper cable prospects are described.

  3. Developing Calibration Weights and Standard-Error Estimates for a Survey of Drug-Related Emergency-Department Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kott Phillip S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a two-step calibration-weighting scheme for a stratified simple random sample of hospital emergency departments. The first step adjusts for unit nonresponse. The second increases the statistical efficiency of most estimators of interest. Both use a measure of emergency-department size and other useful auxiliary variables contained in the sampling frame. Although many survey variables are roughly a linear function of the measure of size, response is better modeled as a function of the log of that measure. Consequently the log of size is a calibration variable in the nonresponse-adjustment step, while the measure of size itself is a calibration variable in the second calibration step. Nonlinear calibration procedures are employed in both steps. We show with 2010 DAWN data that estimating variances as if a one-step calibration weighting routine had been used when there were in fact two steps can, after appropriately adjusting the finite-population correct in some sense, produce standard-error estimates that tend to be slightly conservative.

  4. Measuring the distance-redshift relation with the cross-correlation of gravitational wave standard sirens and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Oguri, Masamune

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries are known to be an excellent absolute distance indicator, yet it is unclear whether electromagnetic counterparts of these events are securely identified for measuring their redshifts, especially in the case of black hole-black hole mergers such as the one recently observed with the Advanced LIGO. We propose to use the cross-correlation between spatial distributions of gravitational wave sources and galaxies with known redshifts as an alternative means of constraining the distance-redshift relation from gravitational waves. In our analysis, we explicitly include the modulation of the distribution of gravitational wave sources due to weak gravitational lensing. We show that the cross-correlation analysis in next-generation observations will be able to tightly constrain the relation between the absolute distance and the redshift, and therefore constrain the Hubble constant as well as dark energy parameters.

  5. Standardizing the GRBs with the Amati Ep,i - Eiso relation: the updated Hubble diagram and implications for cosmography

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between the peak photon energy of the internal spectrum Ep,i and isotropic equivalent radiated energy Eiso (the Amati relation) is explored in a scalar field model of dark energy. Using an updated data set of 109 high redshift GRBs, we show that the correlation parameters only weakly depend on the cosmological model. Once the parameters of Amati relation have been determined we use this relation to construct a fiducial GRBs Hubble diagram that extends up to redshifts ~ 8. Moreover we apply a local regression technique to estimate, in a model independent way, the distance modulus from the recently updated Union SNIa sample, containing 557 SNIa spanning the redshift range of 0.015 < z <1.55. The derived calibration parameters are used to construct an updated GRBs Hubble diagram, which we call the calibrated GRBs HD. We also compare the fiducial and calibrated GRBs HDs, which turned out to be fully statistically consistent, thus indicating that they are not affected by any systematic bias i...

  6. Association of attachment disorganization, attachment-related emotion regulation, and cortisol response after standardized psychosocial stress procedure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment representations are related to maintaining biological homeostasis, including physiological stress and emotional regulation. Therefore, recent research has focused on attachment stress regulation and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. However, the attachment disorganization underlying emotion regulation associated with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. In our study, the attachment representation and the HPA-axis reactivity by cortisol level before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were assessed in a sample of 98 healthy non-clinical subjects. As expected, approximately 30% of this sample showed a disorganized attachment representation. The subjects’ unresolved attachment (breakdown of emotional regulation showed a prolonged cortisol recovery. No differences were found between the attachment patterns in the increase and the delta of the cortisol response. However, the cortisol reactivity differed significantly for the occurrence of emotional regulation. The subjects with a high occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation showed a higher cortisol response than the subjects with an unresolved attachment and the ones with a low occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation. Regulating the negative emotions of stressful situations may require more attention as it might lead to an increased activation of the physiological system.

  7. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Delhomel, Gregory; Brughelli, Matt; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effects of explosive strength (ExpS) vs. repeated shuttle sprint (RS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in young elite soccer players, 15 elite male adolescents (14.5 ± 0.5 years) performed, in addition to their soccer training program, RS (n = 7) or ExpS (n = 8) training once a week for a total of 10 weeks. RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 × 15- to 20-m repeated shuttle sprints interspersed with 14 seconds of passive or 23 seconds of active recovery (≈2 m·s⁻¹); ExpS training consisted of 4-6 series of 4-6 exercises (e.g., maximal unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs), calf and squat plyometric jumps, and short sprints). Before and after training, performance was assessed by 10 and 30 m (10 and 30 m) sprint times, best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test, a CMJ, and a hopping (Hop) test. After training, except for 10 m (p = 0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all p's repeated shuttle sprint test were only observed after RS training, whereas CMJ height was only increased after ExpS. Because RS and ExpS were equally efficient at enhancing maximal sprinting speed, RS training-induced improvements in RSA were likely more related to progresses in the ability to change direction.

  8. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Joris; Klugkist, I.G.; Schoot, Rens van de; Meeus, W.H.J.; Selfhout, Maarten; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between

  9. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823031; Klugkist, I.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/27330089X; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; van Zalk, M.H.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836214; Hoijtink, H.J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075184427

    2009-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between groups,

  10. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  11. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  12. Translation of questionnaires measuring health related quality of life is not standardized: a literature based research study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kjaergaard Danielsen

    Full Text Available There is growing awareness of the need to explore patient reported outcomes in clinical trials. In the Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group we are conducting several clinical trials in cooperation between Danish and Swedish surgical researchers, and we use questionnaires aimed at patients from both countries. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects.The purpose of this study was to explore which methodological measures were used in studies reporting translation of questionnaires. Furthermore, we wanted to make some methodological suggestions for clinical researchers who are faced with having to translate a questionnaire.We designed a research study based on a survey of the literature and extracted data from published studies reporting the methodological process when translating questionnaires on health related quality of life for different diseases.We retrieved 187 studies and out of theses we included 52 studies. The psychometric properties of the translated versions were validated using different tests. The focus was on internal validity (96%, reliability (67% criterion validity (81%, and construct validity (62%. For internal validity Cronbach's alpha was used in 94% of the studies.This study shows that there seems to be a consensus regarding the translation process (especially for internal validity although most researchers did not use a translation guide. Moreover, we recommended that clinical researchers should consider three steps covering the process of translation, the qualitative validation as well as the quantitative validation.

  13. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  14. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  15. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  16. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  17. Measurement of Perceived Parental Success Standards in Sport and Relations with Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Achievement Goal Orientation: Comparing Parental and Coach Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J. Schwebel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Perceived Parent Success Standards Scale (PPSSS, adapted from the Perception of Success Questionnaire constructed by Roberts et al. (1998 to measure athletes’ achievement goal orientation, provides a measure of athletes’ perceptions of mastery- and ego-oriented parental success criteria, a central component of parental motivational climate. This study focused on 543 young athletes (ages 9–16 on 82 teams in recreational basketball leagues. The PPSSS exhibited strong factorial validity, construct validity, and orthogonality between ego and mastery factors that allow for different combinations of these factors to be tested. We also compared the impact of the motivational climates created by coaches and success standards conveyed by parents on postseason athlete outcome measures of anxiety, self-esteem, and achievement goal orientation. Correlational and multilevel regression analyses revealed that both coach and parent variables were significantly related to the athlete variables. However, mediational analyses indicated that parental success standards mediated relations between coach-initiated climate and all of the outcome variables, reflecting the power of parental socialization processes. We discuss potential reasons for the greater parental influence shown in this and a previous study, and we suggest directions for further research as well as possible interventions that can help both coaches and parents create a more positive athletic environment for young athletes.

  18. Correct use of repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunsik; Cho, Meehye; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2009-02-01

    In biomedical research, researchers frequently use statistical procedures such as the t-test, standard analysis of variance (ANOVA), or the repeated measures ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest. There are frequently some misuses in applying these procedures since the conditions of the experiments or statistical assumptions necessary to apply these procedures are not fully taken into consideration. In this paper, we demonstrate the correct use of repeated measures ANOVA to prevent or minimize ethical or scientific problems due to its misuse. We also describe the appropriate use of multiple comparison tests for follow-up analysis in repeated measures ANOVA. Finally, we demonstrate the use of repeated measures ANOVA by using real data and the statistical software package SPSS (SPSS Inc., USA).

  19. [Implementation and validation in the Italian context of the HSE management standards: a contribution to provide a practical model for the assessment of work-related stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, S; Natali, E; Rondinone, B M; Castaldi, T; Persechino, B

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, stress has been recognized as a potential work-related risk factor. Unfortunately, work-related stress is a very delicate subject, especially because it is difficult to assess it objectively and in broadly acceptable terms. In fact, work-related stress is a subjective personal response to a specific work environment, ad is of a multifactorial origin. In order to provide a practical tool for the assessment of work-related stress, the authors carried out a thorough benchmarking analysis of the various models to manage work stress problems adopted by EU countries. As a result, the authors have chosen to apply and implement the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Management Standards approach in the Italian context. In compliance with the European Framework Agreement signed on October 8, 2004, HSE Management Standards ask for the coordinated and integrated involvement of workers and safety personnel and represent a valid assessment approach based on principles widely acknowledged in the scientific literature.

  20. Inter-examiner reliability of a standardized Ultra-sonographic method for classification of changes related to supraspinatus tendinopathy – a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Hjarnbæk, John

    2015-01-01

    Inter-examiner reliability of a standardized Ultra-sonographic method for classification of changes related to supraspinatus tendinopathy – a pilot study Ingwersen KG1, 2, Hjarbaek J3, Eshøj H1, Larsen CM1, 4, Vobbe J5, Juul-Kristensen B1, 6 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics...... athletes. For optimizing rehabilitation to the different stages of tendinopathy (1) ultra-sonography (US) may be used. Reliability of such method for RT is lacking. Aims. To develop and test inter-examiner reliability of US for classifying RT. Materials and Methods. A three-phased standardized protocol...... examiners (A: Novice and B: Expert) rated independently the presence of fibrillar disruption, calcification, and neovascularity, besides measured tendon thickness. Cohen’s Kappa statistics were calculated for fibrillar disruption, neovascularisation and calcification, and ICC statistics for tendon thickness...

  1. European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Centers with FACT-JACIE Accreditation Have Significantly Better Compliance with Related Donor Care Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Chloe; O'Donnell, Paul V; Kiefer, Deidre M; Yared, Jean; Norkin, Maxim; Anderlini, Paolo; Savani, Bipin N; Diaz, Miguel A; Bitan, Menachem; Halter, Joerg P; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; Shaw, Bronwen E

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have identified healthcare practices that may place undue pressure on related donors (RDs) of hematopoietic cell products and an increase in serious adverse events associated with morbidities in this population. As a result, specific requirements to safeguard RD health have been introduced to Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy/The Joint Accreditation Committee ISCT and EBMT (FACT-JACIE) Standards, but the impact of accreditation on RD care has not previously been evaluated. A survey of transplant program directors of European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation member centers was conducted by the Donor Health and Safety Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to test the hypothesis that RD care in FACT-JACIE accredited centers is more closely aligned with international consensus donor care recommendations than RD care delivered in centers without accreditation. Responses were received from 39% of 304 centers. Our results show that practice in accredited centers was much closer to recommended standards as compared with nonaccredited centers. Specifically, a higher percentage of accredited centers use eligibility criteria to assess RDs (93% versus 78%; P = .02), and a lower percentage have a single physician simultaneously responsible for an RD and their recipient (14% versus 35%; P = .008). In contrast, where regulatory standards do not exist, both accredited and nonaccredited centers fell short of accepted best practice. These results raise concerns that despite improvements in care, current practice can place undue pressure on donors and may increase the risk of donation-associated adverse events. We recommend measures to address these issues through enhancement of regulatory standards as well as national initiatives to standardize RD care. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Standards and standpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization...

  3. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on the project for research and development of an intellectual base creating and utilizing technology. Research and development of standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances (researches on preservation stability and the valuing methods related to pure substance standard substances, mixed standard substances and composition type standard substances); 1999 nendo chiteki kiban sosei riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu kanren hyojun busshitsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (junbusshitsu hyojun, kongo hyojun oyobi soseigata hyojun busshitsu ni kakawaru hozon anteisei, nezuke hoho nado ni tsuite no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on researching and developing standard substances related to internal secretion disturbing chemical substances. Environmental contamination due to environmental hormones has a large number of scientifically unclear points. These points are related to the basic conditions for the existence of living organisms, whereas serious impacts transcending the generations are feared. In addition, the environmental hormones have been observed in water quality, water bottom quality, and living environments for aquatic animals. Standardization in technologies to measure them, and arrangement of standard substances are demanded strongly. Based on these circumstances, evaluations were given on the following matters: determination of purity of the reference substances with regard to the standard solutions of di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethyl phthalate among the standard substances required for the measurement, establishment of methods for measuring impurities and preparing the standard solutions, establishment of the methods to measure concentrations of the standard solutions, and the preservation stability of the standard solutions. As a result, standard solutions with accurate concentrations and excellent stability were developed. In addition, development was performed on the composition type standard substance for which a certified value was given to PCB in soil. (NEDO)

  4. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  5. Consideration on the health risk reduction related to attainment of the new particulate matter standards in Poland: A top-down policy risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Joanna; Pastuszka, Józef S; Gulis, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Policies can influence health of a population in various ways. Numerous epidemiological studies supported by toxicological investigations demonstrate a positive association between ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter and increased adverse cardio-respiratory events, including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper was to present the concept of the top-down health policy risk assessment approach model developed to estimate the expected health risk reduction associated with policy aiming at attaining the new particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10) standards in Poland. The top-down approach guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy to health outcomes. In this case study we tried to estimate the predicted health effects of the policy change over the past 20 years. Since Polish annual standard for PM10 changed from 50 μg/m³ in 1990 to 40 μg/m³ in 2010, we calculated the relative risk associated with decreasing PM10 in diameter to 10 μg/m3 in the annual level of PM10 for 6 adverse health effects. The relative risk slightly decreased for almost all adverse health effects, which means that the relative decrease in the incidence of health effects from the baseline incidence should range from about 0.5-0.6% for heart disease admissions to > 1% for respiratory admissions. The obtained results indicate that implementation of the new ambient air standards could influence improvement of the health status of Polish population. A top-down policy health risk assessment model can be one of the main tools in this process, providing harmonized guidance how to seek evidence-based information, which could serve policy-makers.

  6. (CAG)n·(CTG)n三核苷酸重复序列扩增及相关疾病机制研究进展%Advances in the studies of the expansion of (CAG) n· (CTG) n trinucleotide repeats and mecha-nisms underlying its related diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希恒; 潘学峰; 李红权; 段斐

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic expansion of ( CAG) n· ( CTG) n trinucleotide repeat in certain human genes is tightly associated with the occurrences of neuromuscular degenerative diseases , including multiple types of Spinal-cerebellar Ataxias .The repeating numbers of the relating ( CAG) n· ( CTG) n trinucleotide repeats in normal individuals are lower than a threshold level , while such repeating numbers of the repeats are beyond the threshold in the affiliated genes in patients , leading to the penetrations of different disease symptoms that mainly involve the neuro-and muscular systems .This review summarizes the disease condi-tion and the pathological characteristics of the ( CAG) n· ( CTG) n repeat expansion-associated human disea-ses in China while discussing the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the ( CAG) n· ( CTG) n repeat expansion in vivo .%出现在基因内三核苷酸重复序列( CAG) n·( CTG) n的“动态”扩增与包括多型脊髓小脑共济失调在内的神经-肌肉系统退行性病变的发生密切有关。正常个体中,相关(CAG)n·(CTG)n三核苷酸重复序列的重复单元数目被限制在一定的阈值之下,而在患者的受累基因内,( CAG) n·( CTG) n的重复数则超出该阈值,并导致患者出现与神经和肌肉系统有关的疾病症候。本文总结归纳了与( CAG) n·( CTG) n重复扩增相关的疾病在国内的发病情况和相关疾病的病理特征,并分析讨论了( CAG) n·( CTG) n序列在患者体内出现扩增的可能分子机制。

  7. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  8. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  9. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  10. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  11. Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Genomes of Rhizobia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-mei; HAN Yi-qiang; TANG Hui; SUN Dong-mei; WANG Yan-jie; WANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, as genetic markers, are ubiquitous in genomes of various organisms. The analysis of SSR in rhizobia genome provides useful information for a variety of applications in population genetics of rhizobia. We analyzed the occurrences, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs, the most common in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti, and Sinorhizobium meliloti genomes se-quenced in the microorganisms tandem repeats database, and SSRs in the three species genomes were compared with each other. The result showed that there were 1 410, 859, and 638 SSRs in B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti genomes, respectively. In the genomes of B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti, tetranucleotide, pentanucleotide, and hexanucleotide repeats were more abundant and indicated higher mutation rates in these species. The least abundance was mononucleotide repeat. The SSRs type and distribution were similar among these species.

  12. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  13. Failure Characteristic of Laser Cladding Samples on Repeated Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-hong; ZHENG Qi-guang; FU Ge-yan; ZHANG Jin-ping

    2004-01-01

    Using self-made impact fatigue test instruments and related analytic devices,the mechanical components with laser cladding layer have been attempted.It is found that,on repeated impact force,several failure modes of the components include the surface cracks,surface plastic deformation,corrosive pitting and coat collapse,etc.The paper reported the test method and initial analysis conclusions about the unique failure characteristics of the mechanical components on repeated impact load.

  14. The three-dimensional easy morphological (3-DEMO classification of scoliosis, part II: repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrini Stefano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the first part of this study we proposed a new classification approach for spinal deformities (3-DEMO. To be valid, a classification needs to overcome the repeatability issue which is inherent both in the used classificatory system and in the measured object. Aim The aim of this study is to present procedures and results obtained within the repeatability of 3-DEMO classification for scoliosis analysis. Method We acquired the data of 100 pathological and 20 normal spines with an optoelectronic system (AUSCAN and of two dummies with simulated spine deformity. On the obtained 3D reconstruction of the spine, we considered the coronal view with a spinal reference system (Top View and its three related parameters, defined in part I, constituting the 3-DEMO classification. We calculated the repeatability coefficient for the subjects (two acquisitions for each subject with a time interval of 26 ± 12 sec, whereas we evaluated the system measurement error calculating the standard deviation of 50 consecutive acquisitions for each dummy. Results Comparing the results of the two types of acquisition, it emerged that the main part of parameters variability was due to postural adjustments The proportion of agreement for the 3-DEMO parameters gives a k value above 0.8; almost 10% of patients changed classification because of postural adjustments, but none had a "mirror-like" variation nor a change in more of one parameter at a time Repeatability coefficient is lower than the previously calculated normative limits. Discussion The 3-DEMO classification has a high repeatability when evaluated with an optoelectronic system such as the AUSCAN System, whose systematic error is very low. This means that the implied physiological phenomenon is consistent and overcomes the postural variability inherent in the measured object (normal or pathological subject.

  15. 永定河流域水生态补偿标准研究%Water related eco-compensation standard study for the Yongding River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 阮本清; 许凤冉; 储立民

    2012-01-01

    Water related eco-compensation is an important approach to prevent water environmental deterio- ration and realize watershed sustainable development. Compensation standard calculation is the key to as- sess environmental compensation feasibility in specific district. In view of the defects during watershed eco-compensation process, this paper provides the compensation standard implementation foundation consider- ing the theoretical system, management system and operation mechanism at present. Taking the Yongding River basin as the study area, the water related eco-compensation standard conceptual framework was estab- lished. According to the indiscerptible attribute of water quantity and quality, watershed compensation stan- dard was illustrated by considering water price and the outflow in the main stream of Yongding River. A set of alternative equations for water quantity compensation under different rainfall probability were devel- oped. Taking into account water quality class llI as the standard of water quality control, the treatment cost for the contaminated water body was estimated.%生态补偿是用水竞争激烈的流域遏制水环境恶化趋势,实现向可持续开发利用转变的重要手段。生态补偿标准的核算是实施生态补偿的关键环节。针对流域水生态补偿实施中的不足,借鉴国内外在理论体系、管理体制、运行机制相关层面的研究成果,构建了完善补偿标准的理论框架。以永定河流域为研究对象,给出了流域水生态补偿标准的实施依据。并根据水量水质不可分割特性,给出了跨区域的水量、水质补偿标准测算方法,探讨了基于污染物处理水平的补偿标准计算过程。最后针对补偿标准测算中出现的问题,给出了完善流域水生生态补偿机制的建议。

  16. Experimental realization of entanglement concentration and a quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi; Yang, Tao; Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhang, An-Ning; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2003-05-23

    We report an experimental realization of entanglement concentration using two polarization-entangled photon pairs produced by pulsed parametric down-conversion. In the meantime, our setup also provides a proof-in-principle demonstration of a quantum repeater. The quality of our procedure is verified by observing a violation of Bell's inequality by more than 5 standard deviations. The high experimental accuracy achieved in the experiment implies that the requirement of tolerable error rate in multistage realization of quantum repeaters can be fulfilled, hence providing a useful toolbox for quantum communication over large distances.

  17. GFP-based fluorescence assay for CAG repeat instability in cultured human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz A Santillan

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeats can be highly unstable, mutating far more frequently than point mutations. Repeats typically mutate by addition or loss of units of the repeat. CAG repeat expansions in humans trigger neurological diseases that include myotonic dystrophy, Huntington disease, and several spinocerebellar ataxias. In human cells, diverse mechanisms promote CAG repeat instability, and in mice, the mechanisms of instability are varied and tissue-dependent. Dissection of mechanistic complexity and discovery of potential therapeutics necessitates quantitative and scalable screens for repeat mutation. We describe a GFP-based assay for screening modifiers of CAG repeat instability in human cells. The assay exploits an engineered intronic CAG repeat tract that interferes with expression of an inducible GFP minigene. Like the phenotypes of many trinucleotide repeat disorders, we find that GFP function is impaired by repeat expansion, in a length-dependent manner. The intensity of fluorescence varies inversely with repeat length, allowing estimates of repeat tract changes in live cells. We validate the assay using transcription through the repeat and engineered CAG-specific nucleases, which have previously been reported to induce CAG repeat instability. The assay is relatively fast and should be adaptable to large-scale screens of chemical and shRNA libraries.

  18. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (psprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  20. A Prospective Study of Psychiatric Comorbidity and Recidivism Among Repeat DUI Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Sarah E.; Belkin, Katerina; LaPlante, Debi A.; Bosworth, Leslie; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity has emerged as a key element distinguishing DUI offenders from others, and, in some cases, distinguishing repeat offenders from first-time offenders. This paper utilizes a prospective design to determine whether the comorbid disorders identified among repeat DUI offenders can predict recidivism. Seven hundred forty-three repeat DUI offenders were recruited from a two-week inpatient treatment program at which they received a standardized mental health assessment and fol...

  1. NMR studies of the R2 repeat and related peptide fragments of the DNA binding domain of c-Myb. New light on the structure and folding of R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségalas, I.; Desjardins, S.; Oulyadi, H.; Prigent, Y.; Tribouillard, S.; Bernardi, E.; Schoofs, A. R.; Davoust1, D.; Toma, F.

    1999-10-01

    The solution structure of the R2 repeat of the DNA binding domain of the protooncogene c-Myb contains a N-terminal structural motif comprising two antiparallel helices. The motif is stabilized by interactions involving conserved residues. The recognition region in C-terminal position is flexible. This structure differs from that of R2 of another c-Myb protein. La structure en solution de la répétition R2 du domaine de liaison à l'ADN du protooncogène c-Myb possède un motif à deux hélices antiparallèles dans la moitié N-terminale, stabilisé par des interactions entre résidus conservés. La région de reconnaissance à l'ADN en position C-terminale est flexible. Cette structure diffère de celle montrée pour la répétition R2 d'une autre protéine c-Myb.

  2. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  3. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  4. Standard practice for determining the susceptibility of stainless steels and related Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys to stress-corrosion cracking in polythionic acids

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for preparing and conducting the polythionic acid test at room temperature, 22 to 25°C (72 to 77°F), to determine the relative susceptibility of stainless steels or other related materials (nickel-chromiumiron alloys) to intergranular stress corrosion cracking. 1.2 This practice can be used to evaluate stainless steels or other materials in the “as received” condition or after being subjected to high-temperature service, 482 to 815°C (900 to 1500°F), for prolonged periods of time. 1.3 This practice can be applied to wrought products, castings, and weld metal of stainless steels or other related materials to be used in environments containing sulfur or sulfides. Other materials capable of being sensitized can also be tested in accordance with this test. 1.4 This practice may be used with a variety of stress corrosion test specimens, surface finishes, and methods of applying stress. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, ...

  5. Analysis on Libor’ s misrepresentations and relative policy recommendations under repeated game approach%Libor虚报操纵的重复博弈分析及政策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉姝

    2014-01-01

    To further analyze the reason of Libor ’ s frequent misrepresentations , for the first time in this paper a repeated game model on Libor ’ s bidding process is constructed , which find out the critical value of the punishment for dishonest quotations by means of reasonably simplifying the makers ’ complex relationship and quantizing their profit and loss under different strategy choices.And on the basis of the analysis of the threshold combining motivation for manipulation and the parameters ’ less optimistic availability , it is conclu-ded that the institutional defects in existing price forming system inevitably lead to Libor ’ s quite frequent bi-ding crimes.Finally, several policy recommendations for the upcoming new system are proposed.%为深入分析Libor被屡次虚报操纵的原因,引入重复博弈模型,在对价格形成机制中的关联行为进行合理简化、对各报价行不同策略选择下的得益与损失进行量化的基础上,分析了Libor的报价过程,找出使得如实报价的“惩罚”力度的临界值。并在分析该临界值的基础上结合操纵动因和各影响因子的测算难度,得出现有价格形成体系的制度性缺陷必然引发Libor被虚报的不诚信行为的结论。最后针对2014年即将推行的新体系提出相关政策建议。

  6. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  7. Perfectionism Affects Blood Pressure in Response to Repeated Exposure to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Phebe; Rice, Kenneth G; Caffee, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of perfectionism on blood pressure (BP) in response to repeated exposure to mental arithmetic stressors. College students (N = 30) in a laboratory setting were administered a series of challenging mathematical tasks. BP was measured at baseline and after each task. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that BP tended to decline over the course of the mathematical tasks. However, higher levels of performance standards predicted relatively stable levels of systolic BP, whereas moderate and lower levels of standards predicted declines in systolic BP. Higher levels of self-critical perfectionism predicted generally sustained levels of diastolic BP, with moderate and low self-criticism predicting declines in diastolic BP during the repeated stressors. These preliminary results suggest that students with higher levels of perfectionism may be at risk for physiological problems associated with stress reactivity, perhaps especially so in situations in which they experience persistent stress. Although results were qualified by a relatively small sample size, effects were statistically significant and supported the importance of examining the short-term and long-term implications of the effects of perfectionism on cardiovascular function and the different implications of elevations in systolic and diastolic BP.

  8. The process of standardization of nanotechnology and related ethicalissues%纳米技术的标准化进程和伦理问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈电洪; 王孝平

    2011-01-01

    The progress of nanotechnology and the mass production of so-called nanoproducts raises questions about the application of nanoproducts for human health.Serious safety and environmental concerns exist.This is currently a topic of interest in ethics research.Standardization has an important role, not only in the elimination of trade barriers, the promotion of international technical exchange and trade development, and the improvement of competitiveness in the international market, but also in the protection of the health and lives of humans and the environment.The development and legal enforcement of a large number of environmental and health and safety standards will protect peoples' health, lives and property and also the environment.The completion of a nano-technology standardization system may be able to dispel doubts about the ethical issues.The International Organization on Nanotechnologies Standardization (ISO/TC229) pays special attention to standards for health, safety and the environment.The Chinese government takes seriously the use of any new technology related to the health and safety of its people.In China, research achievements on health and safety have received widespread attention from the international academic community.The National Technical Committee on Nanotechnology Standardization (SAC/TC279) will set up a working group on the Health, Safety and Environmental Aspects of Nanotechnologies.This working group will promote interest in nanotechnology ethics and encourage better communication between social and natural scientists.It will also promote the sustainable development of the nanotechnology industry, and contribute to the harmonious development of human society.%纳米技术的快速发展和纳米技术产品的逐步进入市场,引起了人们就使用纳米产品对人类健康、安全和环境产生影响的特别关注,这也是目前伦理学所关心的问题.标准化不仅在消除贸易障碍、促进国际技术交流和贸易

  9. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  10. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Nicholas; Baucom, Katherine; Bourne, Stacia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor–partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal...... patterns estimated in RM-APIM. Interpretation of results from these models largely focuses on the meaning of single-parameter estimates in isolation from all the others. However, considering individual coefficients separately impedes the understanding of how these associations combine to produce...... to improve the understanding and presentation of dyadic patterns of association described by standard RM-APIMs. The current article briefly reviews the conceptual foundations of RM-APIMs, demonstrates how change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and VFDs can aid interpretation of standard RM-APIMs, and provides a tutorial...

  11. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  13. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  14. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  15. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  16. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  17. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  18. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  19. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  20. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  1. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  2. Low-dose alemtuzumab vs. standard policy for prevention of graft-versus-host disease in unrelated and related allogeneic stem cell transplantation-a matched pair analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, Christoph; Neumann, Thomas; Schulze, Meike; Klenner, Anne; Thiele, Thomas; Greinacher, Andreas; Dölken, Gottfried; Krüger, William H

    2013-07-01

    Antibody-mediated in vivo T cell depletion is common prior to unrelated (URD) or mismatched allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) and optional in HLA-identical sibling (FAM) alloSCT. While anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is the current standard, alemtuzumab is an alternative. The optimal dose of alemtuzumab has not been defined. This retrospective analysis compares low-dose alemtuzumab with ATG in URD alloSCT and with no antibody in FAM alloSCT. Twenty-eight patients treated with alemtuzumab (10 mg; HLA mismatch, 20 mg) were matched to 28 patients who have either received ATG (URD) or no antibody (noAB) according to disease, disease stage, age, transplant type and risk state. Both groups were compared for engraftment, outcome, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS), graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), freedom from GvHD (ffGvHD) and transplant-related mortality (TRM). No significant differences were found between the groups for leukocyte engraftment, GvHD, ffGvHD, TRM, DFS and OS. There was a trend for reduction of cGvHD by alemtuzumab (p = 0.05). A transplant-type stratified subanalysis consolidated equivalency of alemtuzumab and ATG in URD-SCT and indicates possible superiority of low-dose alemtuzumab compared to noAB in FAM-SCT. Low-dose alemtuzumab, as part of conditioning regimen prior to alloSCT, is safe and comparable to standard ATG. Prospective trials, particularly comparing alemtuzumab vs. noAB in FAM alloSCT, should be conducted.

  3. Effects of low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to standard therapy in acute pericoronitis, and its impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Ufuk; Eltas, Abubekir; Ustün, Kemal; Senyurt, Süleyman Ziya; Erciyas, Kamile; Aras, Mutan Hamdi

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to standard therapy in acute pericoronitis. Eighty acute pericoronitis patients were randomly assigned to one of four LLLT groups: (neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet [Nd:YAG] 1064-nm: n=20, 8 J/cm2, 0.25 W, 10 Hz, 10 sec; 808-nm diode: n=20, 8 J/cm2, 0.25 W, continuous mode, 10 sec; 660-nm diode: n=20, 8 J/cm2, 0.04 W, continuous mode, 60 sec; or a placebo laser control group: n=20). After standard treatment, LLLT or a placebo laser were applied to the treatment area at a distance of 1 cm from the buccal site. Interincisal opening, pain perception, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) were evaluated at baseline, 24 h, and 7 days after laser application. The data were analyzed by the one-way ANOVA test. We found that the trismus and the OHRQoL in the Nd:YAG and the 808-nm diode groups were significantly improved when compared with the 660-nm diode and control groups at 24 h (ppericoronitis. Taking into account the limitations of this study, we conclude that the 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser has biostimulatory effects and improves OHRQoL, making it suitable for LLLT.

  4. Patient Decision-making Competence and Risk-related Standards%患者决策能力与风险相关标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖健; 王瑜

    2014-01-01

    患者决策能力对于患者享有临床知情同意权具有重要意义。风险相关标准主张决策所需的能力水平应该根据决策的结果来调整,单一的决策能力标准是不够的。决策结果带来的风险越大,能力水平要求越高,反之则可以要求较低的能力水平。该主张的伦理本质是不合理家长主义,并且,它意味着对同一决策任务,个体可能只有同意的能力而没有拒绝的能力,因而在经验上也站不住脚。患者决策能力标准仅应根据决策本身的复杂性和难易程度视该决策特性来决定,而独立于患者实际决策结果。%Decision-making competence is significant for patient to complete his/her right of informed consent in clinical practice .The risk-related standard means that the appropriate level of competence must be adjusted to the consequences of acting on that decision and that no single standard of decision-making competence is adequate .A choice causing more risks requires a high level of decision-making competence ,while a choice causing fewer risks requires only a low one .Judged from the ethical perspective ,this view is essentially unjustified strong paternalism .Furthermore ,this view means that a person may only have the competence of saying “yes” ,but not have the competence of saying “no” ,which is empirically untenable .The standard of patient decision making competence should be based on the complexity and the difficulty of decision-making itself ,which is dependent on the property of decision-making and independent of patient’s actual choice .

  5. Relations between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Guvenc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine relations occurring between boiling water test, standard germination test and field emergence of leek (Allium porrum L. and onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. In this study, seeds of six lots ('Kalem', 'Ala', 'Ínegöl-A, B, C and D' from three cultivars of leek and seven onion cultivars ('Early Texas Grano' (ETG, 'Panku', 'Storm', 'Banko', 'Aki', 'Kisagün' and 'Banka' seeds were used as plant material and their viability was evaluated in boiling water test (BWT, standard germination test (SGT and field emergence (FE. The percentage of field emergence was evaluated at three sowing times: 20 May (FE-I, 10 June (FE-II and 20 July (FE-III. The mean germination of leek seeds varied from 77.5% to 100.0% and from 36.0% to 61.0% in SGT and BWT, respectively. While the range of results obtained in the boiling water test was from 38.5% to 60.0%, the range of results of the standard germination test was from 81.0% to 100.0% in onion seeds. The range of field emergence was between 18.5% ('Kisagün', FE-III and 72.0% (İnegöl-C', FE-II. Besides, the boiling water test was correlated highly significantly with SGT (r = 0.670**, FE-I (r = 0.923**, FE-II (r = 0.906** and FE-III (r = 0.939** in leek seeds. Similarly, BWT showed positive correlation with SGT (r = 0.568**, FE-I (r = 0.844**, FE-II (r = 0.933** and FE-III (r = 0.858** in onion seeds. In conclusion, the boiling water test is a new and reliable technique to test seed viability and it has a great potential to test rapidly germination and field emergence of leek and onion seeds at different sowing times.

  6. [Simulation of repeated local hemorrhagic stroke in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, A N; Morozov, S G; Savosko, S I; Vasil'eva, I G

    2013-01-01

    The processes of developed in CNS the complicated stroke and developments of fittings for their pharmaceutical therapy were developed and offering by standardized method of the experimental secondary stroke in rats, suitable for the use in sharp and chronic researches. Variant of repeated hemorrhagic stroke consist of autohemorrhagic right hemisphere stroke by the mechanical damage of brain tissue after 10-daily occlusion of right common carotid artery was studied. A model is comfortable for reproducing of the repeated standardized local damage of brain, is more adequate form of design of transient and chronic cerebrovascular pathology, than the independent use of local hemorrhage of autoblood in the brain of animals. The morphological description of model approaches the clinical variants of development and flow of sharp hemorrhagic stroke after a previous chronic cerebral insufficiency on an ischemic type.

  7. Quantitative comparison using generalized relative object detectability (G-ROD) metrics of an amorphous selenium detector with high resolution microangiographic fluoroscopes (MAF) and standard flat panel detectors (FPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, M.; Shankar, A.; Jain, A.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Ionita, C. N.; Scott, C.; Karim, K. S.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2016-03-01

    A novel amorphous selenium (a-Se) direct detector with CMOS readout has been designed, and relative detector performance investigated. The detector features include a 25μm pixel pitch, and 1000μm thick a-Se layer operating at 10V/μm bias field. A simulated detector DQE was determined, and used in comparative calculations of the Relative Object Detectability (ROD) family of prewhitening matched-filter (PWMF) observer and non-pre-whitening matched filter (NPWMF) observer model metrics to gauge a-Se detector performance against existing high resolution micro-angiographic fluoroscopic (MAF) detectors and a standard flat panel detector (FPD). The PWMF-ROD or ROD metric compares two x-ray imaging detectors in their relative abilities in imaging a given object by taking the integral over spatial frequencies of the Fourier transform of the detector DQE weighted by an object function, divided by the comparable integral for a different detector. The generalized-ROD (G-ROD) metric incorporates clinically relevant parameters (focal- spot size, magnification, and scatter) to show the degradation in imaging performance for detectors that are part of an imaging chain. Preliminary ROD calculations using simulated spheres as the object predicted superior imaging performance by the a-Se detector as compared to existing detectors. New PWMF-G-ROD and NPWMF-G-ROD results still indicate better performance by the a-Se detector in an imaging chain over all sphere sizes for various focal spot sizes and magnifications, although a-Se performance advantages were degraded by focal spot blurring. Nevertheless, the a-Se technology has great potential to provide break- through abilities such as visualization of fine details including of neuro-vascular perforator vessels and of small vascular devices.

  8. Associations between inverted repeats and the structural evolution of bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, Guillaume; Coissac, Eric; Netter, Pierre; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2003-08-01

    The stability of the structure of bacterial genomes is challenged by recombination events. Since major rearrangements (i.e., inversions) are thought to frequently operate by homologous recombination between inverted repeats, we analyzed the presence and distribution of such repeats in bacterial genomes and their relation to the conservation of chromosomal structure. First, we show that there is a strong under-representation of inverted repeats, relative to direct repeats, in most chromosomes, especially among the ones regarded as most stable. Second, we show that the avoidance of repeats is frequently associated with the stability of the genomes. Closely related genomes reported to differ in terms of stability are also found to differ in the number of inverted repeats. Third, when using replication strand bias as a proxy for genome stability, we find a significant negative correlation between this strand bias and the abundance of inverted repeats. Fourth, when measuring the recombining potential of inverted repeats and their eventual impact on different features of the chromosomal structure, we observe a tendency of repeats to be located in the chromosome in such a way that rearrangements produce a smaller strand switch and smaller asymmetries than expected by chance. Finally, we discuss the limitations of our analysis and the influence of factors such as the nature of repeats, e.g., transposases, or the differences in the recombination machinery among bacteria. These results shed light on the challenges imposed on the genome structure by the presence of inverted repeats.

  9. Tracking a closing volcanic system using repeating earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, H.; West, M. E.; Grapenthin, R.

    2011-12-01

    Repeating, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes were recorded at the end of the explosive phase of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. The events cluster into several families which exhibit cross-correlation values greater than 0.8 and are distributed between 0-10 km below the edifice. The earthquake magnitudes decline gradually with time, and the events also appear to shallow as the sequence progresses. This activity continued for over 2 months and accompanied steady dome growth, which halted around the same time that the last of the repeating VTs were recorded. The repetitive nature of these earthquakes, their relatively deep locations and their occurrence following 3 weeks of major explosive eruptions suggest that they are related to changes around the conduit system and/or the magma storage area as the last of the magma was removed from the mid-crustal storage area. Geodetic data indicate that the deflation of the edifice, which had been continuous throughout the explosive activity, ceased coincident with the onset of the repeating VT earthquakes. We use evidence from earthquake relocations and earthquake focal mechanisms to investigate the source for the repeating VT earthquakes. We propose a model in which the repeating earthquakes are closely related to the adjustment of the conduit system and mid crustal storage area in response to the last of the ascending magma.

  10. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. PMID:22414427

  11. The evolution of filamin-a protein domain repeat perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative repeatability of guide-pin axis positioning in computer-assisted and manual femoral head resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, A; Helmy, N; Masri, B A; Greidanus, N V; Inkpen, K B; Duncan, C P; Garbuz, D S; Anglin, C

    2007-10-01

    The orientation of the femoral component in hip resurfacing arthroplasty affects the likelihood of loosening and fracture. Computer-assisted surgery has been shown to improve significantly the surgeon's ability to achieve a desired position and orientation; nevertheless, both bias and variability in positioning remain and can potentially be improved. The authors recently developed a computer-assisted surgical (CAS) technique to guide the placement of the pin used in femoral head resurfacing arthroplasty and showed that it produced significantly less variation than a typical manual technique in varus/valgus placement relative to a preoperatively determined surgical plan while taking a comparable amount of time. In the present study, the repeatability of both the CAS and manual techniques is evaluated in order to estimate the relative contributions to overall variability of surgical technique (CAS versus manual), surgeon experience (novice versus experienced), and other sources of variability (e.g. across specimens and across surgeons). This will enable further improvements in the accuracy of CAS techniques. Three residents/fellows new to femoral head resurfacing and three experienced hip arthroplasty surgeons performed 20-30 repetitions of each of the CAS and manual techniques on at least one of four cadaveric femur specimens. The CAS system had markedly better repeatability (1.2 degrees) in varus/valgus placement relative to the manual technique (2.8 degrees), slightly worse repeatability in version (4.4 degrees versus 3.2 degrees), markedly better repeatability in mid-neck placement (0.7 mm versus 2.5 mm), no significant dependence on surgeon skill level (in contrast to the manual technique), and took significantly less time (50 s versus 123 s). Proposed improvements to the version measurement process showed potential for reducing the standard deviation by almost two thirds. This study supports the use of CAS for femoral head resurfacing as it is quicker than the

  13. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

  14. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  15. Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1984–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernstsen Linda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD, but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT: HUNT 1 (1984–1986, HUNT 2 (1995–1997 and HUNT 3 (2006–2008, women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII. Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05 and among men (p = 0.01. Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05 and were stable among men (p = 0.33. For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational

  16. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie

  17. Identification and characterization of tandem repeats in exon III of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) genes from different mammalian species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Svend Arild; Mogensen, Line; Dietz, Rune

    2005-01-01

    tandem repeat, while a tandem repeat consisting of 27-bp modules was identified in a sequence from European badger. Both these tandem repeats were composed of 9-bp basic units, which were closely related with the 9-bp repeat modules identified in the mink and ferret. Tandem repeats could...... repeat being found. In the domestic cow and gray seal we identified tandem repeats composed of 36-bp modules, each consisting of two closely related 18-bp basic units. A tandem repeat consisting of 9-bp modules was identified in sequences from mink and ferret. In the European otter we detected an 18-bp...

  18. TPRpred: a tool for prediction of TPR-, PPR- and SEL1-like repeats from protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söding Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solenoid repeat proteins of the Tetratrico Peptide Repeat (TPR family are involved as scaffolds in a broad range of protein-protein interactions. Several resources are available for the prediction of TPRs, however, they often fail to detect divergent repeat units. Results We have developed TPRpred, a profile-based method which uses a P-value-dependent score offset to include divergent repeat units and which exploits the tendency of repeats to occur in tandem. TPRpred detects not only TPR-like repeats, but also the related Pentatrico Peptide Repeats (PPRs and SEL1-like repeats. The corresponding profiles were generated through iterative searches, by varying the threshold parameters for inclusion of repeat units into the profiles, and the best profiles were selected based on their performance on proteins of known structure. We benchmarked the performance of TPRpred in detecting TPR-containing proteins and in delineating the individual repeats therein, against currently available resources. Conclusion TPRpred performs significantly better in detecting divergent repeats in TPR-containing proteins, and finds more individual repeats than the existing methods. The web server is available at http://tprpred.tuebingen.mpg.de, and the C++ and Perl sources of TPRpred along with the profiles can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.tuebingen.mpg.de/ebio/protevo/TPRpred/.

  19. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  20. Standards and standpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization....... The argument takes off from two different conceptualizations of standards in the literature. On the one hand, standards as immanent to practices (the “Neo-Aristotelian” approach), and on the other hand, standards as imposed to regulate practices (the “neo-pragmatist” and “governmentality” approaches......). It is suggested that this opposition can be superseded by articulating the former alternative, not as an essentialism of “practice,” but as the reflexive assumption of standpoint. Some intricacies of the articulation of standpoint are then discussed, concluding in a proposed dialectics of standard and standpoint....

  1. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Woodall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM, ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement.

  2. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  3. Multiple Repeated Cesarean Deliveries: Operative Complications in the Fourth and Fifth Surgeries in Urgent and Elective Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gedikbasi

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Multiple repeated cesarean sections increase the risks for operative complications and poor perinatal outcomes. Patients must be informed about the related risks of multiple repeated cesarean sections and tubal ligation needs to be encouraged.

  4. Analyzing Social Issues Related to Teaching about the Federal Budget, Federal Debt, and Budget Deficit in Fifty State High School Social Studies Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Crocco, Margaret S.; Shuttleworth, Jay; Gaudelli, William; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study of all fifty state, high school social studies curriculum standards found a lack of attention in the vast majority of state standards to the federal budget, federal debt, and budget deficit, topics of significant concern. These concepts are important to teaching about economics in the United States since they lie at the center of…

  5. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  6. Filamin repeat segments required for photosensory signalling in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Afsar U

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamin is an actin binding protein which is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and its basic structure is well conserved – an N-terminal actin binding domain followed by a series of repeated segments which vary in number in different organisms. D. discoideum is a well established model organism for the study of signalling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton and as such makes an excellent organism in which to study filamin. Ddfilamin plays a putative role as a scaffolding protein in a photosensory signalling pathway and this role is thought to be mediated by the unusual repeat segments in the rod domain. Results To study the role of filamin in phototaxis, a filamin null mutant, HG1264, was transformed with constructs each of which expressed wild type filamin or a mutant filamin with a deletion of one of the repeat segments. Transformants expressing the full length filamin to wild type levels completely rescued the phototaxis defect in HG1264, however if filamin was expressed at lower than wild type levels the phototaxis defect was not restored. The transformants lacking any one of the repeat segments 2–6 retained defective phototaxis and thermotaxis phenotypes, whereas transformants expressing filaminΔ1 exhibited a range of partial complementation of the phototaxis phenotype which was related to expression levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that filamin lacking any of the repeat segments still localised to the same actin rich areas as wild type filamin. Ddfilamin interacts with RasD and IP experiments demonstrated that this interaction did not rely upon any single repeat segment or the actin binding domain. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that wild type levels of filamin expression are essential for the formation of functional photosensory signalling complexes and that each of the repeat segments 2–6 are essential for filamins role in phototaxis. By contrast, repeat segment 1 is not essential provided the mutated

  7. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  8. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  9. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  10. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...

  11. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  12. Exact Tandem Repeats Analyzer (E-TRA): A new program for DNA sequence mining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Karaca; Mehmet Bilgen; A. Naci Onus; Ayse Gul Ince; Safinaz Y. Elmasulu

    2005-04-01

    Exact Tandem Repeats Analyzer 1.0 (E-TRA) combines sequence motif searches with keywords such as ‘organs’, ‘tissues’, ‘cell lines’ and ‘development stages’ for finding simple exact tandem repeats as well as non-simple repeats. E-TRA has several advanced repeat search parameters/options compared to other repeat finder programs as it not only accepts GenBank, FASTA and expressed sequence tags (EST) sequence files, but also does analysis of multiple files with multiple sequences. The minimum and maximum tandem repeat motif lengths that E-TRA finds vary from one to one thousand. Advanced user defined parameters/options let the researchers use different minimum motif repeats search criteria for varying motif lengths simultaneously. One of the most interesting features of genomes is the presence of relatively short tandem repeats (TRs). These repeated DNA sequences are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, distributed almost at random throughout the genome. Some of the tandem repeats play important roles in the regulation of gene expression whereas others do not have any known biological function as yet. Nevertheless, they have proven to be very beneficial in DNA profiling and genetic linkage analysis studies. To demonstrate the use of E-TRA, we used 5,465,605 human EST sequences derived from 18,814,550 GenBank EST sequences. Our results indicated that 12.44% (679,800) of the human EST sequences contained simple and non-simple repeat string patterns varying from one to 126 nucleotides in length. The results also revealed that human organs, tissues, cell lines and different developmental stages differed in number of repeats as well as repeat composition, indicating that the distribution of expressed tandem repeats among tissues or organs are not random, thus differing from the un-transcribed repeats found in genomes.

  13. Measurement and repeatability of interrupter resistance in unsedated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A M; Olden, C; Wertheim, D; Ives, A; Bridge, P D; Lenton, J; Seddon, P

    2009-12-01

    Interrupter resistance (R(int)) is a useful measure of airway caliber in young children, but has not been well characterized in infants-in whom there are concerns about the accurate measurement of driving pressure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and repeatability of measuring R(int) in unsedated newborn infants, and to explore alternative algorithms for calculating driving pressure. R(int) measurement was attempted in 28 healthy term newborn infants during natural sleep using the MicroRint device. Paired R(int) measurements were achieved in 24 infants, but after screening of waveforms only 15 infants had at least 5 technically acceptable waveforms on both measurements. R(int) values obtained were comparable with reported values for airflow resistance in newborns using other methods. However, the repeatability coefficient (CR) was much higher than reported values in preschool children using standard back-extrapolation algorithms, with CR 2.47 KPa L(-1) sec (unscreened) and 2.93 KPa L(-1) sec (screened). Other algorithms gave only marginally better repeatability, with all CR values over 50% of the mean R(int) value. Using current commercially available equipment, R(int) is too poorly repeatable to be a reliable measurement of airflow resistance in newborn infants. Lower deadspace equipment is needed, but anatomical and physiological factors in the infant are also important.

  14. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 2. Radiological health and related standards for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Wong, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes the status and basis of radiation protection standards, with a view to identifying how they particularly apply to nuclear power plants. The national and international organizations involved in the setting of standards are discussed, paying explicit attention to their jurisdictions and to the considerations they use in setting standards. The routine and accidental radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants are characterized, and the effect of these emissions on ambient radiation levels is discussed. The state of information on the relationship between radiation exposures and health effects is summarized.

  15. Acute versus repeated chocolate exposure: effects on intake and cravings in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2014-04-01

    The cue-reactivity model, which is based on conditioning processes, posits that repeated food exposure (in the absence of consumption) should decrease cue reactivity. To examine whether repeated chocolate exposure attenuates cravings and intake, relative to those exposed to an acute cue, a 2 (repeated vs acute cue) × 2 (restrained vs unrestrained eaters) design was employed. Fifty female participants were recruited. Repeated exposure reduced cravings in unrestrained eaters (relative to acute exposure), but increased cravings in restrained eaters. An interaction between restraint and exposure emerged on intake, such that restrained eaters ate less after acute exposure than did unrestrained eaters.

  16. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  17. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  18. Chloride permeability of concrete under static and repeated compressive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Ishimori, Hiroshi [Kanazawa Inst. of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    The chloride permeability of normal weight concrete subjected to static and repeated compressive loading was evaluated by using the AASHTO T277 test method. The results of concrete under static loading showed that the application of loads up to 90% of the ultimate strength had little effect on the chloride permeability. It was found from the results of concrete under repeated loading that load repetitions at the maximum stress levels of 60% or more caused the chloride permeability to increase significantly. The test results also indicated that the chloride permeability of concrete subjected to static and repeated loading increased at an increasing rate with its residual strain. The relation between the chloride permeability obtained and the cracking behavior of concrete previously reported was discussed.

  19. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed......Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...

  20. Physiological consequences of repeated exposures to conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Strong, Paul V; Fleshner, Monika

    2012-06-01

    Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days) to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT). Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing) and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction). Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  1. Physiological Consequences of Repeated Exposures to Conditioned Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Thompson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the stress response evokes a cascade of physiological reactions that may be detrimental when repeated or chronic, and when triggered after exposure to psychological/emotional stressors. Investigation of the physiological mechanisms responsible for the health damaging effects requires animal paradigms that repeatedly evoke a response to psychological/emotional stressors. To this end, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed (2X per day for 20 days to a context that they were conditioned to fear (conditioned fear test, CFT. Repeated exposure to CFT produced body weight loss, adrenal hypertrophy, thymic involution, and basal corticosterone elevation. In vivo biotelemetry measures revealed that CFT evokes sympathetic nervous system driven increases in heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and core body temperature. Extinction of behavioral (freezing and physiological responses to CFT was prevented using minimal reinstatement footshock. MAP responses to the CFT did not diminish across 20 days of exposure. In contrast, HR and cardiac contractility responses declined by day 15, suggesting a shift toward vascular-dominated MAP (a pre-clinical marker of CV dysfunction. Flattened diurnal rhythms, common to stress-related mood/anxiety disorders, were found for most physiological measures. Thus, repeated CFT produces adaptations indicative of the health damaging effects of psychological/emotional stress.

  2. The diversity and evolution of Wolbachia ankyrin repeat domain genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Siozios

    Full Text Available Ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes are common in the eukaryotic and viral domains of life, but they are rare in bacteria, the exception being a few obligate or facultative intracellular Proteobacteria species. Despite having a reduced genome, the arthropod strains of the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia contain an unusually high number of ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes ranging from 23 in wMel to 60 in wPip strain. This group of genes has attracted considerable attention for their astonishing large number as well as for the fact that ankyrin proteins are known to participate in protein-protein interactions, suggesting that they play a critical role in the molecular mechanism that determines host-Wolbachia symbiotic interactions. We present a comparative evolutionary analysis of the wMel-related ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes present in different Drosophila-Wolbachia associations. Our results show that the ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes change in size by expansion and contraction mediated by short directly repeated sequences. We provide examples of intra-genic recombination events and show that these genes are likely to be horizontally transferred between strains with the aid of bacteriophages. These results confirm previous findings that the Wolbachia genomes are evolutionary mosaics and illustrate the potential that these bacteria have to generate diversity in proteins potentially involved in the symbiotic interactions.

  3. General strategies to increase the repeatability in non-target screening by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Tobias; Schulz, Wolfgang; Kümmerer, Klaus; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2016-09-01

    This article focuses on the data evaluation of non-target high-resolution LC-MS profiles of water samples. Taking into account multiple technical replicates, the difficulties in peak recognition and the related problems of false positive and false negative findings are systematically demonstrated. On the basis of a combinatorial approach, different models involving sophisticated workflows are evaluated, particularly with regard to the repeatability. In addition, the improvement resulting from data processing was systematically taken into consideration where the recovery of spiked standards emphasized that real peaks of interest were barely or not removed by the derived filter criteria. The comprehensive evaluation included different matrix types spiked with up to 263 analytical standards which were analyzed repeatedly leading to a total number of more than 250 injections that were incorporated in the assessment of different models of data processing. It was found that the analysis of multiple replicates is the key factor as, on the one hand, it provides the option of integrating valuable filters in order to minimize the false positive rate and, on the other hand, allows correcting partially false negative findings occurring during the peak recognition. The developed processing strategies including replicates clearly point to an enhanced data quality since both the repeatability as well as the peak recognition could be considerably improved. As proof of concept, four different matrix types, including a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, were spiked with 130 isotopically labeled standards at different concentration levels. Despite the stringent filter criteria, at 100 ng L(-1) recovery rates of up to 93% were reached in the positive ionization mode. The proposed model, comprising three technical replicates, filters less than 5% and 2% of the standards recognized at 100 and 500 ng L(-1), respectively and thus indicates the general applicability of the

  4. Fractals endlessy repeated geometrical figures

    CERN Document Server

    Lauwerier, Hans

    1991-01-01

    Provides a basic mathematical introduction to fractal geometry, the mathematics that lie behind chaos theory. This book attempts to communicate the relatively simple understanding of the subject to an audience with a basic mathematical education.

  5. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kevin P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards and lake systems (for example, African cichlids. Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems. The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms. Results Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa. Conclusions This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships.

  6. Repeatability of locomotor performance and morphology-locomotor performance relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsen, Cara; Walker, Jeffrey A; Perna, Catherine; McGuigan, Katrina

    2016-09-15

    There is good evidence that natural selection drives the evolution of locomotor performance, but the processes that generate the among-individual variation for selection to act on are relatively poorly understood. We measured prolonged swimming performance, Ucrit, and morphology in a large cohort (n=461) of wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) at ∼6 months and again at ∼9 months. Using mixed-model analyses to estimate repeatability as the intraclass correlation coefficient, we determined that Ucrit was significantly repeatable (r=0.55; 95% CI: 0.45-0.64). Performance differences between the sexes (males 12% faster than females) and changes with age (decreasing 0.07% per day) both contributed to variation in Ucrit and, therefore, the repeatability estimate. Accounting for mean differences between sexes within the model decreased the estimate of Ucrit repeatability to 21% below the naïve estimate, while fitting age in the models increased the estimate to 14% above the naïve estimate. Greater consideration of factors such as age and sex is therefore necessary for the interpretation of performance repeatability in wild populations. Body shape significantly predicted Ucrit in both sexes in both assays, with the morphology-performance relationship significantly repeatable at the population level. However, morphology was more strongly predicative of performance in older fish, suggesting a change in the contribution of morphology relative to other factors such as physiology and behaviour. The morphology-performance relationship changed with age to a greater extent in males than females.

  7. Why Standards Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Michael A.; Caleb, Derry; Mitchell, Stanley G.

    2012-01-01

    When standards are absent, people soon notice. They care when products turn out to be of poor quality, are unreliable, or dangerous because of counterfeiting. By positioning their products in relation to a common standard, firms grow the total size of the market, and can focus their innovation efforts in areas where they have a comparative…

  8. ESDIS Standards Office (ESO): Requirements, Standards and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Mcinerney, Mark Allen; Enloe, Yonsok K.; Conover, Helen T.; Doyle, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The ESDIS Standards Office assists the ESDIS Project in formulating standards policy for NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS), coordinates standards activities within ESDIS, and provides technical expertise and assistance with standards related tasks within the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Groups (ESDSWG). This poster summarizes information found on the earthdata.nasa.gov site that describes the ESO.

  9. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  10. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  11. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  12. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  13. Effect of Repeated Food Morsel Splitting on Jaw Muscle Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar; Svensson, Krister G; Baad-Hansen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Mastication is a complex motor task often initiated by splitting of the food morsel between the anterior teeth. Training of complex motor tasks has consistently been shown to trigger neuroplastic changes in corticomotor control and optimization of muscle function. It is not known if training...... and repeated food morsel splitting lead to changes in jaw muscle function. Objective: To investigate if repeated splitting of food morsels in participants with natural dentition changes the force and jaw muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 26.2 ± 3.9 years......) participated in a single one-hour session divided into six series. Each series consisted of ten trials of a standardized behavioral task (total of 60 trials). The behavioral task was to hold and split a food morsel (8 mm, 180 mg placebo tablet) placed on a bite force transducer with the anterior teeth...

  14. Performances of regenerative and non-regenerative satellite repeaters with MPSK signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K. T.

    1978-01-01

    Linear (translation), hard-limited, and demod/remod types of satellite repeaters are considered in this paper. Both uncoded and coded multiple phase shift keyed (MPSK) signals are assumed to be transmitted through these repeaters. Relative performances of these repeaters in the presence of uplink and downlink noises are then compared quantitatively. Probabilities of bit errors and the computational cutoff rates are computed for 2, 4, and 8 phases PSK signals, with uplink and downlink SNRs as parameters.

  15. Standardized curcuminoid extract (Curcuma longa l.) decreases gene expression related to inflammation and interacts with associated microRNAs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Noratto, Giuliana; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2012-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of curcuminoids have been extensively investigated. However, few studies investigate the mechanistic involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in their activity. The objective of this study was to examine the protective effects of standardized curcuminoid extract (SCE) in vascular inflammation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the potential involvement of miRNA-126 and miRNA-146a. Escherichia coli lipopolysacharides (LPS) were used to induce inflammation. LPS-challenge increased gene-expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and downstream genes IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6) up to 2.58-, 2.39-, and 3.73-fold, respectively, relative to DMSO-treated controls that were not challenged with LPS. LPS up-regulated TLR-4, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6 in SCE pretreated cells (5 mg L(-1)), only up to 0.69-, 1.28-, and 1.15-fold, respectively. miRNA-146a can be up-regulated by transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and acts as a negative feedback loop regulator involving IRAK-1 and TRAF-6 downregulation. In this study, the down-regulation of NF-κB was accompanied by reduced miRNA-146a expression. LPS-challenge induced mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) up to 5.65- and 10.65-fold, respectively. SCE prevented this effect and increases of up to only 2.92- and 5.26-fold of DMSO-treated controls not challenged with LPS were observed. miRNA-126 regulates endothelial expression of VCAM-1, but was not inversely correlated to the expression of its target gene VCAM-1 upon SCE treatment; therefore, miRNA-126 does not appear to be involved in the down-regulation of VCAM-1. Overall, curcuminoids are confirmed to have anti-inflammatory properties in HUVEC; however, neither miRNA-146a nor miRNA-126 seem to be involved in the SCE-induced down-regulation of the NF-κB-target genes IRAK-1, TRAF-6, and

  16. Income or living standard and health in Germany: different ways of measurement of relative poverty with regard to self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Andress, Hans-Juergen; Janssen, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Current study introduces the living standard concept as an alternative approach of measuring poverty and compares its explanatory power to an income-based poverty measure with regard to subjective health status of the German population. Analyses are based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (2001, 2003 and 2005) and refer to binary logistic regressions of poor subjective health status with regard to each poverty condition, their duration and their causal influence from a previous time point. To calculate the discriminate power of both poverty indicators, initially the indicators were considered separately in regression models and subsequently, both were included simultaneously. The analyses reveal a stronger poverty-health relationship for the living standard indicator. An inadequate living standard in 2005, longer spells of an inadequate living standard between 2001, 2003 and 2005 as well as an inadequate living standard at a previous time point is significantly strongly associated with subjective health than income poverty. Our results challenge conventional measurements of the relationship between poverty and health that probably has been underestimated by income measures so far.

  17. Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The generation of short tandem repeat profiles, also referred to as ‘DNA typing,’ is not currently performed outside the laboratory because the process requires highly skilled technical operators and a controlled laboratory environment and infrastructure with several specialized instruments. The goal of this work was to develop a fully integrated system for the automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles from buccal swab samples, to improve forensic laboratory process flow as well as to enable short tandem repeat profile generation to be performed in police stations and in field-forward military, intelligence, and homeland security settings. Results An integrated system was developed consisting of an injection-molded microfluidic BioChipSet cassette, a ruggedized instrument, and expert system software. For each of five buccal swabs, the system purifies DNA using guanidinium-based lysis and silica binding, amplifies 15 short tandem repeat loci and the amelogenin locus, electrophoretically separates the resulting amplicons, and generates a profile. No operator processing of the samples is required, and the time from swab insertion to profile generation is 84 minutes. All required reagents are contained within the BioChipSet cassette; these consist of a lyophilized polymerase chain reaction mix and liquids for purification and electrophoretic separation. Profiles obtained from fully automated runs demonstrate that the integrated system generates concordant short tandem repeat profiles. The system exhibits single-base resolution from 100 to greater than 500 bases, with inter-run precision with a standard deviation of ±0.05 - 0.10 bases for most alleles. The reagents are stable for at least 6 months at 22°C, and the instrument has been designed and tested to Military Standard 810F for shock and vibration ruggedization. A nontechnical user can operate the system within or outside the laboratory. Conclusions The integrated system represents the

  18. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  19. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  20. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...... in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed....

  1. Implementation of repeat HIV testing during pregnancy in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anna Joy; Weke, Elly; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2016-07-11

    Repeat HIV testing in late pregnancy has the potential to decrease rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by identifying mothers who seroconvert after having tested negative for HIV in early pregnancy. Despite being national policy in Kenya, the available data suggest that implementation rates are low. We conducted 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers and managers to explore barriers and enablers to implementation of repeat HIV testing guidelines for pregnant women. Participants were from the Nyanza region of Kenya and were purposively selected to provide variation in socio-demographics and job characteristics. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed in Dedoose software using a thematic analysis approach. Four themes were identified a priori using Ferlie and Shortell's Framework for Change and additional themes were allowed to emerge from the data. Participants identified barriers and enablers at the client, provider, facility, and health system levels. Key barriers at the client level from the perspective of providers included late initial presentation to antenatal care and low proportions of women completing the recommended four antenatal visits. Barriers to offering repeat HIV testing for providers included heavy workloads, time limitations, and failing to remember to check for retest eligibility. At the facility level, inconsistent volume of clients and lack of space required for confidential HIV retesting were cited as barriers. Finally, at the health system level, there were challenges relating to the HIV test kit supply chain and the design of nationally standardized antenatal patient registers. Enablers to improving the implementation of repeat HIV testing included client dissemination of the benefits of antenatal care through word-of-mouth, provider cooperation and task shifting, and it was suggested that use of an electronic health record system could provide automatic reminders for retest eligibility. This study

  2. Journal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R

    2003-08-01

    Despite its many imperfections, the peer review process is a firmly established quality control system for scientific literature. It gives readers some assurance that the work and views that are reported meet standards that are acceptable to a journal. Maureen Revington's editorial in a recent issue of the Australian Veterinary Journal (Revington2002) gives a good concise warts and all overview of the process and is well worth reading. I have some concerns about several articles in the December 2002 issue of the New Zealand Veterinary Journal (Volume 50, Number 6), devoted to the health and welfare of farmed deer, that relate to extensive citing of non-peer reviewed papers. I can understand the need for information to flow from researchers to the wider community but that need is already satisfied by publications such as the proceedings of the Deer Branch of the New Zealand Veterinary Association and Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. Non-peer reviewed papers have been cited in the Journal in the past but never to the extent displayed in this particular issue. It degrades the peer-review process and creates an added burden for reviewers who are forced to grapple with the uncertainties of the science in non-peer reviewed citations. One of my fears is that this process allows science from non peer reviewed articles to be legitimised by its inclusion in a peer reviewed journal and perhaps go on to be accepted as dogma. This is a real danger given the difficulties associated with tracing back to original citations and the increasing volume of scientific literature. It also affords opportunities for agencies to pick up questionable and doubtful science and tout it as support for their products or particular points of view. If deer researchers choose to publish most of their work in proceedings then so be it. However this approach, which seems to becoming increasingly prevalent in the deer sector, is questionable from an established science point

  3. CAG Repeat Number in the Androgen Receptor Gene and Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjunkova, S; Eftimov, A; Georgiev, V; Petrovski, D; Dimovski, Aj; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men. The effects of androgens on prostatic tissue are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The 5' end of exon 1 of the AR gene includes a polymorphic CAG triplet repeat that numbers between 10 to 36 in the normal population. The length of the CAG repeats is inversely related to the transactivation function of the AR gene. There is controversy over association between short CAG repeat numbers in the AR gene and PC. This retrospective case-control study evaluates the possible effect of short CAG repeats on the AR gene in prostate cancer risk in Macedonian males. A total of 392 male subjects, 134 PC patients, 106 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 152 males from the general Macedonian population were enrolled in this study. The CAG repeat length was determined by fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of exon1 of the AR gene followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) on a genetic analyzer. The mean repeat length in PC patients was 21.5 ± 2.65, in controls 22.28 ± 2.86 (p = 0.009) and in BPH patients 22.1 ± 2.52 (p = 0.038). Short CAG repeats (CAG repeat (CAG repeat length. These results suggest that reduced CAG repeat length may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in Macedonian men.

  4. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  5. Quantum Repeaters and Atomic Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Johannes

    a previous protocol, thereby enabling fast local processing, which greatly enhances the distribution rate. We then move on to describe our work on improving the stability of atomic clocks using entanglement. Entanglement can potentially push the stability of atomic clocks to the so-called Heisenberg limit......, which is the absolute upper limit of the stability allowed by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. It has, however, been unclear whether entangled state’s enhanced sensitivity to noise would prevent reaching this limit. We have developed an adaptive measurement protocol, which circumvents this problem...... based on atomic ensembles....

  6. Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki eMatsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.

  7. [Analysis of variance of repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Guo-qin; Jin, Ru-feng; Zhao, Wei-kang

    2007-01-01

    To introduce the method of analyzing repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS 11.0, and offer a reference statistical method to clinical and basic medicine researchers who take the design of repeated measures. Using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) process of the general linear model in SPSS and giving comparison among different groups and different measure time pairwise. Firstly, Mauchly's test of sphericity should be used to judge whether there were relations among the repeatedly measured data. If any (PSPSS statistical package is available to fulfil this process.

  8. Electronic circuits, systems and standards the best of EDN

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Circuits, Systems and Standards: The Best of EDN is a collection of 66 EDN articles. The topics covered in this collection are diverse but all are relevant to controlled circulation electronics. The coverage of the text includes topics about software and algorithms, such as simple random number algorithm; simple log algorithm; and efficient algorithm for repeated FFTs. The book also tackles measurement related topics, including test for identifying a Gaussian noise source; enhancing product reliability; and amplitude-locked loop speeds filter test. The text will be useful to student

  9. Repeat Descemetopexy after Descemet's Membrane Detachment following Phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Datar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Descemet's membrane detachment (DMD is an uncommon condition with a wide range of possible etiologies. Probably the commonest cause is a localized detachment occurring after cataract extraction surgery. Descemetopexy gives good anatomic attachment rates and visual outcomes and has become the standard treatment for DMD. However, in cases with failed initial descemetopexy, the next step in the management of such cases remains unclear. Before initiating a complex surgical procedure like keratoplasty, which requires good postoperative care and regular follow-ups, repeat descemetopexy with a long-term tamponade using 14% C3F8 gas for recurrent DMD is definitely a worthwhile attempt.

  10. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  11. Evaluation and selection of tandem repeat loci for Streptococcus pneumoniae MLVA strain typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valjevac Samina

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise identification of bacterial pathogens at the strain level is essential for epidemiological purposes. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the existence of 90 different serotypes makes the typing particularly difficult and requires the use of highly informative tools. Available methods are relatively expensive and cannot be used for large-scale or routine typing of any new isolate. We explore here the potential of MLVA (Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis; VNTR, Variable Number of Tandem Repeats, a method of growing importance in the field of molecular epidemiology, for genotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results Available genome sequences were searched for polymorphic tandem repeats. The loci identified were typed across a collection of 56 diverse isolates and including a group of serotype 1 isolates from Africa. Eventually a set of 16 VNTRs was proposed for MLVA-typing of S. pneumoniae. These robust markers were sufficient to discriminate 49 genotypes and to aggregate strains on the basis of the serotype and geographical origin, although some exceptions were found. Such exceptions may reflect serotype switching or horizontal transfer of genetic material. Conclusion We describe a simple PCR-based MLVA genotyping scheme for S. pneumoniae which may prove to be a powerful complement to existing tools for epidemiological studies. Using this technique we uncovered a clonal population of strains, responsible for infections in Burkina Faso. We believe that the proposed MLVA typing scheme can become a standard for epidemiological studies of S. pneumoniae.

  12. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  13. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 1: Executive Summary, of a 15-Volume Set of Skills Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    The Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST) consortium was formed to address the shortage of skilled workers for the machine tools and metals-related industries. Featuring six of the nation's leading advanced technology centers, the MAST consortium developed, tested, and disseminated industry-specific skill standards and model curricula for…

  14. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  15. Patient protection and Affordable Care Act; data collection to support standards related to essential health benefits; recognition of entities for the accreditation of qualified health plans. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    This final rule establishes data collection standards necessary to implement aspects of section 1302 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), which directs the Secretary of Health and Human Services to define essential health benefits. This final rule outlines the data on applicable plans to be collected from certain issuers to support the definition of essential health benefits. This final rule also establishes a process for the recognition of accrediting entities for purposes of certification of qualified health plans.

  16. Association between the application of ISO 9001:2008 alone or in combination with health-specific standards and quality-related activities in Hungarian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrádi, Viktor; Csenteri, Orsolya Karola; Sándor, János; Godény, Sándor

    2017-04-01

    To investigate how International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001 and the Hungarian Health Care Standards (HHCS) certifications are associated with quality management, patient safety, patient rights and human resource management activities. A cross-sectional study was implemented using the 2009 Hungarian hospital survey's database. Hungary. Fifty-three general hospitals were included in the statistical analysis. No intervention was carried out in the study. The outcomes included the percentage of compliance in the dimensions of quality management, patient safety, patient rights, human resource management and the overall score for each hospital, and they were grouped according to the hospitals' certifications. Sixteen hospitals did not have either ISO 9001 or HHCS certifications, 19 had ISO 9001 certification only and 18 had both. Hospitals with ISO 9001 alone or in combination with the HHCS significantly outperformed hospitals with no certifications in terms of quality management and human resource management activities but not in terms of patient safety or patient rights activities. Combined, the two models provided the highest median levels in all cases. Nevertheless, no significant differences were observed when the hospitals with both certifications were compared with hospitals with ISO 9001 only. Although the combination of ISO 9001 and the HHCS showed the best results, the benefits were not decisive. Furthermore, although the HHCS include standards addressing patient safety, no direct association was found with regard to compliance. Thus, further investigation is required to understand this enigma.

  17. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  18. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  19. Experimentally Induced Repeated Anhydrobiosis in the Eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Tardigrades represent one of the main animal groups with anhydrobiotic capacity at any stage of their life cycle. The ability of tardigrades to survive repeated cycles of anhydrobiosis has rarely been studied but is of interest to understand the factors constraining anhydrobiotic survival. The main objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of survival of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer under repeated cycles of desiccation, and the potential effect of repeated desiccation on size, shape and number of storage cells. We also analyzed potential change in body size, gut content and frequency of mitotic storage cells. Specimens were kept under non-cultured conditions and desiccated under controlled relative humidity. After each desiccation cycle 10 specimens were selected for analysis of morphometric characteristics and mitosis. The study demonstrates that tardigrades may survive up to 6 repeated desiccations, with declining survival rates with increased number of desiccations. We found a significantly higher proportion of animals that were unable to contract properly into a tun stage during the desiccation process at the 5th and 6th desiccations. Also total number of storage cells declined at the 5th and 6th desiccations, while no effect on storage cell size was observed. The frequency of mitotic storage cells tended to decline with higher number of desiccation cycles. Our study shows that the number of consecutive cycles of anhydrobiosis that R. coronifer may undergo is limited, with increased inability for tun formation and energetic constraints as possible causal factors. PMID:27828978

  20. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Diaz-Real

    Full Text Available Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity. The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj = 0.32-0.57; smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj = 0.18-0.30. These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.

  1. Periodicity and repeatability in data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, D.

    Using magnetic data from the first two years in Saturn orbit, the basic periodicity of apparent is examined with the aim of elucidating the `cam' shaft model of Espinosa et al. (2003) identifying the nature of the `cam' and giving a definitive period for its rotation. An initial hypothesis, supported by the spectral analysis of analysis of the first 8 months in orbit Gianpieri et al. (2006), is made that the source of the period is linked to something inside the planet and therefore that the source inertia means that the period effectively does not change over the 2 years. Moreover one expects that the source phase is fixed. Using this approach, not only can the period identified by spectral analysis (647.1 + 0.6 min.) be verified but also by phase analysis between successive passes over the 2 years the period can be refined to 647.6 + 0.1 min. The signal itself is remarkably reproducible from pass to pass. It appears in all three components of the field and its polarisation is unambiguously not attributable to direct detection of an internal field. Not only does the signal not decay rapidly with distance from the planet, but although it has the m=1 symmetry of a tilted dipole, the field lines diverge from the planet indicating an exterior source. This feature led to the `cam' model. The polarisation and comparisons of passes with different latitude profiles show a surprising north-south symmetry in the azimuthal field. The absence of asymmetry with respect to the magnetic equator rules out a direct magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction source. Accordingly, it is proposed that the basic `cam' effect is generated by a single hemisphere anomaly which creates hemisphere to hemisphere field aligned currents. The existence of Saturn phase related anomaly appears to produce a basic asymmetry in the inner magnetosphere that sets the phase of both an inflowing and outflowing sector in a rotating circulation system.

  2. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in pelvic floor ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Dresler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implants used to treat patients with urogynecological conditions are well visible in US examination. The position of the suburethral tape (sling is determined in relation to the urethra or the pubic symphysis. Aim of the study: The study was aimed at assessing the accuracy of measurements determining suburethral tape location obtained in pelvic US examination performed with a transvaginal probe. Material and methods: The analysis covered the results of sonographic measurements obtained according to a standardized technique in women referred for urogynecological diagnostics. Data from a total of 68 patients were used to analyse the repeatability and reproducibility of results obtained on the same day. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient for the repeatability and reproducibility of the sonographic measurements of suburethral tape location obtained with a transvaginal probe ranged from 0.6665 to 0.9911. The analysis of the measurements confirmed their consistency to be excellent or good. Conclusions: Excellent and good repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in a pelvic ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe confirm the test’s validity and usefulness for clinical and academic purposes.

  3. Exploration on relative quality standard of Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture medium%白喉杆菌培养基相关质控标准探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雪莲; 李应伟; 唐朝晖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish relative quality standards of Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture medium.Methods Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture media with ≥ 1.8 g/L and < 1.8 g/L ammonia nitrogen were prepared respectively to use for Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture in large fermtor.The statistical analysis of the culture results were made by t test,and the optimal culture medium was identified.Fifteen batches of Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture media were prepared according to the identified formula and used to large fermentor culture.Quantities of diphtheria toxin harvested by culture were detected,and correlativity between ammonia nitrogen contents in Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture medium and diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae was analysed.Fifteen batches of 15%-20% maltose solutions were made up and fed into large fermentor as supplement during Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture.Quantities of diphtheria toxin harvested by culture were detected,and correlativity between concentrations of maltose solutions and diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae was analysed.Results Quantities of diphtheria toxin harvested from Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture media with ≥ 1.8 g/L ammonia nitrogen were significantly higher than those harvested from Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture media with < 1.8 g/L ammonia nitrogen(t =0.5635,P < 0.05).Positive linear correlation (r =0.52) was showed between ammonia nitrogen contents in Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture medium and quantities of diphtheria toxin in ranges of identified ammonia nitrogen contents (1.8-2.0 g/L).When concentrations of maltose solutions ranged from 15% to 20%,negative linear correlation (r =-0.53) was showed between concentrations of maltose solutions and quantities of diphtheria toxin.Conclusion When ammonia nitrogen contents in Corynebacterium diphtheriae culture medium and concentrations of maltose solutions for feeding into large

  4. [The first exploration of a minimally invasive lysis subcutaneouly for the treatment of gluteal muscle contracture based on relatively safe region around standard injection point of gluteal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Tang, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Si-rong; Zou, Guo-yao; Xiao, Rong-chi; Liu, Rui-duan; Hu, Jun-zu

    2011-06-01

    To explore the solution of choosing the minimally invasive incision site for gluteal muscle contracture patient based on standard injection point of gluteal muscle. from September 2008 to August 2010, 25 patients (14 males and 11 females with an average of 16.5 years, ranging from 12 to 26 years) with injected gluteal muscle contracture were prospectively studied. The course of disease was from 6 to 12 years. Firstly, the connective skin Surface line from anterior superior iliac spine to coccyx (line AD) was delineated and the point (point O) was marked out as the standard gluteal muscle injection site which was on the one-third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine(point A) to the coccyx (point D). Secondly, the anterior and posterior edge lines of surface projection of the gluteal muscle contracture banding (line a, line p) were delineated. Thirdly, the distance from B to O and C to O (B is the point of intersection of line a and line AD,C is the point of intersection of line P and line AD)were measured which was the intersection of line a,p and line AD to point O. Lastly, the minimally invasive surgery was operformed via the skin entry of point C. OB = (0 +/- 0.76) cm, OC = (2.86 +/- 0.78) cm, BC = (2.86 +/- 1.01) cm,the mean postoperative drainage was less than 10 ml,there was no nerve damage,hematoma and other complications. All patients achieved the function of squatting in 4 to 6 days. The solution of choosing the minimally invasive incision site based on standard injection point of gluteal muscle has advantages of positioning precisely,handling easily, recoverying quickly, less trauma and safety, etc.

  5. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  6. Null alleles at the Huntington disease locus: implications for diagnostics and CAG repeat instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L C; Hegde, M R; Nagappan, R; Faull, R L; Giles, J; Winship, I; Snow, K; Love, D R

    2000-01-01

    PCR amplification of the CAG repeat in exon 1 of the IT15 gene is routinely undertaken to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Huntington disease (HD) and to provide predictive testing for at-risk relatives of affected individuals. Our studies have detected null alleles on the chromosome carrying the expanded repeat in three of 91 apparently unrelated HD families. Sequence analysis of these alleles has revealed the same mutation event, leading to the juxtaposition of uninterrupted CAG and CCG repeats. These data suggest that a mutation-prone region exists in the IT15 gene bounded by the CAG and CCG repeats and that caution should be exercised in designing primers that anneal to the region bounded by these repeats. Two of the HD families segregated null alleles with expanded uninterrupted CAG repeats at the lower end of the zone of reduced penetrance. The expanded repeats are meiotically unstable in these families, although this instability is within a small range of repeat lengths. The haplotypes of the disease-causing chromosomes in these two families differ, only one of which is similar to that reported previously as being specific for new HD mutations. Finally, no apparent mitotic instability of the uninterrupted CAG repeat was observed in the brain of one of the HD individuals.

  7. Analysis of laboratory repeat critical values at a large tertiary teaching hospital in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagan Yang

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: As a patient safety measure, laboratories are required to have a critical values policy by regulatory agencies. Unfortunately, little information is available on repeat critical values for the same analyte(s on the same patient. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence and distribution of repeat critical values and the relationship between the frequency of such values and patient outcome to provide information for hospitals on improving reporting policies. METHODS: Eleven laboratory critical value lists, including chemistry and hematology analytes, were selected from a tertiary hospital in China in the year 2010. The distribution and interval time for each repeat critical value were calculated. Serum potassium and platelet count were used as examples to illustrate the relationship between the frequency of the repeat critical values and patient outcome. RESULTS: All test items on the critical value list were prone to the occurrence of repeat critical values. On average, each patient who experienced critical values had 2.10 occurrences. The median interval time for each repeat critical value varied, with most being longer than 8 hours. For those patients who had repeat critical values of serum potassium and platelet count, along with the increased frequency, the patients had a longer hospital stay and a generally worse outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Patient can have a number of repeat critical values and the frequency of these values is closely related to patient outcome. A careful evaluation is warranted if a laboratory chooses to adopt a policy of not reporting each repeat critical value.

  8. Large-scale analysis of tandem repeat variability in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duitama, Jorge; Zablotskaya, Alena; Gemayel, Rita; Jansen, An; Belet, Stefanie; Vermeesch, Joris R; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Froyen, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Tandem repeats are short DNA sequences that are repeated head-to-tail with a propensity to be variable. They constitute a significant proportion of the human genome, also occurring within coding and regulatory regions. Variation in these repeats can alter the function and/or expression of genes allowing organisms to swiftly adapt to novel environments. Importantly, some repeat expansions have also been linked to certain neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, accurate sequencing of tandem repeats could contribute to our understanding of common phenotypic variability and might uncover missing genetic factors in idiopathic clinical conditions. However, despite long-standing evidence for the functional role of repeats, they are largely ignored because of technical limitations in sequencing, mapping and typing. Here, we report on a novel capture technique and data filtering protocol that allowed simultaneous sequencing of thousands of tandem repeats in the human genomes of a three generation family using GS-FLX-plus Titanium technology. Our results demonstrated that up to 7.6% of tandem repeats in this family (4% in coding sequences) differ from the reference sequence, and identified a de novo variation in the family tree. The method opens new routes to look at this underappreciated type of genetic variability, including the identification of novel disease-related repeats.

  9. Standardized manual palpation of myofascial trigger points in relation to neck/shoulder pain; the influence of clinical experience on inter-examiner reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Larsen, Anders H; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2011-04-01

    A diagnosis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) requires palpation for the identification of at least one clinically relevant trigger point (TP). However, few comparable, high quality studies currently exist from which to draw firm conclusions regarding the robustness of TP examination. An inter-observer agreement study was conducted using two experienced and two inexperienced clinicians. All performed standardized palpation of the upper Trapezius musculature, judging the clinical relevance of TP(s) using clinician global assessment (GA). A random case mix of 81 female participants was examined, 14 asymptomatic and the remainder suffering from neck/shoulder pain. Examiners received psychomotor skills training and video feedback analysis to improve protocol standardization. Kappa co-efficient calculations indicated good agreement between the experienced pairing (κ = 0.63), moderate agreement between the mixed pairings (κ = 0.35 and 0.47) and poor agreement between the inexperienced pairing (κ = 0.22). Inter-observer agreement was not stable with the experienced pairing exhibiting a sharp decline in agreement during the latter portion of the study. Identification of clinically relevant TPs of the upper Trapezius musculature is reproducible when performed by two experienced clinicians, however, a mixed observer pairing can yield acceptable agreement. A protracted period of data collection may be detrimental to inter-observer agreement; more investigation is needed in this regard.

  10. Mutation supply and the repeatability of selection for antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Thomas; Hwang, Sungmin; Krug, Joachim; de Visser, J. Arjan G. M.; Zwart, Mark P.

    2017-10-01

    Whether evolution can be predicted is a key question in evolutionary biology. Here we set out to better understand the repeatability of evolution, which is a necessary condition for predictability. We explored experimentally the effect of mutation supply and the strength of selective pressure on the repeatability of selection from standing genetic variation. Different sizes of mutant libraries of antibiotic resistance gene TEM-1 β-lactamase in Escherichia coli, generated by error-prone PCR, were subjected to different antibiotic concentrations. We determined whether populations went extinct or survived, and sequenced the TEM gene of the surviving populations. The distribution of mutations per allele in our mutant libraries followed a Poisson distribution. Extinction patterns could be explained by a simple stochastic model that assumed the sampling of beneficial mutations was key for survival. In most surviving populations, alleles containing at least one known large-effect beneficial mutation were present. These genotype data also support a model which only invokes sampling effects to describe the occurrence of alleles containing large-effect driver mutations. Hence, evolution is largely predictable given cursory knowledge of mutational fitness effects, the mutation rate and population size. There were no clear trends in the repeatability of selected mutants when we considered all mutations present. However, when only known large-effect mutations were considered, the outcome of selection is less repeatable for large libraries, in contrast to expectations. We show experimentally that alleles carrying multiple mutations selected from large libraries confer higher resistance levels relative to alleles with only a known large-effect mutation, suggesting that the scarcity of high-resistance alleles carrying multiple mutations may contribute to the decrease in repeatability at large library sizes.

  11. Antropometria de atletas culturistas em relação à referência populacional Anthropometry of body builders in relation to the population standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naílza MAESTÁ

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Atletas de culturismo têm como alvo de treinamento a hipertrofia muscular e a redução da adiposidade. A falta de referências antropométricas apropriadas pode levar esses indivíduos a serem erroneamente considerados em situação de sobrepeso ou desnutrição. Portanto, objetivamos comparar a composição corporal de atletas de culturismo com os padrões populacionais. Foram avaliados 36 atletas, de ambos os sexos, 26 do sexo masculino (27,2 ± 7,2 anos e 10 do sexo feminino (30,0 ± 6,1 anos, por ocasião da competição nacional, quanto aos indicadores antropométricos de peso, estatura, índice de massa corpórea, pregas cutâneas, adiposidade corpórea e circunferência muscular do braço. Os resultados foram referidos quanto à posição percentual ou de desvios-padrão (pelo escore Z tendo como referências padrões populacionais locais. Como resultado, encontramos que os indicadores com menor contraste com os padrões adotados foram peso e estatura e os maiores contrastes foram encontrados na circunferência muscular do braço para os homens, e pregas cutâneas tricipital para as mulheres. Pelo indicador muscular todos foram classificados como obesos ou sobrepeso, enquanto que pela prega cutânea tricipital e adiposidade corpórea, a desnutrição esteve presente em 100,0% das mulheres e 88,5% dos homens. Fica evidenciada a inadequação da utilização do padrão antropométrico populacional para a classificação nutricional de atletas de força, em particular culturistas, sendo assim necessário o estabelecimento de padrões próprios para esse tipo de treinamento (modalidade.Body builders have as their training goals the maximum muscle hypertrophy with minimum adiposity. However, the scarcity of specific standards implies often in framing wrongly those athletes either as overweight (by their BMI or energy malnourished (by their fat stores. The objective of this study was to compare the body composition of body builders with

  12. Evolution of ribosomal DNA-derived satellite repeat in tomato genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hur Cheol-Goo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandemly repeated DNA, also called as satellite DNA, is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes. Satellite repeats can expand and contract dramatically, which may cause genome size variation among genetically-related species. However, the origin and expansion mechanism are not clear yet and needed to be elucidated. Results FISH analysis revealed that the satellite repeat showing homology with intergenic spacer (IGS of rDNA present in the tomato genome. By comparing the sequences representing distinct stages in the divergence of rDNA repeat with those of canonical rDNA arrays, the molecular mechanism of the evolution of satellite repeat is described. Comprehensive sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that a long terminal repeat retrotransposon was interrupted into each copy of the 18S rDNA and polymerized by recombination rather than transposition via an RNA intermediate. The repeat was expanded through doubling the number of IGS into the 25S rRNA gene, and also greatly increasing the copy number of type I subrepeat in the IGS of 25-18S rDNA by segmental duplication. Homogenization to a single type of subrepeat in the satellite repeat was achieved as the result of amplifying copy number of the type I subrepeat but eliminating neighboring sequences including the type II subrepeat and rRNA coding sequence from the array. FISH analysis revealed that the satellite repeats are commonly present in closely-related Solanum species, but vary in their distribution and abundance among species. Conclusion These results represent that the dynamic satellite repeats were originated from intergenic spacer of rDNA unit in the tomato genome. This result could serve as an example towards understanding the initiation and the expansion of the satellite repeats in complex eukaryotic genome.

  13. Characterization of conservative somatic instability of the CAG repeat region in Huntington`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, F.V.; Calikoglu, A.S.; Whetsell, L.H. [H.A. Chapman Research Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Instability and enlargement of a CAG repeat region at the beginning of the huntingtin gene (IT-15) has been linked with Huntington`s disease. The CAG repeat size shows a highly significant correlation with age-of-onset of clinicial features in individuals with 40 or more repeats who have Huntington disease. The clinical status of nonsymptomatic individuals with 30 to 39 CAG repeats is considered ambiguous. In order to define more carefully the nature of the HD expansion instability, we examined patients in our HD population using a discriminating fluorescence-based PCR approach. The degree of somatic mutation increases with both earlier age of onset and the size of the inherited allele. A single prominent band one repeat larger than the index peak was typical in individuals with 40-41 CAG repeats. Three to four larger bands are typically discerned in individuals with 50 or more repeats. In an extreme example, an individual with approximately 95 repeats had at least 8 prominent bands. Plotting the degree of somatic mutation relative to the size of the HD allele shows somatic mutation activity increases with size. By this approach 40-60% of the alleles in a 40-41 CAG repeat HD loci is represented in the primary allele. In contrast, the primary allele represents a relatively minor proportion of the total alleles for expansions greater than 50 CAG repeats (10-20%). The limited range of somatic mutation suggest that the instability is restricted to very early stages of embryogenesis before tissue development diverges or that persistent somatic instability occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, the properties of somatic instability in Huntington`s disease have aspects that are both in common but also different from that found in other trinucleotide repeat expanding diseases such as myotonic muscular dystrophy and fragile X syndrome.

  14. Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it important and why is it hard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgica Nedić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications (PTM of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM, which occur stochastically, depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can be damaging. It is often observed that inactive and abnormal proteins accumulate in old cells and tissues. The nature, site and extent of nePTM give rise to a population of that specific protein with alterations in structure and function ranging from being fully active to totally inactive molecules. Determination of the type and the amount (abundance of nePTM is essential for establishing connection between specific protein structure and specific biological role. This article summarizes analytical demands for reliable quantification of nePTM, including requirements for the assay performance, standardization and quality control, and points to the difficulties, uncertainties and un-resolved issues.

  15. Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it important and why is it hard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedić, Olgica; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2015-08-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins determine the activity, stability, specificity, transportability and lifespan of a protein. Some PTM are highly specific and regulated involving various enzymatic pathways, but there are other non-enzymatic PTM (nePTM), which occur stochastically, depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can be damaging. It is often observed that inactive and abnormal proteins accumulate in old cells and tissues. The nature, site and extent of nePTM give rise to a population of that specific protein with alterations in structure and function ranging from being fully active to totally inactive molecules. Determination of the type and the amount (abundance) of nePTM is essential for establishing connection between specific protein structure and specific biological role. This article summarizes analytical demands for reliable quantification of nePTM, including requirements for the assay performance, standardization and quality control, and points to the difficulties, uncertainties and un-resolved issues.

  16. Standardization and quality control in quantifying non-enzymatic oxidative protein modifications in relation to ageing and disease: Why is it important and why is it hard?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedić, Olgica; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rattan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    , depend on the ternary structure of proteins and can be damaging. It is often observed that inactive and abnormal proteins accumulate in old cells and tissues. The nature, site and extent of nePTM give rise to a population of that specific protein with alterations in structure and function ranging from...... being fully active to totally inactive molecules. Determination of the type and the amount (abundance) of nePTM is essential for establishing connection between specific protein structure and specific biological role. This article summarizes analytical demands for reliable quantification of ne......PTM, including requirements for the assay performance, standardization and quality control, and points to the difficulties, uncertainties and un-resolved issues....

  17. Long-term elastic durability of polymer matrix composite materials after repeated steam sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alexander C M; Fischer, Gustav; Dart, Bradley R; Wooley, Paul H

    2015-11-01

    We compared the durability of 3 different selected composite materials that underwent repeated steam sterilization with the durability of traditional metal materials. Composite materials Tepex, CFR-PPS (carbon-fiber-reinforced polyphenylene sulfide), and HTN-53 (Zytel HTN53G50HSLR NC010) were evaluated for durability and water retention after repeated steam sterilization. These composites were compared with stainless steel and aluminum. The structural properties of these materials were measured (short-beam load-to-failure and cyclic compression loading tests) before, during, and after repeated steam sterilization. The relative radiographic density of these materials was also compared. There was no significant difference in the moisture retention of these composite materials before and after repeated sterilization. The composite materials were significantly more radiolucent than the metals. For all the composite materials, load to failure deteriorated after repeated sterilization. The cyclic compression loading tests showed HTN-53 had the poorest performance, with complete failure after 400 cycles of repeated sterilization. CFR-PPS performed slightly better, with 33% failure at final testing. Tepex had no failures at final testing. Although HTN-53 has shown promise in other orthopedic applications, its performance after repeated sterilization was relatively poor. Tepex showed the most potential for durability after repeated sterilization. Further study is needed to identify specific applications for these materials in the orthopedic industry.

  18. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

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    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  19. Standard deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these ‘facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, ‘If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec

  20. Evaluation of a method for nitrotyrosine site identification and relative quantitation using a stable isotope-labeled nitrated spike-in standard and high resolution fourier transform MS and MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Kent W; Fertig, Alison R; Dufresne, Craig P; Pinho, Joao P C; Stevens, Stanley M

    2014-04-14

    The overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) can have deleterious effects in the cell, including structural and possible activity-altering modifications to proteins. Peroxynitrite is one such RNS that can result in a specific protein modification, nitration of tyrosine residues to form nitrotyrosine, and to date, the identification of nitrotyrosine sites in proteins continues to be a major analytical challenge. We have developed a method by which 15N-labeled nitrotyrosine groups are generated on peptide or protein standards using stable isotope-labeled peroxynitrite (O15NOO-), and the resulting standard is mixed with representative samples in which nitrotyrosine formation is to be measured by mass spectrometry (MS). Nitropeptide MS/MS spectra are filtered using high mass accuracy Fourier transform MS (FTMS) detection of the nitrotyrosine immonium ion. Given that the nitropeptide pair is co-isolated for MS/MS fragmentation, the nitrotyrosine immonium ions (at m/z=181 or 182) can be used for relative quantitation with negligible isotopic interference at a mass resolution of greater than 50,000 (FWHM, full width at half-maximum). Furthermore, the standard potentially allows for the increased signal of nitrotyrosine-containing peptides, thus facilitating selection for MS/MS in a data-dependent mode of acquisition. We have evaluated the methodology in terms of nitrotyrosine site identification and relative quantitation using nitrated peptide and protein standards.