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  1. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) Combined with Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) and Video-Electroencephalography (VEEG) Have Excellent Diagnostic Value in Preoperative Localization of Epileptic Foci in Children with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Long, Wei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Guang-Yin; Lu, Ji-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To investigate the effect that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has on surgical decision making relative to video-electroencephalography (VEEG) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and if the differences in these variables translates to differences in surgical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 166 children with epilepsy undergoing preoperative DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT examinations, surgical resection of epileptic foci, and intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) monitoring were enrolled. All children were followed up for 12 months and grouped by Engles prognostic classification for epilepsy. Based on intraoperative ECoG as gold standard, the diagnostic values of DCE-MRI, VEEG, PET-CT, DCE-MRI combined with VEEG, DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT, and combined application of DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT in preoperative localization for epileptic foci were evaluated. RESULTS The sensitivity of DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT was 59.64%, 76.51%, and 93.98%, respectively; the accuracy of DCE-MRI, VEEG, PET-CT, DCE-MRI combined with VEEG, and DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT was 57.58%, 67.72%, 91.03%, 91.23%, and 96.49%, respectively. Localization accuracy rate of the combination of DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT was 98.25% (56/57), which was higher than that of DCE-MRI combined with VEEG and of DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT. No statistical difference was found in the accuracy rate of localization between these three combined techniques. During the 12-month follow-up, children were grouped into Engles grade I (n=106), II (n=31), III (n=21), and IV (n=8) according to postoperative conditions. CONCLUSIONS All DCE-MRI combined with VEEG, DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT, and DCE-MRI combined with VEEG and PET-CT examinations have excellent accuracy in preoperative localization of epileptic foci and present excellent postoperative efficiency, suggesting that these combined imaging methods are suitable for serving as the

  2. Methods for analysing cardiovascular studies with repeated measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, T. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Ouwerkerk, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Repeated measurements in a single subject are generally more similar than unrepeated measurements in different subjects. Unrepeated analyses of repeated data cause underestimation of the treatment effects. Objective. To review methods adequate for the analysis of cardiovascular studies

  3. Studies on Section XI ultrasonic repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, T.D.; McDearman, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    A block representative of a nuclear component has been welded containing intentional defects. Acoustic emission data taken during the welding correlate well with ultrasonic data. Repetitive ultrasonic examinations have been performed by skilled operators using a procedure based on that desribed in ASME Section XI. These examinations were performed by different examination teams using different ultrasonic equipment in such a manner that the effects on the repeatability of the ultrasonic test method caused by the operator and by the use of different equipment could be estimated. It was tentatively concluded that when considering a large number of inspections: (1) there is no significant difference in indication sizing between operators, and (2) there is a significant difference in amplitude and defect sizing when instruments having different, Code acceptable operating characteristics are used. It was determined that the Section XI sizing parameters follow a bivariate normal distribution. Data derived from ultrasonically and physically sizing indications in nuclear components during farication show that the Section XI technique tends to overestimate the size of the reflectors

  4. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  5. Valor localizador y lateralizador de la manifestación motora facial unilateral en epilepsias focales, utilizando VEEG y/o estimulación cortical directa cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Paoli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Las manifestaciones motoras faciales unilaterales (MMFU se describen clásicamente en crisis que inician en la región central inferior contralateral. Para evaluar el valor localizador y lateralizador de MMFU en crisis espontáneas registradas en videoelectroencefalografía (VEEG y de MMFU obtenidas por estimulación cortical directa cerebral, analizamos 83 crisis con MMFU durante VEEG y 8 pacientes que presentaron MMFU durante estimulación cortical directa cerebral. Correlacionamos localización y lateralidad de la hipótesis de zona epileptógena con el tiempo de aparición  de MMFU, y la zona de estimulación cortical directa cerebral que desencadenó MMFU con su lateralidad. En 61 crisis con MMFU (73.4% la hipótesis de zona epileptógena no correspondió a la región central contralateral, por corresponder a la región central ipsilateral o a otras regiones tanto homolaterales como contralaterales. La MMFU se registró en forma precoz en 51.1% de las crisis con hipótesis de zona epileptógena en la región frontal, en  56% de las crisis con hipótesis de zona epileptógena en la región central y en 80% de las crisis con hipótesis de zona epileptógena en el lóbulo temporal. No registramos MMFU precoz  en las crisis con hipótesis de zona epileptógena en la región posterior. En 2 (25% de 8 pacientes con MMFU provocada por estimulación cortical directa cerebral, la zona de la estimulación no fue la región central inferior contralateral. Concluimos que las MMFU pueden deberse a descargas alejadas de la región central inferior, tanto ipsilaterales como contralaterales.

  6. PET functional volume delineation: a robustness and repeatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Cheze-le Rest, Catherine; Albarghach, Nidal; Pradier, Olivier; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art algorithms for functional uptake volume segmentation in PET imaging consist of threshold-based approaches, whose parameters often require specific optimization for a given scanner and associated reconstruction algorithms. Different advanced image segmentation approaches previously proposed and extensively validated, such as among others fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering, or fuzzy locally adaptive bayesian (FLAB) algorithm have the potential to improve the robustness of functional uptake volume measurements. The objective of this study was to investigate robustness and repeatability with respect to various scanner models, reconstruction algorithms and acquisition conditions. Robustness was evaluated using a series of IEC phantom acquisitions carried out on different PET/CT scanners (Philips Gemini and Gemini Time-of-Flight, Siemens Biograph and GE Discovery LS) with their associated reconstruction algorithms (RAMLA, TF MLEM, OSEM). A range of acquisition parameters (contrast, duration) and reconstruction parameters (voxel size) were considered for each scanner model, and the repeatability of each method was evaluated on simulated and clinical tumours and compared to manual delineation. For all the scanner models, acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms considered, the FLAB algorithm demonstrated higher robustness in delineation of the spheres with low mean errors (10%) and variability (5%), with respect to threshold-based methodologies and FCM. The repeatability provided by all segmentation algorithms considered was very high with a negligible variability of <5% in comparison to that associated with manual delineation (5-35%). The use of advanced image segmentation algorithms may not only allow high accuracy as previously demonstrated, but also provide a robust and repeatable tool to aid physicians as an initial guess in determining functional volumes in PET. (orig.)

  7. A study on the repeatability of ultrasonic testing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fukumoto, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Reliability improvement of ultrasonic testing data is strongly desired in ultrasonic testing working of nuclear power plants. This paper deals with the problems of the testing by the manual and the remote control apparatus, and with the factors which influence the repeatability of ultrasonic testing data. Following results are found in it. (1) In the testing by the manual, working time and posture influence the repeatability of testing data. (2) Glycerin in suitable for the couplant in the respect of the repeatability of testing data. In the case of using machine oil, the pressure to the probe necessitates to be over 0.2 kg/cm 2 . (3) In the testing by the remote control apparatus, working time, working environment and defect position does not influence the repeatability of testing data. (author)

  8. Exposing Students to Repeat Photography: Increasing Cultural Understanding on a Short-Term Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmons, Kelly K.; Brannstrom, Christian; Hurd, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, repeat photography has been used to analyze land cover change. This paper describes how repeat photography may be used as a tool to enhance the short-term study abroad experience by facilitating cultural interaction and understanding. We present evidence from two cases and suggest a five-step repeat photography method for educators…

  9. [Study on causes and treatment of repeated vulvovaginitis in girlhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di-kai; Li, Xiu-yun; Yang, Dong-zi; Kuang, Jian-quan

    2006-07-01

    To explore the causes and treatment of repeated vulvovaginitis in girlhood in order to improve its prevention and treatment. Fifty-one girls with repeated vulvovaginitis (age vulvovaginitis and 14 ones (27%) suffering from posterior recto-vaginal fistula with in 51 patients. Five girls (10%) were smitten with vulval ulcer and 3 ones (6%) had been were found with vaginal foreign bodies. One girl (2%) was smitten with adhesion of labia minora. The vaginal discharges taken from 21 girls were cultured. Seventeen cases found bacteria. The positive rate of bacteria culture in the 21 cases reached 81%, in which, E.coli accounted for 5 cases (24%), staphylococcus and streptococcus accounted for 3 cases (14%) respectively. Patients suffering from non-specific vulvovaginitis and vulval ulcer accepted external lotion, antibiotic ointment or combining with antibiotics. Patients suffering from posterior recto-vaginal fistula accepted fistulectomy. Three girls who found vaginal foreign bodies took out of foreign bodies by hysteroscope. Fifty-one girls all were cured after appropriate therapy. Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecologic diagnosis in girlhood. The principal cause of repeated invasion is non-specific vulvovaginitis and the secondly one is posterior recto-vaginal fistula. It need overhaul during the diagnosis. It is very availability to use hysteroscopy and do bacteria culture + antibiotic sensitivity test for repeated pediatric vulvovaginitis.

  10. Study of simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism for biotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... G. Siva Kumar1, K. Aruna Kumari1*, Ch. V. Durga Rani1, R. M. Sundaram2, S. Vanisree3, Md. ..... review by Jena and Mackill (2008) provided the list of .... repeat protein and is a member of a resistance gene cluster on rice.

  11. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  12. On model selections for repeated measurement data in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baiming; Jin, Bo; Koch, Gary G; Zhou, Haibo; Borst, Stephen E; Menon, Sandeep; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2015-05-10

    Repeated measurement designs have been widely used in various randomized controlled trials for evaluating long-term intervention efficacies. For some clinical trials, the primary research question is how to compare two treatments at a fixed time, using a t-test. Although simple, robust, and convenient, this type of analysis fails to utilize a large amount of collected information. Alternatively, the mixed-effects model is commonly used for repeated measurement data. It models all available data jointly and allows explicit assessment of the overall treatment effects across the entire time spectrum. In this paper, we propose an analytic strategy for longitudinal clinical trial data where the mixed-effects model is coupled with a model selection scheme. The proposed test statistics not only make full use of all available data but also utilize the information from the optimal model deemed for the data. The performance of the proposed method under various setups, including different data missing mechanisms, is evaluated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed analytic procedure is more powerful than the t-test when the primary interest is to test for the treatment effect at the last time point. Simulations also reveal that the proposed method outperforms the usual mixed-effects model for testing the overall treatment effects across time. In addition, the proposed framework is more robust and flexible in dealing with missing data compared with several competing methods. The utility of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing a clinical trial on the cognitive effect of testosterone in geriatric men with low baseline testosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

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    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A

    2003-07-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m{sup 2}. As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  14. A study on radiographic repeat rate data of several hospitals in Jeddah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Malki, M.A.; Abulfaraj, W.H.; Bhuiyan, S.I.; Kinsara, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiographic repeat rate data in diagnostic radiology in King Fahad Hospital (KFH), King Abdulaziz Hospital (KAH), and Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been studied. The study provided valuable information to suggest preventive measures to reduce repeats. The variables included in the study are exposure techniques, examination types, total number of films used, number of films repeated, the film sizes, gender, the age groups of the patients, and reason for repetition. The total number of examinations in all three hospitals is 6001 using 8887 films on 5412 patients. The average repeat rate was 7.93%, where the individual hospital repeat rates were 9.57% in the MCH, 7.84% in KAH and 7.44% in KFH. The repeat rate for children and infants was found to be undesirable. The quality assurance (QA) programme can effectively reduce the unnecessary exposure and can identify the cause of the exposure. The overexposure, underexposure and position fault were the foremost contributors for repeats and constitute 32.91%, 28.94% and 22.98% of the total respectively. The QA study identified that human error and equipment malfunction are the major contributors to these causes of repeats. The highest repetition rate was for pelvis, 13.64%, followed by skull, 11.59%, and abdomen, 10.41%. It is estimated that the total area of wasted film in all three hospitals is 74.3 m 2 . As per the average repeat rate, the cost of repeat films in the entire kingdom per year has been projected to be about US$1.82 million (SR 6.83 million) in the government hospitals only. Based on the findings of this study a set of recommendations have been prescribed for the radiology department to reduce the repeat rate and to improve the safety culture. (author)

  15. Using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to study genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows that ISSR-PCR analysis is quick, reliable and produces sufficient polymorphisms for large-scale DNA fingerprinting purposes. The total of 111 bands of which 60 were polymorphic, (with 54.04%) was amplified by the six primers, an average of seven bands per primer. The total number of amplified ...

  16. t2prhd: a tool to study the patterns of repeat evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pénzes Zsolt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The models developed to characterize the evolution of multigene families (such as the birth-and-death and the concerted models have also been applied on the level of sequence repeats inside a gene/protein. Phylogenetic reconstruction is the method of choice to study the evolution of gene families and also sequence repeats in the light of these models. The characterization of the gene family evolution in view of the evolutionary models is done by the evaluation of the clustering of the sequences with the originating loci in mind. As the locus represents positional information, it is straightforward that in the case of the repeats the exact position in the sequence should be used, as the simple numbering according to repeat order can be misleading. Results We have developed a novel rapid visual approach to study repeat evolution, that takes into account the exact repeat position in a sequence. The "pairwise repeat homology diagram" visualizes sequence repeats detected by a profile HMM in a pair of sequences and highlights their homology relations inferred by a phylogenetic tree. The method is implemented in a Perl script (t2prhd available for downloading at http://t2prhd.sourceforge.net and is also accessible as an online tool at http://t2prhd.brc.hu. The power of the method is demonstrated on the EGF-like and fibronectin-III-like (Fn-III domain repeats of three selected mammalian Tenascin sequences. Conclusion Although pairwise repeat homology diagrams do not carry all the information provided by the phylogenetic tree, they allow a rapid and intuitive assessment of repeat evolution. We believe, that t2prhd is a helpful tool with which to study the pattern of repeat evolution. This method can be particularly useful in cases of large datasets (such as large gene families, as the command line interface makes it possible to automate the generation of pairwise repeat homology diagrams with the aid of scripts.

  17. Tools for analyzing genetic variants from sequencing data Case study: short tandem repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Gymrek, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This was presented as a BitesizeBio Webinar entitled "Tools for analyzing genetic variants from sequencing data Case study: short tandem repeats"Accompanying scripts can be accessed on github:https://github.com/mgymrek/mgymrek-bitesizebio-webinar 

  18. [Computer optical topography: a study of the repeatability of the results of human body model examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnadskiĭ, V N

    2007-01-01

    The problem of repeatability of the results of examination of a plastic human body model is considered. The model was examined in 7 positions using an optical topograph for kyphosis diagnosis. The examination was performed under television camera monitoring. It was shown that variation of the model position in the camera view affected the repeatability of the results of topographic examination, especially if the model-to-camera distance was changed. A study of the repeatability of the results of optical topographic examination can help to increase the reliability of the topographic method, which is widely used for medical screening of children and adolescents.

  19. Computational study of the human dystrophin repeats: interaction properties and molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Legrand

    Full Text Available Dystrophin is a large protein involved in the rare genetic disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. It functions as a mechanical linker between the cytoskeleton and the sarcolemma, and is able to resist shear stresses during muscle activity. In all, 75% of the dystrophin molecule consists of a large central rod domain made up of 24 repeat units that share high structural homology with spectrin-like repeats. However, in the absence of any high-resolution structure of these repeats, the molecular basis of dystrophin central domain's functions has not yet been deciphered. In this context, we have performed a computational study of the whole dystrophin central rod domain based on the rational homology modeling of successive and overlapping tandem repeats and the analysis of their surface properties. Each tandem repeat has very specific surface properties that make it unique. However, the repeats share enough electrostatic-surface similarities to be grouped into four separate clusters. Molecular dynamics simulations of four representative tandem repeats reveal specific flexibility or bending properties depending on the repeat sequence. We thus suggest that the dystrophin central rod domain is constituted of seven biologically relevant sub-domains. Our results provide evidence for the role of the dystrophin central rod domain as a scaffold platform with a wide range of surface features and biophysical properties allowing it to interact with its various known partners such as proteins and membrane lipids. This new integrative view is strongly supported by the previous experimental works that investigated the isolated domains and the observed heterogeneity of the severity of dystrophin related pathologies, especially Becker muscular dystrophy.

  20. The Enigma of Rapid Repeat Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study of Teen Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, K N; Engelhart, T G; Martins, Y; Huntington, N L; Snyder, A F; Coletti, K D; Cox, J E

    2016-06-01

    Rapid repeat pregnancy accounts for 18% of teen pregnancies and leads to adverse health, economic, and developmental outcomes for teen mothers and their children. Few interventions have been successful in reducing rapid repeat pregnancy. In this qualitative study we examined adolescent mothers' perceptions of their decision-making and behaviors that helped prevent or promote a rapid repeat pregnancy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 31 adolescent mothers, aged 16-21 years; 15 of these subjects experienced a repeat pregnancy within a year of their first child's birth and 16 had not. Two researchers used a grounded, inductive technique to identify emergent themes; interviews were subsequently coded accordingly. Counts were tabulated of the number of times themes were endorsed among those with or without a repeat pregnancy. Four overarching themes emerged from the interviews: intentionality regarding pregnancy planning, patients' degree of independence in making contraceptive choices, sense of control over life experience, and barriers to follow-through on contraceptive planning. Teens who had not experienced a rapid repeat pregnancy more often endorsed themes of intentionality in preventing or promoting a pregnancy, independence in decision-making, and feelings of control over their experience. Ambivalence and lack of decision-making about seeking another pregnancy were frequently endorsed by mothers who had experienced a second pregnancy. Decision-making regarding seeking or preventing a rapid repeat pregnancy is complex for teen mothers; techniques to help support decision-making or to delay pregnancy until decision-repeat making is complete might be important in reducing rapid pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Repeat film analysis and its implications for quality assurance in dental radiology: An institutional case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The goal of any radiologist is to produce the highest quality diagnostic radiographs, while keeping patient exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA. Aims: The aim of this study was to describe the reasons for radiograph rejections through a repeat film analysis in an Indian dental school. Settings and Design: An observational study conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal. Materials and Methods: During a 6-month study period, a total of 9,495 intra-oral radiographs and 2339 extraoral radiographs taken in the Radiology Department were subjected to repeat film analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Version 16. Descriptive analysis used. Results: The results showed that the repeat rates were 7.1% and 5.86% for intraoral and extraoral radiographs, respectively. Among the causes for errors reported, positioning error (38.7% was the most common, followed by improper angulations (26.1%, and improper film placement (11.2% for intra-oral radiographs. The study found that the maximum frequency of repeats among extraoral radiographs was for panoramic radiographs (49% followed by lateral cephalogram (33%, and paranasal sinus view (14%. It was also observed that repeat rate of intraoral radiographs was highest for internees (44.7%, and undergraduate students (28.2%. Conclusions: The study pointed to a need for more targeted interventions to achieve the goal of keeping patient exposure ALARA in a dental school setting.

  2. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Myall, Michelle

    2011-11-03

    To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Ethnographic case study. Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as "exceptions" by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge. Clinicians were often unaware of this input and it did not feature in policy

  3. Maintaining confidentiality in prospective studies: anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Wasserman, Camilla; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Reiter-Theil, Stella; Wasserman, Danuta

    2012-02-01

    Respecting and protecting the confidentiality of data and the privacy of individuals regarding the information that they have given as participants in a research project is a cornerstone of complying with accepted research standards. However, in longitudinal studies, establishing and maintaining privacy is often challenging because of the necessity of repeated contact with participants. A novel internet-based solution is introduced here, which maintains privacy while at the same time ensures linkage of data to individual participants in a repeated measures design. With the use of the anonymous repeated measurements via email (ARME) procedure, two separate one-way communication systems are established through ad hoc email accounts and a secure study website. Strengths and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  4. Comparative study of radioprotective properties of serotin derivatives repeatedly applied before gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelova, N.V.; Antipov, V.V.; Vasin, M.V.

    1977-01-01

    In the experiments on albino mice, the phenomenon of desensitization has been studied by a specific activity and some pharmacologic properties of serotonin, mexamin and 5-acetyloxytryptamine, the time-intervals between injections of the preparations being 5, 30 and 60 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. A correlation has been found between changes in radioprotective and pharmacologic properties (as determined by the accumulation of the dye in the splenic tissue) after repeated administration of mexamin. The phenomenon of desensitization is probably dependent not only on the chemical nature and mechanism of action of the protectors but also on the conditions under which they are repeatedly applied

  5. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  6. Study of Optimal Perimetric Testing in Children (OPTIC: Feasibility, Reliability and Repeatability of Perimetry in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh E Patel

    Full Text Available To investigate feasibility, reliability and repeatability of perimetry in children.A prospective, observational study recruiting 154 children aged 5-15 years, without an ophthalmic condition that affects the visual field (controls, identified consecutively between May 2012 and November 2013 from hospital eye clinics. Perimetry was undertaken in a single sitting, with standardised protocols, in a randomised order using the Humphrey static (SITA 24-2 FAST, Goldmann and Octopus kinetic perimeters. Data collected included test duration, subjective experience and test quality (incorporating examiner ratings on comprehension of instructions, fatigue, response to visual and auditory stimuli, concentration and co-operation to assess feasibility and reliability. Testing was repeated within 6 months to assess repeatability.Overall feasibility was very high (Goldmann=96.1%, Octopus=89% and Humphrey=100% completed the tests. Examiner rated reliability was 'good' in 125 (81.2% children for Goldmann, 100 (64.9% for Octopus and 98 (63.6% for Humphrey perimetry. Goldmann perimetry was the most reliable method in children under 9 years of age. Reliability improved with increasing age (multinomial logistic regression (Goldmann, Octopus and Humphrey, p<0.001. No significant differences were found for any of the three test strategies when examining initial and follow-up data outputs (Bland-Altman plots, n=43, suggesting good test repeatability, although the sample size may preclude detection of a small learning effect.Feasibility and reliability of formal perimetry in children improves with age. By the age of 9 years, all the strategies used here were highly feasible and reliable. Clinical assessment of the visual field is achievable in children as young as 5 years, and should be considered where visual field loss is suspected. Since Goldmann perimetry is the most effective strategy in children aged 5-8 years and this perimeter is no longer available, further

  7. Implementation of repeat HIV testing during pregnancy in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anna Joy; Weke, Elly; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2016-07-11

    Repeat HIV testing in late pregnancy has the potential to decrease rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by identifying mothers who seroconvert after having tested negative for HIV in early pregnancy. Despite being national policy in Kenya, the available data suggest that implementation rates are low. We conducted 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers and managers to explore barriers and enablers to implementation of repeat HIV testing guidelines for pregnant women. Participants were from the Nyanza region of Kenya and were purposively selected to provide variation in socio-demographics and job characteristics. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed in Dedoose software using a thematic analysis approach. Four themes were identified a priori using Ferlie and Shortell's Framework for Change and additional themes were allowed to emerge from the data. Participants identified barriers and enablers at the client, provider, facility, and health system levels. Key barriers at the client level from the perspective of providers included late initial presentation to antenatal care and low proportions of women completing the recommended four antenatal visits. Barriers to offering repeat HIV testing for providers included heavy workloads, time limitations, and failing to remember to check for retest eligibility. At the facility level, inconsistent volume of clients and lack of space required for confidential HIV retesting were cited as barriers. Finally, at the health system level, there were challenges relating to the HIV test kit supply chain and the design of nationally standardized antenatal patient registers. Enablers to improving the implementation of repeat HIV testing included client dissemination of the benefits of antenatal care through word-of-mouth, provider cooperation and task shifting, and it was suggested that use of an electronic health record system could provide automatic reminders for retest eligibility. This study

  8. Prognostic usefulness of repeated echocardiographic evaluation after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Study Group. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korup, E; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of repeated echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated. We found that repeated measurements of wall motion index in survivors of acute myocardial infarction, with no reinfarction, provide important prognostic...

  9. Studies on serum macro and micro minerals status in repeat breeder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user01

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... as well as 11.5% to gross domestic product. Repeat breeding is one of ... signs with no clinical detectable reproductive disorders. *Corresponding ... repeat breeding includes abnormal recommencement of postpartum ovarian ...

  10. Factors associated with repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh: qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayedul Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis is an acute, febrile disease of warm blooded animals including humans. Social norms and poverty in addition to climatic factors such as soil conditions, seasons of year, ambient temperature and rainfall influence the persistence of the B. anthracis and anthrax outbreaks. The present study was designed to reveal the factors influencing the repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh. Considering the previous outbreaks of anthrax, Sirajganj, Bogra, Kushtia, Tangail and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh were selected for this study. To elucidate the factors, qualitative data relating to the animal management, knowledge and behavior of the people; and quantitative data relating to soil conditions, ambient temperature and rainfall were acquired, and analyzed critically. Based on the outbreak histories, a year was divided into two seasons, anthrax prone season (May-November and anthrax dry season (December-April. Anthrax spores could be isolated from 11.67% (n=14/120 of the soil samples collected from the study areas. The present study revealed that poor knowledge, lack of awareness, improper carcass disposal, inadequate vaccination, high Ca content and moisture in the soil along with high ambient temperature and rainfall during the anthrax prone season were the possible influencing factors of repeated outbreaks of anthrax in the study areas. Intensive propaganda to create public awareness of anthrax together with proper vaccination may reduce anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh.

  11. Education for patients with chronic kidney disease in Taiwan: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Miaofen; Huang, Jeng-Jong; Teng, Hsiu-Lan

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the physical, knowledge and quality of life outcomes of an educational intervention for patients with early stage chronic kidney disease. A comprehensive predialysis education care team can be effective in slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease. A single group repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention. Participants were recruited through health department community health screen data banks. A predialysis, team-delivered educational intervention covering renal function health care, dietary management of renal function and the effects of Chinese herb medication on renal function was designed and implemented. Data were collected at baseline, six and 12 months. Study outcomes included physical indicators, knowledge (renal function protection, use of Chinese herbs and renal function and diet) and quality of life. Data were analysed using repeated measure anova to test for change over time in outcome variables. Sixty-six persons participated in this study. The predialysis educational intervention showed significant differences at the three time points in overall knowledge scores, waist-hip ratio, body mass index and global health status. Knowledge measures increased at month 6 and decreased at month 12. The primary indicator of renal function, glomerular filtration rate, remained stable throughout the 12 months of follow-up, despite the relatively older mean age of study participants. A predialysis education care team can provide effective disease-specific knowledge and may help retard deterioration of renal function in persons with early-stage chronic kidney disease. The intervention dose may need to be repeated every six months to maintain knowledge effects. A predialysis educational program with disease-specific knowledge and information is feasible and may provide positive outcomes for patients. Topics on the uses of Chinese herbs should be included for people who are likely to use alternative therapies.

  12. Study of problems associated with the ultrasonic examination of repeatedly repaired austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaratnam, R.; Palaniappan, M.; Baskaran, A.; Chandramohan, R.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the ultrasonic examination of austenitic stainless steel weldments has gained increased importance as an NDE technique for the volumetric examination in the nuclear power plant construction and other industries. A study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of multiple repairs on austenitic stainless steel weldments, for the successful ultrasonic examination. The test welds have been subjected to repeated welding cycles and the ultrasonic parameters including the defect characterization have been evaluated for analysis. The paper discusses the approach followed, analysis, results obtained and the recommendations based on the above. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aten, Jan Jaap; Oudega, Mardien; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; van Waarde, Jeroen A

    2015-06-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment characteristics, clinical outcome, and cognitive functioning after ECT. Thirty-nine unipolar depressed patients dosed using repeated DTM and 40 matched patients treated with ABM were compared. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the index course, as well as the total number of ECT sessions. Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, psychotic features, mean baseline MADRS, and median baseline MMSE. At the end of the index course, the two methods showed equal outcome (mean end MADRS, 11.6 ± 8.3 in DTM and 9.5 ± 7.6 in ABM (P = 0.26); median end MMSE, 28 (25-29) and 28 (25-29.8), respectively (P = 0.81). However, the median number of all ECT sessions differed 16 (11-22) in DTM versus 12 (10-14.8) in ABM; P = 0.02]. Using regression analysis, dosing method and age were independently associated with the total number of ECT sessions, with less sessions needed in ABM (P = 0.02) and in older patients (P = 0.001). In this comparative cohort study, ABM and DTM showed equal outcome for depression and cognition. However, the median ECT course duration in repeated DTM appeared longer. Additionally, higher age was associated with shorter ECT courses regardless of the dosing method. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. Potential Role of the Last Half Repeat in TAL Effectors Revealed by a Molecular Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TAL effectors (TALEs contain a modular DNA-binding domain that is composed of tandem repeats. In all naturally occurring TALEs, the end of tandem repeats is invariantly a truncated half repeat. To investigate the potential role of the last half repeat in TALEs, we performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal structure of DNA-bound TALE AvrBs3 lacking the last half repeat and its modeled structure having the last half repeat. The structural stability analysis indicates that the modeled system is more stable than the nonmodeled system. Based on the principle component analysis, it is found that the AvrBs3 increases its structural compactness in the presence of the last half repeat. The comparison of DNA groove parameters of the two systems implies that the last half repeat also causes the change of DNA major groove binding efficiency. The following calculation of hydrogen bond reveals that, by stabilizing the phosphate binding with DNA at the C-terminus, the last half repeat helps to adopt a compact conformation at the protein-DNA interface. It further mediates more contacts between TAL repeats and DNA nucleotide bases. Finally, we suggest that the last half repeat is required for the high-efficient recognition of DNA by TALE.

  15. Psychological Processes and Repeat Suicidal Behavior: A Four-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although suicidal behavior is a major public health concern, understanding of individually sensitive suicide risk mechanisms is limited. In this study, the authors investigated, for the first time, the utility of defeat and entrapment in predicting repeat suicidal behavior in a sample of suicide attempters. Method: Seventy patients hospitalized after a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, defeat, and entrapment) while in hospital. Four years later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. Results: Over 4 years, 24.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital after a suicidal attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, defeat and entrapment as well as depression, hopelessness, past suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation all predicted suicidal behavior over this interval. However, in the multivariate analysis, entrapment and past frequency of suicide attempts were the only significant predictors of suicidal behavior. Conclusions: This longitudinal study supports the utility of a new theoretical model in the prediction of suicidal behavior. Individually sensitive suicide risk processes like entrapment could usefully be targeted in treatment interventions to reduce the risk of repeat suicidal behavior in those who have been previously hospitalized after a suicide attempt. PMID:23855989

  16. Study of damage of graphite/epoxy composites submitted to repeated quasi-static shear loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadhraoui-Lattreche, Malika

    1984-01-01

    Quasi static loading tests on composite materials with organic matrix allow the behaviour of the materials under repeated loadings to be studied while avoiding viscoelastic effects. In this research thesis, the author reports the study of one-directional composite samples submitted to static pure shear loadings which represent the most severe stress state for this type of material. The material behaviour has been determined by application of loads greater than the yield strength, and of zero torque unloads. This allowed cumulative residual deformations to be monitored, and the increasing evolution of this parameter to be studied with respect to the number of applied cycles. The author deduces from these results a characteristic law for the material which introduces a decoupling between the stress and the cumulative residual deformation. Thus, a method of prediction of cumulative residual deformations is developed. Besides, a brief application to another material seems to confirm this type of law, and suggests that its generalisation should be studied [fr

  17. Repeat Colonoscopy within 6 Months after Initial Outpatient Colonoscopy in Ontario: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this study is to examine utilization of early repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure. Methods. We identified persons having repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months following outpatient colonoscopy without prior colonoscopy ≤ 5 years or prior diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC. We modeled repeat colonoscopy using a generalized estimating equation with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for clustering of patients by endoscopist. Results. The population included 334,663 persons, 7,892 (2.36% of whom had an early repeat colonoscopy within 6 months. Overall, endoscopist prior year colonoscopy volume was inversely related to repeat ≤ 6 months. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months varied by the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy (adjusted OR = 1.41 (95% CI 1.29–1.55 at nonhospital facilities compared to teaching or community hospitals. Among those who had polypectomy or biopsy, the adjusted OR for early repeat ≤ 6 months was elevated among those whose index colonoscopy was at a nonhospital facility (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.30–1.60, compared to those at a teaching hospital or community hospital. Conclusions. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure is associated with the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy.

  18. Reasons of repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, J; Bagher, S; Felemban, O; Rich, A; Loo, C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this chart review study was to investigate the common factors that exist in paediatric patients requiring a repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA2) within four years after the initial dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA1). The Electronic Health Records of one to 12 year-old children who received dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) between April 2004 and October 2009 were identified and analysed by a single examiner. Children who had GA2, within a four year period following GA1 were categorised as cases. Children who had only one dental treatment under GA were considered the control pool. Each case was matched to three controls based on sex and age range at GA1 of ± 6 months. Other recorded variables included: date of birth, date of GAs (GA1 and GA2 for cases; GA1 for controls), type of payment, dmfs before GA1, dental treatments provided under GA, return of 1-week post-GA1 follow-up, frequency of recare/recall visits following one-year post-GA1 visit and the type and frequency of post GA1 emergency visits. Out of 581 subjects, 29 (4.99%) cases were matched to 87 controls. Medically compromised patients had four times the risk of GA2. At GA1, cases received statistically significant less sealants (p=0.026), less extractions (pdental treatment under general anaesthesia were more likely to have a repeat dental treatment under general anaesthesia within 4 years.

  19. Single molecule study of the intrinsically disordered FG-repeat nucleoporin 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Sigrid; Lemke, Edward A

    2011-10-05

    Nucleoporins (Nups), which are intrinsically disordered, form a selectivity filter inside the nuclear pore complex, taking a central role in the vital nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanism. These Nups display a complex and nonrandom amino-acid architecture of phenylalanine glycine (FG)-repeat clusters and intra-FG linkers. How such heterogeneous sequence composition relates to function and could give rise to a transport mechanism is still unclear. Here we describe a combined chemical biology and single-molecule fluorescence approach to study the large human Nup153 FG-domain. In order to obtain insights into the properties of this domain beyond the average behavior, we probed the end-to-end distance (R(E)) of several ∼50-residues long FG-repeat clusters in the context of the whole protein domain. Despite the sequence heterogeneity of these FG-clusters, we detected a reoccurring and consistent compaction from a relaxed coil behavior under denaturing conditions (R(E)/R(E,RC) = 0.99 ± 0.15 with R(E,RC) corresponding to ideal relaxed coil behavior) to a collapsed state under native conditions (R(E)/R(E,RC) = 0.79 ± 0.09). We then analyzed the properties of this protein on the supramolecular level, and determined that this human FG-domain was in fact able to form a hydrogel with physiological permeability barrier properties. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  1. Discrepancies in autobiographical memories— implications for the assessment of asylum seekers: repeated interviews study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Jane; Scragg, Peter; Turner, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the consistency of autobiographical memory of people seeking asylum, in light of the assumption that discrepancies in asylum seekers' accounts of persecution mean that they are fabricating their stories. Design Repeated interviews. Setting England, 1999 and 2000. Participants Community sample of 27 Kosovan and 12 Bosnian refugees. Main outcome measures Discrepancies in repeated descriptions of one traumatic and one non-traumatic event, including specific details, rated as central or peripheral to the event. Self report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Discrepancies between an individual's accounts were common. For participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress, the number of discrepancies increased with length of time between interviews. More discrepancies occurred in details peripheral to the account than in details that were central to the account. Conclusion The assumption that inconsistency of recall means that accounts have poor credibility is questionable. Discrepancies are likely to occur in repeated interviews. For refugees showing symptoms of high levels of post-traumatic stress, the length of the application process may also affect the number of discrepancies. Recall of details rated by the interviewee as peripheral to the account is more likely to be inconsistent than recall of details that are central to the account. Thus, such inconsistencies should not be relied on as indicating a lack of credibility. What is already known on this topicDiscrepancies between accounts of an event are often used to judge the credibility of asylum seekersWhat this study addsDiscrepancies arise between two accounts of the same event even when there is no reason for fabricationRefugees with high levels of post-traumatic stress are more likely to give inconsistent accounts if they have a long time to wait between interviewsInterviewees are more likely to be inconsistent in details that they rate as peripheral

  2. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be.

  3. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be

  4. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    evaluating the deployment repeatability builds upon the testing or analysis of deployment kinematics (Chapter 6) and adds repetition. Introduction...material yield or failure during a test. For the purposes of this chapter, zero shift will refer to permanent changes in the structure, while reversible ...the content of other chapters in this book: Gravity Compensation (Chapter 4) and Deployment Kinematics and Dynamics (Chapter 6). Repeating the

  5. Thermal stability of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin repeat 17: a spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Annette K. [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Kieffer, Bruno [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, IGBMC Biomolecular NMR Group, CNRS UMR 7104 (France); Trave, Gilles [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Equipe Oncoproteines, IREBS, UMR 7242 (France); Froystein, Nils Age [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Raae, Arnt J., E-mail: arnt.raae@mbi.uib.no [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    Spectrin is a rod-like multi-modular protein that is mainly composed of triple-helical repeats. These repeats show very similar 3D-structures but variable conformational and thermodynamical stabilities, which may be of great importance for the flexibility and dynamic behaviour of spectrin in the cell. For instance, repeat 17 (R17) of the chicken brain spectrin {alpha}-chain is four times less stable than neighbouring repeat 16 (R16) in terms of Increment G. The structure of spectrin repeats has mainly been investigated by X-ray crystallography, but the structures of a few repeats, e.g. R16, have also been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Here, we undertook a detailed characterization of the neighbouring R17 by NMR spectroscopy. We assigned most backbone resonances and observed NOE restraints, relaxation values and coupling constants that all indicated that the fold of R17 is highly similar to that of R16, in agreement with previous X-ray analysis of a tandem repeat of the two domains. However, {sup 15}N heteronuclear NMR spectra measured at different temperatures revealed particular features of the R17 domain that might contribute to its lower stability. Conformational exchange appeared to alter the linker connecting R17 to R16 as well as the BC-loop in close proximity. In addition, heat-induced splitting was observed for backbone resonances of a few spatially related residues including V99 of helix C, which in R16 is replaced by the larger hydrophobic tryptophan residue that is relatively conserved among other spectrin repeats. These data support the view that the substitution of tryptophan by valine at this position may contribute to the lower stability of R17.

  6. Inter- and intra-operator reliability and repeatability of shear wave elastography in the liver: a study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John M; Milot, Laurent; Parry, Craig; Williams, Ross; Burns, Peter N

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the liver of healthy volunteers. Intra- and inter-operator reliability and repeatability were quantified in three different liver segments in a sample of 15 subjects, scanned during four independent sessions (two scans on day 1, two scans 1 wk later) by two operators. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Reproducibility was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and a repeated measures analysis of variance. The shear wave speed was measured and used to estimate Young's modulus using the Supersonics Imagine Aixplorer. The median Young's modulus measured through the inter-costal space was 5.55 ± 0.74 kPa. The intra-operator reliability was better for same-day evaluations (ICC = 0.91) than the inter-operator reliability (ICC = 0.78). Intra-observer agreement decreased when scans were repeated on a different day. Inter-session repeatability was between 3.3% and 9.9% for intra-day repeated scans, compared with to 6.5%-12% for inter-day repeated scans. No significant difference was observed in subjects with a body mass index greater or less than 25 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Study on the Ferrokinetics and Acquired Immunity in Repeated Hookworm Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Lee, Pyl Ung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    In order to confirm whether acquired immunity or resistance can be developed by the repeated hookworm infections, the 150 mature actively moving filariform ancylostoma duodenale larvae obtained from the severe hookworm anemia patients were orally given to 8 healthy volunteers in three divided doses, 50 in each, at 5 day interval. Also the hematological changes as well as several ferrokinetics using {sup 59}Fe were done and were compared with 10 controls. The clinical symptoms and signs were checked every day for the first 3 weeks and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment. The appearance of the ova in the stool was examined by the formalin ether method and the ova was counted by the Stoll's method. The following laboratory tests were done:1) Red blood cell count, venous blood hematocrit (micromethod), hemoglobin count (cyanomethemoglobin method) were checked every 5 to 7 day interval. 2) Plasma iron concentration (Barkan's modified method) was determined every 2 to 3 week interval. 3) Radioisotope studies:a) Ferrokinetics: Huff et al and Bothwell's method were applied. Erythropoietic Index (% of normal)= ['Subject's turnover/100 ml whole bloodX100'] over ['Average normal turnover/100 ml whole blood'] b) Quantitative measurement of the gastrointestinal absorption of iron:Radioiron ({sup 59}Fe) balance method was applied. c) Determination of the plasma erythropoietin activity: Fried's method was applied. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron level was lower. The red cell volume was decreased, but with relative increase of plasma volume. 2) The plasma iron disappearance time was accelerated and the plasma iron turnover rate was decreased. The red cell iron turnover rate was markedly increased, while all of the red cell iron concentration, circulating red cell iron, plasma iron pool were decreased. The daily iron pool turnover and red cell renewal rate were increased. 3) The erythropoietic index, erythropoietin activity and intestinal absorption of

  8. The Study on the Ferrokinetics and Acquired Immunity in Repeated Hookworm Infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Lee, Pyl Ung

    1967-01-01

    In order to confirm whether acquired immunity or resistance can be developed by the repeated hookworm infections, the 150 mature actively moving filariform ancylostoma duodenale larvae obtained from the severe hookworm anemia patients were orally given to 8 healthy volunteers in three divided doses, 50 in each, at 5 day interval. Also the hematological changes as well as several ferrokinetics using 59 Fe were done and were compared with 10 controls. The clinical symptoms and signs were checked every day for the first 3 weeks and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment. The appearance of the ova in the stool was examined by the formalin ether method and the ova was counted by the Stoll's method. The following laboratory tests were done:1) Red blood cell count, venous blood hematocrit (micromethod), hemoglobin count (cyanomethemoglobin method) were checked every 5 to 7 day interval. 2) Plasma iron concentration (Barkan's modified method) was determined every 2 to 3 week interval. 3) Radioisotope studies:a) Ferrokinetics: Huff et al and Bothwell's method were applied. Erythropoietic Index (% of normal)= [ S ubject's turnover/100 ml whole bloodX100 ] over [ A verage normal turnover/100 ml whole blood ] b) Quantitative measurement of the gastrointestinal absorption of iron:Radioiron ( 59 Fe) balance method was applied. c) Determination of the plasma erythropoietin activity: Fried's method was applied. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron level was lower. The red cell volume was decreased, but with relative increase of plasma volume. 2) The plasma iron disappearance time was accelerated and the plasma iron turnover rate was decreased. The red cell iron turnover rate was markedly increased, while all of the red cell iron concentration, circulating red cell iron, plasma iron pool were decreased. The daily iron pool turnover and red cell renewal rate were increased. 3) The erythropoietic index, erythropoietin activity and intestinal absorption of iron

  9. Brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury: an exploratory study by repeated magnetic resonance examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannsjö, Marianne; Raininko, Raili; Bustamante, Mariana; von Seth, Charlotta; Borg, Jörgen

    2013-09-01

    To explore brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury by repeated magnetic resonance examination. A prospective follow-up study. Nineteen patients with mild traumatic brain injury presenting with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 14-15. The patients were examined on day 2 or 3 and 3-7 months after the injury. The magnetic resonance protocol comprised conventional T1- and T2-weighted sequences including fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), two susceptibility-weighted sequences to reveal haemorrhages, and diffusion-weighted sequences. Computer-aided volume comparison was performed. Clinical outcome was assessed by the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). At follow-up, 7 patients (37%) reported ≥  3 symptoms in RPQ, 5 reported some anxiety and 1 reported mild depression. Fifteen patients reported upper level of good recovery and 4 patients lower level of good recovery (GOSE 8 and 7, respectively). Magnetic resonance pathology was found in 1 patient at the first examination, but 4 patients (21%) showed volume loss at the second examination, at which 3 of them reported GOSE scores of 8. Loss of brain volume, demonstrated by computer-aided magnetic resonance imaging volumetry, may be a feasible marker of brain pathology after mild traumatic brain injury.

  10. Use of Different Furnaces to Study Repeatability and Reproducibility of Three Pd-C Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battuello, M.; Florio, M.; Girard, F.

    2010-09-01

    Three different Pd-C eutectic fixed-point cells were prepared and investigated at INRIM. Several tens of phase transition runs were carried out and recorded with both a Si-based radiation thermometer at 950 nm and a precision InGaAs-based thermometer at 1.6 μm. Two of the cells were of the same design with an inner volume of 12 cm3. The third one was smaller with a useful inner volume of 3.6 cm3. The three cells were filled with palladium powder 4N5 or 4N8 pure and graphite powder 6N pure. The repeatability and stability of the inflection point were investigated over a period of 1 year. The noticeably different external dimensions of the two cells, namely, 110 mm and 40 mm in length, allowed the influence of the longitudinal temperature distribution to be investigated. For this purpose, two different furnaces, a single-zone with SiC heaters and a three-zone with MoSi2 heaters, were used. Different operative conditions, namely, temperature steps, melting rate, longitudinal temperature distributions, and position of cells within the furnace, were tested to investigate the reproducibility of the cells. Effects on the duration and shape of the plateaux were also studied. This article gives details of the measurement setup and analyses of the melting plateaux obtained with the different conditions.

  11. Study of domain depinning during repeated polarization reversal in hard PZT ceramics using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakar, K; Rao, S P Mallikarjun

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) has been studied during repeated polarization reversals (at 50 Hz) in hard PZT-8 ceramics. The AE and hysteresis loop were monitored at regular intervals of electric field (±20 kV cm -1 peak) application till 10 8 cycles. The sample did not fatigue and an increase in saturation polarization (Ps) was observed. AE was observed with zero threshold till 10 5 cycles when the field was increasing in both half cycles of the applied field. The initial increase in AE activity with increasing number of field cycles till 10 5 was explained on the basis of defect dipoles encouraging the 90 deg. domain switches, i.e. domain depinning. The decrease in AE activity, an increase in threshold field for the observed AE and a further increase in Ps after 10 5 cycles were explained based on the changes in the orientation of defect dipoles with respect to Ps due to the applied field cycles. This was found to encourage the 180 0 domain switches but pin the 90 deg. domains. An increase in AE at 10 8 cycles after applying a higher field of ±25 kV cm -1 was found to be mainly due to microcracking

  12. Smooth muscle fatigue due to repeated urinary bladder neurostimulation: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, S; Schumacher, S; Scheepe, J R; Seif, C; Jünemann, K P; Alken, P

    1999-01-01

    The presented study investigates the influence of different pause lengths between two consecutive stimulations of the S3 roots on intravesical pressure during bladder neurostimulation. In eight male foxhounds (aged 7-18 months), laminectomy and placement of a modified Brindley electrode were performed. In four series with different pause lengths between two consecutive stimulations (1, 3, 5, and 15 min), the maximum intravesical pressure was measured during stimulation. The changes in intravesical pressure were registered in these four series, each series with six stimulations. A 15-min interval elapsed before the commencement of each series. In the series with a pause length of 15 min, the consecutive stimulations did not result in significant changes in maximum intravesical pressure. In the 5-min series, a significant decrease in intravesical pressure was not observed after the third stimulation. In the 3-min series, a significant decrease was seen at almost every stimulation (average decrease of 3.8% per stimulation) and in the 1-min series, a significant decrease was also observed at almost every stimulation (average decrease of 5.9% per stimulation). The results of repeated bladder neurostimulation demonstrate that the maximum intravesical pressure is dependent on the pause length between two consecutive stimulations. The detrusor muscle showed reversible and short-lived signs of fatigue. This implies the importance of a minimum 5-min interval between two subsequent stimulations. A pause length <5 min leads to a falsification of the results and thus to lower validity of the investigation.

  13. Study on the homocysteine metabolism of patients with unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the metabolism abnormality of homocysteine(Hcy) in unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion(URSA).Methods:The level of Hcy in sera was measured with hyperpressure liquid chromatography(HPLC);Folic acid and vitamin B12 were detected by radioimmune assay;anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) was detected by ELISA.Results:(1)The level of serum Hcy in URSA group was significantly higher than that in control group,showing a statistical significant difference(P<0.01).The level of Hcy was correlated with ages,but not correlated with areas,numbers of miscarriage,gestation age,primary or secondary abortions.(2)The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in URSA group were significantly lower than those in control group.The levels of serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were not correlated with age,area,numbers of miscarriage and abortion periods.(3)ACA positive rate in URSA was significantly higher than that in control group.The level of Hcy in ACA(+) group was significantly higher than that in ACA(-) group among URSA patients.Conclusions:Hyperhomocysteinemia,low folic acid state,and ACA were all the independent risk factors for URSA.Lacking of folic acid and vitamin B12 is one of the important causes of hyperhomocysteinemia.ACA and hyperhomocysteinemia may have synergistic action in the occurrence of URSA.

  14. NIST mixed stain study 3: signal intensity balance in commercial short tandem repeat multiplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duewer, David L; Kline, Margaret C; Redman, Janette W; Butler, John M

    2004-12-01

    Short-tandem repeat (STR) allelic intensities were collected from more than 60 forensic laboratories for a suite of seven samples as part of the National Institute of Standards and Technology-coordinated 2001 Mixed Stain Study 3 (MSS3). These interlaboratory challenge data illuminate the relative importance of intrinsic and user-determined factors affecting the locus-to-locus balance of signal intensities for currently used STR multiplexes. To varying degrees, seven of the eight commercially produced multiplexes used by MSS3 participants displayed very similar patterns of intensity differences among the different loci probed by the multiplexes for all samples, in the hands of multiple analysts, with a variety of supplies and instruments. These systematic differences reflect intrinsic properties of the individual multiplexes, not user-controllable measurement practices. To the extent that quality systems specify minimum and maximum absolute intensities for data acceptability and data interpretation schema require among-locus balance, these intrinsic intensity differences may decrease the utility of multiplex results and surely increase the cost of analysis.

  15. A study on the evaluation of dynamic stress intensity factor in repeated impact bending test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jae Ki; Cho, Gyu Jae; Han, Gill Young

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to establish the evaluation of the dynamic stress intensity factor in repeated impact three point bending test. Contact force between the impact bar and the cracked beam (simple supported beam) was analyzed by the using Hertz's contact law. In order to clarify the validity of theoretical analysis, experiments of dynamic stress intensity factir k I (t) are made on the cracked beam. The results obtained from this study are as follow: 1. In case of impact force analysis the theoretical result was obtained by the use of the Hertz's contact law. It's result was agreemant with the experimental result. Particularly, it was good agreement in the low impact velocity range. 2. The time variation of the dynamic stress intensity was determined by using the simple formula developed in this pqper. And the validity of it's result can be confirmed by experiment. Particlarly, this theoretical analysis was a good agreement to actual phenomena on from 0.3 msec to 0.65 msec. (Author)

  16. Psychosocial outcomes of Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with acute coronary syndromes: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dominic S K; Chau, Janita P C; Chang, Anne M

    2007-08-01

    Western studies have suggested that emotional stress and distress impacted on the morbidity and mortality in people following acute coronary events. Symptoms of anxiety and depression have been associated with re-infarction and death, prolonged recovery and disability and depression may precipitate the client's low self-esteem. This study examined perceived anxiety, depression and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese clients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) over a 6-month period following hospital admission. To examine: A prospective, repeated measures design with measures taken on two occasions over a 6-month period; (1) within the 1st week of hospital admission following the onset of ACS and (2) at 6 months follow up. Convenient sample of 182 voluntary consented clients admitted with ACS to a major public hospital in Hong Kong who could communicate in Chinese, complete questionnaires, cognitive intact, and were haemodynamically stable and free from acute chest pain at the time of interview. Baseline data were obtained within 1 week after hospital admission. The follow-up data was collected 6 months after hospital discharge. The Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State Self-esteem Scale (SSES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess anxiety and depression, state self-esteem, and trait self-esteem, respectively. Findings suggested gender differences in clients' perception in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Improvements in clients' perception of these variables were evident over the 6-month period following their acute coronary events. The study confirmed the western notion that psychosocial problems are common among coronary clients and this also applies to Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with ACS. Further studies to explore effective interventions to address these psychosocial issues are recommended.

  17. The Association Between Oxidative Stress and Depressive Symptom Scores in Elderly Population: A Repeated Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwoo Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Previous epidemiological studies about oxidative stress and depression are limited by hospital-based case-control design, single-time measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers, and the small number of study participants. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the association between biomarker of oxidative stress and depressive symptom scores using repeatedly measured panel data from a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods From 2008 to 2010, a total of 478 elderly participants residing in Seoul, Korea, were evaluated three times. Participants underwent the Korean version of the Short Form Generic Depression Scale (SGDS-K test for screening depression, and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured as an oxidative stress biomarker. We used a generalized estimating equation with a compound symmetry covariance structure to estimate the effects of oxidative stress on depressive symptom scores. Results A two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with a 33.88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.59% to 47.42% increase in total SGDS-K scores. In subgroup analyses by gender, a two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with increased SGDS-K scores in both men and women (men: 30.88%; 95% CI, 10.24% to 55.37%; women: 34.77%; 95% CI, 20.09% to 51.25%. In bivariate analysis after an SGDS-K score ≥8 was defined as depression, the third and the fourth urinary MDA quartiles showed a significantly increased odds ratio(OR of depression compared to the lowest urinary MDA quartile (third quartile OR, 6.51; 95% CI, 1.77 to 24.00; fourth quartile OR, 7.11; 95% CI, 1.99 to 25.42. Conclusions Our study suggests a significant association between oxidative stress and depressive symptoms in the elderly population.

  18. Visual assessment of the cervical vertebral maturation stages: A study of diagnostic accuracy and repeatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Caprioglio, Alberto; Contardo, Luca

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and repeatability of the visual assessment of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. Ten operators underwent training sessions in visual assessment of CVM staging. Subsequently, they were asked to stage 72 cases equally divided into the six stages. Such assessment was repeated twice in two sessions (T1 and T2) 4 weeks apart. A reference standard for each case was created according to a cephalometric analysis of both the concavities and shapes of the cervical vertebrae. The overall agreement with the reference standard was about 68% for both sessions and 76.9% for intrarater repeatability. The overall kappa coefficients with the reference standard were up to 0.86 for both sessions, and 0.88 for intrarater repeatability. Overall, disagreements one stage and twp stage apart were 23.5% (T1) and 5.1% (T2), respectively. Sensitivity ranged from 53.3% for CS5 (T1) to 99.9% for CS1 (T2), positive predictive values ranged from 52.4% for CS5 (T2) to 94.3% for CS6 (T1), and accuracy ranged from 83.6% for CS4 (T2) to 94.9% for CS1 (T1). Visual assessment of the CVM stages is accurate and repeatable to a satisfactory level. About one in three cases remain misclassified; disagreement is generally limited to one stage and is mostly seen in stages 4 and 5.

  19. The Outcome of Repeated Mid Urethral Sling in SUI Treatment after Vaginal Excisions of Primary Failed Sling: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kociszewski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid urethral sling is the standard in SUI treatment. Nevertheless, the risk of reoperation reaches 9%. There is no consensus as to the best treatment option for complications. A question is raised: what is the optimal way to achieve the best result in patients after primary failure? The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of repeat MUS surgery in patients after excision of the sling with recurrent SUI. We compared its effectiveness with uncomplicated cases treated with TVT. 27 patients who underwent the repeated MUS and 50 consecutive patients after primary TVT were enrolled in the study. After 6 months, we have found that 24 (88.46% patients from repeat sling group and 48 (96% patients after primary sling were dry (1-hour pad test, 2 g or less. The difference between groups was not significant. We showed statistically significant improvement of quality of life in both groups. In conclusion, we showed that repeated sling after MUS excision is almost as effective as primary MUS. We postulate that sling excision and repeated MUS may be the best option for persistent SUI and/or complications after MUS procedures. Further multicenter observations are ongoing as to provide results on bigger group of cases.

  20. Effect of hip braces on brake response time: Repeated measures designed study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammerer, Dietmar; Waidmann, Cornelia; Huber, Dennis G; Krismer, Martin; Haid, Christian; Liebensteiner, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The question whether or not a patient with a hip brace should drive a car is of obvious importance because the advice given to patients to resume driving is often anecdotal as few scientific data are available on this specific subject. To assess driving ability (brake response time) with commonly used hip braces. Repeated measures design. Brake response time was assessed under six conditions: (1) without a brace (control), (2) with a typical postoperative hip brace with adjustable range of motion and the settings: unrestricted, (3) flexion limited to 70°, (4) extension blocked at 20° hip flexion, (5) both flexion and extension limited (20°/70°) and (6) an elastic hip bandage. Brake response time was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator as used in previous studies. The participants were a convenience sample of able-bodied participants. A total of 70 participants (35 women and 35 men) participated in our study. Mean age was 31.1 (standard deviation: 10.6; range: 21.7-66.4) years. A significant within-subject effect for brake response time was found ( p = 0.009), but subsequent post hoc analyses revealed no significant differences between control and the other settings. Based on our findings, it does not seem mandatory to recommend driving abstinence for patients wearing a hip orthosis. We suggest that our results be interpreted with caution, because (1) an underlying pathological hip condition needs to be considered, (2) the ability to drive a car safely is multifactorial and brake response time is only one component thereof and (3) brake response time measurements were performed only with healthy participants. Clinical relevance Hip braces are used in the context of joint-preserving and prosthetic surgery of the hip. Therefore, clinicians are confronted with the question whether to allow driving a car with the respective hip brace or not. Our data suggest that hip braces do not impair brake response time.

  1. A 28-Day Repeated Dose Toxicological Study of an Aqueous Extract of Morus Alba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Tennille K; Glávits, Róbert; Endres, John R; Palmer, Philip A; Clewell, Amy E; Murbach, Timothy S; Hirka, Gábor; Pasics, Ilona

    2016-11-01

    Morus alba L. (white mulberry) leaves are one of the oldest recognized traditional Chinese medicines. More recently, M alba leaves and their constituents, particularly iminosugars (or azasugars), have garnered attention for their ability to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations, an effect identified in both animal studies and human clinical trials. Reducose (Phynova Group Limited) is a commercial water-soluble extract of M alba leaves standardized to 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an iminosugar with α-glucosidase inhibition properties. Although there is an extensive history of consumption of M alba leaves by humans and animals worldwide, suggesting that the leaves and their extracts have a relatively good safety profile, we are unaware of safety assessments on an extract containing a higher amount of DNJ than that occurs naturally. The current 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity study in rats, conducted according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines, was carried out to assess the safety of Reducose. Male and female Hsd.Han Wistar rats (4 groups of 10 animals/sex) were administered Reducose via gavage at doses of 0, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d. No treatment-related mortality or adverse effects (per clinical observations, body weight/weight gain, food consumption, ophthalmoscopy, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, or histopathology) were observed, and no target organs were identified. The no observed adverse effect level was determined to be 4,000 mg/kg bw/d for both male and female rats, the highest dose tested. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Hearing loss associated with repeated MRI acquisition procedure-related acoustic noise exposure: an occupational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Suzan; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of repeated exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise during image acquisition procedures (scans) on hearing. METHODS: A retrospective occupational cohort study was performed among workers of an MRI manufacturing facility (n=474). Longitudinal audiometry data from the

  3. Population genetic study of 10 short tandem repeat loci from 600 domestic dogs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seo Hyun; Jang, Yoon-Jeong; Han, Myun Soo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-30

    Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved. However, the probability of random DNA profile matches cannot be analyzed because of a lack of canine STR data. Therefore, in this study, 10 STR loci were analyzed in 600 dogs in Korea (344 dogs belonging to 30 different purebreds and 256 crossbred dogs) to estimate canine forensic genetic parameters. Among purebred dogs, a separate statistical analysis was conducted for five major subgroups, 97 Maltese, 47 Poodles, 31 Shih Tzus, 32 Yorkshire Terriers, and 25 Pomeranians. Allele frequencies, expected (Hexp) and observed heterozygosity (Hobs), fixation index (F), probability of identity (P(ID)), probability of sibling identity (P(ID)sib) and probability of exclusion (PE) were then calculated. The Hexp values ranged from 0.901 (PEZ12) to 0.634 (FHC2079), while the P(ID)sib values were between 0.481 (FHC2079) and 0.304 (PEZ12) and the P(ID)sib was about 3.35 × 10(-)⁵ for the combination of all 10 loci. The results presented herein will strengthen the value of canine DNA to solving dog-related crimes.

  4. Repeated CT studies of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis during his entire clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Masahiro; Fukui, Keiji; Takeda, Sadanori; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hideki; Sakaki, Saburo.

    1985-01-01

    We encountered a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis whose cerebral lesions were studied by repeated CT scannings during his entire clinical course. The purpose of this paper is to report the earliest lesions of the brain as revealed by CT scans. A 63-year-old man was admitted to our clinic complaining of headache, nausea, fever, and disorientation. On admission, a physical examination showed a high fever, while a neurological examination revealed a stiff neck, a positive Kernig's sign, and disorientation. Laboratory examinations revealed a pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid. Electroencephalograms showed the so-called ''periodic sharp-and-slow-waves complex''. The complement fixation titer for herpes simplex virus was x32 in the serum and x128 in the cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. We treated him with adenine arabinoside and gamma-globulin, but the patient did not recover; rather, he died of pneumonia and gastrointestinal bleeding three months later. Plain CT scans taken on the 12th day after the onset revealed a low-density area with signs of a slight mass in the region from the right island of Reil to the right uncus. Contrast-enhanced CT scans revealed an irregular enhancement in the low-density area. CT scans taken on the 19th day after the onset showed an extensive low-density area with a streak-like enhancement in the right temporal lobe, which is in aggreement with the findings reported by others as characteristic CT findings for herpes simplex encephalitis. In order to make an early diagnosis of a patient, we should pay attention to a low-density area with an irregular contrast enhancement in the region from the island of Reil to the uncus on a CT scan. (author)

  5. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aten, J.J.; Oudega, M.L.; van Exel, E.; Stek, M.L.; van Waarde, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment

  6. Parsimonious Structural Equation Models for Repeated Measures Data, with Application to the Study of Consumer Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Terry; Haubl, Gerald; Tipps, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reflects a growing awareness of the value of using structural equation models to analyze repeated measures data. However, such data, particularly in the presence of covariates, often lead to models that either fit the data poorly, are exceedingly general and hard to interpret, or are specified in a manner that is highly data…

  7. Context matters! sources of variability in weekend physical activity among families: a repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Noonan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family involvement is an essential component of effective physical activity (PA interventions in children. However, little is known about the PA levels and characteristics of PA among families. This study used a repeated measures design and multiple data sources to explore the variability and characteristics of weekend PA among families. Methods Families (including a ‘target’ child aged 9–11 years, their primary caregiver(s and siblings aged 6–8 years were recruited through primary schools in Liverpool, UK. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 16 weekend days. ActiGraph.csv files were analysed using the R-package GGIR version 1.1–4. Mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA for each weekend of measurement were calculated using linear mixed models, and variance components were estimated for participant (inter-individual, weekend of measurement, and residual error (intra-individual. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were calculated from the proportion of total variance accounted for by inter-individual sources, and used as a measure of reliability. Diary responses were summed to produce frequency counts. To offer contextual insight into weekend PA among family units, demographic, accelerometer, and diary data were combined to form two case studies representative of low and high active families. Results Twenty-five participants from 7 families participated, including 7 ‘target’ children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 4 boys, 6 siblings (mean age 7.2 ± 0.7 years; 4 boys and 12 adults (7 mothers and 5 fathers. There was a high degree of variability in target children’s (ICC = 0.55, siblings (ICC = 0.38, and mothers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.58, but not in fathers’ MVPA (ICC = 0.83. Children’s weekend PA was mostly unstructured in nature and undertaken with friends, whereas a greater proportion of parents’ weekend

  8. Reduction and technical simplification of testing protocol for walking based on repeatability analyses: An Interreg IVa pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the most appropriate gait measurement protocols to be used in our future studies in the Mobility in Ageing project. A group of young healthy volunteers took part in the study. Each subject carried out a 10-metre walking test at five different speeds (preferred, very slow, very fast, slow, and fast. Each walking speed was repeated three times, making a total of 15 trials which were carried out in a random order. Each trial was simultaneously analysed by three observers using three different technical approaches: a stop watch, photo cells and electronic kinematic dress. In analysing the repeatability of the trials, the results showed that of the five self-selected walking speeds, three of them (preferred, very fast, and very slow had a significantly higher repeatability of the average walking velocity, step length and cadence than the other two speeds. Additionally, the data showed that one of the three technical methods for gait assessment has better metric characteristics than the other two. In conclusion, based on repeatability, technical and organizational simplification, this study helped us to successfully define a simple and reliable walking test to be used in the main study of the project.

  9. Repeating Marx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christian; Monticelli, Lara

    2018-01-01

    This introduction sets out the context of the special issue “Karl Marx @ 200: Debating Capitalism & Perspectives for the Future of Radical Theory”, which was published on the occasion of Marx’s bicentenary on 5 May 2018. First, we give a brief overview of contemporary capitalism’s development...... and its crises. Second, we argue that it is important to repeat Marx today. Third, we reflect on lessons learned from 200 years of struggles for alternatives to capitalism. Fourth, we give an overview of the contributions in this special issue. Taken together, the contributions in this special issue show...... that Marx’s theory and politics remain key inspirations for understanding exploitation and domination in 21st-century society and for struggles that aim to overcome these phenomena and establishing a just and fair society. We need to repeat Marx today....

  10. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    large cohort of trials to spot unusual cases. However, deployment repeatability is inherently a nonlinear phenomenon, which makes modeling difficult...and GEMS tip position were both tracked during ground testing by a laser target tracking system. Earlier SAILMAST testing in 2005 [8] used...recalls the strategy used by SRTM, where a constellation of lights was installed at the tip of the boom and a modified star tracker was used to track tip

  11. Prospective study on determinants of repeat attendance and attendance patterns in breast cancer screening using the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Boer, Hendrik; Seydel, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a theoretical framework, was carried out to identify the determinants of repeat attendance and attendance patterns in organised breast screening. A group of 2657 women filled out a baseline questionnaire, approximately 8 weeks

  12. Assessing the repeatability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring gully topography: A case study from Aratula, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0

  13. Experimental study on acquisition of knowledge through repeated education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Seiichi; Kitamura, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    Considering the educational methodology to bring up nuclear power plant operators, the experiments are conducted to discuss the relation between the educational backgrounds of subjects and the knowledge acquired through education and training and also to discuss the effects of repeated training on knowledge acquisition. The results show that the knowledge the subjects obtained through the training depends on their educational backgrounds. The subjects with the higher educational backgrounds seem to properly reorganize the knowledge for the operations with using their deep and meta knowledge. Therefore they can create anticipative responses and easily identify causes of events. The results also show that the repeated education and training given to the subjects with weaker backgrounds makes their knowledge reorganized and their ability becomes closer to the subjects' one with higher educational backgrounds. These results indicate that the knowledge acquired in the earlier stage of the education and training depends on the subjects' educational backgrounds. However, the repeated education and training compensates for the difference. It is also suggested that it will be possible to bring up operators more effectively and properly if the existence of people with different educational backgrounds is recognized and the education/training depending on the educational backgrounds are realized. (author)

  14. Study of the repeatability of histone genes in the ploidy series of wheat and Aegilops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhitov, V.A.; Kulikov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The hDNA content and number of histone genes in the genomes of different wheat and Aegilops species have been determined by molecular hybridization of DNA with 125 I-histone DNA of Drosophila (L-repeat) on nitrocellulose filters. It has been demonstrated that the proportion of hDNA in the total DNA of diploid and polyploid wheat species is (1.3-7.7) x 10 -3 % (57-850 genes), and in the ploidy series of Aegilops species (2.0-8.0) x 10 -3 % (89-780 genes). The repeatability of the histone genes generally increases at each ploidy level in the species with higher DNA content. At the same time, it has been demonstrated that the DNA content is not the only factor determining repeatability of the histone genes, as some diploid and allopolyploid species have similar number of these genes. It has been concluded that genetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of the number of histone genes

  15. Metamemory judgments and the benefits of repeated study: improving recall predictions through the activation of appropriate knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Heather L; Leboe, Jason P

    2009-05-01

    Correspondence between judgments of learning (JOLs) and actual recall tends to be poor when the same items are studied and recalled multiple times (e.g., A. Koriat, L. Sheffer, & H. Ma'ayan, 2002). The authors investigated whether making relevant metamemory knowledge more salient would improve the association between actual and predicted recall as a function of repeated exposure to the same study list. In 2 experiments, participants completed 4 study-recall phases involving the same list of items. In addition to having participants make item-by-item JOLs during each study phase, after the 1st study-recall phase participants also generated change-in-recall estimates as to how many more or fewer words they would recall given another exposure to the same study list. This estimation procedure was designed to highlight repeated study as a factor that can contribute to recall performance. Activating metamemory knowledge about the benefits of repeated study for recall in this way allowed participants to accurately express this knowledge in a free-recall context (Experiment 2), but less so when the memory test was cued recall (Experiment 1). Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. CAG repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor and breast cancer risk in women: a meta-analysis of 17 studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Q

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Qixing Mao,1–3,* Mantang Qiu,1–3,* Gaochao Dong,3 Wenjie Xia,1–3 Shuai Zhang,1,3 Youtao Xu,1,3 Jie Wang,3 Yin Rong,1,3 Lin Xu,1,3 Feng Jiang1,3 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Institute of Jiangsu Province, 2Fourth Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, 3Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Translational Cancer Research, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The association between polymorphic CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene in women and breast cancer susceptibility has been studied extensively. However, the conclusions regarding this relationship remain conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify whether androgen receptor CAG repeat lengths were related to breast cancer susceptibility. The MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE databases were searched through to December 2014 to identify eligible studies. Data and study quality were rigorously assessed by two investigators according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The publication bias was assessed by the Begg’s test. Seventeen eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall analysis suggested no association between CAG polymorphisms and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.031, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.855–1.245. However, in the subgroup analysis, we observed that long CAG repeats significantly increased the risk of breast cancer in the Caucasian population (OR 1.447, 95% CI 1.089–1.992. Additionally, the risk was significantly increased in Caucasian women carrying two alleles with CAG repeats ≥22 units compared with those with two shorter alleles (OR 1.315, 95% CI 1.014–1.707. These findings suggest that long CAG repeats increase the risk of breast cancer in Caucasian women. However, larger scale case-control studies are needed to validate our results. Keywords: androgen, CAG repeat polymorphism, women

  17. Repeatability of an automated Landolt C test, compared with the early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) chart testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruamviboonsuk, Paisan; Tiensuwan, Montip; Kunawut, Catleya; Masayaanon, Patcharapim

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of visual acuity scores from the automated test and compare them with the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Instrument validation study based on a model of repeatability study in two observations. SMETHODS: a prospective, clinic-based, comparative study. A total of 206 participants without ocular diseases and refractive errors in their right eyes were randomly enrolled in the automated group in which 107 participants performed the automated test and the ETDRS group in which 99 participants read the ETDRS chart. All participants were tested with only their right eyes without corrections at 4 meters and came back to have the same tests 1 week later. The automated test used the Landolt rings as optotypes and was conducted by a low-ended personal computer with a 15-inch monitor and a wireless keyboard. The "letter" score calculated by counting every correct response to optotypes, and the "threshold curve" score interpreted from the optotype size at the midpoint of a visual acuity threshold curve. The 95% confidence interval of test-retest of visual acuity scores from the automated test are comparable to the ETDRS chart (.143 compared with.125 for letter scores,.145 compared with.122 for threshold curve scores). The score repeatabilities, calculated from the standard deviations of test-retest, from the automated test are also comparable to the ETDRS chart (.201 compared with.177 for letter scores,.206 compared with.172 for threshold curve scores). All comparisons demonstrated no statistical difference (P >.05). The automated testing system in this study enables practical measuring visual acuity by the Landolt rings. The system's repeatability, which is comparable to the ETDRS chart, supports its role as an alternative tool for measuring outcome in new clinical research. Its ability to practically generate visual acuity threshold curves may also be useful in future clinical research studies.

  18. Determinants of repeated abortion among women of reproductive age attending health facilities in Northern Ethiopia: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Alemayehu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, an estimated 19–20 million unsafe abortions take place, almost all in developing countries, leading to 68,000 deaths and millions more injured many permanently. Many women throughout the world, experience more than one abortion in their lifetimes. Repeat abortion is an indicator of the larger problem of unintended pregnancy. This study aimed to identify determinants of repeat abortion in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Methods Unmatched case–control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia, from November 2014 to June 2015. The sample included 105 cases and 204 controls, recruited from among women seeking abortion care at public hospitals. Clients having two or more abortions (“repeat abortion” were taken as cases and those who had a total of one abortion were taken as controls (“single abortion”. Cases were selected consecutive based on proportional to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression analyses were calculated with 95% CI. Results Mean age of cases was 24 years (±6.85 and 22 years (±6.25 for controls. 79.0% of cases had their sexual debut in less than 18 years of age compared to 57% of controls. 42.2% of controls and 23.8% of cases cited rape as the reason for having an abortion. Study participants who did not understand their fertility cycle and when they were most likely to conceive after menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.7, having a previous abortion using medication (AOR = 3.3, CI: 1.83, 6.11, having multiple sexual partners in the preceding 12 months (AOR = 4.4, CI: 2.39,8.45, perceiving that the abortion procedure is not painful (AOR = 2.3, CI: 1.31,4.26, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years (AOR = 2.7, CI: 1.49, 5.23 and disclosure to a third

  19. The value of repeating studies and multiple controls: replicated 28-day growth studies of rainbow trout exposed to clofibric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Stewart F; Huggett, Duane B; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Hetheridge, Malcolm J; McCormack, Paul; Kinter, Lewis B; Ericson, Jon F; Constantine, Lisa A; Sumpter, John P

    2010-12-01

    Two studies to examine the effect of waterborne clofibric acid (CA) on growth-rate and condition of rainbow trout were conducted using accepted regulatory tests (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] 215). The first study (in 2005) showed significant reductions after 21 d of exposure (21-d growth lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC] = 0.1 µg/L, 21-d condition LOEC = 0.1 µg/L) that continued to 28 d. Growth rate was reduced by approximately 50% (from 5.27 to 2.67% per day), while the condition of the fish reduced in a concentration-dependant manner. Additionally, in a concentration-dependent manner, significant changes in relative liver size were observed, such that increasing concentrations of CA resulted in smaller livers after 28-d exposure. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was not achieved in the 2005 study. An expanded second study (in 2006) that included a robust bridge to the 2005 study, with four replicate tanks of eight individual fish per concentration, did not repeat the 2005 findings. In the 2006 study, no significant effect on growth rate, condition, or liver biometry was observed after 21 or 28 d (28-d growth NOEC = 10 µg/L, 28-d condition NOEC = 10 µg/L), contrary to the 2005 findings. We do not dismiss either of these findings and suggest both are relevant and stand for comparison. However, the larger 2006 study carries more statistical power and multiple-tank replication, so probably produced the more robust findings. Despite sufficient statistical power in each study, interpretation of these and similar studies should be conducted with caution, because much significance is placed on the role of limited numbers of individual and tank replicates and the influence of control animals. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  20. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  1. Repeat prenatal corticosteroid prior to preterm birth: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis for the PRECISE study group (prenatal repeat corticosteroid international IPD study group: assessing the effects using the best level of evidence - study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis is to assess whether the effects of repeat prenatal corticosteroid treatment given to women at risk of preterm birth to benefit their babies are modified in a clinically meaningful way by factors related to the women or the trial protocol. Methods/Design The Prenatal Repeat Corticosteroid International IPD Study Group: assessing the effects using the best level of Evidence (PRECISE Group will conduct an IPD meta-analysis. The PRECISE International Collaborative Group was formed in 2010 and data collection commenced in 2011. Eleven trials with up to 5,000 women and 6,000 infants are eligible for the PRECISE IPD meta-analysis. The primary study outcomes for the infants will be serious neonatal outcome (defined by the PRECISE International IPD Study Group as one of death (foetal, neonatal or infant; severe respiratory disease; severe intraventricular haemorrhage (grade 3 and 4; chronic lung disease; necrotising enterocolitis; serious retinopathy of prematurity; and cystic periventricular leukomalacia; use of respiratory support (defined as mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airways pressure or other respiratory support; and birth weight (Z-scores. For the children, the primary study outcomes will be death or any neurological disability (however defined by trialists at childhood follow up and may include developmental delay or intellectual impairment (developmental quotient or intelligence quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean, cerebral palsy (abnormality of tone with motor dysfunction, blindness (for example, corrected visual acuity worse than 6/60 in the better eye or deafness (for example, hearing loss requiring amplification or worse. For the women, the primary outcome will be maternal sepsis (defined as chorioamnionitis; pyrexia after trial entry requiring the use of antibiotics; puerperal sepsis; intrapartum fever requiring the use

  2. Utilization of a cloned alphoid repeating sequence of human DNA in the study of polymorphism of chromosomal heterochromatin regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruminya, A.R.; Kroshkina, V.G.; Yurov, Yu.B.; Aleksandrov, I.A.; Mitkevich, S.P.; Gindilis, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of the cloned PHS05 fragment of human alphoid DNA was studied by in situ hybridization in 38 individuals. It was shown that this DNA fraction is primarily localized in the pericentric regions of practically all chromosomes of the set. Significant interchromosomal differences and a weakly expressed interindividual polymorphism were discovered in the copying ability of this class of repeating DNA sequences; associations were not found between the results of hybridization and the pattern of Q-polymorphism

  3. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  4. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jia; Ryu, Su-Jung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Min; Chung, Hee-Chul; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-01-20

    Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia-Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted 5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  5. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium elegans extract (GEE is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  6. Use of short tandem repeat sequences to study Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients in Malawi and India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K Young

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate understanding of the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae makes it difficult to predict the impact of leprosy control interventions. Genotypic tests that allow tracking of individual bacterial strains would strengthen epidemiological studies and contribute to our understanding of the disease.Genotyping assays based on variation in the copy number of short tandem repeat sequences were applied to biopsies collected in population-based epidemiological studies of leprosy in northern Malawi, and from members of multi-case households in Hyderabad, India. In the Malawi series, considerable genotypic variability was observed between patients, and also within patients, when isolates were collected at different times or from different tissues. Less within-patient variability was observed when isolates were collected from similar tissues at the same time. Less genotypic variability was noted amongst the closely related Indian patients than in the Malawi series.Lineages of M. leprae undergo changes in their pattern of short tandem repeat sequences over time. Genetic divergence is particularly likely between bacilli inhabiting different (e.g., skin and nerve tissues. Such variability makes short tandem repeat sequences unsuitable as a general tool for population-based strain typing of M. leprae, or for distinguishing relapse from reinfection. Careful use of these markers may provide insights into the development of disease within individuals and for tracking of short transmission chains.

  7. Genetic diversity studies in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, P; Basal, N; Singh, A K; Rai, V P; Srivastava, C P; Singh, P K

    2013-03-13

    The genetic diversity among 28 pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes was analyzed using 32 simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 44 polymorphic bands, with an average of 2.1 bands per primer, were obtained. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.657 to 0.309 with an average of 0.493. The variation in genetic diversity among these cultivars ranged from 0.11 to 0.73. Cluster analysis based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) revealed 2 distinct clusters, I and II, comprising 6 and 22 genotypes, respectively. Cluster II was further differentiated into 2 subclusters, IIA and IIB, with 12 and 10 genotypes, respectively. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed results similar to those of UPGMA. The first, second, and third PCs contributed 21.6, 16.1, and 14.0% of the variation, respectively; cumulative variation of the first 3 PCs was 51.7%.

  8. NMR study of hexanucleotide d(CCGCGG)2 containing two triplet repeats of fragile X syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monleon, Daniel; Esteve, Vicent; Celda, Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Long repeated stretches of d(CCG) and tri-nucleotide are crucial mutations that cause hereditary forms of mental retardation (fragile X-syndrome). Moreover, the alternating (CG) di-nucleotide is one of the candidates for Z-DNA conformation. Solution NMR structure of d(CCGCGG) 2 has been solved and is discussed. The determined NMR solution structure is a distorted highly bent B-DNA conformation with increased flexibility in both terminal residues. This conformation differs significantly from the Z-DNA tetramer structure reported for the same hexamer in the crystal state at similar ionic strength by Malinina and co-workers. Crystal structure of d(CCGCGG) 2 at high salt concentration includes a central alternating tetramer in Z-DNA conformation, while the initial cytosine swings out and forms a Watson-Crick base-pair with the terminal guanine of a symmetry-related molecule. In solution, NMR data for sugar ring puckering combined with restrained molecular dynamics simulations starting from a Z-DNA form show that terminal furanose residues could adopt the conformation required for aromatic bases swinging out. Therefore, tetramer formation could be considered possible once the hexanucleotide had previously adopted the Z-DNA form. This work gives some insight into correlations between anomalous crystal structures and their accessibility in the solution state

  9. Acute toxicity and the 28-day repeated dose study of a Siddha medicine Nuna Kadugu in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Ramaswamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuna Kadugu (NK, a Siddha medicine prepared from leaves and fruits of Morinda Pubescens, used for the treatment of various skin diseases. Though NK has been widely used for several decades, no scientific report was available on its safety. Present study was undertaken to demonstrate the oral toxicity of NK in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity studies were performed following OECD test guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with minor modifications. In acute oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 2000mg/kg b.wt., p.o and animals were observed for toxic signs at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 24 h and for next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. In repeated dose, the 28- day oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg b.wt./p.o/day. Two satellite groups (control and high dose were also maintained to determine the delayed onset toxicity of NK. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Haematology, clinical biochemistry, electrolytes, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results In acute toxicity study, no treatment related death or toxic signs were observed with NK administration. In the repeated dose study, no significant differences in body weight changes, food / water intake, haematology, clinical biochemistry and electrolytes content were observed between control and NK groups. No gross pathological findings and difference in relative organ weights were observed between control and NK treated rats. Histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities with NK treatment. Conclusion Acute study reveals that the LD50 of NK is greater than 2000mg/kg, b.wt. in fasted female rats and can be classified as Category 5. 28-day repeated oral toxicity demonstrates that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of NK is greater than 900 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o in rats

  10. Does assessing suicidality frequently and repeatedly cause harm? A randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Furr, R Michael; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Mneimne, Malek; Jaquett, Caroline; Fleeson, William

    2015-12-01

    Assessing suicidality is common in mental health practice and is fundamental to suicide research. Although necessary, there is significant concern that such assessments have unintended harmful consequences. Using a longitudinal randomized control design, the authors evaluated whether repeated and frequent assessments of suicide-related thoughts and behaviors negatively affected individuals, including those at-risk for suicide-related outcomes. Adults (N = 282), including many diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), were recruited through psychiatric outpatient clinics and from the community at large, and were randomly assigned to assessment groups. A control assessment group responded to questions regarding negative psychological experiences several times each day during a 2-week main observation phase. During the same observation period, an intensive suicide assessment group responded to the same questions, along with questions regarding suicidal behavior and ideation. Negative psychological outcomes were measured during the main observation phase (for BPD symptoms unrelated to suicide and for BPD-relevant emotions) and/or at the end of each week during the main observation phase and monthly for 6 months thereafter (for all outcomes, including suicidal ideation and behavior). Results revealed little evidence that intensive suicide assessment triggered negative outcomes, including suicidal ideation or behavior, even among people with BPD. A handful of effects did reach or approach significance, though these were temporary and nonrobust. However, given the seriousness of some outcomes, the authors recommend that researchers or clinicians who implement experience sampling methods including suicide-related items carefully consider the benefits of asking about suicide and to inform participants about possible risks. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A flow-cytometric NK-cytotoxicity assay adapted for use in rat repeated dose toxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcusson-Staahl, Maritha; Cederbrant, Karin

    2003-01-01

    A recent regulatory document for immunotoxicity testing of new pharmaceutical drugs includes cytotoxic natural killer (NK)-cell function as a required parameter in repeated dose toxicity studies. The classical 51 Cr-release assay is the conventional test for cytotoxicity testing but several drawbacks with this assay has increased the demand for new reliable test systems. Here, we describe the optimisation of a flow-cytometric cytotoxicity assay especially adapted for regulatory rat studies in drug development. The test principle is based on target cell labelling with 5-(6)-carboxy-fluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and subsequent DNA-labelling with propidium iodide (PI) for identification of target cells with compromised cell membranes. The results are expressed as percentage of dead targets on a cell-to-cell basis. The final format of the assay includes 0.5 ml peripheral blood, 1.25x10 5 effector cells per sample, and collection of 500 target events by flow-cytometry. When NKR-P1+ cells were removed from the effector cell population by magnetic depletion the relative proportion decreased from 6 to 0.08%. The corresponding cytotoxic activity decreased from 68 to 8%. Also, the cytotoxic activity showed a significant and positive correlation with the proportion of NK-cells present in the effector cell suspension. Thus, the cytotoxicity measured is almost exclusively exerted by NK-cells. The current flow-cytometric test benefits from using peripheral blood as a source for effector cells since it will not conflict with the use of spleen for histopathological investigations in repeated dose toxicity studies. Additionally, since only a minimal number of effector cells are required per sample repeated testing of the same animal is enabled

  12. MNS16A tandem repeat minisatellite of human telomerase gene: functional studies in colorectal, lung and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Philipp; Zöchmeister, Cornelia; Behm, Christian; Brezina, Stefanie; Baierl, Andreas; Doriguzzi, Angelina; Vanas, Vanita; Holzmann, Klaus; Sutterlüty-Fall, Hedwig; Gsur, Andrea

    2017-04-25

    MNS16A, a functional polymorphic tandem repeat minisatellite, is located in the promoter region of an antisense transcript of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. MNS16A promoter activity depends on the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) presenting varying numbers of transcription factor binding sites for GATA binding protein 1. Although MNS16A has been investigated in multiple cancer epidemiology studies with incongruent findings, functional data of only two VNTRs (VNTR-243 and VNTR-302) were available thus far, linking the shorter VNTR to higher promoter activity.For the first time, we investigated promoter activity of all six VNTRs of MNS16A in cell lines of colorectal, lung and prostate cancer using Luciferase reporter assay. In all investigated cell lines shorter VNTRs showed higher promoter activity. While this anticipated indirect linear relationship was affirmed for colorectal cancer SW480 (P = 0.006), a piecewise linear regression model provided significantly better model fit in lung cancer A-427 (P = 6.9 × 10-9) and prostate cancer LNCaP (P = 0.039). In silico search for transcription factor binding sites in MNS16A core repeat element suggested a higher degree of complexity involving X-box binding protein 1, general transcription factor II-I, and glucocorticoid receptor alpha in addition to GATA binding protein 1.Further functional studies in additional cancers are requested to extend our knowledge of MNS16A functionality uncovering potential cancer type-specific differences. Risk alleles may vary in different malignancies and their determination in vitro could be relevant for interpretation of genotype data.

  13. Prolonged Repeated Acupuncture Stimulation Induces Habituation Effects in Pain-Related Brain Areas: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia. PMID:24821143

  14. Single and 2-week repeated intravenous dose toxicity studies of disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Fumio; Yabuuchi, Kazuya; Ohno, Kouji; Muraoka, Yoshihiro [Shionogi and Co. Ltd., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan). Developmental Research Lab.; Ikeuchi, Isao

    1998-10-01

    Disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is a boron compound used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for malignant brain tumors. Intravenous single and 2-week repeated dose toxicity studies of BSH were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the single-dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 100, 300 or 600 mg/kg. Death occurred within 10 min (acute type) or from 5 hr to 2 days (delayed type) after dosing in the 600 mg/kg group. No differences in mortality by sex and dosing speed were observed. Major causes of death were considered to be circulatory disorder in acute death and renal injury in delayed death. The renal injury was observed in the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups. In the 2-week repeated dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Body weight gain was suppressed in the 100 and 300 mg/kg groups. One male in the 300 mg/kg group died due to renal and pulmonary lesions at day 8. Slight anemia was observed in the 300 mg/kg group. Pathologically, the kidney showed tubular regeneration with increase of weight in the 300 mg/kg. From these results, the NOAEL of BSH is 30 mg/kg/day. (author)

  15. Repeated exposure to the thin ideal and implications for the self : Two weight loss program studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klesse, A.K.; Goukens, C.; Geyskens, K.; de Ruyter, K.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to thin models results in self-esteem shifts that influence people's motivation to diet. This research study applies a goal perspective to explain the effect of exposure to thin models on dieters' motivation to lose weight. Two (one-week) weight loss program studies that included treatment

  16. Broad and narrow personality traits as markers of one-time and repeated suicide attempts: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaro Frank

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying personality traits with the potential to differentiate between individuals engaging in suicide attempts of different degrees of severity could help us to understand the processes underlying the link of personality and nonfatal suicidal behaviours and to identify at-risk groups. One approach may be to examine whether narrow, i.e., lower-order personality traits may be more useful than their underlying, broad personality trait dimensions. Methods We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in broad and narrow personality traits between one-time and repeated suicide attempters in a longitudinal, population-based sample of young French Canadian adults using two multivariate regression models. Results One broad (Compulsivity: OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.5 and one narrow personality trait (anxiousness: OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.01–1.1 differentiated between individuals with histories of repeated and one-time suicide attempts. Affective instability [(OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.1] and anxiousness [(OR = .92; 95% CI .88–.95], on the other hand, differentiated between nonattempters and one-time suicide attempters. Conclusion Emotional and cognitive dysregulation and associated behavioural manifestations may be associated with suicide attempts of different severity. While findings associated with narrow traits may be easier to interpret and link to existing sociobiological theories, larger effect sizes associated with broad traits such as Compulsivity may be better suited to objectives with a more clinical focus.

  17. URINARY CREATINE AT REST AND AFTER REPEATED SPRINTS IN ATHLETES: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Bezrati-Benayed, I.; Nasrallah, F.; Feki, M.; Chamari, K.; Omar, S.; Alouane-Trabelsi, L.; Ben Mansour, A.; Kaabachi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatog...

  18. PARAMETER REPEATABILITY FOR ECONOMY. A CASE STUDY OF A SIMPLE LINEAR ELECTRICAL DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Drapella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first installment of a projected three-part study devoted to both input and output parameter randomness that electrical circuit designers deal with in their work. Parts of the study will differ in the complexity of schemes considered. This paper aims at presenting the methodology while leaving aside the analysis of complex circuits. Therefore, only voltage dividers have been taken into consideration. Four probability distributions of resistor values have been tried: uniform, Gaussian, Laplace and triangular.

  19. Who repeats? A follow-up study of state hospital patients' firesetting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, J L; Fisher, W H; Bertsch, G

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on a population of psychiatric patients who were studied over a 6.75 year period to determine the occurrences of firesetting behavior noted in their psychiatric inpatient records. Two groups of 50 patients each were drawn from an earlier study and were matched by sex, age, and diagnoses. One group of patients had prior firesetting behavior; the other did not. Firesetting behavior was found not only in patients originally identified as having previously engaged in this behavior, but also in those with no documented history of this act prior to the period of the study. Patients having firesetting behavior in their past psychiatric record set more actual fires. Total number of episodes of firesetting behavior, however, was not significantly different between the two groups. Results are discussed in terms of the communicative function of firesetting and the dilemma of clinical prediction.

  20. Hearing loss associated with repeated MRI acquisition procedure-related acoustic noise exposure: an occupational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Suzan; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2017-11-01

    To study the effects of repeated exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise during image acquisition procedures (scans) on hearing. A retrospective occupational cohort study was performed among workers of an MRI manufacturing facility (n=474). Longitudinal audiometry data from the facility's medical surveillance scheme collected from 1973 to 2010 were analysed by studying the association of cumulative exposure to MRI-related acoustic noise from voluntary (multiple) MRI scans and the hearing threshold of the volunteer. Repeated acoustic noise exposure during volunteer MRI scans was found to be associated with a small exposure-dependent increased rate change of hearing threshold level (dB/year), but the association was only found related to the number of voluntary MRI scans and not to modelled cumulative noise exposure (dB*hour) based on MRI-system type. The increased rate change of hearing threshold level was found to be statistically significant for the frequencies 500, 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in the right ear. From our longitudinal cohort study, it appeared that exposure to noise from voluntarily MRI scans may have resulted in a slight amount of hearing loss. Mandatory use of hearing protection might have prevented more severe hearing loss. Lack of consistency in findings between the left and right ears and between the two exposure measures prohibits definitive conclusions. Further research that addresses the study's methodological limitations is warranted to corroborate our findings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  2. Study of four weeks repeated-dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in rats Original Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Hae-Yon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four weeks repeated -dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV-pure melittin, the major component of honey bee venom in rats. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLPat Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female rats of 5 weeks old were chosen for the pilot study of four weeks repeated-dose toxicity and was injected at the level of 0.56 mg/kg body weight (eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14 mg/kg as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of normal saline was injected as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and side effects such as hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of injection in all experiment groups, and the higher dosage in treatment, the higher occurrence in side effects. 3. Concerning weight measurement, neither male nor female groups showed significant changes compared to the control group. 4. Concerning to the CBC and biochemistry, all experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 5. Concerning weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared to the control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, those such as cerebellum, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney,and spinal cords were removed and we conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining.Concerning the histologocal observation of liver tissues, some fatty changes were observed around portal vein in 0.56 mg/kg experiment group. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7. The proper high dosage of SBV for the thirteen weeks repeated test in rats may be 0.28 mg

  3. Statistical methods for conducting agreement (comparison of clinical tests) and precision (repeatability or reproducibility) studies in optometry and ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Colm; Khadka, Jyoti; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2011-07-01

    The ever-expanding choice of ocular metrology and imaging equipment has driven research into the validity of their measurements. Consequently, studies of the agreement between two instruments or clinical tests have proliferated in the ophthalmic literature. It is important that researchers apply the appropriate statistical tests in agreement studies. Correlation coefficients are hazardous and should be avoided. The 'limits of agreement' method originally proposed by Altman and Bland in 1983 is the statistical procedure of choice. Its step-by-step use and practical considerations in relation to optometry and ophthalmology are detailed in addition to sample size considerations and statistical approaches to precision (repeatability or reproducibility) estimates. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  4. simple sequence repeat (SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...

  5. Study of incidence and causes of repeated mass miniature radiography of chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandan, S; Bhargava, S K; Sharma, H M; Ved, P K; Singh, Dhan [T.B. Demonstration and Training Centre, Agra (India)

    1976-01-01

    A study has been conducted to find out the retake rate of mass miniature radiography of chest and causes of retake. The rate has been found to be 1.96% and common causes of retake are too light or dark film and movement (motion) other than respiratory. Precautionary measures against these causes should prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation and also ensure economy.

  6. URINARY CREATINE AT REST AND AFTER REPEATED SPRINTS IN ATHLETES: A PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, F.; Feki, M.; Chamari, K.; Omar, S.; Alouane-Trabelsi, L.; Ben Mansour, A.; Kaabachi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Basal urinary creatine (UC) was significantly lower in sprinters than controls (34±30 vs. 74±3 µmol/mmol creatinine, p creatine significantly decreased in both athletes and controls. UC is low in sprinters at rest and further decreases after exercise, most likely due to a high uptake and use of creatine by muscles, as muscle mass and physical activity are supposed to be greater in athletes than untrained subjects. Further studies are needed to test the value of urinary creatine as a non-invasive marker of physical condition and as a parameter for managing Cr supplementation in athletes. PMID:24917689

  7. URINARY CREATINE AT REST AND AFTER REPEATED SPRINTS IN ATHLETES: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bezrati-Benayed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Basal urinary creatine (UC was significantly lower in sprinters than controls (34±30 vs. 74±3 μmol/mmol creatinine, p<0.05. UC was inversely correlated with body mass (r=-0.34, p<0.01 and lean mass (r=- 0.30, p<0.05, and positively correlated with fat mass (r=0.32, p<0.05. After acute exercise, urinary creatine significantly decreased in both athletes and controls. UC is low in sprinters at rest and further decreases after exercise, most likely due to a high uptake and use of creatine by muscles, as muscle mass and physical activity are supposed to be greater in athletes than untrained subjects. Further studies are needed to test the value of urinary creatine as a non-invasive marker of physical condition and as a parameter for managing Cr supplementation in athletes.

  8. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eNoone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every six months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardised fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Patients with Insomnia: A Repeated Measurement Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Spiegelhalder

    Full Text Available Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system disorders. It is characterized by increased arousal levels, however, the neurobiological causes and correlates of hyperarousal in insomnia remain to be further determined. In the current study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used in the morning and evening in a well-characterized sample of 20 primary insomnia patients (12 females; 8 males; 42.7 ± 13.4 years and 20 healthy good sleepers (12 females; 8 males; 44.1 ± 10.6 years. The most important inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and glutamate/glutamine (Glx, were assessed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. The primary hypothesis, a diurnal effect on GABA levels in patients with insomnia, could not be confirmed. Moreover, the current results did not support previous findings of altered GABA levels in individuals with insomnia. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that GABA levels in the ACC may be positively associated with habitual sleep duration, and, thus, reduced GABA levels may be a trait marker of objective sleep disturbances. Moreover, there was a significant GROUP x MEASUREMENT TIME interaction effect on Glx in the DLPFC with increasing Glx levels across the day in the patients but not in the control group. Therefore, Glx levels may reflect hyperarousal at bedtime in those with insomnia. Future confirmatory studies should include larger sample sizes to investigate brain metabolites in different subgroups of insomnia.

  10. Repeated sub-chronic oral toxicity study of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonglin; Wang, Yunzhi; Li, Yanshen; Han, Rui; Li, Chunmei; Xiao, Lin; Cho, Susan; Ma, Yukui; Fang, Chao; Lee, Albert W

    2017-06-01

    In this study, Beagle dogs were administered xylooligosaccharide (XOS, CAS # 87099-0) at doses of 0, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery period was added to observe delayed or reversible toxicity. Measurements included body weight, food consumption, clinical observations, temperature, electrocardiogram (ECG), urinalysis, blood chemistry, hematology, organ weight, gross necropsy, and histopathological examination. Except for transient diarrhea or vomiting, no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. In the mid-dose groups, transitional diarrhea was observed in the initial 1-2 weeks. In the high-dose groups, diarrhea and/or vomiting were observed episodically over the duration of treatment. However, they disappeared after XOS was withdrawn in the recovery period. Although there was a tendency toward less weight gain in the high-dose group animal group, this is typical in animals and humans fed non-digestible carbohydrates. This chronic toxicity study demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of XOS is 2500 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day. Based on body surface area (conversion factor of 0.54 for dogs to human), this corresponds to daily doses of 1350 mg/kg BW or 81-108 g XOS in human adults weighing 60-80 kg. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Construction and updating of a public events questionnaire for repeated measures longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Martha; Semkovska, Maria; Carton, Mary; Dunne, Ross; Horgan, John-Paul; O'Kane, Breige; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2014-01-01

    Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ) for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability, and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every 6 months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardized fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.

  12. The effect of image quality, repeated study, and assessment method on anatomy learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenesi, Barbara; Mackinnon, Chelsea; Cheng, Lucia; Kim, Joseph A; Wainman, Bruce C

    2017-06-01

    The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality images of the human hand and human eye. On day 0, participants learned about each anatomical specimen from paper booklets using either low-quality or high-quality images, and then completed a comprehension test using either 2D images or three-dimensional (3D) cadaveric specimens. On day 1, participants relearned each booklet, and on day 2 participants completed a final comprehension test using either 2D images or 3D cadaveric specimens. The effect of image quality on learning varied according to anatomical content, with high-quality images having a greater effect on improving learning of hand anatomy than eye anatomy (high-quality vs. low-quality for hand anatomy P = 0.018; high-quality vs. low-quality for eye anatomy P = 0.247). Also, the benefit of high-quality images on hand anatomy learning was restricted to performance on short-answer (SA) questions immediately after learning (high-quality vs. low-quality on SA questions P = 0.018), but did not apply to performance on multiple-choice (MC) questions (high-quality vs. low-quality on MC questions P = 0.109) or after participants had an additional learning opportunity (24 hours later) with anatomy content (high vs. low on SA questions P = 0.643). This study underscores the limited impact of image quality on anatomy learning, and questions whether investment in enhancing image quality of learning aids significantly promotes knowledge development. Anat Sci Educ 10: 249-261. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu HJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hwa Jung Ryu,1,* Mu Yeb Seo,2,* Sung Kyu Jung,1 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Seung-Young Lee,2 Dong-Hyouk Jang,2 Taek-Jin Lee,2 Ki-Yeon Jo,2 Yu-Ri Kim,3 Kyu-Bong Cho,4 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Beom Jun Lee,5 Sang Wook Son1 1Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 2Korea Testing and Research Institute, Gyunggido, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Shinheung College, Uijeongbu, 5College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work and both should be considered first authors Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there

  14. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. V. Beetsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS are often preceded by 'premonitory urges': annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2X2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs, and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs+ blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs, these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response.

  15. Effect of routine repeat transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer: a long-term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marc-Oliver; Steinhoff, Christine; Simon, Xenia; Spiegelhalder, Philipp; Ackermann, Rolf; Vogeli, Thomas Alexander

    2003-08-01

    We determined the long-term outcome in patients with superficial bladder cancer (Ta and T1) undergoing routine second transurethral bladder tumor resection (ReTURB) in regard to recurrence and progression. We performed an inception cohort study of 124 consecutive patients with superficial bladder cancer undergoing transurethral resection and routine ReTURB (83) between November 1993 and October 1995 at a German university hospital. Immediately after transurethral resection all lesions were documented on a designed bladder map. ReTURB of the scar from initial resection and other suspicious lesions was performed at a mean of 7 weeks. Patients were followed until recurrence or death, or a minimum of 5 years. Residual tumor was found in 33% of all ReTURB cases, including 27% of Ta and 53% of T1 disease, and in 81% at the initial resection site. Five of the 83 patients underwent radical cystectomy due to ReTURB findings. The estimated risk of recurrence after years 1 to 3 was 18%, 29% and 32%, respectively. After 5 years 63% of the patients undergoing ReTURB were still disease-free (mean recurrence-free survival 62 months, median 87). Progression to muscle invasive disease was observed in only 2 patients (3%) after a mean observation of 61 months. These data suggest a favorable outcome regarding recurrence and progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer who undergo ReTURB. ReTURB is suggested at least in those at high risk when bladder preservation is intended.

  16. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  17. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    behaviours over and above the effects of the behaviour-specific thinking and ii the relationship between adherence to exercise and to medical treatment is stronger among those with more favourable views about the goal. Results from this study should identify the key contributing factors to inform subsequent adherence research and afford a more streamlined assessment matrix. The project also aims to inform patient care practices. UK Clinical Research Network registration number UKCRN 7842.

  18. [A case-control study of factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy based on a sample from a university maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréa de Albuquerque Arruda; Coutinho, Isabela C; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland

    2013-03-01

    Repeat teen pregnancy is a frequent issue and is considered an aggravating factor for increased maternal and fetal morbidity and social problems. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted in 90 postpartum adolescents with more than one pregnancy (cases) and 90 adult women with a history of only one pregnancy during adolescence (controls). Statistical analysis used hierarchical logistic regression with 5% significance. Early sexual initiation (pregnancy (pregnancy, while partner change was inversely associated. Repeat teen pregnancy was mainly associated with reproductive and socioeconomic factors. Partner change appeared as a protective factor. Measures should be adopted during the postpartum period of teenage mothers in order to avoid repeat pregnancy.

  19. Repeated-dose toxicological studies of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. gray and identification of the toxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Flávia Donaire; Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Da Costa, Fernando Batista

    2013-05-20

    Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray has been commonly used in folk medicine to treat abscesses, microbiological infections, snake bites, malaria and diabetes. Both anti-inflammatory and anti-malarial properties have been identified using appropriate assays, but the effective doses have demonstrated toxic effects for the experimental animals. Most of the pharmacological activities have been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and some chlorogenic acid derivatives (CAs) in the leaves of this species. This work aimed to evaluate the repeated-dose toxicity of an aqueous extract (AE) from Tithonia diversifolia leaves and to compare the results with an extract rich in STLs (LRE) and a polar extract (PE) without STLs but rich in CAs. The purpose of this work was to provide insights into the identity of the compounds responsible for the toxic effects of Tithonia diversifolia. The major classes of compounds were confirmed in each extract by IR spectra and HPLC-UV-DAD profiling using previously isolated or standard compounds. The toxicity of each extract was evaluated in a repeated-dose toxicity study in Wistar rats for 90 days. The AE is composed of both STLs and CAs, the LRE is rich in STLs, and the PE is rich in CAs. The AE caused alterations in haematological parameters but few alterations in biochemical parameters and was relatively safe at doses lower than 100mg/kg. However, the PE and LRE demonstrated several adverse effects by damaging the liver and kidneys, respectively. STLs and CAs can be toxic in prolonged use at higher doses in extracts prepared from Tithonia diversifolia by affecting the kidneys and liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative study on pathological features of transgenic rat lines expressing either three or four repeat misfolded tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachova, Bernadeta; Brezovakova, Veronika; Bugos, Ondrej; Jadhav, Santosh; Smolek, Tomas; Novak, Petr; Zilka, Norbert

    2018-08-01

    Human tauopathies represent a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by distinct clinical features, typical histopathological structures, and defined ratio(s) of three-repeat and four-repeat tau isoforms within pathological aggregates. How the optional microtubule-binding repeat of tau influences this differentiation of pathologies is understudied. We have previously generated and characterized transgenic rodent models expressing human truncated tau aa151-391 with either three (SHR24) or four microtubule-binding repeats (SHR72). Here, we compare the behavioral and neuropathological hallmarks of these two transgenic lines using a battery of tests for sensorimotor, cognitive, and neurological functions over the age range of 3.5-15 months. Progression of sensorimotor and neurological deficits was similar in both transgenic lines; however, the lifespan of transgenic line SHR72 expressing truncated four-repeat tau was markedly shorter than SHR24. Moreover, the expression of three or four-repeat tau induced distinct neurofibrillary pathology in these lines. Transgenic lines displayed different distribution of tau pathology and different type of neurofibrillary tangles. Our results suggest that three- and four-repeat isoforms of tau may display different modes of action in the diseased brain. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  2. Brachial artery responses to ambient pollution, temperature, and humidity in people with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Horton, Edward S; Cohen, Allison; Coull, Brent A; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schwartz, Joel D; Mittleman, Murray A; Li, Yongsheng; Stone, Peter H; de Souza, Celine; Lamparello, Brooke; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R

    2014-03-01

    Extreme weather and air pollution are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. In a population with diabetes, we conducted a novel assessment of vascular brachial artery responses both to ambient pollution and to weather (temperature and water vapor pressure, a measure of humidity). Sixty-four 49- to 85-year-old Boston residents with type 2 diabetes completed up to five study visits (279 repeated measures). Brachial artery diameter (BAD) was measured by ultrasound before and after brachial artery occlusion [i.e., flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] and before and after nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD). Ambient concentrations of fine particulate mass (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, particle number, and sulfate were measured at our monitoring site; ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were obtained from state monitors. Particle exposure in the home and during each trip to the clinic (home/trip exposure) was measured continuously and as a 5-day integrated sample. We used linear models with fixed effects for participants, adjusting for date, season, temperature, and water vapor pressure on the day of each visit, to estimate associations between our outcomes and interquartile range increases in exposure. Baseline BAD was negatively associated with particle pollution, including home/trip-integrated BC (-0.02 mm; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.003, for a 0.28 μg/m3 increase in BC), OC (-0.08 mm; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.03, for a 1.61 μg/m3 increase) as well as PM2.5, 5-day average ambient PM2.5, and BC. BAD was positively associated with ambient temperature and water vapor pressure. However, exposures were not consistently associated with FMD or NMD. Brachial artery diameter, a predictor of cardiovascular risk, decreased in association with particle pollution and increased in association with ambient temperature in our study population of adults with type 2 diabetes. Zanobetti A, Luttmann

  3. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  4. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.

  5. First Worldwide Proficiency Study on Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; Kremer, Kristin; Ködmön, Csaba; Supply, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency study on 24-locus VNTR typing. Sets of 30 DNAs of MTBC strains, including 10 duplicate DNA samples, were distributed among 37 participating laboratories in 30 different countries worldwide. Twenty-four laboratories used an in-house-adapted method with fragment sizing by gel electrophoresis or an automated DNA analyzer, nine laboratories used a commercially available kit, and four laboratories used other methods. The intra- and interlaboratory reproducibilities of VNTR typing varied from 0% to 100%, with averages of 72% and 60%, respectively. Twenty of the 37 laboratories failed to amplify particular VNTR loci; if these missing results were ignored, the number of laboratories with 100% interlaboratory reproducibility increased from 1 to 5. The average interlaboratory reproducibility of VNTR typing using a commercial kit was better (88%) than that of in-house-adapted methods using a DNA analyzer (70%) or gel electrophoresis (50%). Eleven laboratories using in-house-adapted manual typing or automated typing scored inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities of 80% or higher, which suggests that these approaches can be used in a reliable way. In conclusion, this first multicenter study has documented the worldwide quality of VNTR typing of MTBC strains and highlights the importance of international quality control to improve genotyping in the future. PMID:22170917

  6. A 4-Week Repeated-Dose Oral Toxicity Study of Bojungikgi-Tang in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Rom Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicines have been used for centuries in Asian countries. However, recent studies have led to increasing concerns about the safety and toxicity of herbal prescriptions. Bojungikgi-tang (BJIGT, a herbal decoction, has been used in Korea to improve physical strength. To establish the safety information, BJIGT water extract was evaluated in a 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity test in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. BJIGT was orally administered in daily doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks via oral gavage in male and female rats. We examined the mortality, clinical signs, body weight change, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. No significant changes were observed in mortality, clinical sings, body weight, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters between the control group and the BJIGT-treated groups in the rats of both sexes. The results indicate that BJIGT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 2000 mg/kg in rats. Thus, this concentration is considered the nonobservable effect dose in rats and is appropriate for a 13-week subchronic toxicity study.

  7. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  8. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohotoa Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289 and control group (n=244 were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs, intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048. Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09 and at six weeks (mean=1.09 were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11 and at six weeks (mean =1.07 with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their

  9. (InConsistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Froio de Araujo Dias

    Full Text Available Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB.15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110% following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials or placebo (PL, 2 trials. Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD was recorded as the exercise outcome.SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001; absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05. Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001, and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05, although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none.The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  10. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR Markers to Study Genetic Diversity Among Cotton Cultivars in Associated with Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar ABDI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing salt-tolerant crops is very important as a significant proportion of cultivated land is salt-affected. Screening and selection of salt tolerant genotypes of cotton using DNA molecular markers not only introduce tolerant cultivars useful for hybridization and breeding programs but also detect DNA regions involved in mechanism of salinity tolerance. To study this, 28 cotton cultivars, including 8 Iranian cotton varieties were grown in pots under greenhouse condition and three salt treatments were imposed with salt solutions (0, 70 and 140 mM NaCl. Eight agronomic traits including root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, chlorophyll and fluorescence index, K+ and Na+ contents in shoot (above ground biomass, and K+/Na+ ratio were measured. Cluster analysis of cultivars based on measured agronomic traits, showed �Cindose� and �Ciacra� as the most tolerant cultivars, and �B-557� and �43347� as the most sensitive cultivars of salt damage. A total of 65 polymorphic DNA fragments were generated at 14 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR loci. Plants of 28 cultivars of cotton grouped into three clusters based on ISSR markers. Regression analysis of markers in relation with traits data showed that 23, 33 and 30 markers associated with the measured traits in three salt treatments respectively. These markers might help breeders in any marker assisted selection program in order to improving cotton cultivars against salt stress.

  11. Analytical studies on the impact of using repeated-rib roughness in LMR [Liquid Metal Reactor] decay heat removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obot, N.T.; Tessier, J.H.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical study was carried out to determine the effects of roughness on the thermal performance of Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) decay heat removal systems for a range of possible design configurations and operating conditions. The ranges covered for relative rib height (e/D/sub h/), relative pitch (p/e) and flow attack angle were 0.026--0.103, 5--20 and 0--90 degrees, successively. The heat flux was varied between 1.1 and 21.5 kW/m 2 (0.1 and 2.0 kW/ft 2 ). Calculations were made for three cases: smooth duct with no ribs, ribs on both the guard vessel and collector wall, and ribs on the collector wall only. The results indicate that significant benefits, amounting to nearly two-fold reductions in guard vessel and collector wall temperatures, can be realized by placing repeated ribs on both the guard vessel and the collector wall. The magnitudes of the reduction in the reactor vessel temperature are considerably smaller. In general, the level of improvement, be it with respect to temperature or heat flux, is only mildly affected by changes in rib height or pitch but exhibits greater sensitivity to the assumed value for the system form loss. When the ribs are placed only on the collector wall, the heat removal capability is substantially reduced

  12. Film repeats in radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwan, A. Z.; Al-Shakharah, A. I

    1997-01-01

    During a one year period, 4910 radiographs of 55780 films were repeated. The objective of our study was to analyse and to classify the causes in order to minimize the repeats, cut the expenses and to provide optimal radiographs for accurate diagnosis. Analysis of the different factors revealed that, 43.6% of film repeats in our service were due to faults in exposure factors, centering comprises 15.9% of the repeats, while too much collimation was responsible for 7.6% of these repeats. All of which can be decreased by awareness and programmed training of technicians. Film blurring caused by patient motion was also responsible for 4.9% for radiographs reexamination, which can be minimized by detailed explanation to the patient and providing the necessary privacy. Fogging of X-Ray films by improper storage or inadequate handling or processing faults were responsible for 14.5% in repeats in our study. Methods and criteria for proper storage and handling of films were discussed. Recommendation for using modern day-light and laser processor has been high lighted. Artefacts are noticeably high in our cases, due to spinal dresses and frequent usage of precious metals for c osmotic purposes in this part of the world. The repeated films comprise 8.8% of all films We conclude that, the main factor responsible for repeats of up to 81.6% of cases was the technologists, thus emphasizing the importance of adequate training of the technologists. (authors). 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 table

  13. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period. PMID:22834485

  14. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002-2009: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Rivett, Ulrike; Gundry, Stephen W

    2012-07-27

    In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002-2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002-2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000-02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

  15. "Focused introspection" during naturally increased diuresis: description and repeatability of a method to study bladder sensation non-invasively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wachter, Stefan G G; Heeringa, Rhea; Van Koeveringe, Gommert A; Winkens, Bjorn; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip E V; Gillespie, James I

    2014-06-01

    To present and describe a non-invasive method to study the origin and development of bladder filling sensation and to evaluate the repeatability of the method. Eighteen volunteers participated in the study and were given a water loading protocol consisting of 1,000 ml water intake 1 hr before the session and 200 ml every 10 min during the session. Protocol 1: To evaluate diuresis rate, seven participants were asked to void every 15 min and the voided volume was measured. Protocol 2: Eleven volunteers graded bladder sensation on regular time points, on an empty graph with time on the X-axis and intensity of sensation on the Y-axis. The protocol ended at absolute need to void (maximal intensity) and voided volumes were measured. This protocol was conducted three times with a 10 days interval. Protocol 1: The diuresis rate was not different during the sessions and showed no variation over the studied time period (P = 0.2). Protocol 2: For an individual, the diuresis rate was not different between the sessions. The curves in all patients showed a continuously increasing bladder intensity. In seven participants the curve was convex, in the other four, the curve was sigmoidal. For each individual the pattern was constant during the three sessions. A strict water loading protocol induces a constant diuresis. This allows individuals to draw an introspection bladder sensation curve with a specific shape, which can be used as a method to study the development of bladder sensation non-invasively. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Jim A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

  17. Combined Study of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Transport and Toxicity on Microbial Nitrifying Communities under Single and Repeated Exposures in Soil Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Marie; Martins, Jean M F; Uzu, Gaëlle; Vince, Erwann; Richaume, Agnès

    2016-10-04

    Soils are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of their increasing use in many commercial products. Adverse effects of NPs on soil microorganisms have been reported in several ecotoxicological studies using microcosms. Although repeated exposures are more likely to occur in soils, most of these previous studies were performed as a single exposure to NPs. Contrary to single contamination, the study of multiple NP contaminations in soils requires the use of specialized setups. Using a soil column experiment, we compared the influence of single and repeated exposures (one, two, or three exposures that resulted in the same final concentration applied) on the transport of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) NPs through soil and the effect of these different exposure scenarios on the abundance and activity of soil nitrifying microbial communities after a 2 month incubation. The transport of TiO 2 NPs was very limited under both single and repeated exposures and was highest for the lowest concentration injected during the first application. Significant decreases in nitrification activity and ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria populations were observed only for the repeated exposure scenario (three TiO 2 NP contaminations). These results suggest that, under repeated exposures, the transport of TiO 2 NPs to deep soil layers and groundwater is limited and that a chronic contamination is more harmful for the soil microbiological functioning than a single exposure.

  18. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993–2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. METHODS: In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. RESULTS: We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06–3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. INTERPRETATION: Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. PMID:28923795

  19. Trends in standardized mortality among individuals with schizophrenia, 1993-2012: a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatov, Evgenia; Rosella, Laura; Chiu, Maria; Kurdyak, Paul A

    2017-09-18

    We examined mortality time trends and premature mortality among individuals with and without schizophrenia over a 20-year period. In this population-based, repeated cross-sectional study, we identified all individual deaths that occurred in Ontario between 1993 and 2012 in persons aged 15 and over. We plotted overall and cause-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), stratified all-cause ASMR trends by sociodemographic characteristics, and analyzed premature mortality using years of potential life lost. Additionally, we calculated mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using negative binomial regression with adjustment for age, sex, income, rurality and year of death. We identified 31 349 deaths among persons with schizophrenia, and 1 589 902 deaths among those without schizophrenia. Mortality rates among people with schizophrenia were 3 times higher than among those without schizophrenia (adjusted MRR 3.12, 95% confidence interval 3.06-3.17). All-cause ASMRs in both groups declined in parallel over the study period, by about 35%, and were higher for men, for those with low income and for rural dwellers. The absolute ASMR difference also declined throughout the study period (from 16.15 to 10.49 deaths per 1000 persons). Cause-specific ASMRs were greater among those with schizophrenia, with circulatory conditions accounting for most deaths between 1993 and 2012, whereas neoplasms became the leading cause of death for those without schizophrenia after 2005. Individuals with schizophrenia also died, on average, 8 years younger than those without schizophrenia, losing more potential years of life. Although mortality rates among people with schizophrenia have declined over the past 2 decades, specialized approaches may be required to close the persistent 3-fold relative mortality gap with the general population. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  20. Strengthening leadership as a catalyst for enhanced patient safety culture: a repeated cross-sectional experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Christensen, Karl Bang; Jaquet, Annette; Møller Beck, Carsten; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul; Mainz, Jan

    2016-05-13

    Current literature emphasises that clinical leaders are in a position to enable a culture of safety, and that the safety culture is a performance mediator with the potential to influence patient outcomes. This paper aims to investigate staff's perceptions of patient safety culture in a Danish psychiatric department before and after a leadership intervention. A repeated cross-sectional experimental study by design was applied. In 2 surveys, healthcare staff were asked about their perceptions of the patient safety culture using the 7 patient safety culture dimensions in the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. To broaden knowledge and strengthen leadership skills, a multicomponent programme consisting of academic input, exercises, reflections and discussions, networking, and action learning was implemented among the clinical area level leaders. In total, 358 and 325 staff members participated before and after the intervention, respectively. 19 of the staff members were clinical area level leaders. In both surveys, the response rate was >75%. The proportion of frontline staff with positive attitudes improved by ≥5% for 5 of the 7 patient safety culture dimensions over time. 6 patient safety culture dimensions became more positive (increase in mean) (pculture are remarkable, and imply that strengthening the leadership can act as a significant catalyst for patient safety culture improvement. Further studies using a longitudinal study design are recommended to investigate the mechanism behind leadership's influence on patient safety culture, sustainability of improvements over time, and the association of change in the patient safety culture measures with change in psychiatric patient safety outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  2. Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using 2,4-dinitrotoluene: a report of a collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akihisa; Tsuchiyama, Hiromi; Asaoka, Yoshiji; Hirakata, Mikito; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Oshida, Keiyu; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2015-03-01

    The liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect liver carcinogens by repeated dosing, and could be expected to be integrated into repeated-dose toxicity studies using a hepatocyte isolation method without the traditional in situ collagenase perfusion. In this study, to assess the performance of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), which is a rodent liver carcinogen, was administered orally to male rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day once daily for 14 or 28 consecutive days, and the frequencies of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) and micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) were examined. Significant increases in the MNHEPs were observed at 50 mg/kg/day or more in the 14-day treatment, and 50 and 100 mg/kg/day in the 28-day treatment. These increases were dependent on both the dose and the number of administrations, which indicates the possibility that the MNHEPs accumulate as a result of repeated dosing. In contrast, no increase in the MNIMEs was observed. In conclusion, the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats is sufficiently sensitive to detect the genotoxicity of 2,4-DNT at a low dose.

  3. Repeat polymorphisms in ESR2 and AR and colorectal cancer risk and prognosis: results from a German population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anja; Shi, Hong; Försti, Asta; Hoffmeister, Michael; Sainz, Juan; Jansen, Lina; Hemminki, Kari; Brenner, Hermann; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-11-07

    Evidence has accumulated which suggests that sex steroids influence colorectal cancer development and progression. We therefore assessed the association of repeat polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor β gene (ESR2) and the androgen receptor gene (AR) with colorectal cancer risk and prognosis. The ESR2 CA and AR CAG repeat polymorphisms were genotyped in 1798 cases (746 female, 1052 male) and 1810 controls (732 female, 1078 male), matched for sex, age and county of residence. Colorectal cancer risk associations overall and specific for gender were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex, county of residence and age. Associations with overall and disease-specific survival were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for established prognostic factors (diagnosis of other cancer after colorectal cancer diagnosis, detection by screening, treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy, tumour extent, nodal status, distant metastasis, body mass index, age at diagnosis and year of diagnosis) and stratified for grade of differentiation. Heterogeneity in gender specific associations was assessed by comparing models with and without a multiplicative interaction term by means of a likelihood ratio test. The average number of ESR2 CA repeats was associated with a small 5% increase in colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) without significant heterogeneity according to gender or tumoural ESR2 expression. We found no indication for an association between the AR CAG repeat polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer. The ESR2 CA and AR CAG repeat polymorphisms were not associated with overall survival or disease specific survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Higher numbers of ESR2 CA repeats are potentially associated with a small increase in colorectal cancer risk. Our study does not support an association between colorectal cancer prognosis and the investigated repeat polymorphisms.

  4. Validation and Reliability of a Smartphone Application for the International Prostate Symptom Score Questionnaire: A Randomized Repeated Measures Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Ko, Young Myoung; Chun, Dong-Il; Yang, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone-based assessment may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool for patients. There have been many attempts to create a smartphone diagnostic tool for clinical use in various medical fields but few have demonstrated scientific validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a smartphone application of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and to demonstrate its validity and reliability. Methods From June 2012 to May 2013, a total of 1581 male participants (≥40 years old), with or without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), visited our urology clinic via the health improvement center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Republic of Korea) and were enrolled in this study. A randomized repeated measures crossover design was employed using a smartphone application of the IPSS and the conventional paper form of the IPSS. Paired t test under a hypothesis of non-inferior trial was conducted. For the reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured. Results The total score of the IPSS (P=.289) and each item of the IPSS (P=.157-1.000) showed no differences between the paper version and the smartphone version of the IPSS. The mild, moderate, and severe LUTS groups showed no differences between the two versions of the IPSS. A significant correlation was noted in the total group (ICC=.935, Psmartphones could participate. Conclusions The validity and reliability of the smartphone application version were comparable to the conventional paper version of the IPSS. The smartphone application of the IPSS could be an effective method for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24513507

  5. Improvement in Trainees' Attitude and Resuscitation Quality With Repeated Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training: Cross-Sectional Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hun; Lee, Kyeong Ryong; Hong, Dae Young; Baek, Kwang Je; Park, Sang O

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of increasing numbers of training sessions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for hospital employees was held every year from 2006 to 2010. Participants were recruited among the trainees in 2010. The trainees' attitudes toward CPR were surveyed by questionnaire, and the quality of their CPR was measured using 5-cycle 30:2 CPR on a manikin. Participants were categorized according to the number of consecutive CPR training sessions as T1 (only 2010), T2 (2009 and 2010), T3 (from 2008 to 2010) and T4-5 (from 2006 or 2007 to 2010). The trainee attitude and CPR quality were compared among the 4 groups. Of 923 CPR trainees, 267 were enrolled in the study. There was significant increase in willingness to start CPR and confidence in chest compression and mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MTMV) with increasing number of CPR training sessions attended (especially for ≥ 3 sessions). There was a significant increase in mean compression depth and decrease in percentage of chest compressions with depth of less than 38 mm in the T3 and T4-5 compared with the T1 and T2. No-flow time decreased significantly, and the percentage of MTMV with visible chest rise increased, as the number of training sessions increased. Repeated CPR training improved trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Because the number of training sessions increased (≥3), the willingness to start CPR and the confidence in skills increased significantly, and chest compression depth, no-flow time, and MTMV improved.

  6. Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Peristera, Paraskevi; Eib, Constanze; Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2017-12-08

    Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity. Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account. We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity. Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  7. First worldwide proficiency study on variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Kremer, K.; Kodmon, C.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2012-01-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency

  8. Chlamydia screening is not cost-effective at low participation rates: evidence from a repeated register-based implementation study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, G. Ardine; Over, Eelco A. B.; Schmid, Boris V.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Welte, Robert; Op de Coul, Eline L. M.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.

    2015-01-01

    In three pilot regions of The Netherlands, all 16-29 year olds were invited to participate in three annual rounds of Chlamydia screening. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of repeated Chlamydia screening, based on empirical data. A mathematical model was employed to

  9. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and heart rate variability and inflammation among non-smoking construction workers: a repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2013-10-02

    Although it has been well recognized that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with cardiovascular mortality, the mechanisms and time course by which SHS exposure may lead to cardiovascular effects are still being explored. Non-smoking workers were recruited from a local union and monitored inside a union hall while exposed to SHS over approximately 6 hours. Participants were fitted with a continuous electrocardiographic monitor upon enrollment which was removed at the end of a 24-hr monitoring period. A repeated measures study design was used where resting ECGs and blood samples were taken from individuals before SHS exposure (baseline), immediately following SHS exposure (post) and the morning following SHS exposure (next-morning).Inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were analyzed. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed from the ECG recordings in time (SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency (LF, HF) domain parameters over 5-minute periods. SHS exposure was quantified using a personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor.Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine within-person changes in inflammatory and HRV parameters across the 3 time periods. Exposure-response relationships with PM2.5 were examined using mixed effects models. All models were adjusted for age, BMI and circadian variation. A total of 32 male non-smokers were monitored between June 2010 and June 2012. The mean PM2.5 from SHS exposure was 132 μg/m3. Immediately following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with declines in HRV (7.8% [standard error (SE) =3%] SDNN, 8.0% (SE = 3.9%) rMSSD, 17.2% (SE = 6.3%) LF, 29.0% (SE = 10.1%) HF) and increases in WBC count 0.42 (SE = 0.14) k/μl. Eighteen hours following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 24.2% higher CRP levels. Our study suggest that short-term SHS exposure is associated

  10. Study of a 13-weeks, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose, Toxicity Test of Sweet Bee Venom in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunmin Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to analyze a 13-week repeated dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV extracted from bee venom and administered in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Male and female 5-week-old SD rats were treated once daily with SBV (high-dosage group: 0.28 mg/kg; medium-dosage group: 0.14 mg/kg; or low-dosage group: 0.07 mg/kg for 13 weeks. Normal saline was administered to the control group in a similar manner (0.2 mL/kg. We conducted clinical observations, body weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses, hematology and biochemistry tests, and histological observations using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining to identify any abnormalities caused by the SBV treatment. Results:During this study, no mortality was observed in any of the experimental groups. Hyperemia and a movement disorder were observed around the area of in all groups that received SBV treatment, with a higher occurrence in rats treated with a higher dosage. Male rats receiving in the high-dosage group showed a significant decrease in weight during the treatment period. Compared to the control group, no significant changes in the ophthalmic parameters, the urine analyses, the complete blood cell count (CBC, and the biochemistry in the groups treated with SBV. Compared to the control group, some changes in organ weights were observed in the medium-and the high-dosage groups, but the low-dosage group showed no significant changes. Histological examination of thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fiber, as well as fibrosis, in both the medium- and the high-dosage groups. Fatty liver change was observed in the periportal area of rats receiving medium and high dosages of SBV. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:Our findings suggest that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL of SBV is approximately 0.07 mg/kg in male and female SD rats.

  11. Ambient temperature and cardiovascular biomarkers in a repeated-measure study in healthy adults: A novel biomarker index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Pan, Lu; Shan, Jiao; Li, Hongyu; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2017-07-01

    Associations of ambient temperature with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been well documented in numerous epidemiological studies, but the underlying pathways remain unclear. We investigated whether systemic inflammation, coagulation, systemic oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and endothelial function may be the mechanistic pathways associated with ambient temperature. Forty study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. Ambient temperature and air pollution data were measured in central monitors close to student residences. We created five indices as the sum of weighted biomarker percentiles to represent the overall levels of 15 cardiovascular biomarkers in five pathways (systemic inflammation: hs-CRP, TNF-α and fibrinogen; coagulation: fibrinogen, PAI-1, tPA, vWF and sP-selectin; systemic oxidative stress: Ox-LDL and sCD36: antioxidant activity: EC-SOD and GPX1; and endothelial function: ET-1, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). We used generalized mixed-effects models to estimate temperature effects controlling for air pollution and other covariates. There were significant decreasing trends in the adjusted means of biomarker indices over the lowest to the highest quartiles of daily temperatures before blood collection. A 10°C decrease at 2-d average daily temperature were associated with increases of 2.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 4.2], 1.6% (95% CI: 0.1, 3.1), 2.7% (95% CI: 0.5, 4.8), 5.5% (95% CI: 3.8, 7.3) and 2.0% (95% CI: 0.3, 3.8) in the indices for systemic inflammation, coagulation, systemic oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and endothelial function, respectively. In contrast, the associations between ambient temperature and individual biomarkers had substantial variation in magnitude and strength. The altered cardiovascular biomarker profiles in healthy adults associated with ambient temperature changes may help explain the temperature-related cardiovascular morbidity

  12. Reported frequency of physical activity in a large epidemiological study: relationship to specific activities and repeatability over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Gillian K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How overall physical activity relates to specific activities and how reported activity changes over time may influence interpretation of observed associations between physical activity and health. We examine the relationships between various physical activities self-reported at different times in a large cohort study of middle-aged UK women. Methods At recruitment, Million Women Study participants completed a baseline questionnaire including questions on frequency of strenuous and of any physical activity. About 3 years later 589,896 women also completed a follow-up questionnaire reporting the hours they spent on a range of specific activities. Time spent on each activity was used to estimate the associated excess metabolic equivalent hours (MET-hours and this value was compared across categories of physical activity reported at recruitment. Additionally, 18,655 women completed the baseline questionnaire twice, at intervals of up to 4 years; repeatability over time was assessed using the weighted kappa coefficient (κweighted and absolute percentage agreement. Results The average number of hours per week women reported doing specific activities was 14.0 for housework, 4.5 for walking, 3.0 for gardening, 0.2 for cycling, and 1.4 for all strenuous activity. Time spent and the estimated excess MET-hours associated with each activity increased with increasing frequency of any or strenuous physical activity reported at baseline (tests for trend, P weighted = 0.71 for questionnaires administered less than 6 months apart, and 52% (κweighted = 0.51 for questionnaires more than 2 years apart. Corresponding values for any physical activity were 57% (κweighted = 0.67 and 47% (κweighted = 0.58. Conclusions In this cohort, responses to simple questions on the frequency of any physical activity and of strenuous activity asked at baseline were associated with hours spent on specific activities and the associated estimated excess MET

  13. Study the Stability of SSR Repeats of pEA29 Plasmid of the Casual Agent of Fire Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baghaee Ravari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fire blight disease causes by Erwinia amylovora infects a wide variety of rosaceous plants. It was first recorded from pear trees in Karaj in year 1990. After that it was observed in many pear and apple orchards of the country. E. amylovora isolates differed slightly in virulence, symptoms and host range which ca be related to different plasmid content. The presence of an universal plasmid, pEA29, has been observed in majority of E. amylovora strains. Short-sequence DNA repeat with eight nt were repeated 3 to 15 times in the PstI fragment of the pEA29 plasmid. Here, the stability of SSR units and efficiency of this method to categorize strains was checked. For this reseaon two methods including amplification and cloning of whole and part of PstI fragment was done and the sequences were compared to eachother. In addition stability was evaluated based on three treatments including long time propagation, keeping strains in cold situation and re-isolation of infected tissues. Materials and Methods In this study 20 strains were purchased from the Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute. Their typical phenotypic tests were examined for all strains. All of then were checked with lateral flow immune chromatography in different serial dilutions. The pathogenicity were aassayed using complete fruit. Direct PCR with A/B primers and nested PCR with AJ75/AJ76 were applied for studied strains. Ten representative strains were selected snf part of PstI fragment amplified using RS1/RS2 primers. The PCR products were purified by QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen, USA, cloned in pGEM-T and were sequenced (Macrogen Inc., Korea. Five of 10 were chosen for stability tests including long time propagation and sub culturing each two week for three months, keeping strains in refrigerator for three months and re-isolation of infected tissues. Results and Discussion In phenotypic tests all studies strains were facultative anaerobic growth, oxidase

  14. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  15. Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire: Relative Validity and Repeatability in a Spanish Population with Metabolic Syndrome from the PREDIMED-PLUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Nissensohn, Mariela; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Babio, Nancy; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Martín Águila, Adys; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Álvarez Pérez, Jacqueline; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    We assess the repeatability and relative validity of a Spanish beverage intake questionnaire for assessing water intake from beverages. The present analysis was performed within the framework of the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. The study participants were adults (aged 55–75) with a BMI ≥27 and <40 kg/m2, and at least three components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). A trained dietitian completed the questionnaire. Participants provided 24-h urine samples, and the volume and urine osmolality were recorded. The repeatability of the baseline measurement at 6 and 1 year was examined by paired Student’s t-test comparisons. A total of 160 participants were included in the analysis. The Bland–Altman analysis showed relatively good agreement between total daily fluid intake assessed using the fluid-specific questionnaire, and urine osmolality and 24-h volume with parameter estimates of −0.65 and 0.22, respectively (R2 = 0.20; p < 0.001). In the repeatability test, no significant differences were found between neither type of beverage nor total daily fluid intake at 6 months and 1-year assessment, compared to baseline. The proposed fluid-specific assessment questionnaire designed to assess the consumption of water and other beverages in Spanish adult individuals was found to be relatively valid with good repeatability. PMID:27483318

  16. TU-AB-BRA-05: Repeatability of [F-18]-NaF PET Imaging Biomarkers for Bone Lesions: A Multicenter Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C; Bradshaw, T; Perk, T; Harmon, S; Jeraj, R; Liu, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantifying the repeatability of imaging biomarkers is critical for assessing therapeutic response. While therapeutic efficacy has been traditionally quantified by SUV metrics, imaging texture features have shown potential for use as quantitative biomarkers. In this study we evaluated the repeatability of quantitative "1"8F-NaF PET-derived SUV metrics and texture features in bone lesions from patients in a multicenter study. Methods: Twenty-nine metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients received whole-body test-retest NaF PET/CT scans from one of three harmonized imaging centers. Bone lesions of volume greater than 1.5 cm"3 were identified and automatically segmented using a SUV>15 threshold. From each lesion, 55 NaF PET-derived texture features (including first-order, co-occurrence, grey-level run-length, neighbor gray-level, and neighbor gray-tone difference matrix) were extracted. The test-retest repeatability of each SUV metric and texture feature was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis. Results: A total of 315 bone lesions were evaluated. Of the traditional SUV metrics, the repeatability coefficient (RC) was 12.6 SUV for SUVmax, 2.5 SUV for SUVmean, and 4.3 cm"3 for volume. Their respective intralesion coefficients of variation (COVs) were 12%, 17%, and 6%. Of the texture features, COV was lowest for entropy (0.03%) and highest for kurtosis (105%). Lesion intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was lowest for maximum correlation coefficient (ICC=0.848), and highest for entropy (ICC=0.985). Across imaging centers, repeatability of texture features and SUV varied. For example, across imaging centers, COV for SUVmax ranged between 11–23%. Conclusion: Many NaF PET-derived SUV metrics and texture features for bone lesions demonstrated high repeatability, such as SUVmax, entropy, and volume. Several imaging texture features demonstrated poor repeatability, such as SUVtotal and SUVstd. These results can be used to establish response criteria

  17. NMR-Based Metabolomic Study on Isatis tinctoria: Comparison of Different Accessions, Harvesting Dates, and the Effect of Repeated Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; Kostidis, Sarantos; Schäfer, Hartmut; De Mieri, Maria; Spraul, Manfred; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-05-22

    Isatis tinctoria is an ancient dye and medicinal plant with potent anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties. Metabolic differences were investigated by NMR spectroscopy of accessions from different origins that were grown under identical conditions on experimental plots. For these accessions, metabolite profiles at different harvesting dates were analyzed, and single and repeatedly harvested plants were compared. Leaf samples were shock-frozen in liquid N2 immediately after being harvested, freeze-dried, and cryomilled prior to extraction. Extracts were prepared by pressurized liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and 70% aqueous methanol. NMR spectra were analyzed using a combination of different methods of multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA), canonical analysis (CA), and k-nearest neighbor concept (k-NN). Accessions and harvesting dates were well separated in the PCA/CA/k-NN analysis in both extracts. Pairwise statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) revealed unsaturated fatty acids, porphyrins, carbohydrates, indole derivatives, isoprenoids, phenylpropanoids, and minor aromatic compounds as the cause of these differences. In addition, the metabolite profile was affected by the repeated harvest regime, causing a decrease of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, sucrose, unsaturated fatty acids, porphyrins, isoprenoids, and a flavonoid.

  18. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  19. The Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations (Q-MEGA). Study design, baseline characteristics, and repeatability of phenotype and sun exposure measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Hughes, Maria Celia; Kvaskoff, Marina; Siskind, Victor; Shekar, Sri; Aitken, Joanne F.; Green, Adele C.; Duffy, David L.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whiteman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a major health issue in Queensland, Australia which has the world’s highest incidence. Recent molecular and epidemiologic studies suggest that CMM arises through multiple etiological pathways involving gene-environment interactions. Understanding the potential mechanisms leading to CMM requires larger studies than those previously conducted. This article describes the design and baseline characteristics of Q-MEGA, the Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations, which followed-up four population-based samples of CMM patients in Queensland, including children, adolescents, men aged over 50, and a large sample of adult cases and their families, including twins. Q-MEGA aims to investigate the roles of genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction, in the etiology of melanoma. 3,471 participants took part in the follow-up study and were administered a computer-assisted telephone interview in 2002–2005. Updated data on environmental and phenotypic risk factors, and 2,777 blood samples were collected from interviewed participants as well as a subset of relatives. This study provides a large and well-described population-based sample of CMM cases with follow-up data. Characteristics of the cases and repeatability of sun exposure and phenotype measures between the baseline and the follow-up surveys, from six to 17 years later, are also described. PMID:18361720

  20. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of pamidronate after oral administration: a study on dose proportionality, absolute bioavailability, and effect of repeated administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Flesch, G; Hauffe, S A

    1993-01-01

    30 minutes at constant infusion rate. Repeated peroral doses (75 and 150 mg) were administered to 12 females (aged 51-70 years) for 10 consecutive days. Urinary excretion of pamidronate after peroral and i.v. administration was used for estimation of pamidronate absorption. Renal excretion...... of pamidronate ranged from 0.01% to 0.35% of dose, with mean values of 0.11, 0.16, and 0.18% for 75, 150, and 300 mg, respectively. After i.v. infusion, the renal excretion of pamidronate was 26-53% of the dose, lower than for other bisphosphonates. The absolute bioavailability was 0.31% (range 0.08-0.7%) after...

  1. Associations Between Negative and Positive Life Events and the Course of Depression: A Detailed Repeated-Assessments Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Simon C; Conradi, Henk Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertina J; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette; de Jonge, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Although the effects of life events on the onset of depression are well documented, little is known regarding their effects on the course of symptoms in depressed persons. We prospectively examined the associations between negative and positive life events and the course of depressive symptomatology in depressed primary care patients. A total of 267 depressed patients were followed for 3 years using a repeated-assessments design consisting of 36 monthly assessments of the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders depression symptoms and positive and negative life events. We examined whether the severity of depressive symptomatology changed directly after the occurrence of a life event. Negative events were not associated with short-term changes in depressive symptomatology. In contrast, positive events were followed by a significant decrease in depressive symptoms one and two months after their occurrence. These findings may translate into emphasis during treatment on engagement in activities that may increase the chance of positive life experiences.

  2. Aging, recall and recognition: a study on the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth S; Landau, Susan M; Whipple, Stephen C; Schwartz, Barbara L

    2004-05-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the University of Southern California Repeatable Episodic Memory Test (USC-REMT) to the effects of aging in a sample of 112 men and women from 18 to 93 years old. Two new recognition measures, yes-no and forced-choice, were developed to supplement the original USC-REMT which measured only free-recall. Free-recall, yes-no recognition and forced-choice recognition were sensitive to age effects, with free-recall being the most sensitive. The seven recall and recognition lists can be used interchangeably. The data indicate that the USC-REMT is worthy of consideration when there is a need for a brief, screening tool of various memory functions, particularly when there is interest in memory changes over time and repeated assessments.

  3. Diabetic Foot Prevention: Repeatability of the Loran Platform Plantar Pressure and Load Distribution Measurements in Nondiabetic Subjects during Bipedal Standing—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Zequera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the repeatability of the Loran Platform and evaluate the variability of plantar pressure and postural balance, during barefoot standing in nondiabetic subjects, for future diabetic foot clinical evaluation. Measurements were taken for eight nondiabetic subjects (4 females, 4 males, aged 47±7.2 years who had no musculoskeletal symptoms. Five variables were measured with the platform in the barefoot standing position. Ten measurements were taken using two different techniques for feet and posture positioning, during three sessions, once a week. For most measurements, no significant effect over time was found with Student's t-test (P<.000125. The ANOVA test of statistical significance confirmed that measurement differences between subjects showed higher variations than measurements taken from the same subject (P<.001. The measurements taken by the Loran Platform system were found to be repeatable.

  4. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes. A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child's distress and cooperative behavior. Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction. Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures.

  5. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  6. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (2). 4-week repeated dose intravenous toxicity study in rats with 4-week recovery test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Yanagi, H; Shimizu, K; Sakai, M; Nishibata, K; Oida, H; Shinomiya, K; Suzuki, Y; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    4-week repeated dose toxicity study with 4-week recovery test of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, was conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously to rats of both sexes at a dose level of 0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. In the 100 mg/kg/day group, bradypnea or dyspnea was seen in all animals, pale in ear, eye and foot, tremor, reddish lacrimation and loss of righting reflex were also observed in some animals right after administration, and then those signs disappeared within 1 min after administration. During the treatment period, 3/20 animals of each sex in the 100 mg/kg/day showed clonic convulsion and died within 2 min after administration. No clinical changes were seen in the 50 mg/kg/day group or lower. Histopathological findings showed atrophy of the submaxillary gland in females and vessel-wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis of the injection site (tail) in both sexes at 100 mg/kg/day, however those changes were reversible. ONO-1101 did not effect on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights or necropsy at any doses. These results indicate that the no-adverse-effect level of ONO-1101 in rats is 50 mg/kg/day for both sexes in this study.

  7. Personal semantics: Is it distinct from episodic and semantic memory? An electrophysiological study of memory for autobiographical facts and repeated events in honor of Shlomo Bentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoult, Louis; Tanguay, Annick; Beaudry, Myriam; Tavakoli, Paniz; Rabipour, Sheida; Campbell, Kenneth; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; Davidson, Patrick S R

    2016-03-01

    Declarative memory is thought to consist of two independent systems: episodic and semantic. Episodic memory represents personal and contextually unique events, while semantic memory represents culturally-shared, acontextual factual knowledge. Personal semantics refers to aspects of declarative memory that appear to fall somewhere in between the extremes of episodic and semantic. Examples include autobiographical knowledge and memories of repeated personal events. These two aspects of personal semantics have been studied little and rarely compared to both semantic and episodic memory. We recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of 27 healthy participants while they verified the veracity of sentences probing four types of questions: general (i.e., semantic) facts, autobiographical facts, repeated events, and unique (i.e., episodic) events. Behavioral results showed equivalent reaction times in all 4 conditions. True sentences were verified faster than false sentences, except for unique events for which no significant difference was observed. Electrophysiological results showed that the N400 (which is classically associated with retrieval from semantic memory) was maximal for general facts and the LPC (which is classically associated with retrieval from episodic memory) was maximal for unique events. For both ERP components, the two personal semantic conditions (i.e., autobiographical facts and repeated events) systematically differed from semantic memory. In addition, N400 amplitudes also differentiated autobiographical facts from unique events. Autobiographical facts and repeated events did not differ significantly from each other but their corresponding scalp distributions differed from those associated with general facts. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of personal semantics can be distinguished from those of semantic and episodic memory, and may provide clues as to how unique events are transformed to semantic memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  8. Measurements of Repeated Tightening and Loosening Torque of Seven Different Implant/Abutment Connection Designs and Their Modifications: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevica, Alena; Nathanson, Dan; Pober, Richard; Strating, Herman

    2018-02-01

    Repeated tightening and loosening of the abutment screw may alter its mechanical and physical properties affecting the optimal torque and ultimate reliability of an implant/abutment connection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated tightening and loosening of implant/abutment screws on the loosening torque of implant/abutment connections of commercially available implant systems. Seven different implant/abutment connections and their modifications were tested. The screws of each system were tightened according to the manufacturer's specifications. After 20 minutes the screws were loosened. This procedure was repeated ten times, and the differences between the 1st and 10th cycle were expressed as a percentage change RTq(%) and correlated with initial torque, the number of threads, the length of shank, and thread surface area employing Spearman's analysis. All systems showed significant differences in residual torque (RTq) value (p 0.05). All connections but group 3 (p = 1.000) showed a significant change from the initial torque (ITq) to the RTq values. The first successive RTq values increased in two connection groups 1 and 2. The remaining connections showed reduced RTq values ranging from -1.2 % (group 5) to -23.5% (group 6). The RTq values declined gradually with every repeated tightening in groups 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12. In group 2, after the tenth tightening the RTq was still above the ITq value. Only length of shank demonstrated a correlation with the RTq(%) change over the successive tightening loosening cycles (p abutment screws caused varying torque level changes among the different systems. These observations can probably be attributed to connection design. Limiting the number of tightening/loosening cycles in clinical and laboratory procedures is advisable for most of the implant systems tested. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  10. A 12-month randomized crossover study on the effects of Lanreotide Autogel and Octreotide long-acting repeatable on GH and IGF-l in patients with acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Kvistborg, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Background Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully for the treatment of acromegaly but no randomized studies have compared the effects of lanreotide Autogel (LAN) and octreotide acetate long-acting repeatable (OCT). Objective To compare the effect of LAN and OCT for the treatment...... of acromegaly in a randomized study design. Material and methods Twelve acromegalic patients were included and 10 patients completed treatment with LAN or OCT for 6 months and were then switched to the opposite treatment modality for 6 months without a washout period in a randomized crossover design. GH and IGF...

  11. Coordination in continuously repeated games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeren, A.J.T.M.; Schumacher, J.M.; Engwerda, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the effectiveness of coordination in a continuously repeated two-player game. We study how the choice of a decision rule by a coordinator affects the strategic behavior of the players, resulting in more or less cooperation. Our model requires the analysis

  12. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  13. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  14. Evaluation of repeated dose micronucleus assays of the liver and gastrointestinal tract using potassium bromate: a report of the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Emiko; Fujiishi, Yohei; Narumi, Kazunori; Kado, Shoichi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Ohyama, Wakako

    2015-03-01

    The food additive potassium bromate (KBrO3) is known as a renal carcinogen and causes chromosomal aberrations in vitro without metabolic activation and in vivo in hematopoietic and renal cells. As a part of a collaborative study by the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study group, which is a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, we administered KBrO3 to rats orally for 4, 14, and 28 days and examined the micronucleated (MNed) cell frequency in the liver, glandular stomach, colon, and bone marrow to confirm whether the genotoxic carcinogen targeting other than liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract was detected by the repeated dose liver and GI tract micronucleus (MN) assays. In our study, animals treated with KBrO3 showed some signs of toxicity in the kidney and/or stomach. KBrO3 did not increase the frequency of MNed cells in the liver and colon in any of the repeated dose studies. However, KBrO3 increased the frequency of MNed cells in the glandular stomach and bone marrow. Additionally, the MNed cell frequency in the glandular stomach was not significantly affected by the difference in the length of the administration period. These results suggest that performing the MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first tissue to contact agents after oral ingestion, is useful for evaluating the genotoxic potential of chemicals and that the glandular stomach MN assay could be integrated into general toxicity studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Repeated causal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK). A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34-0.61; %CV=4.48%-9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85)-0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Weiss Telles

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK. Material and methods: A test–retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW measured at three different locations. Results: Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1 mm ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5 mm and ≤1.7 mm, respectively. Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference = 1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV = 54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (95%CI = 0.59 (0.34–0.77]; JSW [SD of mean difference = 0.34–0.61; %CV = 4.48%–9.80%; ICC (95%CI = 0.74 (0.55–0.85–0.94 (0.87–0.97]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Conclusions: Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10 mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK.

  18. Evaluation of the repeated dose liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats with cyclophosphamide monohydrate: a report of a collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazumi; Zaizen, Kazuyo; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Ishida, Hisao

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect liver carcinogens, and this assay could be integrated into general toxicological studies. In this study, in order to assess the performance of the assay, cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CP) was tested in a 14-day RDLMN assay. Based on the results of the 4-day repeated dose-finding study, 10 mg/kg/day of CP was selected as the highest dose and the lower doses were set at 5, 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 mg/kg/day for the 14-day RDLMN assay. On the day after the completion of the dosing period, specimens of hepatocytes and bone marrow cells were prepared and the induction of micronuclei was assessed. No changes were observed in the incidences of micronucleated hepatocytes. Nevertheless, the incidences of micronucleated immature erythrocytes in the bone marrow were increased significantly at CP doses of 1.25 mg/kg/day or more. These findings are consistent with reports that CP induces tumors in various tissues but it does not induce liver tumors.

  19. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Vetting, Matthew W.; Hegde, Subray S.; Fajardo, J. Eduardo; Fiser, Andras; Roderick, Steven L.; Takiff, Howard E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S,T,A,V][D,N][L,F]-[S,T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Myc...

  20. Study on a 4-Week Recovery Test of Sweet Bee Venom after a 13-Week, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose Toxicity Test in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungsan Lim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results:(1 Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2 The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3 No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs, and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4 No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5 Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.

  1. Thickness of the Macula, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Ganglion Cell Layer in the Epiretinal Membrane: The Repeatability Study of Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Jin; Kim, Min-Su; Jo, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeul

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the repeatability of measurements of the thicknesses of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and ganglion cell inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the epiretinal membrane (ERM). The prospective study analyzed patients who visited our retinal clinic from June 2013 to January 2014. An experienced examiner measured the thicknesses twice using macular cube 512 × 128 and optic disc cube 200 × 200 scans. The repeatability of the thicknesses of the macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of two groups based on the central macular thickness (group A, ≤ 450 μm; group B, > 450 μm). A total of 88 patients were analyzed. The average thicknesses of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were 256.5, 96.6, and 84.4 μm, respectively, in the normal fellow eye and 412.3, 94.6, and 56.7 μm in the affected eye. The ICCs of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL were 0.995, 0.994, and 0.996, respectively, for the normal fellow eye and 0.991, 0.973, and 0.881 for the affected eye. The average thicknesses of the central macula, RNFL, and GCIPL in group A were 360.9, 93.5, and 63.4 μm, respectively, and the ICCs were 0.997, 0.987, and 0.995. The thicknesses in group B were 489.5, 96.2, and 46.6 μm, respectively, and the ICCs were 0.910, 0.942, and 0.603, significantly lower repeatability compared with group A (P macula.

  2. Is Forced Swimming Immobility a Good Endpoint for Modeling Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia? - Study of Sub-Anesthetic Ketamine Repeated Administration Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILDA NEVES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Immobility time in the forced swimming has been described as analogous to emotional blunting or apathy and has been used for characterizing schizophrenia animal models. Several clinical studies support the use of NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia in rodents. Some works describe the effects of ketamine on immobility behavior but there is variability in the experimental design used leading to controversial results. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated administration of ketamine sub-anesthetic doses in forced swimming, locomotion in response to novelty and novel object recognition, aiming a broader evaluation of the usefulness of this experimental approach for modeling schizophrenia in mice. Ketamine (30 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days induced a not persistent decrease in immobility time, detected 24h but not 72h after treatment. This same administration protocol induced a deficit in novel object recognition. No change was observed in mice locomotion. Our results confirm that repeated administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine is useful in modeling schizophrenia-related behavioral changes in mice. However, the immobility time during forced swimming does not seem to be a good endpoint to evaluate the modeling of negative symptoms in NMDAR antagonist animal models of schizophrenia.

  3. Is Forced Swimming Immobility a Good Endpoint for Modeling Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia? - Study of Sub-Anesthetic Ketamine Repeated Administration Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Gilda; Borsoi, Milene; Antonio, Camila B; Pranke, Mariana A; Betti, Andresa H; Rates, Stela M K

    2017-01-01

    Immobility time in the forced swimming has been described as analogous to emotional blunting or apathy and has been used for characterizing schizophrenia animal models. Several clinical studies support the use of NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia in rodents. Some works describe the effects of ketamine on immobility behavior but there is variability in the experimental design used leading to controversial results. In this study, we evaluated the effects of repeated administration of ketamine sub-anesthetic doses in forced swimming, locomotion in response to novelty and novel object recognition, aiming a broader evaluation of the usefulness of this experimental approach for modeling schizophrenia in mice. Ketamine (30 mg/kg/day i.p. for 14 days) induced a not persistent decrease in immobility time, detected 24h but not 72h after treatment. This same administration protocol induced a deficit in novel object recognition. No change was observed in mice locomotion. Our results confirm that repeated administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine is useful in modeling schizophrenia-related behavioral changes in mice. However, the immobility time during forced swimming does not seem to be a good endpoint to evaluate the modeling of negative symptoms in NMDAR antagonist animal models of schizophrenia.

  4. Effects of repeated vibratory stimulation of wrist and elbow flexors on hand dexterity, strength, and sensory function in patients with chronic stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Ho

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated vibratory stimulation to muscles related to hand functions on dexterity, strength, and sensory function in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 10 stroke patients with hemiplegia participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: a) Experimental and b) Control, with five randomly selected subjects for each group. The experimental group received vibratory stimulation, while the control group received the traditional physical therapy. Both interventions were performed for 30 minutes each session, three times a week for four weeks. [Results] There was a significant within-group improvement in the box and block test results in both groups for dexterity. Grip strength improved in both groups but the improvement was not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The vibratory stimulation activated the biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis, which increased dexterity to grasp and lift the box and block from the surface. Therefore, repeated vibratory stimulation to muscles related to hand functions improved hand dexterity equality to the traditional physical therapy in patients with chronic stroke.

  5. Repeated Causal Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…

  6. Study on Molasses Concentration from Sugarcanne Bagasse for Biohydrogen Production using Enriched Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Immobilised Cells by Repeated Batch Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Norfatiha; Aminah Lutpi, Nabilah; Ruhaizul Che Ridzuan, Che Mohd; Shian, Wong Yee; Nuraiti Tengku Izhar, Tengku

    2018-03-01

    Repeated batch cultivation is known as most attractive method in improving hydrogen productivity, due to the facts that this approach could minimize the reuse of the cell and the inoculum preparation. In addition, with the combination of attach growth system during the fermentation processes to produce biohydrogen, the density of cells will be increased and the cell washout could be avoided. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effectiveness of repeated batch cultivation for enrichment of anaerobic mixed culture onto granular activated carbon (GAC) and investigate the effect of molasses concentration during immobilization of mixed culture onto the GAC. The molasses concentration using 50 %, 40 %, 30 %, 20 % and 10 % of diluted molasses were used as feedstock in the fermentation process. The maximum hydrogen production of 60 ml was obtained at 30 % of molasses concentration with 831 ppm of hydrogen concentration. Thus, the kinetic parameter obtained from the batch profiling based on modified Gompertz equation are, Hm= 58 ml for the maximum hydrogen production and Rm= 2.02 ml/h representing the hydrogen production rate.

  7. Evaluation of repeated dose micronucleus assays of the liver using N-nitrosopyrrolidine: a report of the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Izumi; Hagioa, Soichiro; Furukawa, Satoshi; Abe, Masayoshi; Kuroda, Yusuke; Hayashi, Seigo; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay has the potential to detect liver carcinogens, and can be integrated into a general toxicological study. To assess the performance of the assay, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was tested in 14- or 28-day RDLMN assays. NPYR was orally administered to rats at a daily dose of 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg. One day after the last administration, a portion of the liver was removed and hepatocyte micronucleus (MN) specimens were prepared by the new method recently established by Narumi et al. In addition, a bone marrow MN assay and a histopathological examination of the liver were conducted. The detection of Phospho-Histone H3 was performed by immunohistochemistry to evaluate the proliferation rate of hepatocytes. The results showed significant increase in the number of micronucleated hepatocytes and Phospho-Histone H3-positive cells from the lowest dose in both 14- and 28-day RDLMN assays. On the other hand, the bone marrow MN assay yielded a negative result, which was in accordance with the existing report of the bone marrow MN assay using mice. Upon histopathological examination, inflammatory lesions and hypertrophy were noted, which may explain the increase in the hepatocyte proliferation and the enhancement of MN induction by NPYR. Our findings indicate that the RDLMN assay could be a useful tool for comprehensive risk assessment of carcinogenicity by providing information on both genotoxicity and histopathology when integrated into a general repeat dosing toxicity assay.

  8. Predicting in vivo effect levels for repeat-dose systemic toxicity using chemical, biological, kinetic and study covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Lisa; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Pham, LyLy; Clouzeau, Jacques; Loisel-Joubert, Sophie; Blanchet, Delphine; Noçairi, Hicham; Setzer, Woodrow; Judson, Richard; Grulke, Chris; Mansouri, Kamel; Martin, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    In an effort to address a major challenge in chemical safety assessment, alternative approaches for characterizing systemic effect levels, a predictive model was developed. Systemic effect levels were curated from ToxRefDB, HESS-DB and COSMOS-DB from numerous study types totaling 4379 in vivo studies for 1247 chemicals. Observed systemic effects in mammalian models are a complex function of chemical dynamics, kinetics, and inter- and intra-individual variability. To address this complex problem, systemic effect levels were modeled at the study-level by leveraging study covariates (e.g., study type, strain, administration route) in addition to multiple descriptor sets, including chemical (ToxPrint, PaDEL, and Physchem), biological (ToxCast), and kinetic descriptors. Using random forest modeling with cross-validation and external validation procedures, study-level covariates alone accounted for approximately 15% of the variance reducing the root mean squared error (RMSE) from 0.96 log 10 to 0.85 log 10  mg/kg/day, providing a baseline performance metric (lower expectation of model performance). A consensus model developed using a combination of study-level covariates, chemical, biological, and kinetic descriptors explained a total of 43% of the variance with an RMSE of 0.69 log 10  mg/kg/day. A benchmark model (upper expectation of model performance) was also developed with an RMSE of 0.5 log 10  mg/kg/day by incorporating study-level covariates and the mean effect level per chemical. To achieve a representative chemical-level prediction, the minimum study-level predicted and observed effect level per chemical were compared reducing the RMSE from 1.0 to 0.73 log 10  mg/kg/day, equivalent to 87% of predictions falling within an order-of-magnitude of the observed value. Although biological descriptors did not improve model performance, the final model was enriched for biological descriptors that indicated xenobiotic metabolism gene expression, oxidative stress, and

  9. Using the Hand Laterality Judgement Task to assess motor imagery : a study of practice effects in repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control

  10. Using the Hand Laterality Judgement Task to Assess Motor Imagery: A Study of Practice Effects in Repeated Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Veenstra, Evelien; Tepper, Marga; Feenstra, Wya; Otten, Egbert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a practice effect on the Hand Laterality Judgement Task (HLJT). The HLJT task is a mental rotation task that can be used to assess motor imagery ability in stroke patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals performed the HLJT and two control tasks twice at a 3-week interval. Differences in the…

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Fiona E.; Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Nierkens, Vera; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) increased levels of financial strain, especially in those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Financial strain can affect smoking behaviour. This study examines socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation in The Netherlands before and during

  12. Second time around: Corticospinal responses following repeated sports-related concussions within the same season. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: This multiple-case study has demonstrated that concussion result in increased intracortical inhibition and reduction in cognitive and motor performance. Further, TMS, in conjunction with tests of cognitive and motor performance, can be useful as a prognostic technique in assessing recovery from acute concussion injury.

  13. Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Christrup, Lona Louring

    III-60 Rasmus Juul Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study RV Juul(1), KV Pedersen(2, 4), LL Christrup(1), AE Olesen(1, 3), AM Drewes(3), PJS Osther(4), TM Lund(1) 1) Department of Drug Design...... a relationship with pain intensity has not yet been established. The aim of this pilot study was to discuss how best to investigate the relationship between RTTE hazard of analgesic events and pain intensity in postoperative pain. Methods: Data was available from 44 patients undergoing kidney stone surgery......). Gompertz and exponential distribution models were evaluated. Post-hoc linear mixed effect modelling was performed between estimated RTTE hazard and observed NRS using the lme4 package in R (3). Results: A Gompertz distribution model adequately described data, with a baseline event rate of 0.64h-1 (RSE 25...

  14. Reduction of smoking in Dutch adolescents over the past decade and its health gains: a repeated cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gielkens-Sijstermans, Cindy M.; Mommers, Monique A.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.; de Vreede, Jacqueline; Bovens, Fons M.; van Schayck, Onno C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the main preventable lifestyle-related risk factor threatening human health. In this study, time trends in smoking behaviour between 1996 and 2005 among adolescents enrolled in secondary school were assessed. Methods: In 1996, 2001 and 2005, a survey was conducted in the south-eastern region of the Netherlands. All students in second and fourth year of secondary education (1996: n = 20 000; 2001: n = 27 500; 2005: n = 24 000) were asked to complete a questionnaire about...

  15. The necessity of repeated assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records in medico-legal opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two case reports of living victims, in which imaging studies of the chest conducted at a medical facility were an essential part of the medico-legal opinion. The first case was that of a young male hospitalized due to CT evidence of bilateral rib fractions, who claimed to have been assaulted by police officers. The other case was that of a six week old baby hospitalized due to chest X-ray evidence of right hand side rib fractions. The chest X-ray was performed due to one bruise found on the baby’s forehead and two small bruises on the back, which gave rise to suspicions of child abuse. In both cases, expert witnesses in radiology definitively excluded the presence of any fractures. These cases indicate that a new assessment of imaging studies contained in medical records is needed. Expert opinions based solely on the description of imaging studies may result in grave consequences.

  16. Repeated Dose 28-Days Oral Toxicity Study of Carica papaya L. Leaf Extract in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from ‘Sekaki’ C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  17. A study to evaluate safety and tolerability of repeated doses of tirasemtiv in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefner, Jeremy M; Watson, Mary Lou; Meng, Lisa; Wolff, Andrew A

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Tirasemtiv is a fast skeletal muscle activator that increases the sensitivity of the sarcomere to calcium, increasing the efficiency of muscle contraction when the muscle is stimulated at submaximal contraction frequencies. A previous study showed single doses of tirasemtiv to be well tolerated and associated with potentially important improvements in a variety of functional outcomes. This study determined safety of tirasemtiv when given at doses up to 500 mg daily for three weeks. Tirasemtiv was given as a single daily dose up to 375 mg for two weeks, with and without concomitant riluzole. In a separate cohort, an ascending dose protocol evaluated a total dose of 500 mg daily given in two divided doses. Safety and tolerability were assessed, as well as measures of function, muscle strength and endurance. Results showed that tirasemtiv was well tolerated, with dizziness the most common adverse event. Tirasemtiv approximately doubled the serum concentration of riluzole. Trends were noted for improvement in ALSFRS-R, Maximum Minute Ventilation, and Nasal Inspiratory Pressure. In conclusion, tirasemtiv is well tolerated and can be given safely with a reduced dose of riluzole. Positive trends in multiple exploratory outcome measures support the further study of this agent in ALS.

  18. Application of a repeat-measure biomarker measurement error model to 2 validation studies: examination of the effect of within-person variation in biomarker measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Sarah Rosner; Spiegelman, Donna; Zhao, Barbara Bojuan; Moshfegh, Alanna; Baer, David J; Willett, Walter C

    2011-03-15

    Repeat-biomarker measurement error models accounting for systematic correlated within-person error can be used to estimate the correlation coefficient (ρ) and deattenuation factor (λ), used in measurement error correction. These models account for correlated errors in the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour diet recall and random within-person variation in the biomarkers. Failure to account for within-person variation in biomarkers can exaggerate correlated errors between FFQs and 24-hour diet recalls. For 2 validation studies, ρ and λ were calculated for total energy and protein density. In the Automated Multiple-Pass Method Validation Study (n=471), doubly labeled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) were measured twice in 52 adults approximately 16 months apart (2002-2003), yielding intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.43 for energy (DLW) and 0.54 for protein density (UN/DLW). The deattenuated correlation coefficient for protein density was 0.51 for correlation between the FFQ and the 24-hour diet recall and 0.49 for correlation between the FFQ and the biomarker. Use of repeat-biomarker measurement error models resulted in a ρ of 0.42. These models were similarly applied to the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition Study (1999-2000). In conclusion, within-person variation in biomarkers can be substantial, and to adequately assess the impact of correlated subject-specific error, this variation should be assessed in validation studies of FFQs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

  19. A 90-day repeated-dose toxicity study of dietary alpha linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushita, Hiroto; Ito, Yuichi; Saito, Tetsuji; Nukada, Yuko; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nakagiri, Hideaki; Saito, Kazutoshi; Morita, Osamu

    2018-05-31

    Diets supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil-which mainly consists of oleic and linolenic, linoleic acids-have potential health benefits in terms of preventing or managing obesity. Although safety of DAG oil has been extensively investigated, toxicity of ALA-DAG oil has not been well understood. Hence, the present study was conducted to clarify the potential adverse effects, if any, of ALA-DAG oil in rats (10/sex/group) fed diets containing 1.375%, 2.75%, or 5.5% ALA-DAG oil for 90 days. Compared to control rats fed rapeseed oil or ALA-triacylglycerol oil (flaxseed oil), rats receiving ALA-DAG oil did not reveal any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes as evaluated by clinical signs, functional observational battery, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weight, necropsy and histopathology. The no observed adverse effect levels for dietary exposure to ALA-DAG oil for male and female rats were 2916 and 3326 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, the highest dose tested. The findings from this study suggest that consumption of ALA-DAG oil is unlikely to cause adverse effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. School nurses' attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme - A repeated cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja; Stenhammar, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate school nurses' attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736) from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015). More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56%) strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (pHPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56%) reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90%) had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils.

  1. School nurses' attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme - A repeated cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate school nurses' attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV, and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736 from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015. More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56% strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (p<0.001. There were no differences in school nurses' perceived knowledge about HPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56% reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90% had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils.

  2. Study on critical heat flux in narrow rectangular channel with repeated-rib roughness. 1. Experimental facility and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-10-01

    In the design of a spallation target system, the water cooling system, for example a proton beam window and a safety hull, is used with narrow channels, in order to remove high heat flux and prevent lowering of system performance by absorption of neutron. And in narrow channel, heat transfer enhancement using 2-D rib is considered for reduction the cost of cooling component and decrease inventory of water in the cooling system, that is, decrease of the amount of irradiated water. But few studies on CHF with rib have been carried out. Experimental and analytical studies with rib-roughened test section, in 10:1 ratio of pitch to height, are being carried out in order to clarify the CHF in rib-roughened channel. This paper presents the review of previous researches on heat transfer in channel with rib roughness, overview of the test facility and the preliminary experimental and analytical results. As a result, wall friction factors were about 3 times as large as that of smooth channel, and heat transfer coefficients are about 2 times as large as that of smooth channel. The obtained CHF was as same as previous mechanistic model by Sudo. (author)

  3. Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Balaji; Jayavelu, Subramani; Murhekar, Kanchan; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2016-01-01

    EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate) is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract) and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal)] and limited [p.o (oral)] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment.

  4. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form) for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support) model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors. PMID:22551645

  5. Violence towards health care workers in a Public Health Care Facility in Italy: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnavita Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence at work is one of the major concerns in health care activities. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of physical and non-physical violence in a general health care facility in Italy and to assess the relationship between violence and psychosocial factors, thereby providing a basis for appropriate intervention. Methods All health care workers from a public health care facility were invited to complete a questionnaire containing questions on workplace violence. Three questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted. The response rate was 75 % in 2005, 71 % in 2007, and 94 % in 2009. The 2009 questionnaire contained the VIF (Violent Incident Form for reporting violent incidents, the DCS (demand/control/support model for job strain, the Colquitt 20 item questionnaire for perceived organizational justice, and the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire for the assessment of mental health. Results One out of ten workers reported physical assault, and one out of three exposure to non-physical violence in the workplace in the previous year. Nurses and physicians were the most exposed occupational categories, whereas the psychiatric and emergency departments were the services at greatest risk of violence. Workers exposed to non-physical violence were subject to high job strain, low support, low perceived organizational justice, and high psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that health care workers in an Italian local health care facility are exposed to violence. Workplace violence was associated with high demand and psychological disorders, while job control, social support and organizational justice were protective factors.

  6. Repeated dose studies with pure Epigallocatechin-3-gallate demonstrated dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity with associated dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Ramachandran

    Full Text Available EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the major active principle catechin found in green tea. Skepticism regarding the safety of consuming EGCG is gaining attention, despite the fact that it is widely being touted for its potential health benefits, including anti-cancer properties. The lack of scientific data on safe dose levels of pure EGCG is of concern, while EGCG has been commonly studied as a component of GTE (Green tea extract and not as a single active constituent. This study has been carried out to estimate the maximum tolerated non-toxic dose of pure EGCG and to identify the treatment related risk factors. In a fourteen day consecutive treatment, two different administration modalities were compared, offering an improved [i.p (intraperitoneal] and limited [p.o (oral] bioavailability. A trend of dose and route dependant hepatotoxicity was observed particularly with i.p treatment and EGCG increased serum lipid profile in parallel to hepatotoxicity. Fourteen day tolerable dose of EGCG was established as 21.1 mg/kg for i.p and 67.8 mg/kg for p.o. We also observed that, EGCG induced effects by both treatment routes are reversible, subsequent to an observation period for further fourteen days after cessation of treatment. It was demonstrated that the severity of EGCG induced toxicity appears to be a function of dose, route of administration and period of treatment. Keywords: EGCG, Green tea, Serum lipids, Dose dependant toxicity, Route dependant toxicity, Liver toxicity, Dyslipidemia

  7. Dynamic Pain Phenotypes are Associated with Spinal Cord Stimulation-Induced Reduction in Pain: A Repeated Measures Observational Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Buenaver, Luis F; Raja, Srinivasa N; Kiley, Kasey B; Swedberg, Lauren J; Wacnik, Paul W; Cohen, Steven P; Erdek, Michael A; Williams, Kayode A; Christo, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has become a widely used treatment option for a variety of pain conditions. Substantial variability exists in the degree of benefit obtained from SCS and patient selection is a topic of expanding interest and importance. However, few studies have examined the potential benefits of dynamic quantitative sensory testing (QST) to develop objective measures of SCS outcomes or as a predictive tool to help patient selection. Psychological characteristics have been shown to play an important role in shaping individual differences in the pain experience and may aid in predicting responses to SCS. Static laboratory pain-induction measures have also been examined in their capacity for predicting SCS outcomes. The current study evaluated clinical, psychological and laboratory pain measures at baseline, during trial SCS lead placement, as well as 1 month and 3 months following permanent SCS implantation in chronic pain patients who received SCS treatment. Several QST measures were conducted, with specific focus on examination of dynamic models (central sensitization and conditioned pain modulation [CPM]) and their association with pain outcomes 3 months post SCS implantation. Results suggest few changes in QST over time. However, central sensitization and CPM at baseline were significantly associated with clinical pain at 3 months following SCS implantation, controlling for psycho/behavioral factors and pain at baseline. Specifically, enhanced central sensitization and reduced CPM were associated with less self-reported pain 3 months following SCS implantation. These findings suggest a potentially important role for dynamic pain assessment in individuals undergoing SCS, and hint at potential mechanisms through which SCS may impart its benefit. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tolerability of the Oscar 2 ambulatory blood pressure monitor among research participants: a cross-sectional repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinderliter Alan L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is increasingly used to measure blood pressure (BP in research studies. We examined ease of use, comfort, degree of disturbance, reported adverse effects, factors associated with poor tolerability, and association of poor tolerability with data acquisition of 24-hour ABPM using the Oscar 2 monitor in the research setting. Methods Sixty adults participating in a research study of people with a history of borderline clinic BP reported on their experience with ABPM on two occasions one week apart. Poor tolerability was operationalized as an overall score at or above the 75th percentile using responses to questions adapted from a previously developed questionnaire. In addition to descriptive statistics (means for responses to Likert-scaled "0 to 10" questions and proportions for Yes/No questions, we examined reproducibility of poor tolerability as well as associations with poor tolerability and whether poor tolerability was associated with removal of the monitor or inadequate number of BP measurements. Results The mean ambulatory BP of participants by an initial ABPM session was 148/87 mm Hg. After wearing the monitor the first time, the degree to which the monitor was felt to be cumbersome ranged from a mean of 3.0 to 3.8, depending on whether at work, home, driving, or other times. The most bother was interference with normal sleeping pattern (mean 4.2. Wearers found the monitor straightforward to use (mean 7.5. Nearly 67% reported that the monitor woke them after falling asleep, and 8.6% removed it at some point during the night. Reported adverse effects included pain (32%, skin irritation (37%, and bruising (7%. Those categorized as having poor tolerability (kappa = 0.5 between sessions, p = 0.0003 were more likely to report being in fair/poor health (75% vs 22%, p = 0.01 and have elevated 24-hour BP average (systolic: 28% vs 17%, p = 0.56; diastolic: 30% vs 17%, p = 0.37. They were

  9. Safety of sucrose esters from Physalis peruviana L. in a 28-day repeated-dose study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Yanet C; Caro, Daneiva C; Rivera, David E; Franco, Luis A

    2017-06-01

    Although extracts and consumed foods from Physalis species contain sucrose esters from their glandular trichomes, there is no experimental data available on their toxicological effects. As peruvioses A and B isolated from Physalis peruviana L. calyces have proved to be effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory compounds, this work aimed to investigate their sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity. For this, CD-1(ICR) mice were treated intraperitoneally with peruvioses at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days, to simulate therapeutic and over-therapeutic dosage levels. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and their organs weighted, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Toxicological endpoints included clinical signs; food consumption; body and organ weights; hematological and biochemical parameters; as well as macroscopic and microscopic examination of tissues. The results showed no significant differences between treated animals and control group at macroscopic, histological, molecular, and biochemical levels. In addition, a combination of mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test, comet assay in peripheral blood cells, and Ames test, did not reveal genotoxic effects induced by peruvioses. Taken together, our data suggests that peruvioses A and B can be safely employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Fiona E; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Nierkens, Vera; Bruggink, Jan-Willem; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-05-06

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) increased levels of financial strain, especially in those of low socioeconomic status (SES). Financial strain can affect smoking behaviour. This study examines socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation in The Netherlands before and during the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). Participants were 66,960 Dutch adults (≥ 18 years) who took part in the annual national Health Survey (2004-2011). Period was dichotomised: 'pre-' and 'during-GFC'. SES measures used were income, education and neighbourhood deprivation. Outcomes were current smoking rates (smokers/total population) and smoking cessation ratios (former smokers/ever smokers). Multilevel logistic regression models controlled for individual characteristics and tested for interaction between period and SES. In both periods, high SES respondents (in all indicators) had lower current smoking levels and higher cessation ratios than those of middle or low SES. Inequalities in current smoking increased significantly in poorly educated adults of 45-64 years of age (Odds Ratio (OR) low educational level compared with high: 2.00[1.79-2.23] compared to pre-GFC 1.67[1.50-1.86], p for interaction = 0.02). Smoking cessation inequalities by income in 18-30 year olds increased with borderline significance during the GFC (OR low income compared to high income: 0.73[0.58-0.91]) compared to pre-GFC (OR: 0.98[0.80-1.20]), p for interaction = 0.051). Overall, socioeconomic inequalities in current smoking and smoking cessation were unchanged during the GFC. However, current smoking inequalities by education, and smoking cessation inequalities by income, increased in specific age groups. Increased financial strain caused by the crisis may disproportionately affect smoking behaviour in some disadvantaged groups.

  11. Motor Cortex Reorganization in Patients with Glioma Assessed by Repeated Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Anne; Noack, Anika; Baumgarten, Peter; Seifert, Volker; Forster, Marie-Therese

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for cerebral reorganization after resection of low-grade glioma has mainly been obtained by serial intraoperative cerebral mapping. Noninvasively collected data on cortical plasticity in tumor patients over a surgery-free period are still scarce. The present study therefore aimed at evaluating motor cortex reorganization by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) in patients after perirolandic glioma surgery. nTMS was performed preoperatively and postoperatively in 20 patients, separated by 26.1 ± 24.8 months. Further nTMS mapping was conducted in 14 patients, resulting in a total follow-up period of 46.3 ± 25.4 months. Centers of gravity (CoGs) were calculated for every muscle representation area, and Euclidian distances between CoGs over time were defined. Results were compared with data from 12 healthy individuals, who underwent motor cortex mapping by nTMS in 2 sessions. Preoperatively and postoperatively pooled CoGs from the area of the dominant abductor pollicis brevis muscle and of the nondominant leg area differed significantly compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Most remarkably, during the ensuing follow-up period, a reorganization of all representation areas was observed in 3 patients, and a significant shift of hand representation areas was identified in further 3 patients. Complete functional recovery of postoperative motor deficits was exclusively associated with cortical reorganization. Despite the low potential of remodeling within the somatosensory region, long-term reorganization of cortical motor function can be observed. nTMS is best suited for a noninvasive evaluation of this reorganization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiologic effect of repeated adrenaline (epinephrine) doses during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the cath lab setting: A randomised porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardig, Bjarne Madsen; Götberg, Michael; Rundgren, Malin; Götberg, Matthias; Zughaft, David; Kopotic, Robert; Wagner, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    This porcine study was designed to explore the effects of repetitive intravenous adrenaline doses on physiologic parameters during CPR. Thirty-six adult pigs were randomised to four injections of: adrenaline 0.02 mg(kgdose)(-1), adrenaline 0.03 mg(kgdose)(-1) or saline control. The effect on systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CePP), end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry (SpO2), cerebral tissue oximetry (SctO2), were analysed immediately prior to each injection and at peak arterial systolic pressure and arterial blood gases were analysed at baseline and after 15 min. In the group given 0.02 mg(kgdose)(-1), there were increases in all arterial blood pressures at all 4 pressure peaks but CePP only increased significantly after peak 1. A decrease in ETCO2 following peak 1 and 2 was observed. SctO2 and SpO2 were lowered following injection 2 and beyond. In the group given a 0.03 mg(kgdose)(-1), all ABP's increased at the first 4 pressure peaks but CePP only following 3 pressure peaks. Lower ETCO2, SctO2 and SpO2 were seen at peak 1 and beyond. In the two adrenaline groups, pH and Base Excess were lower and lactate levels higher compared to baseline as well as compared to the control. Repetitive intravenous adrenaline doses increased ABP's and to some extent also CePP, but significantly decreased organ and brain perfusion. The institutional protocol number: Malmö/Lund Committee for Animal Experiment Ethics, approval reference number: M 192-10. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact on smoking of England's 2012 partial tobacco point of sale display ban: a repeated cross-sectional national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E; McNeill, Ann; West, Robert

    2017-03-01

    A partial tobacco point of sale (PoS) display ban was introduced in large shops (>280 m 2 floor area) in England on 6 April 2012. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term effects of the partial tobacco PoS display ban on smoking in England. Data were used from 129 957 respondents participating in monthly, cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of the English adult population aged 18+ years from January 2009 to February 2015. Interrupted-time series regression models assessed step changes in the level of current smoking and cigarette consumption in smokers and changes in the trends postban compared with preban. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables and e-cigarette use, seasonality and autocorrelation. Potential confounding by cigarette price was accounted for by time, as price was almost perfectly correlated with time. Following the display ban, there was no immediate step level change in smoking (-3.69% change, 95% CI -7.94 to 0.75, p=0.102) or in cigarette consumption (β -0.183, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.236). There was a significantly steeper decline in smoking post display ban (-0.46% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001). This effect was demonstrated by respondents in manual occupations (-0.62% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001), but not for those in non-manual occupations (-0.42, 95% CI -0.90 to 0.06, p=0.084). Cigarette consumption declined preban period (β -0.486, 95% CI -0.633 to -0.339, p<0.001), but no significant change in cigarette consumption trend was observed (β 0.019, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.042, p=0.131). The partial tobacco PoS display ban introduced in England in April 2012 did not lead to an immediate decline in smoking, but was followed by a decline in the trend of smoking prevalence that could not be accounted for by seasonal factors, e-cigarette use or price changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Characterization of regional left ventricular function in nonhuman primates using magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers: a test-retest repeatability and inter-subject variability study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sampath

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF. Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs, that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain

  15. Facilitating the Development and Evaluation of a Citizen Science Web Site: A Case Study of Repeat Photography and Climate Change in Southwest Alaska's National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Karina C.; Newman, Gregory; Thompson, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    Interviews with national park visitors across the country revealed that climate change education through place-based, hands-on learning using repeat photographs and technology is appealing to park visitors. This manuscript provides a summary of the development of a repeat photography citizen science Web site for national parks in Southwest Alaska.…

  16. Burden of hospital admission and repeat angiography in angina pectoris patients with and without coronary artery disease: a registry-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Lasse; Abildstrom, Steen Z; Hvelplund, Anders; Madsen, Jan K; Galatius, Soren; Pedersen, Frants; Hojberg, Soren; Prescott, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate risk of hospitalization due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and repeat coronary angiography (CAG) in stable angina pectoris (SAP) with no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) versus obstructive CAD, and asymptomatic reference individuals. We followed 11,223 patients with no prior CVD having a first-time CAG in 1998-2009 due to SAP symptoms and 5,695 asymptomatic reference individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study through registry linkage for 7.8 years (median). In recurrent event survival analysis, patients with SAP had 3-4-fold higher risk of hospitalization for CVD irrespective of CAG findings and cardiovascular comorbidity. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios(95%CI) for patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries was 3.0(2.5-3.5), for angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD 3.9(3.3-4.6) and for 1-3-vessel disease 3.6-4.1(range)(all P<0.001). Mean accumulated hospitalization time was 3.5(3.0-4.0)(days/10 years follow-up) in reference individuals and 4.5(3.8-5.2)/7.0(5.4-8.6)/6.7(5.2-8.1)/6.1(5.2-7.4)/8.6(6.6-10.7) in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries/angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD/1-, 2-, and 3-vessel disease, respectively (all P<0.05, age-adjusted). SAP symptoms predicted repeat CAG with multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries being 2.3(1.9-2.9), for angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD 5.5(4.4-6.8) and for obstructive CAD 6.6-9.4(range)(all P<0.001). Patients with SAP symptoms and angiographically normal coronary arteries or angiographically diffuse non-obstructive CAD suffer from considerably greater CVD burdens in terms of hospitalization for CVD and repeat CAG compared with asymptomatic reference individuals even after adjustment for cardiac risk factors and exclusion of cardiovascular comorbidity as cause. Contrary to common perception, excluding obstructive CAD by CAG in such patients does not ensure a benign

  17. Effect of study design and setting on tuberculosis clustering estimates using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Jessica; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Cohen, Theodore; McHugh, Timothy D; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2015-01-21

    To systematically review the evidence for the impact of study design and setting on the interpretation of tuberculosis (TB) transmission using clustering derived from Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) strain typing. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for articles published before 21st October 2014. Studies in humans that reported the proportion of clustering of TB isolates by MIRU-VNTR were included in the analysis. Univariable meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of study design and setting on the proportion of clustering. The search identified 27 eligible articles reporting clustering between 0% and 63%. The number of MIRU-VNTR loci typed, requiring consent to type patient isolates (as a proxy for sampling fraction), the TB incidence and the maximum cluster size explained 14%, 14%, 27% and 48% of between-study variation, respectively, and had a significant association with the proportion of clustering. Although MIRU-VNTR typing is being adopted worldwide there is a paucity of data on how study design and setting may influence estimates of clustering. We have highlighted study design variables for consideration in the design and interpretation of future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. New Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA) Scheme for Fine-Scale Monitoring and Microevolution-Related Study of Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Phylotype I Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinard, Jérémy; Latreille, Anne; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial wilt caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) is considered one of the most harmful plant diseases in the world. Special attention should be paid to R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I due to its large host range, its worldwide distribution, and its high evolutionary potential. So far, the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of this bacterium are poorly understood. Until now, the genetic structure of the RSSC has been analyzed on the worldwide and regional scales. Emerging questions regarding evolutionary forces in RSSC adaptation to hosts now require genetic markers that are able to monitor RSSC field populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) approach for its ability to discriminate genetically close phylotype I strains and for population genetics studies. We developed a new MLVA scheme (MLVA-7) allowing us to genotype 580 R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I strains extracted from susceptible and resistant hosts and from different habitats (stem, soil, and rhizosphere). Based on specificity, polymorphism, and the amplification success rate, we selected seven fast-evolving variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) markers. The newly developed MLVA-7 scheme showed higher discriminatory power than the previously published MLVA-13 scheme when applied to collections sampled from the same location on different dates and to collections from different locations on very small scales. Our study provides a valuable tool for fine-scale monitoring and microevolution-related study of R. pseudosolanacearum phylotype I populations. IMPORTANCE Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation of plant pathogens to new hosts or ecological niches has become a key point for the development of innovative disease management strategies, including durable resistance. Whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence or pathogenicity changes have been studied thoroughly, the

  19. Dietary Components Affect the Plasma and Tissue Levels of Lutein in Aged Rats with Lutein Deficiency--A Repeated Gavage and Dietary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Bhatiwada, Nidhi; Talahalli, Ramprasad Ravichandra; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the influence of selected dietary components on plasma and tissue response of repeated micellar and dietary lutein in aged rats with lutein deficiency. In repeated (16 d) gavage study, micellar lutein was co-ingested with either phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), β-carotene, dietary fiber or vegetable fat (3% soybean oil). In dietary study, rats were fed (4 wk) semi-synthetic diet either with lutein + PC, lutein + dietary fiber or B. alba (lutein source) + PC. The post-prandial plasma and tissue response of lutein was measured by HPLC. Results showed that micellar fat, PC and lysoPC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the lutein levels in plasma (31.1%, 26.8%, and 34.9%), liver (27.4%, 29.5%, and 8.6%), and eyes (63.5%, 90.2%, and 86%) compared to the control group (group gavaged micelles with no dietary components studied). Similarly, dietary study showed an enhanced plasma, liver, and eye lutein levels by 44.8%, 24.1%, and 42.0% (lutein + PC group) and 51.7%, 39.8%, and 31.7% (B.alba + PC group), respectively compared to control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver of both the studies were also affected compared to control. Result reveals, that PC enhance the intestinal absorption of both micellar and dietary lutein which is either in free or bound form with food matrices in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Hence, PC at a concentration used in this study can be considered to improve the lutein bioavailability in lutein deficiency. Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments acquired mostly from greens, that play an significant role in protecting vision from Age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their biological availability is poor and affected by dietary components. This study demonstrates the positive influence of dietary PC and lyso PC in improving intestinal uptake of lutein. Our previous and present finding shows there is a possibility of developing functional

  20. How much will afforestation of former cropland influence soil C stocks? A synthesis of paired sampling, chronosequence sampling and repeated sampling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, K.; Stupak, I.; Don, Axel; Poeplau, C.; Leifeld, Jens; van Wesemael, Bas

    2010-05-01

    The need for documentation of land-use change effects on soil C is high on the agenda in most signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Large land areas in Europe have experienced land-use change from cropland to forest since 1990 by direct afforestation as well as abandonment and regrowth of marginally productive cropland. Soil C dynamics following land-use change remain highly uncertain due to a limited number of available studies and due to influence of interacting factors such as land use history, soil type, and climate. Common approaches for estimation of potential soil C changes following land-use change are i) paired sampling of plots with a long legacy of different land uses, ii) chronosequence studies of land-use change, and lastly iii) repeated sampling of plots subject to changed land use. This paper will synthesize the quantitative effects of cropland afforestation on soil C sequestration based on all three approaches and will report on related work within Cost 639. Paired plots of forest and cropland were used to study the general differences between soil C stocks in the two land uses. At 27 sites in Denmark distributed among different regions and soil types forest floor and mineral soil were sampled in and around soil pits. Soil C stocks were higher in forest than cropland (mean difference 22 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth). This difference was caused solely by the presence of a forest floor in forests; mineral soil C stocks were similar (108 vs. 109 Mg C ha-1) in the two land uses regardless of soil type and the soil layers considered. The chronosequence approach was employed in the AFFOREST project for evaluation of C sequestration in biomass and soils following afforestation of cropland. Two oak (Quercus robur) and four Norway spruce (Picea abies) afforestation chronosequences (age range 1 to 90 years) were studied in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. Forest floor and mineral soil (0-25 cm) C contents were as a minimum unchanged and in most cases there

  1. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  2. Reasons for and functional results of repeated hip arthroscopy: A continuous prospective study of 17 revisions out of 295 primary hip arthroscopies at mean 28months' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, C; Merlini, L; Mercier, M; Bonin, N

    2017-09-01

    The rate of iterative arthroscopy has been increasing over the last decade as the technique has grown. The results of and reasons for these revision procedures, however, are not exactly known. We therefore conducted a prospective study to shed light on: 1) functional results and patient satisfaction following repeated arthroscopy, and 2) the relevant indications. Functional scores and patient satisfaction increase following repeated arthroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A single-center continuous prospective study without control group included patients undergoing repeated hip arthroscopy between September 2010 and September 2014, with a mean 28months' follow-up (median, 23.3months; range, 12-62months). Preoperative and follow-up functional assessment used the modified Harris hip, WOMAC and Christensen (NHAS) questionnaires, and a satisfaction scale. On etiological analysis, repeated arthroscopy was indicated if a cause of recurrent or persistent pain accessible to arthroscopic treatment was identified. Seventeen patients were included out of 295 primary arthroscopies (5.7%): 9 male, 8 female; median age, 29.6years (range, 16-48years). Indications for primary arthroscopy comprised 13 cases of femoroacetabular impingement, 3 labrum lesions with instability, 1 chondromatosis and 1 case of osteoarthritis. Eleven of the 17 primary lesions showed persistence, including 9 of the 13 cases of femoroacetabular impingement. There were 3 failures in 17 repeated arthroscopies. All functional scores improved, with a gain of 7 points (P<0.06) on modified Harris hip score, 25 points (P<0.0006) on WOMAC score, and 27 points (P<0.001) on NHAS score. Ten of the 17 patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the repeated arthroscopy (59%). Although less good than on primary arthroscopy, functional results on repeated hip arthroscopy were satisfactory in the short term. The main reason for repeated arthroscopy was persistence of initial abnormality due to insufficient treatment

  3. Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 13) Two- or four-week repeated dose studies and fertility study of PPAR alpha/gamma dual agonist in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Norihiro; Uchida, Keisuke; Nakajima, Mikio; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kohira, Terutomo

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to determine the optimal dosing period in a repeated dose toxicity study based on toxic effects as assessed by ovarian morphological changes. To assess morphological and functional changes induced in the ovary by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha/gamma dual agonist, the compound was administered to female rats at dose levels of 0, 4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day in a repeated dose toxicity study for 2 or 4 weeks, and from 2 weeks prior to mating to Day 7 of pregnancy in a female fertility study. In the repeated dose toxicity study, an increase in atresia of large follicles, a decrease in corpora lutea, and an increase in stromal cells were observed in the treated groups. In addition, the granulosa cell exfoliations into antrum of large follicles and corpora lutea with retained oocyte are morphological characteristics induced by this compound, and they might be related with abnormal condition of ovulation. In the female fertility study, the pregnancy rate tended to decrease in the 100 mg/kg/day group. At necropsy, decreases in the number of corpora lutea, implantations and live embryos were noted in the 20 and 100 mg/kg/day group. No changes were observed in animals given 4 mg/kg/day. These findings indicated that histopathological changes in the ovary are important endpoints for evaluation of drugs inducing ovarian damage. In conclusion, a 2-week administration period is sufficient to detect ovarian toxicity of this test compound in the repeated dose toxicity study.

  4. Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.booij@amc.uva.nl; Bruin, Kora de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gunning, W. Boudewijn [Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, 5590 AB Heeze (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    In recent years, several PET and SPECT studies have shown loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in amphetamine (AMPH) users. However, the use of DAT SPECT tracers to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding has not been validated. We therefore examined if repeated administration of D-AMPH or methamphetamine (METH) may induce loss of binding to striatal DATs in rats by using an experimental biodistribution study design and a SPECT tracer for the DAT ([{sup 123}I]FP-CIT). Methods: Groups of male rats (n=10 per group) were treated with D-AMPH (10 mg/kg body weight), METH (10 mg/kg body weight), or saline, twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Five days later, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT was injected intravenously, and 2 h later, the rats were sacrificed and radioactivity was assayed. Results: In D-AMPH but not METH-treated rats, striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower (approximately 17%) than in the control group. Conclusion: These data show that [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT can be used to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding and may validate the use of DAT radiotracers to study AMPH-induced changes in striatal DAT binding in vivo.

  5. Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, Jan; Bruin, Kora de; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, several PET and SPECT studies have shown loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in amphetamine (AMPH) users. However, the use of DAT SPECT tracers to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding has not been validated. We therefore examined if repeated administration of D-AMPH or methamphetamine (METH) may induce loss of binding to striatal DATs in rats by using an experimental biodistribution study design and a SPECT tracer for the DAT ([ 123 I]FP-CIT). Methods: Groups of male rats (n=10 per group) were treated with D-AMPH (10 mg/kg body weight), METH (10 mg/kg body weight), or saline, twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Five days later, [ 123 I]FP-CIT was injected intravenously, and 2 h later, the rats were sacrificed and radioactivity was assayed. Results: In D-AMPH but not METH-treated rats, striatal [ 123 I]FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower (approximately 17%) than in the control group. Conclusion: These data show that [ 123 I]FP-CIT can be used to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding and may validate the use of DAT radiotracers to study AMPH-induced changes in striatal DAT binding in vivo

  6. Baseline repeated measures from controlled human exposure studies: associations between ambient air pollution exposure and the systemic inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M S; Zanobetti, Antonella; Silverman, Frances; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Brook, Jeffrey R; Manno, Michael; Gold, Diane R

    2010-01-01

    Systemic inflammation may be one of the mechanisms mediating the association between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen are biomarkers of systemic inflammation that are independent risk factors for cardio-vascular disease. We investigated the association between ambient air pollution and systemic inflammation using baseline measurements of IL-6 and fibrinogen from controlled human exposure studies. In this retrospective analysis we used repeated-measures data in 45 nonsmoking subjects. Hourly and daily moving averages were calculated for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter pollutants on systemic IL-6 and fibrinogen. Effect modification by season was considered. We observed a positive association between IL-6 and O3 [0.31 SD per O3 interquartile range (IQR); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.080.54] and between IL-6 and SO2 (0.25 SD per SO2 IQR; 95% CI, 0.060.43). We observed the strongest effects using 4-day moving averages. Responses to pollutants varied by season and tended to be higher in the summer, particularly for O3 and PM2.5. Fibrinogen was not associated with pollution. This study demonstrates a significant association between ambient pollutant levels and baseline levels of systemic IL-6. These findings have potential implications for controlled human exposure studies. Future research should consider whether ambient pollution exposure before chamber exposure modifies IL-6 response.

  7. Evidence of cormorant-induced mortality, disparate migration strategies and repeatable circadian rhythm in the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus ): A telemetry study mapping the postspawning migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Fast; Rognon, Paul; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-01-01

    constrained navigation through the lakes. The migration into the Wadden Sea correlated with temperature perhaps indicating osmoregulatory constraints of sea entry. Unlike most salmonid species, migration occurred both day and night. Moreover, fish exhibited repeatable individual differences in diel activity...

  8. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  9. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... coordinators estimate the effect on coordination fees? Does the supposed benefit that mobile repeater stations... allow the licensing and operation of vehicular repeater systems and other mobile repeaters by public... email: [email protected] or phone: 202-418- 0530 or TTY: 202-418-0432. For detailed instructions for...

  10. Are Changes in Neighbourhood Perceptions Associated with Changes in Self-Rated Mental Health in Adults? A 13-Year Repeat Cross-Sectional Study, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R. Olsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine changes in neighbourhood perceptions on self-rated mental health problems over time, and to explore demographic, geographic and socio-economic factors as determinants of increased or decreased anxiety and depression symptoms. We conducted a repeat cross-sectional study of individuals (N: 4480 living in the same areas of west central Scotland in 1997 and 2010. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire at both time-points, containing 14 questions relating to neighbourhood perceptions and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A three-level linear regression model was fitted to HADS scores and changes in neighbourhood perceptions over time; controlling for a number of individual and area-level variables. Overall, area-level mean HADS scores decreased from 1997 to 2010. When adjusted for individual and area-level variables, this decrease did not remain for HADS anxiety. Applying an overall 14-scale neighbourhood perception measure, worsening neighbourhood perceptions were associated with small increases in depression (0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.01 to 0.07 and anxiety (0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.08 scores over time. This highlights a need for local and national policy to target areas where neighbourhood characteristics are substantially deteriorating in order to ensure the mental health of individuals does not worsen.

  11. Combination of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated 9 technique with the piggybac transposon system for mouse in utero electroporation to study cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Man; Jin, Xubin; Mu, Lili; Wang, Fangyu; Li, Wei; Zhong, Xiaoling; Liu, Xuan; Shen, Wenchen; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In utero electroporation (IUE) is commonly used to study cortical development of cerebrum by downregulating or overexpressing genes of interest in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of small mammals. However, exogenous plasmids are lost or diluted over time. Furthermore, gene knockdown based on short-hairpin RNAs may exert nonspecific effects that lead to aberrant neuronal migration. Genomic engineering by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system has great research and therapeutic potentials. Here we integrate the CRISPR/Cas9 components into the piggyBac (PB) transposon system (the CRISPR/Cas9-PB toolkit) for cortical IUEs. The mouse Sry-related HMG box-2 (Sox2) gene was selected as the target for its application. Most transduced cortical NPCs were depleted of SOX2 protein as early as 3 days post-IUE, whereas expressions of SOX1 and PAX6 remained intact. Furthermore, both the WT Cas9 and the D10A nickase mutant Cas9n showed comparable knockout efficiency. Transduced cortical cells were purified with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and effective gene editing at the Sox2 loci was confirmed. Thus, application of the CRISPR/Cas9-PB toolkit in IUE is a promising strategy to study gene functions in cortical NPCs and their progeny. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Food acceptability in field studies with US army men and women: relationship with food intake and food choice after repeated exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Kramer, F Matthew; Meiselman, Herbert L; Lesher, Larry L; Baker-Fulco, Carol; Hirsch, Edward S; Warber, John

    2005-02-01

    Laboratory data with single exposures showed that palatability has a positive relationship with food intake. The question addressed in this study is whether this relationship also holds over repeated exposures in non-laboratory contexts in more natural environments. The data were collected in four field studies, lasting 4-11 days with 307 US Army men and 119 Army women, and comprised 5791 main meals and 8831 snacks in total. Acceptability was rated on the nine point hedonic scale, and intake was registered in units of 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, or 1 or more times of the provided portion size. Correlation coefficients between individual acceptability ratings and intakes varied from 0.22 to 0.62 for the main meals (n=193-2267), and between 0.13 and 0.56 for the snacks (n=304-2967). The likelihood of choosing a meal for the second time was positively related to the acceptability rating of the meal when it was consumed for the first time. The results reinforce the importance of liking in food choice and food intake/choice behavior. However, the magnitude of the correlation coefficients between acceptability ratings and food intake suggest that environmental factors also have an important role in determining intake and choice.

  13. Comparison of diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire with measures from repeated 24-hour dietary recalls. The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartåker, Anette; Andersen, Lene Frost; Lund, Eiliv

    2007-10-01

    To compare diet measures from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs). The participants answered an FFQ after completing four, repeated 24HDRs during a year. Norway, nationwide. Of 500 women randomly selected from The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (the Norwegian arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), 286 agreed to participate and 238 completed the study. On the group level, the FFQ overestimated absolute intake in seven and underestimated intake in six of 21 food groups. Intakes of energy, fat, added sugar and alcohol were lower in the FFQ than in the 24HDRs, whereas intake of fibre was higher. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ranged from 0.13 (desserts) to 0.82 (coffee) for foods, and from 0.25 (beta-carotene) to 0.67 (alcohol) for nutrients. Three per cent of the observations on nutrient intake fell in the opposite quintile when classified according to the FFQ as compared with the 24HDR. The median calibration coefficient, calculated by regression of the 24HDR data on the FFQ data, was 0.57 for foods and 0.38 for nutrients. The FFQ's ability to rank subjects was good for foods eaten frequently and fairly good for macronutrients in terms of energy percentages. Weaker ranking abilities were seen for foods eaten infrequently and for some micronutrients. The results underline the necessity of performing measurement error corrections.

  14. Repeated 28-day oral toxicity study of vinclozolin in rats based on the draft protocol for the "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline No. 407" to detect endocrine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Moon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Il Hyun; Ki, Ho Yeon; Choi, Kwang Sik; Han, Soon Young

    2006-09-01

    We performed a 28-day repeated-dose toxicity study of vinclozolin, a widely used fungicide, based on the draft protocol of the "Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407" (Enhanced TG407) to investigate whether vinclozolin has endocrine-mediated properties according to this assay. Seven-week-old SD rats were administered with vinclozolin daily by oral gavage at dose rates of 0, 3.125, 12.5, 50 and 200 mg/kg/day for at least 28 days. The vinclozolin-treated male rats showed a reduction of epididymis and accessory sex organ weights and an alteration of hormonal patterns. A slight prolongation of the estrous cycle and changes in the estrogen/testosterone ratio and luteinizing hormone level were observed in vinclozolin-treated female rats. Thyroxin concentrations were decreased and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were increased in both sexes; however, there were no compound-related microscopic lesions in the thyroid gland or changes in the thyroid weight. The endocrine-related effects of vinclozolin could be detected by the parameters examined in the present study based on the OECD protocol, suggesting the Enhanced TG407 protocol should be a suitable screening test for the detection of endocrine-mediated effects of chemicals.

  15. [Repeated cross-sectional studies on urinary iodine and iodine content of salt among school-aged children from 2012 to 2014 in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meifang; Wang, Congyun; Li, Songtao; Ying, Xuhua; Zhao, Qi; Fu, Chaowei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the iodine status and its change among school-aged children in their morning urine and eating salt from 2012 to 2014 in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province, China. Three repeated cross-sectional studies were carried out at a same primary school in 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. Three classes were randomly selected from each of 3 to 5 grade by the cluster-stratified sampling every year. Totally, 1343 out of 1350 eligible children aged 8 to 10 years old were involved into this study. Their morning urine and salt eating at home were collected and tested. The overall median of urine iodine was 116.0 μg/L, and no significant change was found over year. The overall proportions of subjects with urine iodine iodine from 1343 salt samples was 0.0 mg/kg and no year difference was statistically observed. The proportions of subjects consumed iodized salt significantly decreased from 25.1% in 2012 to 21.8% in 2013 and to 14.2% in 2014. There was a significant difference in urine iodine between subjects taken iodized salt or not and also a weak positive correlation between salt iodine and urine iodine. The nutritional status of iodine is overall stable, proper and safety in recent 3 years among school children in Yuhuan County. The coverage rate of iodized salt is very low.

  16. The absolute number of repeat operations for complex intra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal sepsis, questions about futility of treatment frequently arise. This study focuses specifically on patients who required two or more repeat laparotomies and describes the spectrum of disease necessitating multiple repeat laparotomies ...

  17. The effect of technical replicate (repeats) on Nix Pro Color Sensor™ measurement precision for meat: A case-study on aged beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Kilgannon, Ashleigh K; Hopkins, David L

    2018-01-01

    The Nix Pro Colour Sensor™ (NIX) can be potentially used to measure meat colour, but procedural guidelines that assure measurement reproducibility and repeatability (precision) must first be established. Technical replicate number (r) will minimise response variation, measureable as standard error of predicted mean (SEM), and contribute to improved precision. Consequently, we aimed to explore the effects of r on NIX precision when measuring aged beef colour (colorimetrics; L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma values). Each colorimetric SEM declined with increasing r to indicate improved precision and followed a diminishing rate of improvement that allowed us to recommend r=7 for meat colour studies using the NIX. This definition was based on practical limitations and a* variability, as additional r would be required if other colorimetrics or advanced levels of precision are necessary. Beef ageing and display period, holding temperature, loin and sampled portion were also found to contribute to colorimetric variation, but were incorporated within our definition of r. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The development of a virtual reality training programme for ophthalmology: repeatability and reproducibility (part of the International Forum for Ophthalmic Simulation Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, G M; Theodoraki, K; Gillan, S; Sullivan, P; O'Sullivan, F; Hussain, B; Bunce, C; Athanasiadis, I

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the variability of performance among novice ophthalmic trainees in a range of repeated tasks using the Eyesi virtual reality (VR) simulator. Eighteen subjects undertook three attempts of five cataract specific and generic three-dimensional tasks: continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, cracking and chopping, cataract navigation, bimanual cataract training, anti-tremor. Scores for each attempt were out of a maximum of 100 points. A non-parametric test was used to analyse the data, where a P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Highly significant differences were found between the scores achieved in the first attempt and that during the second (P<0.0001) and third (P<0.0001) but not between the second and third attempt (P=0.65). There was no significant variability in the overall score between the users (P=0.1104) or in the difference between their highest and lowest score (P=0.3878). Highly significant differences between tasks were shown both in the overall score (P=0.0001) and in the difference between highest and lowest score (P=0.003). This study, which is the first to quantify reproducibility of performance in entry level trainees using a VR tool, demonstrated significant intra-novice variability. The cohort of subjects performed equally overall in the range of tasks (no inter-novice variability) but each showed that performance varies significantly with the complexity of the task when using this high-fidelity instrument.

  19. Municipal investment in off-road trails and changes in bicycle commuting in Minneapolis, Minnesota over 10 years: a longitudinal repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Meyer, Katie A; Peterson, Marc; Zhang, Le; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-02-13

    We studied the effect of key development and expansion of an off-road multipurpose trail system in Minneapolis, Minnesota between 2000 and 2007 to understand whether infrastructure investments are associated with increases in commuting by bicycle. We used repeated measures regression on tract-level (N = 116 tracts) data to examine changes in bicycle commuting between 2000 and 2008-2012. We investigated: 1) trail proximity measured as distance from the trail system and 2) trail potential use measured as the proportion of commuting trips to destinations that might traverse the trail system. All analyses (performed 2015-2016) adjusted for tract-level sociodemographic covariates and contemporaneous cycling infrastructure changes (e.g., bicycle lanes). Tracts that were both closer to the new trail system and had a higher proportion of trips to destinations across the trail system experienced greater 10-year increases in commuting by bicycle. Proximity to off-road infrastructure and travel patterns are relevant to increased bicycle commuting, an important contributor to overall physical activity. Municipal investment in bicycle facilities, especially off-road trails that connect a city's population and its employment centers, is likely to lead to increases in commuting by bicycle.

  20. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, K S; Rowe, K J

    1994-11-01

    To establish whether there is an association between the ingestion of synthetic food colorings and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of "hyperactivity." From approximately 800 children referred to the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) for assessment of suspected hyperactivity, 200 were included in a 6-week open trial of a diet free of synthetic food coloring. The parents of 150 children reported behavioral improvement with the diet, and deterioration on the introduction of foods noted to contain synthetic coloring. A 30-item behavioral rating inventory was devised from an examination of the clinical histories of 50 suspected reactors. Thirty-four other children (23 suspected reactors, 11 uncertain reactors) and 20 control subjects, aged 2 to 14 years, were studied. A 21-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study used each child as his or her own control. Placebo, or one of six dose levels of tartrazine (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 mg), was administered randomly each morning, and behavioral ratings were recorded by parents at the end of each 24 hours. The study identified 24 children as clear reactors (19 of 23 "suspected reactors," 3 of 11 "uncertain reactors," and 2 of 20 "control subjects"). They were irritable and restless and had sleep disturbance. Significant reactions were observed at all six dose levels. A dose response effect was obtained. With a dose increase greater than 10 mg, the duration of effect was prolonged. Behavioral changes in irritability, restlessness, and sleep disturbance are associated with the ingestion of tartrazine in some children. A dose response effect was observed.

  1. Associations of repeated high alcohol use with unsafe driving behaviors, traffic offenses, and traffic crashes among young drivers: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy; Brookland, Rebecca; Connor, Jennie

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to describe self-reported high alcohol use at each of the 3 licensing stages of graduated driver licensing and its relationship to drink-driving behaviors, intentional risky driving, aggressive driving, alcohol traffic offenses, non-alcohol traffic offenses, and traffic crashes. The New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) is a multistage, prospective cohort study of newly licensed drivers interviewed at all 3 stages of the graduated driver licensing system: learner (baseline), restricted (intermediate), and full license. At each stage, alcohol use was self-reported using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), with high alcohol use defined as a score of ≥4 for males and ≥3 for females. Sociodemographic and personality data were obtained at the baseline interview. Alcohol-related, intentional risky, and aggressive driving behaviors were self-reported following each license stage. Traffic crashes and offenses were identified from police records. Crashes were also self-reported. Twenty-six percent (n = 397) reported no high alcohol use, 22% at one license stage, 30% at 2 stages, and 22% at 3 stages. Poisson regression results (unadjusted and adjusted) showed that the number of stages where high alcohol use was reported was significantly associated with each of the outcomes. For most outcomes, and especially the alcohol-involved outcomes, the relative risk increased with the number of stages of high alcohol use. We found that high alcohol use was common among young newly licensed drivers and those who repeatedly reported high alcohol use were at a significantly higher risk of unsafe driving behaviors. Recently introduced zero blood alcohol concentration (BAC) should help to address this problem, but other strategies are required to target persistent offenders.

  2. Large-scale studies of the HphI insulin gene variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism in relation to Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S K; Gjesing, A P; Rasmussen, S K

    2004-01-01

    The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose-induced ins......The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose...

  3. Changes over time in population level transport satisfaction and mode of travel: A 13 year repeat cross-sectional study, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine changes over time in satisfaction with usual transport mode, explore individual and area level characteristics as mediators in the likelihood of transport satisfaction, and whether any changes in transport satisfaction varied by these factors over time. Adults from West Central Scotland, United Kingdom, who participated at both waves of the repeat cross-sectional 'Transport, Health and Well-being Study' conducted in 1997 (n=2735) and 2010 (n=2024) were assessed. Individuals completed a detailed postal questionnaire at both time points including self-rated satisfaction with usual transport mode (using a seven point scale subsequently dichotomised to a binary outcome of satisfied (1-2) and other (3-7)). Participants reported usual transport mode for travel to various destinations. A multilevel logistic regression model was used and individuals were nested within areas (c. 4000 population). At the 2010 sweep, two thirds (n=1345) of individuals were satisfied with their transport choice. Those with fair/poor health were less satisfied with their usual transport compared to those in better health (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.49, ptravelled by public transport (OR 2.39, p=0.005) and using multiple modes (OR 2.19, ptravelled by car. The proportion of those who travelled using public transport, active modes or by multiple mode increased journey satisfaction over time at a greater rate than those who travelled by car, highlighting that continued efforts should be made to promote these more active transport modes which have potential to impact on health.

  4. Trends in non-help-seeking for mental disorders in Germany between 1997-1999 and 2009-2012: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Dodoo-Schittko, Frank; Speerforck, Sven; Apfelbacher, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert; Schomerus, Georg; Baumeister, Sebastian E

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to examine trends in non-help-seeking for mental disorders among persons with a prevalent mental disorder (12-month prevalence) in Germany between 1997-1999 and 2009-2012. We examined data from 1909 persons aged 18-65 years who participated in two independent, repeated cross-sectional surveys (German National Interview and Examination Study 1997-1999, German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2009-2012) conducted 12 years apart. Prevalent mental disorders (12-month prevalence) were determined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which included information on lifetime help-seeking for mental health problems. Correlates of self-reported help-seeking were analyzed according to Andersen's Behavioral Model. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to assess time trends in the directly standardized and model-adjusted prevalence of non-help-seeking across strata of socio-economic and clinical variables. The proportion of people with a prevalent mental disorder who have never sought help in their lifetime decreased significantly from 62% (95% CI 58.7-64.7) to 57% (95% CI 52.2-60.9) between 1997-1999 and 2009-2012 in adults aged 18-65 years in Germany. Downward trends in non-help-seeking occurred in all investigated strata and reached statistical significance in women, in people who were living alone, people with medium educational level, people living in middle-sized communities, people with non-statutory health insurance, smokers, and people with co-existing somatic conditions. Despite a downward trend over the course of 12 years, a large proportion of people suffering from mental disorders are still not seeking treatment in Germany. Further efforts to increase uptake of help-seeking for mental disorders in hard-to-reach groups are warranted to continue this trend.

  5. Mouse-specific antibody responses to a monoclonal antibody during repeated immunoscintigraphy investigations: Comparison of antibody titres and imaging studies in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, M.V.; Gribben, S.J.; Markham, A.J.; Perkins, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    As a model for human mouse-specific antibody responses in patients undergoing immunoscintigraphy, we have investigated in rats the production of mouse-specific antibodies (MA) to the mouse monoclonal antibody 791T/36. At intervals of between 5 and 16 weeks the rats were given repeated cycles of intravenous (IV) injections of antibody with or without a simultaneous intradermal (ID) injection. The IV dose was 60 μg/kg, a dose similar to that used in many clinical immunoscintigraphy studies. The ID injection was 2 μg, which mimicks the skin test dose often given in clinical imaging protocols. The study was carried out with both 131 I-labelled antibody and with antibody labelled with 111 In by DTPA chelation. MA was measured with a passive haemagglutination assay using sheep red blood cells coated with the monoclonal antibody. Of rats given ID injections of unlabelled antibody at the same time as the IV imaging doses, 9/20 produced MA during 4 cycles of injections. In contrast, only 2/16 rats given only the IV dose produced MA. Both 131 I- and 111 In-labelled antibody appeared equally immunogenic with 5/18 and 6/18 overall responders, respectively. The production of MA was associated with a significant perturbation in the biodistribution of the IV dose of labelled antibody as seen by gamma-camera imaging of the rats given 111 In-labelled antibody. There was clearance of immune complexes to the liver, this organ accumulating up to 90% of the whole body count rate of radiolabel. MA titres of between 1/100 and 1/78000 caused equal perturbation of biodistribution, although below 1/100 the effect was more variable. (orig.)

  6. Effectiveness of assertive case management on repeat self-harm in patients admitted for suicide attempt: Findings from ACTION-J study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Taku; Nakagawa, Makiko; Hino, Kosuke; Yamada, Tomoki; Kawashima, Yoshitaka; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Shirakawa, Osamu; Ishizuka, Naoki; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2018-01-01

    Self-harm is an important risk factor for subsequent suicide and repetition of self-harm, and a common cause of emergency department presentations. However, there still remains limited evidence on intervention in emergency department settings for individuals who self-harm. This multicentre, randomised controlled trial was conducted at 17 general hospitals in Japan. In total, 914 adult patients admitted to emergency departments for a suicide attempt and had a DSM-IV-TR axis I disorder were randomly assigned to two groups, to receive either assertive case management (intervention) or enhanced usual care (control). Assertive case management was introduced by the case manager during emergency department admissions for suicide attempts, and continued after discharge. Interventions were provided until the end of the study period (for at least 18 months and up to 5 years). The number of overall self-harm episodes per person-year was significantly lower in the intervention group (adjusted incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.88, 95%CI 0.80-0.96, p=0.0031). Subgroup analysis showed a greater reduction of overall self-harm episodes among patients with no previous suicide attempt at baseline (adjusted IRR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.98, p=0.037). Patients younger than 20 years and patients who self-harmed but were not admitted to an emergency department were excluded. The present study showed that assertive case management following emergency admission for a suicide attempt reduced the incident rate of repeat overall self-harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A four-kallikrein panel for the prediction of repeat prostate biopsy: data from the European Randomized Study of Prostate Cancer screening in Rotterdam, Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Roobol, M J; Savage, C J; Peltola, M; Pettersson, K; Scardino, P T; Vickers, A J; Schröder, F H; Lilja, H

    2010-08-24

    Most men with elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) do not have prostate cancer, leading to a large number of unnecessary biopsies. A statistical model based on a panel of four kallikreins has been shown to predict the outcome of a first prostate biopsy. In this study, we apply the model to an independent data set of men with previous negative biopsy but persistently elevated PSA. The study cohort consisted of 925 men with a previous negative prostate biopsy and elevated PSA (>or=3 ng ml(-1)), with 110 prostate cancers detected (12%). A previously published statistical model was applied, with recalibration to reflect the lower positive biopsy rates on rebiopsy. The full-kallikrein panel had higher discriminative accuracy than PSA and DRE alone, with area under the curve (AUC) improving from 0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.64) to 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.74), Por=7) at biopsy with AUC improving from 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.89) to 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.94), P=0.003). Application of the panel to 1000 men with persistently elevated PSA after initial negative biopsy, at a 15% risk threshold would reduce the number of biopsies by 712; would miss (or delay) the diagnosis of 53 cancers, of which only 3 would be Gleason 7 and the rest Gleason 6 or less. Our data constitute an external validation of a previously published model. The four-kallikrein panel predicts the result of repeat prostate biopsy in men with elevated PSA while dramatically decreasing unnecessary biopsies.

  8. Argemone oil, an edible oil adulterant, induces systemic immunosuppression in Balb/c mice in an oral 28 days repeated dose toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Payal; Tewari, Prachi; Kumar, Sachin; Yadav, Sarika; Ayanur, Anjaneya; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2018-05-01

    Consumption of edible oils contaminated with Argemone oil (AO) leads to a clinical condition called "Epidemic dropsy". Earlier studies have reported that metabolism and oxidative stress primarily contributes to AO toxicity, however, the involvement of immune system has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to systematically assess the effect of AO exposure on the function of immune system in Balb/c mice. The repeated exposure of AO for 28 days caused prominent regression of spleen and thymus; severe inflammatory changes in spleen depicted by the loss of distinct follicles, increased megakaryocyte infiltration, and enhanced expression levels of inflammatory markers (iNOS & COX-2). At the functional level, AO exposure significantly abrogated the mixed lymphocyte reaction and mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative activity of T and B cells, which is reflective of profound lymphocyte dysfunction upon antigen exposure. In concordance with the loss in functional activity of lymphocytes in AO exposed animals, it was found the AO altered the relative percentage of CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD28  +  T cells. Further, there was a marked decrease in the relative distribution of cells with prominent MHC I and CD1d expression in AO exposed splenocytes. Moreover, reduced levels of immune stimulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6), and increased levels of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 were detected in the serum of AO treated mice. Along with T and B cells, AO exposure also affected the phenotype and activation status of macrophages suggesting the inclination towards "alternative activation of macrophages". Altogether, these functional changes in the immune cells are contributing factors in AO induced immunosuppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  10. A probit- log- skew-normal mixture model for repeated measures data with excess zeros, with application to a cohort study of paediatric respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Neil W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A zero-inflated continuous outcome is characterized by occurrence of "excess" zeros that more than a single distribution can explain, with the positive observations forming a skewed distribution. Mixture models are employed for regression analysis of zero-inflated data. Moreover, for repeated measures zero-inflated data the clustering structure should also be modeled for an adequate analysis. Methods Diary of Asthma and Viral Infections Study (DAVIS was a one year (2004 cohort study conducted at McMaster University to monitor viral infection and respiratory symptoms in children aged 5-11 years with and without asthma. Respiratory symptoms were recorded daily using either an Internet or paper-based diary. Changes in symptoms were assessed by study staff and led to collection of nasal fluid specimens for virological testing. The study objectives included investigating the response of respiratory symptoms to respiratory viral infection in children with and without asthma over a one year period. Due to sparse data daily respiratory symptom scores were aggregated into weekly average scores. More than 70% of the weekly average scores were zero, with the positive scores forming a skewed distribution. We propose a random effects probit/log-skew-normal mixture model to analyze the DAVIS data. The model parameters were estimated using a maximum marginal likelihood approach. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed mixture model if the underlying distribution of the positive response is different from log-skew normal. Results Viral infection status was highly significant in both probit and log-skew normal model components respectively. The probability of being symptom free was much lower for the week a child was viral positive relative to the week she/he was viral negative. The severity of the symptoms was also greater for the week a child was viral positive. The probability of being symptom free was

  11. Quantification and Assessment of the Chemical Form of Residual Gadolinium in the Brain After Repeated Administration of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents: Comparative Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Thomas; Apte, Chirag; Jost, Gregor; Schöckel, Laura; Lohrke, Jessica; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-07-01

    Multiple clinical and preclinical studies have reported a signal intensity increase and the presence of gadolinium (Gd) in the brain after repeated administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). This bioanalytical study in rat brain tissue was initiated to investigate whether the residual Gd is present as intact GBCA or in other chemical forms by using tissue fractionation and chromatography. Rats were divided randomly in 6 groups of 10 animals each. They received 10 daily injections of 2.5 mmol/kg bodyweight of 1 of 5 different GBCAs: linear GBCAs such as gadodiamide (Omniscan; GE Healthcare), gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA, Magnevist; Bayer), or gadobenate dimeglumine (Multihance; Bracco) and macrocyclic GBCAs such as gadobutrol (Gadovist; Bayer) and gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA, Dotarem; Guerbet) or saline. On days 3 and 24 after the last injection (p.i.), 5 randomly chosen animals of each group were killed by exsanguination, and their brains were excised and divided into cerebrum, pons, and cerebellum. The brain sections were homogenized by sonication in ice-cold buffer at pH 7.4. Soluble and insoluble fractions were separated by centrifugation, and the soluble fractions were further separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The Gd concentration in all tissue fractions and in the GPC eluate was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In a recovery control experiment, all GBCAs were spiked to blank brain tissue and more than 94% recovery of Gd in the tissue fractions was demonstrated. Only traces of the administered Gd were found in the rat brain tissue on day 3 and day 24 p.i. In the animals treated with macrocyclic GBCAs, Gd was found only in the soluble brain fraction and was present solely as low molecular weight molecules, most likely the intact GBCA. In the animals treated with linear GBCAs Gd was found to a large extent in the insoluble tissue fraction. The Gd concentration in the soluble fraction was comparable to the

  12. Knowledge and Skill Retention of In-Service versus Preservice Nursing Professionals following an Informal Training Program in Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Repeated-Measures Quasiexperimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuma Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants—28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals—were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P=0.08 while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P<0.001. Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups—in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P=0.01 and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P<0.001. Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills.

  13. Association between secondhand smoke exposure at home and cigarette gifting and sharing in Zhejiang, China: a repeat cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Xu, ShuiYang; Wu, QingQing; Guo, YuJie

    2016-03-03

    The aims of the current study were to assess the prevalence of household cigarette gifting and sharing, and to evaluate the relationship between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and cigarette gifting and sharing, in Zhejiang, China. A repeat cross-sectional design. 10 sites in 5 cities in Zhejiang, China. Two surveys were conducted with adults in Zhejiang, China, in 2010 (N=2112) and 2012 (N=2279), respectively. At both waves, the same questionnaire was used; respondents were asked questions on residence, number of family smokers, indoor smoking rules, household income and cigarette gifting and sharing. The findings revealed that more than half of respondents' families (54.50% in 2010, 52.79% in 2012) reported exposure to SHS. Many families (54.73% in 2010, 47.04% in 2012) shared cigarettes with others, and a minority (14.91% in 2010, 14.17% in 2012) reported their family giving cigarettes as a gift. There was a significant decrease in cigarette sharing from 2010 to 2012, irrespective of household with SHS exposure status; and the cigarette gifting was significantly decreased in household without SHS exposure. Compared to households without SHS exposure, the prevalence of cigarette gifting and sharing in households with SHS exposure was more obvious. Encouraging and promoting a smoke-free household environment is necessary to change public smoking customs in Zhejiang, China. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Long-term Outcomes With Planned Multistage Reduced Dose Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Inoperable High-Grade Arteriovenous Malformations: An Observational Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciscano, Ariel E; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J; Hu, Chen; Khattab, Mohamed H; Aggarwal, Sameer; Lim, Michael; Redmond, Kristin J; Rigamonti, Daniele; Kleinberg, Lawrence R

    2017-07-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal management of inoperable high-grade arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This long-term study of 42 patients with high-grade AVMs reports obliteration and adverse event (AE) rates using planned multistage repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of multistage SRS with treatment of the entire AVM nidus at each treatment session to achieve complete obliteration of high-grade AVMs. Patients with high-grade Spetzler-Martin (S-M) III-V AVMs treated with at least 2 multistage SRS treatments from 1989 to 2013. Clinical outcomes of obliteration rate, minor/major AEs, and treatment characteristics were collected. Forty-two patients met inclusion criteria (n = 26, S-M III; n = 13, S-M IV; n = 3, S-M V) with a median follow-up was 9.5 yr after first SRS. Median number of SRS treatment stages was 2, and median interval between stages was 3.5 yr. Twenty-two patients underwent pre-SRS embolization. Complete AVM obliteration rate was 38%, and the median time to obliteration was 9.7 yr. On multivariate analysis, higher S-M grade was significantly associated ( P = .04) failure to achieve obliteration. Twenty-seven post-SRS AEs were observed, and the post-SRS intracranial hemorrhage rate was 0.027 events per patient year. Treatment of high-grade AVMs with multistage SRS achieves AVM obliteration in a meaningful proportion of patients with acceptable AE rates. Lower obliteration rates were associated with higher S-M grade and pre-SRS embolization. This approach should be considered with caution, as partial obliteration does not protect from hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  15. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Yamaguchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h, hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days, there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin®, a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss.

  16. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taro; Yoneyama, Masanori; Onaka, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h), hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days), there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin ® , a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A joint model for repeated events of different types and multiple longitudinal outcomes with application to a follow-up study of patients after kidney transplant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musoro, Jammbe Z.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the joint modeling strategy for the case of multiple longitudinal outcomes and repeated infections of different types over time, motivated by postkidney transplantation data. Our model comprises two parts linked by shared latent terms. On the one hand is a

  18. Frequency of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Majounie (Elisa); A. Renton (Alan); K. Mok (Kin); E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); A. Waite (Adrian); S. Rollinson (Sara); A. Chiò (Adriano); G. Restagno (Gabriella); N. Nicolaou (Nayia); J. Simón-Sánchez (Javier); J.C. van Swieten (John); Y. Abramzon (Yevgeniya); J. Johnson (Janel); M. Sendtner (Michael); R. Pamphlett (Roger); R. Orrell (Richard); S. Mead (Simon); K.C. Sidle (Katie); H. Houlden (Henry); J.D. Rohrer (Jonathan Daniel); K.E. Morrison (Karen); H. Pall (Hardev); D. Talbot; O. Ansorge (Olaf); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Sabatelli (Mario); G. Mora (Gabriele); J.C. Corbo (Joseph); F. Giannini (Fabio); A. Calvo (Andrea); E. Englund (Elisabet); G. Borghero (Giuseppe); O.A.M. Floris; A. Remes (Anne); H. Laaksovirta (Hannu); L. McCluskey (Leo); J.Q. Trojanowski (John); V.M. Deerlin (Vivianna); G.D. Schellenberg (Gerard); M.A. Nalls (Michael); V.E. Drory (Vivian E); C.S. Lu (Chin-Song); T.-H. Yeh (Tu-Hsueh); H. Ishiura (Hiroyuki); Y. Takahashi (Yukari); S. Tsuji (Shoji); I. Le Ber (Isabelle); A. Brice; C. Drepper (Carsten); N. Williams (Nigel); J. Kirby (Janine); P.J. Shaw (Pamela); J. Hardy (John); P.J. Tienari (Pentti); P. Heutink (Peter); H. Morris (Huw); S. Pickering-Brown (Stuart); B.J. Traynor (Bryan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We aimed to accurately estimate the frequency of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 that has been associated with a large proportion of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: We screened 4448 patients diagnosed with

  19. Frequency of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majounie, E.; Renton, A.E.; Mok, K.; Dopper, E.G.P.; Waite, A.; Rollinson, S.; Chio, A.; Restagno, G.; Nicolaou, N.; Simon-Sanchez, J.; van Swieten, J.C.; Abramzon, Y.; Johnson, J.O.; Sendtner, M.; Pamphlett, R.; Orrell, R.W.; Mead, S.; Sidle, K.C.; Houlden, H.; Rohrer, J.D.; Morrison, K.E.; Pall, H.; Talbot, K.; Ansorge, O.; Hernandez, D.G.; Arepalli, S.; Sabatelli, M.; Mora, G.; Corbo, M.; Giannini, F.; Calvo, A.; Englund, E.; Borghero, G.; Foris, G.L.; Remes, A.M.; Laaksovirta, H.; McCluskey, L.; Trojanowski, J.Q.; Van Deerlin, V.M.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Nalls, M.A.; Drory, V.E.; Lu, C.S.; Yeh, T.H.; Ishiura, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Tsuji, S.; Le Ber, I.; Brice, A.; Drepper, C.; Williams, N.; Kirby, J.; Shaw, P.; Hardy, J.; Tienari, P.J.; Heutink, P.; Morris, H.R.; Pickering-Brown, S.; Traynor, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We aimed to accurately estimate the frequency of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 that has been associated with a large proportion of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods: We screened 4448 patients diagnosed with ALS (El

  20. Cognitive and clinical characteristics of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis carrying a C9orf72 repeat expansion: a population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons, associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in about 14% of incident cases. We assessed the frequency of the recently identified C9orf72 repeat expansion in familial and apparently sporadic cases of ALS and characterised the cognitive and clinical phenotype of patients with this expansion.

  1. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among 15-year-old Danish adolescents during 1995-2013: A nationwide, register-based, repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-10-01

    Scandinavian welfare states, despite having better population oral health than less egalitarian societies, are characterized by ubiquitous social gradients and large relative socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. However, trends in these inequalities among Scandinavian children and adolescents have not been studied in detail. To describe the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and oral health in adolescents and to investigate the trends in these associations between 1995 and 2013. Nationwide repeated cross-sectional studies (using individual-level data) were conducted on 15-year-olds in Denmark from 1995, 2003, and 2013 (N=154,750). Dental data were obtained from the national dental register of the Danish Health Authority (Sundhedsstyrelsens Centrale Odontologiske Register [SCOR]) and data on social variables from administrative registers at Statistics Denmark. SEP measures included previous year's parental education (highest attained educational level by either of the parents), income (equivalized household disposable income), and occupational social class (highest recorded occupational class between the parents). Covariates were immigration status, country of origin, number of children and persons in the family, and household type. The outcome was dental caries experience, represented by the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS) index. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between DMFS count and each of the explanatory variables separately while accounting for cluster-correlated family data. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple regressions of DMFS on SEP indicators-using the zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution as the outcome distribution-were estimated while successively adjusting for the potential effects of the included covariates. Caries prevalence declined from 71% in 1995 to 63% in 2003 and 45% in 2013. Separate assessment of each covariate showed statistically significant graded

  2. Prospective study of leptospirosis transmission in an urban slum community: role of poor environment in repeated exposures to the Leptospira agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Costa, Federico; Reis, Renato B; Hagan, José E; Melendez, Astrid X T O; Fraga, Deborah; Santana, Francisco S; Mohr, Sharif; dos Santos, Balbino L; Silva, Adriano Q; Santos, Andréia C; Ravines, Romy R; Tassinari, Wagner S; Carvalho, Marília S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis has emerged as an urban health problem as slum settlements have rapidly spread worldwide and created conditions for rat-borne transmission. Prospective studies have not been performed to determine the disease burden, identify risk factors for infection and provide information needed to guide interventions in these marginalized communities. We enrolled and followed a cohort of 2,003 residents from a slum community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Baseline and one-year serosurveys were performed to identify primary and secondary Leptospira infections, defined as respectively, seroconversion and four-fold rise in microscopic agglutination titers. We used multinomial logistic regression models to evaluate risk exposures for acquiring primary and secondary infection. A total of 51 Leptospira infections were identified among 1,585 (79%) participants who completed the one-year follow-up protocol. The crude infection rate was 37.8 per 1,000 person-years. The secondary infection rate was 2.3 times higher than that of primary infection rate (71.7 and 31.1 infections per 1,000 person-years, respectively). Male gender (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.40-5.91) and lower per capita household income (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.98 for an increase of $1 per person per day) were independent risk factors for primary infection. In contrast, the 15-34 year age group (OR 10.82, 95% CI 1.38-85.08), and proximity of residence to an open sewer (OR 0.95; 0.91-0.99 for an increase of 1 m distance) were significant risk factors for secondary infection. This study found that slum residents had high risk (>3% per year) for acquiring a Leptospira infection. Re-infection is a frequent event and occurs in regions of slum settlements that are in proximity to open sewers. Effective prevention of leptospirosis will therefore require interventions that address the infrastructure deficiencies that contribute to repeated exposures among slum inhabitants.

  3. Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Veerle; van de Straat, Vera; Bracke, Piet

    2015-03-11

    Framed within the recent economic crisis, in this study we investigate the medical mental health care use of the unemployed compared with that of the employed in Europe, and whether the relationship between employment status and mental health care use varies across macro-economic conditions. We examine whether the macro-economic context and changes therein are related to mental health care use, via their impact on mental health, or more directly, irrespective of mental health. We use data from three waves of the Eurobarometer (2002, 2005/2006, and 2010), which has a repeated cross-sectional and cross-national design. Linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses are performed with mental health, contacting a general practitioner, and contacting a psychiatrist for mental health problems as dependent variables. The multilevel design has three levels (the individual, the period-country, and the country), which allows us to estimate both longitudinal and cross-sectional macro-effects. The macro-economic context and changes therein are assessed using national unemployment rates and growth rates in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The mean unemployment rate is negatively related to mental health, although for women, this effect only applies to the employed. Among women, no relationship is found between changes in the macro-economic context and mental health. The unemployment rate, and changes in both the unemployment rate and the real GDP growth rate, are associated with men's care use, regardless of their mental health, whereas this does not hold for women. In countries with an increase in the unemployment rate, both unemployed and employed men tend to medicalize their problems more by contacting a general practitioner, irrespective of their mental health, while the likelihood of contacting a psychiatrist is lower among employed men. Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health

  4. Assessing Uncertainty and Repeatability in Time-Lapse VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection in a Brine Aquifer, Frio Formation, Texas (A Case Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Siamak [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Daley, Thomas M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2013-02-07

    This study was done to assess the repeatability and uncertainty of time-lapse VSP response to CO2 injection in the Frio formation near Houston Texas. A work flow was built to assess the effect of time-lapse injected CO2 into two Frio brine reservoir intervals, the ‘C’ sand (Frio1) and the ‘Blue sand’ (Frio2). The time-lapse seismic amplitude variations with sensor depth for both reservoirs Frio1 and Frio2 were computed by subtracting the seismic response of the base survey from each of the two monitor seismic surveys. Source site 1 has been considered as one of the best sites for evaluating the time-lapse response after injection. For site 1, the computed timelapse NRMS levels after processing had been compared to the estimated time-lapse NRMS level before processing for different control reflectors, and for brine aquifers Frio1, and Frio2 to quantify detectability of amplitude difference. As the main interest is to analyze the time-lapse amplitude variations, different scenarios have been considered. Three different survey scenarios were considered: the base survey which was performed before injection, monitor1 performed after the first injection operation, and monitor2 which was after the second injection. The first scenario was base-monitor1, the second was basemonitor2, and the third was monitor1-monitor2. We considered three ‘control’ reflections above the Frio to assist removal of overburden changes, and concluded that third control reflector (CR3) is the most favorable for the first scenario in terms of NRMS response, and first control reflector (CR1) is the most favorable for the second and third scenarios in terms of NRMS response. The NRMS parameter is shown to be a useful measure to assess the effect of processing on time-lapse data. The overall NRMS for the Frio VSP data set was found to be in the range of 30% to 80% following basic processing. This could be considered as an estimated baseline in assessing the utility

  5. Repeated Prescribed Burning in Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala

    1974-01-01

    Infrequent burning weather, low flammability of the aspen-hardwood association, and prolific sprouting and seeding of shrubs and hardwoods made repeated dormant season burning a poor tool to convert good site aspen to conifers. Repeat fall burns for wildlife habitat maintenance is workable if species composition changes are not important.

  6. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  7. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  8. Association of STin2 Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Peng, Dangwei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background The STin2 VNTR polymorphism has a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. We aimed to explore the relationship between STin2 VNTR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Material/Methods We recruited a total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as LPE, and 101 controls without PE complaint. Allelic variations of STin2 VNTR were genotyped using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between STin2 VNTR allelic and genotypic frequencies and LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different STin2 VNTR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. A significantly higher frequency of STin2.12/12 genotype was found among LPE patients versus controls (P=0.026). Frequency of patients carrying at least 1 copy of the 10-repeat allele was significantly lower compared to the control group (28.3% vs. 41.8%, OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.31–0.97, P=0.040). In the LPE group, the mean IELT showed significant difference in STin2.12/12 genotype when compared to those with STin2.12/10 and STin2.10/10 genotypes. The mean IELT in10-repeat allele carriers was 50% longer compared to homozygous carriers of the STin2.12 allele. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of STin2.10 allele is a protective factor for LPE. Men carrying the higher expression genotype STin2. 12/12 have shorter IELT than 10-repeat allele carriers. PMID:27713390

  9. PTSD and DNA Methylation in Select Immune Function Gene Promoter Regions: A Repeated Measures Case-control Study of U.S. Military Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    other relevant exposures which may influ- ence DNA methylation , such as dietary factors ( folate , vitamin B12 intake) (Fenech, 2001; Piyathilake and...ARTICLE published: 24 June 2013 doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00056 PTSD and DNA methylation in select immune function gene promoter regions: a repeated measures...largely unknown. Dis- tinct expression signatures for PTSD have been found, in particular for immune activation transcripts. DNA methylation may be

  10. Impact of a person-centred dementia care training programme on hospital staff attitudes, role efficacy and perceptions of caring for people with dementia: A repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, C A; Smith, S J; Crossland, J; Robins, J

    2016-01-01

    People with dementia occupy up to one quarter of acute hospital beds. However, the quality of care delivered to this patient group is of national concern. Staff working in acute hospitals report lack of knowledge, skills and confidence in caring for people with dementia. There is limited evidence about the most effective approaches to supporting acute hospital staff to deliver more person-centred care. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a specialist training programme for acute hospital staff regarding improving attitudes, satisfaction and feelings of caring efficacy, in provision of care to people with dementia. A repeated measures design, with measures completed immediately prior to commencing training (T1), after completion of Foundation level training (T2: 4-6 weeks post-baseline), and following Intermediate level training (T3: 3-4 months post-baseline). One NHS Trust in the North of England, UK. 40 acute hospital staff working in clinical roles, the majority of whom (90%) were nurses. All participants received the 3.5 day Person-centred Care Training for Acute Hospitals (PCTAH) programme, comprised of two levels, Foundation (0.5 day) and Intermediate (3 days), delivered over a 3-4 months period. Staff demographics and previous exposure to dementia training were collected via a questionnaire. Staff attitudes were measured using the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ), satisfaction in caring for people with dementia was captured using the Staff Experiences of Working with Demented Residents questionnaire (SEWDR) and perceived caring efficacy was measured using the Caring Efficacy Scale (CES). The training programme was effective in producing a significant positive change on all three outcome measures following intermediate training compared to baseline. A significant positive effect was found on the ADQ between baseline and after completion of Foundation level training, but not for either of the other measures. Training acute hospital staff in

  11. A study of Huntington disease-like syndromes in black South African patients reveals a single SCA2 mutation and a unique distribution of normal alleles across five repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Fiona K; Peerbhai, Nabeelah; Krause, Amanda

    2018-07-15

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, characterised by a triad of movement disorder, emotional and behavioural disturbances and cognitive impairment. The underlying cause is an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. For a small proportion of patients presenting with HD-like symptoms, the mutation in this gene is not identified and they are said to have a HD "phenocopy". South Africa has the highest number of recorded cases of an African-specific phenocopy, Huntington disease-like 2 (HDL2), caused by a repeat expansion in the junctophilin-3 gene. However, a significant proportion of black patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of HD still test negative for HD and HDL2. This study thus aimed to investigate five other loci associated with HD phenocopy syndromes - ATN1, ATXN2, ATXN7, TBP and C9orf72. In a sample of patients in whom HD and HDL2 had been excluded, a single expansion was identified in the ATXN2 gene, confirming a diagnosis of Spinocerebellar ataxia 2. The results indicate that common repeat expansion disorders do not contribute significantly to the HD-like phenotype in black South African patients. Importantly, allele sizing reveals unique distributions of normal repeat lengths across the associated loci in the African population studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. What Studying Problems Are Faced by the Adolescent Grade Repeaters in Macao: Uncovering Underlying Mechanisms Based on Evidences from the PISA 2012 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Pou-seong; Cheung, Kwok-cheung; Cheong, Wai-cheong; Mak, Soi-kei; Soh, Kay-cheng; Ieong, Man-kai

    2015-01-01

    Most schools in Macao are private schools, and there is a variety of grade repetition policy practiced in the 45 secondary schools. The policies are translated into school-based accountability of some kind of minimum competency standards. The objective of this study is to uncover the mediation mechanisms accounting for the influences of grade…

  13. Repeated checking induces uncertainty about future threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; Damstra, Marianne; Douma, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive (OC) -like repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study tested if checking also induces uncertainty about future threat by impairing the distinction between danger and safety cues. Participants (n = 54) engaged in a simulated

  14. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  15. Misleading Children: Causal Attributions of Inconsistency under Repeated Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four studies investigated whether inconsistency of children aged four to six on developmental tasks may reflect a misinterpretation of the experimenter's intent in communication under repeated questioning. (SKC)

  16. Medical students who decompress during the M-1 year outperform those who fail and repeat it: A study of M-1 students at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign 1988–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Gregory G

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All medical schools must counsel poor-performing students, address their problems and assist them in developing into competent physicians. The objective of this study was to determine whether students with academic deficiencies in their M-1 year graduate more often, spend less time to complete the curriculum, and need fewer attempts at passing USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 by entering the Decompressed Program prior to failure of the M-1 year than those students who fail the M-1 year and then repeat it. Method The authors reviewed the performance of M-1 students in the Decompressed Program and compared their outcomes to M-1 students who failed and fully repeated the M-1 year. To compare the groups upon admission, t-Tests comparing the Cognitive Index of students and MCAT scores from both groups were performed. Performance of the two groups after matriculation was also analyzed. Results Decompressed students were 2.1 times more likely to graduate. Decompressed students were 2.5 times more likely to pass USMLE Step 1 on the first attempt than the repeat students. In addition, 46% of those in the decompressed group completed the program in five years compared to 18% of the repeat group. Conclusion Medical students who decompress their M-1 year prior to M-1 year failure outperform those who fail their first year and then repeat it. These findings indicate the need for careful monitoring of M-1 student performance and early intervention and counseling of struggling students.

  17. Experimental study on the long-term effect of cadmium in mice fed cadmium-polluted rice with special reference to the effect of repeated reproductive cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Shiroishi, K.; Nishino, H.; Shinmura, T.; Murase, H.; Shoji, T.; Naruse, Y.; Kagamimori, S.

    1986-01-01

    Long-term biological effects of cadmium-polluted rice and effect of repeated reproductive cycles on them were examined. Female SLC-B6D2F mice (female C57BL/6, male DBA/2) were fed a rice diet containing 65% unpolished rice for about 2 years from 7 weeks of age. The unpolished rice preparations used were commercially available rice (non-Cd-polluted) and Cd-polluted rice (over 1.0 ppm). Average Cd contents in each diet class were 0.12, 0.48, 1.78, 1.75, and 47.1 ppm (50 ppm Cd as CdCl 2 added). Some experimental mice were subjected to repeated reproductive cycles (parity group). Hematological, biochemical, and pathological examinations of urine, blood, and tissues, including Cd measurement, were carried out. Results after statistical analysis indicate Cd toxicities such as anemia and disturbances of Ca metabolism. These Cd effects were found to be enhanced by the reproductive cycles. Soft X-ray radiograms showed osteoporosis in the parity groups, especially in the groups with diets of higher Cd content. However, we could not find any sign of disturbance of renal function under our experimental conditions

  18. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the human keratin 4-binding domain of serine-rich repeat protein 1 from Streptococcus agalactiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, Ramya; Samen, Ulrike; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2011-01-01

    Expression, purification and crystallization of Srr-1-K4BD, a human keratin 4-binding domain of serine-rich repeat protein 1 from S. agalactiae, was carried out. Native crystals of Srr-1-K4BD diffracted to 3.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Serine-rich repeat protein 1 (Srr-1) is a surface protein from Streptococcus agalactiae. A 17 kDa region of this protein has been identified to bind to human keratin 4 (K4) and is termed the Srr-1 K4-binding domain (Srr-1-K4BD). Recombinant Srr-1-K4BD was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Native and selenomethionine-substituted proteins were prepared using Luria–Bertani (LB) and M9 minimal media, respectively. A two-step purification protocol was carried out to obtain a final homogenous sample of Srr-1-K4BD. Crystals of native Srr-1-K4BD were obtained using PEG 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffracted to 3.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 47.56, b = 59.48, c = 94.71 Å, β = 93.95°

  19. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-03-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we systematically searched PubMed for case-control studies published after 1 August 2010 that investigated the association between ATXN2 intermediate repeats and ALS. We conducted a meta-analysis of the new and existing studies for the relative risks of ATXN2 intermediate repeat alleles of between 24 and 34 CAG trinucleotide repeats and ALS. There was an overall increased risk of ALS for those carrying intermediate sized trinucleotide repeat alleles (odds ratio 3.06 [95% confidence interval 2.37-3.94]; p = 6 × 10 -18 ), with an exponential relationship between repeat length and ALS risk for alleles of 29-32 repeats (R 2  = 0.91, p = 0.0002). No relationship was seen for repeat length and age of onset or survival. In contrast to trinucleotide repeat diseases, intermediate ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat expansion in ALS does not predict age of onset but does predict disease risk. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and Optimization of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Technique For Pleurotus Sajor Caju Towards Environmental Study in Support of the Country's Nuclear Power Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Azhar Mohamad; Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Shaiful Azuar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hasan; Mohd Meswan Maskom; Siti Khadijah Mohd Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom can be used as a biological indicator in assessing radiological impact on the environment. Radiological effect would be reflected through morphological changes as well as those changes at molecular level. For this purpose, a preliminary work was conducted, which included DNA isolation, optimization of PCR parameters for Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and primers screening on Pleurotus sajor caju mushroom strains from Nuclear Malaysia's Sterifeed Mushrooms Collection Centre. In this work, DNA isolation technique from cap and stalk of fruit body were optimized and quantified. It was found that stalk produced highest amount of genomic DNA at 304.01 ng/ μl and cap at 149.00 ng/ μl. A total of 100 ISSR primers were tested and 51 primers were successfully amplified. These primers will be used further for dose response evaluation and molecular profiling in mushroom species. (author)

  1. A cross-sectional study of the magnitude, barriers, and outcomes of HIV status disclosure among women participating in a perinatal HIV transmission study, "the Nevirapine Repeat Pregnancy study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiweewa, Flavia M; Bakaki, Paul M; McConnell, Michelle S; Musisi, Maria; Namirembe, Constance; Nakayiwa, Frances; Kusasira, Fiona; Nakintu, Dorothy; Mubiru, Michael C; Musoke, Philippa; Fowler, Mary Glenn

    2015-09-29

    HIV status disclosure is a difficult emotional task for HIV-infected persons and may create the opportunity for both social support and rejection. In this study, we evaluated the proportions, patterns, barriers and outcomes of HIV- 1 status disclosure among a group of women in Uganda. An exit interview was conducted one year post-partum for 85 HIV-infected women who participated in a study of HIV-1 transmission rates among NVP-experienced compared with NVP-naïve women in "The Nevirapine Repeat Pregnancy (NVP-RP) Study" at the Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala-Uganda, between June 2004 and June 2006. Of the 85 women interviewed, 99 % had disclosed their HIV status to at least one other person. Disclosure proportions ranged between 1 % to employer(s) and 69 % to a relative other than a parent. Only 38 % of the women had disclosed to their sex partners. Women with an HIV-infected baby were more likely than those with an uninfected baby to disclose to their sex partner, OR 4.9 (95 % CI, 2.0 -11.2), and women were less likely to disclose to a partner if they had previously disclosed to another relative than if they had not, OR 0.19 (95 % CI, 0.14-0.52). The most common reasons for non-disclosure included fear of separation from the partner and subsequent loss of financial support 34 %, and not living with the partner (not having opportunities to disclose) 26 %. While most women (67 %) reported getting social support following disclosure, 22 % reported negative outcomes (neglect, separation from their partners, and loss of financial support). Following disclosure of HIV status, 9 % of women reported that their partner (s) decided to have an HIV test. Results from this study show high overall HIV disclosure proportions and how this disclosure of HIV status can foster social support. However, proportions of disclosure specifically to male sex partners were low, which suggests the need for interventions aimed at increasing male

  2. Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of carbon tetrachloride in the rat following repeated inhalation exposures of 8 and 11.5 hr/day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Carlson, G.P.; Christian, J.E.; Born, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate whether exposure to inhaled vapors for periods longer than 8 hr/day could affect the rates and routes of elimination, male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to 100 ppm of radiolabeled carbon tetrachloride ( 14 CCl 4 ) in a closed-loop chamber. One group was exposed for 8 hr/day for 5 days and another group for 11.5 hr/day for 4 days. Two other groups were exposed for either 8 hr/day for 10 of 12 consecutive days or 11.5 hr/day for 7 of 10 days. The elimination of 14 C activity was measured in the expired air, urine, and feces for up to 100 hr following exposure and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 8-hr/day schedule, 14 CCl 4 in the breath and 14 C activity in the feces comprised 45 and 48% of the total 14 C excreted, respectively. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 11.5-hr/day schedule, the values were 32 and 62%, respectively, indicating that repeated exposure to the longer schedule altered the route of elimination of CCl 4 . Regardless of the period of exposure, less than 8% of the inhaled 14 CCl 4 was excreted in the urine and less than 2% was exhaled in the breath as the 14 CO 2 metabolite. Approximately 97-98% of the 14 C activity in the expired air was 14 CCl 4 . The quantities of 14 C noted in the feces and urine suggest that more than 60% of the inhaled CCl 4 was metabolized. Elimination of 14 CCl 4 and 14 CO 2 in the breath followed a two-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model (r2 = 0.98). For rats exposed 8 hr/day and 11.5 hr/day for 2 weeks, the average half-lives for elimination of 14 CCl 4 in the breath for the fast (alpha) and slow (beta) phases averaged 96 and 455 min, and 89 and 568 min, respectively. The average alpha and beta half-lives for elimination of 14 CO 2 in the breath

  3. Impact of Inclusion or Exclusion of Repeaters on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including or excluding repeaters on the equating process and results. New forms of two tests were equated to their respective old forms using either all examinees or only the first timer examinees in the new form sample. Results showed that for both tests used in this study, including or excluding repeaters in the…

  4. Repeated Fish Removal to Restore Lakes: Case Study of Lake Væng, Denmark—Two Biomanipulations during 30 Years of Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake water quality. Here, we present and analyse 30 years of chemical and biological data from the shallow and 16 ha large Lake Væng, Denmark, which has been biomanipulated twice with a 20-year interval by removing roach (Rutilus rutilus and bream (Abramis brama. After both biomanipulations, Lake Væng shifted from a turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear, water macrophyte-dominated state. Chlorophyll a was reduced from 60–80 μg·L−1 to 10–30 μg·L−1 and the coverage of submerged macrophytes, dominated by Elodea canadensis, increased from <0.1% to 70%–80%. Mean summer total phosphorus was reduced from about 0.12 to 0.07 mg·L−1 and total nitrogen decreased from 1.0 to 0.4 mg·L−1. On a seasonal scale, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations changed from a summer maximum during turbid conditions to a winter maximum under clear conditions. The future of Lake Væng is uncertain and a relatively high phosphorus loading via the groundwater, and the accumulation of a mobile P pool in the sediment make it likely that the lake eventually will return to turbid conditions. Repeated fish removals might be a relevant management strategy to apply in shallow lakes with a relatively high external nutrient loading.

  5. Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 22). Effects of 2- and 4-week administration of theobromine on the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, H; Fujioka, M; Kohchi, M; Tateishi, Y; Matsuoka, N

    2000-10-01

    The effects of theobromine, a xanthine derivative, on the testis were compared between rats dosed for 2 and 4 weeks to determine whether a 2-week dosing period is long enough to detect toxicity. Theobromine was administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg for 2 weeks starting at the age of 6 or 8 weeks, and for 4 weeks from the age of 6 weeks. Histopathological examination of reproductive organs revealed toxic findings in the testis at 500 mg/kg after 2 weeks of dosing at both ages, and at 250 and 500 mg/kg after 4 weeks of dosing. The primary findings were degeneration/necrosis and desquamation of spermatids and spermatocytes, vacuolization of seminiferous tubules, and multinucleated giant cell formation. These findings were present mainly in stages I-VI and XII-XIV. From these results, it is concluded that the toxic effects of theobromine on the testis can be detected by repeated dosing for 2 weeks as well as for 4 weeks.

  6. Repeated checking causes memory distrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits

  7. Study of the intervention effect of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides on testis tissue in male rats exposed by repeated low-dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun; Luo Qiong; Cui Xiaoyan; Yang Mingliang; Yan Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the Laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP) intervention on the male rats' testicular tissue oxidative damage which was caused by repeated low-dose local ionizing radiation. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and LJP intervention group. The rats in the LJP intervention group was given with LJP. The rats in each group were exposed to 60 Co γ-ray local irradiation 7 d after adaptability breeding, once per day for 20 times in 4 weeks. Each rat was irradiated with the total dose of 2.3 Gy. The rats were killed at 1, 7 and 14 d post-irradiation, respectively. The testis and the epididymis were taken out. The contents of MDA and GSH, and the activities of SOD, LDH and GSH-Px were measured using spectrophotometer. The amorphous of testicular tissue was observed and the sperm count and viability were analyzed. Results: As compared with those in the model group, the content of MDA decreased in testicular tissue in the LJP group (t=3.66-5.03, P<0.01), while the GSH content increased. The activities of SOD, LDH and GSH-Px (t=2.77-25.52, P<0.05) and the sperm count and viability increased (t=3.11-23.08, P<0.01). Each index was more close to that in the control group 14 d post-irradiation. Conclusions: LJP can promote the recovery of testicular tissue oxidative damage caused by chronic local ionizing radiation. It has a role in promoting the spermatogenic function of male rate. (authors)

  8. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood....... It is commonly agreed that the experience in childhood of suicidal behavior among family members or other persons in the close environment is of importance in future suicidal risk. The results of this study indicate that the predictive value of this factor mainly applies to attempts with no fatal outcome...

  9. Online learning in repeated auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Weed, Jonathan; Perchet, Vianney; Rigollet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by online advertising auctions, we consider repeated Vickrey auctions where goods of unknown value are sold sequentially and bidders only learn (potentially noisy) information about a good's value once it is purchased. We adopt an online learning approach with bandit feedback to model this problem and derive bidding strategies for two models: stochastic and adversarial. In the stochastic model, the observed values of the goods are random variables centered around the true value of t...

  10. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  11. Performance Comparisons of Improved Regular Repeat Accumulate (RA and Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA Turbo Decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.

  12. Repeat profile analysis in an x-ray department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassey, C.E.; Ojo, O.O.; Akpabio, I.

    1991-01-01

    The repeat profile of an x-ray department in a developing country was analysed monthly between July 1989 and June 1990. Results showed an average repeat rate of 3.7% for the period of study. The main causes of film repetition were: equipment fault, 33.9%; radiographer's fault, 27.4%; film fault, 19.3%; processing fault, 10.8% and patient's fault, 8.6%. The average repeat rate in the first 6 months of study reduced by 50% in the last 6 months. This was due to the effectiveness of implementation of corrective actions. The overall repeat rate was found to correlate well with both the equipment fault and radiographer's fault with correlation coefficients, r, of 0.94 and 0.91, respectively. It is expected that a further reduction in the repeat rate will be obtained after the introduction of quality assurance programmes. (author)

  13. Repeated radiation injuries by fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to repeated radiation injuries during internal irradiation of theoretical and practical interest, particularly in case of the intake into organism of young products of nuclear fission (PNF). The results of experiments with dogs with repeated radioactive iodine injury the isotopes of which (131-135sub(I)) constitute a considerable part of PNF activity are discussed. The blood reaction and protein metabolism state have been studied. Observations for dogs have been continued for about 4 years. The doses for thyroid, gastrointestinal tract and liver subjected to the most intensive irradiation consituted in the first series of experiments after the first intake about 3;0.3;0.05 Gy, after the second - 5;0.5;0.08 Gy and in the second series of experiments - 3;0.3;0.05 Gy and 0.6;0.06;0.01 Gy, respectively. Hematologic factors,thyroid function, changes in exchange and immunologic reactivity have been studied. The dogs have been under observation for 5 years. It is shown in case of repeated intake of Isup(131) PNF into animals organism in quantity which does not cause during the acute period a clinically outlined sickness, substantial differences in the organism reaction as compared with the first intake of radionuclides have not been found. The presence of residual radiation injuries did not cause charging action during the acute period during PNF and repeated intake which in the author's opinion testifies to perfection of compensator mechanisms in case of intake of such quantities of radioactive products. At the remote periods blastomogenic action manifested which is estimated as a result of general biological action of radionuclides administered to the organism. The necessity in subsequent investigations for obtaining the data on organism reactivity, clinic and pathogenesis with the aim of prophylaxis and treatment of such injuries is indicated

  14. Analysis of CR1 Repeats in the Zebra Finch Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bird species have smaller genomes and fewer repeats than mammals. Chicken Repeat 1 (CR1 repeat is one of the most abundant families of repeats, ranging from ~133,000 to ~187,000 copies accounting for ~50 to ~80% of the interspersed repeats in the zebra finch and chicken genomes, respectively. CR1 repeats are believed to have arisen from the retrotransposition of a small number of master elements, which gave rise to multiple CR1 subfamilies in the chicken. In this study, we performed a global assessment of the divergence distributions, phylogenies, and consensus sequences of CR1 repeats in the zebra finch genome. We identified and validated 34 CR1 subfamilies and further analyzed the correlation between these subfamilies. We also discovered 4 novel lineage-specific CR1 subfamilies in the zebra finch when compared to the chicken genome. We built various evolutionary trees of these subfamilies and concluded that CR1 repeats may play an important role in reshaping the structure of bird genomes.

  15. Ocular surface sensitivity repeatability with Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cecilia; Stapleton, Fiona; Badarudin, Ezailina; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2015-02-01

    To determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer on the same day and 3 months apart. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements made on the same day (n = 20 subjects) and 3 months apart (n = 29 subjects). The Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was used to measure corneal and inferior conjunctival thresholds using the ascending method of limits. The pressure exerted by the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was determined using an analytical balance, for both the 0.08- and 0.12-mm-diameter filaments. This calibration was then used to convert filament length measurements to pressure. Repeatability was determined using a Bland and Altman analysis. The pressure exerted at each filament length differed between the two filament diameters. The measured pressure also differed from values provided by the manufacturer. Repeatability of threshold measurements at the central cornea was shown to be good, with better repeatability for same-day measurements (coefficient of repeatability [CoR] = ±0.23 g/mm²) than for those 3 months apart (CoR = ±0.52 g/mm²). Threshold measurements at the inferior conjunctiva, in contrast, were poorly repeatable (CoR = ±12.78 g/mm²). Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry is repeatable when performed on the central cornea on the same day and 3 months apart, but this instrument is not recommended for conjunctival threshold measurements.

  16. Large Polyglutamine Repeats Cause Muscle Degeneration in SCA17 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In polyglutamine (polyQ diseases, large polyQ repeats cause juvenile cases with different symptoms than those of adult-onset patients, who carry smaller expanded polyQ repeats. The mechanisms behind the differential pathology mediated by different polyQ repeat lengths remain unknown. By studying knockin mouse models of spinal cerebellar ataxia-17 (SCA17, we found that a large polyQ (105 glutamines in the TATA-box-binding protein (TBP preferentially causes muscle degeneration and reduces the expression of muscle-specific genes. Direct expression of TBP with different polyQ repeats in mouse muscle revealed that muscle degeneration is mediated only by the large polyQ repeats. Different polyQ repeats differentially alter TBP’s interaction with neuronal and muscle-specific transcription factors. As a result, the large polyQ repeat decreases the association of MyoD with TBP and DNA promoters. Our findings suggest that specific alterations in protein interactions by large polyQ repeats may account for the unique pathology in juvenile polyQ diseases.

  17. Large Polyglutamine Repeats Cause Muscle Degeneration in SCA17 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Yang, Su; Guo, Jifeng; Yan, Sen; Gaertig, Marta A.; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, large polyQ repeats cause juvenile cases with different symptoms than adult-onset patients, who carry smaller expanded polyQ repeats. The mechanisms behind the differential pathology mediated by different polyQ repeat lengths remain unknown. By studying knock-in mouse models of spinal cerebellar ataxia-17 (SCA17), we found that a large polyQ (105 glutamines) in the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) preferentially causes muscle degeneration and reduces the expression of muscle-specific genes. Direct expression of TBP with different polyQ repeats in mouse muscle revealed that muscle degeneration is mediated only by the large polyQ repeats. Different polyQ repeats differentially alter TBP’s interaction with neuronal and muscle-specific transcription factors. As a result, the large polyQ repeat decreases the association of MyoD with TBP and DNA promoters. Our findings suggest that specific alterations in protein interactions by large polyQ repeats may account for the unique pathology in juvenile polyQ diseases. PMID:26387956

  18. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  20. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  1. [Daytime tiredness correlated with nocturnal respiratory and arousal variables in patients with sleep apnea: polysomnographic and EEG mapping studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu, M; Hauer, C; Anderer, P; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G; Gruber, G; Oberndorfer, S; Mandl, M; Popovic, R; Saletu, B

    2000-03-24

    There is evidence that daytime tiredness is caused by apnea/hypopnea with oxygen desaturation and/or by sleep fragmentation due to arousals. The aim of this study was to investigate objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality and daytime vigilance--objectified by midmorning mapping of vigilance-controlled EEG (V-EEG)--in sleep apnea patients (N: 18), as compared with age- and sex-matched normal controls (N: 18) as well as to correlate nocturnal respiratory distress and arousals to daytime brain function. Statistical analyses demonstrated a deterioration in subjective and objective sleep and awakening quality in apnea patients. Midmorning V-EEG mapping in apnea patients exhibited less total power, more delta and theta, less alpha and beta activity, as well as a slower dominant frequency and centroid of the total activity compared to controls, which suggests a vigilance decrement. The Spearman rank correlation between 6 polysomnographically registered respiratory variables and 36 diurnal quantitative EEG measures demonstrated the following: the higher the apnea, apnea-hypopnea, snoring and desaturation indices and the lower the minimum and average low oxygen saturation, the more pronounced was diurnal tiredness. Eleven arousal measures based on ASDA criteria showed the following significant correlations: the higher the nocturnal arousal index and the more arousals due to hypopneas, the greater was daytime tiredness. On the other hand, the greater the average frequency change during arousals and the more spontaneous arousals, the better was daytime vigilance. Our findings show that, in contrast to the lengthy Multiple Sleep Latency (MSLT) and Maintenance of Wakefulness (MWT) tests which evaluate sleep pressure under resting conditions conducive to sleep, V-EEG mapping provides a brief objective measure of a sleep apnea patient's daytime tiredness under conditions of wakefulness more appropriate to reflect the patient's everyday life.

  2. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.; Maity, A.; Mammen, E.; Yu, K.

    2009-01-01

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements

  3. Advantages and disadvantages : longitudinal vs. repeated cross-section surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The benefits of a longitudinal analysis over a repeated cross-sectional study include increased statistical power and the capability to estimate a greater range of conditional probabilities. With the Puget Sound Transportation Panel (PSTP), and any s...

  4. Why Have the “Cantankerous Old People” Left the Neighborhood? The Representation of Old Age in Serbian Television Commercials – A Repeated Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milosavljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an attempt to examine to what extent the way in which older members of society are represented in Serbian television commercials has changed in comparison to representations which were present in commercials during the three months in 2009 (Milosavljevic 2010a when the first study was conducted. As was the case in the first study, the focus is on dominant societal attitudes toward old people and old age which were utilized in making the television commercials in question. This was accomplished through analyzing both the positive and the negative stereotypes used to convey meaning in the commercials which were analyzed, as well as through the analysis of the proportional representation of older characters in advertising. The commercials which were analyzed here were broadcasted during the second half of December 2012, January and the first half of February 2013.

  5. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  6. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Clustured regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genetic diversity studies as a mean to reconstruct the evolution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    The natural history of tuberculosis may be tackled by various means, among which the record of molecular scars that have been registered by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genomes transmitted from patient to patient for tens of thousands years and possibly more. Recently discovered polymorphic loci, the CRISPR sequences, are indirect witnesses of the historical phage-bacteria struggle, and may be related to the time when the ancestor of today's tubercle bacilli were environmental bacteria, i.e. before becoming intracellular parasites. In this article, we present what are CRISPRs and try to summarize almost 20 years of research results obtained using the genetic diversity of the CRISPR loci in MTBC as a perspective for studying new models. We show that the study of the diversity of CRISPR sequences, thanks to «spoligotyping», has played a great role in our global understanding of the population structure of MTBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective Register Of patients undergoing repeated OFfice and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (PROOF-ABPM): protocol for an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, James P; Martin, Una; Gill, Paramjit; Stevens, Richard; McManus, Richard J

    2016-10-31

    The diagnosis and management of hypertension depends on accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) in order to target antihypertensive treatment appropriately. Most BP measurements take place in a clinic setting, but it has long been recognised that readings taken out-of-office (via home or ambulatory monitoring) estimate true underlying BP more accurately. Recent studies have shown that the change in clinic BP over multiple readings is a significant predictor of the difference between clinic and out-of-office BP. Used in combination with patient characteristics, this change has been shown to accurately predict a patient's out-of-office BP level. The present study proposes to collect real-life BP data to prospectively validate this new prediction tool in routine clinical practice. A prospective, multicentre observational cohort design will be used, recruiting patients from primary and secondary care. All patients attending participating centres for ambulatory BP monitoring will be eligible to participate. Anonymised clinical data will be collected from all eligible patients, who will be invited to give informed consent to permit identifiable data to be collected for data linkage to external outcome registries. Descriptive statistics will be used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the out-of-office BP prediction tool. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve statistics will be used to examine model performance. Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the National Research. Ethics Service Committee South Central-Oxford A (reference; 15/SC/0184), and site-specific R&D approval has been acquired from the relevant NHS trusts. All findings will be presented at relevant conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals, on the study website and disseminated in lay and social media where appropriate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  9. Changing the size of a mirror-reflected hand moderates the experience of embodiment but not proprioceptive drift: a repeated measures study on healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopf, Priscilla G; Lloyd, Donna M; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-06-01

    Mirror visual feedback is used for reducing pain and visually distorting the size of the reflection may improve efficacy. The findings of studies investigating size distortion are inconsistent. The influence of the size of the reflected hand on embodiment of the mirror reflection is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of magnifying and minifying mirror reflections of the hand on embodiment measured using an eight-item questionnaire and on proprioceptive drift. During the experiment, participants (n = 45) placed their right hand behind a mirror and their left hand in front of a mirror. Participants watched a normal-sized, a magnified and a minified reflection of the left hand while performing synchronised finger movements for 3 min (adaptive phase). Measurements of embodiment were taken before (pre) and after (post) synchronous movements of the fingers of both hands (embodiment adaptive phase). Results revealed larger proprioceptive drift post-adaptive phase (p = 0.001). Participants agreed more strongly with questionnaire items associated with location, ownership and agency of the reflection of the hand post-adaptive phase (p embodiment of the reflection of the hand. Magnifying and minifying the reflection of the hand has little effect on proprioceptive drift, but it weakens the subjective embodiment experience. Such factors need to be taken into account in future studies using this technique, particularly when assessing mirror visual feedback for pain management.

  10. Dental Fear in Children with Repeated Tooth Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negovetić Vranić, Dubravka; Ivančić Jokić, Nataša; Bakarčić, Danko; Carek, Andreja; Rotim, Željko; Verzak, Željko

    2016-06-01

    Tooth injuries are serious clinical conditions. Some children experience dental trauma only once, while others are more prone to repeated tooth injuries. Repeated dental trauma occurs in 19.4% to 30% of patients. Pain and dental trauma are the most common reasons for fear and anxiety. The main objective of this study was to investigate how dental trauma, as well as repeated dental trauma affects the occurrence and development of dental fear in children. The study was conducted on a random sample of 147 subjects (88 boys and 59 girls) aged 5-8 and 9-12 years. Subjects in both age groups were divided into subroups without dental trauma, with one dental trauma and with repeated dental trauma. The validated Children’s Fear Survey Schedule – Dental Subscale was used on fear assessment. Results showed that only 12.2% of children without trauma, 33.3% with one trauma and 51.7% with repeated trauma were not afraid of injection. Older children had a significantly lower fear of injections, touch of an unknown person, choking, going to the hospital and people in white uniforms. Dentist was not the cause of fear in 65.5% of patients with repeated trauma. With each repeated injury of teeth, the degree of their fear of dental treatment was lower.

  11. Oxidative stress adaptation with acute, chronic, and repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Andrew M; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; A Davies, Kelvin J

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation, or hormesis, is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by upregulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12-h or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the levels of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila nevertheless also caused significant reductions in life span for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of restrictions on television food advertising to children on exposure to advertisements for 'less healthy' foods: repeat cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Adams

    Full Text Available In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions.We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods--the first (week 1 six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2 six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs that were for HFSS foods.1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57. Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12. There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions.Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods.

  13. Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaley Jill

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence indicates that dietary fats and physical activity influence bone health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 (N-3 supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, bone mineral density (BMD, and bone biomarkers in post-menopausal women. Methods Seventy-nine healthy sedentary post-menopausal women aged 58-78 years participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to one of 4 groups: exercise + supplement (E+S, n = 21, exercise (E, n = 20, supplement (S, n = 20, and control (Con, n = 18 groups. The subjects in the E+S and E groups performed aerobic exercise training (walking and jogging up to 65% of HRmax, three times a week for 24 weeks. Subjects in the E+S and S groups consumed 1000 mg/d N-3 for 24 weeks. The lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF α, interleukin (IL 6, prostaglandin (PG E2, estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 Vit D, C-telopeptide (CTX, parathyroid hormone (PTH and calcitonin (CT were measured at baseline, the end of week 12 and 24. Results Serum estrogen, osteocalcin, 1, 25 Vit D, CT, L2-L4 and femoral neck BMD measures increased (P 2 decreased (P 2-L4 and femoral neck BMD, estrogen, osteocalcin, and CT were negatively (P 2. PTH and CT were correlated positively and negatively with IL-6, respectively (P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that long-term aerobic exercise training plus N-3 supplementation have a synergistic effect in attenuating inflammation and augmenting BMD in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  14. Effect of restrictions on television food advertising to children on exposure to advertisements for 'less healthy' foods: repeat cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; Adamson, Ashley J; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to "reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) advertising". We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods--the first (week 1) six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2) six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs) that were for HFSS foods. 1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57)). Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12)). There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions. Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods.

  15. Effect of Restrictions on Television Food Advertising to Children on Exposure to Advertisements for ‘Less Healthy’ Foods: Repeat Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; Adamson, Ashley J.; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2007, new scheduling restrictions on television food advertising to children in the UK were announced. The aim of the restrictions was to “reduce significantly the exposure of children under 16 to high fat, salt or sugar (HFSS) advertising”. We explored the impact of the restrictions on relative exposure to HFSS food advertising among all viewers and among child television viewers, as well as adherence to the restrictions. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies of all advertisements broadcast in one region of the UK over one week periods – the first (week 1) six months before the restrictions were introduced, and the second (week 2) six months after. Data on what products were advertised were linked to data on how many people watched each advertisement. Nutritional content of foods advertised was added to the dataset and used to calculate HFSS status. Relative exposure was calculated as the proportion of all advertising person-minute-views (PMVs) that were for HFSS foods. Results 1,672,417 advertising PMV were included. 14.6% of advertising PMV were for food and 51.1% of these were for HFSS food. Relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS food advertising increased between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·54 (1·51 to 1·57)). Exposure of children to HFSS food advertising did not change between study weeks 1 and 2 (odds ratio (99% confidence intervals) = 1·05 (0·99 to 1·12)). There was almost universal adherence to the restrictions. Conclusions Despite good adherence to the restrictions, they did not change relative exposure of children to HFSS advertising and were associated with an increase in relative exposure of all viewers to HFSS advertising. Stronger restrictions targeting a wider range of advertisements are necessary to reduce exposure of children to marketing of less healthful foods. PMID:22355376

  16. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  17. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  18. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  19. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  20. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  1. School nurses’ attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme – A repeated cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja; Stenhammar, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate school nurses’ attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736) from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015). More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56%) strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (pHPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56%) reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90%) had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils. PMID:28419156

  2. Hybrid FRC under repeated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlos, K.; Babal, B.; Nuernbergerova, T.

    1993-01-01

    Fibre reinforced concretes (FRC) containing several volume fractions in different ratios of two types of fibres - polypropylene and steel, were tested under repeated loading. Mechanical properties of specimens - cubes 150/150/150 mm (for compressive strength), prisms 100/100/400 (for flexural strength), short cylinders 150/60 mm (for impact strength) have been experimentally investigated before and after cyclic loading at the age of 28 days curing time. Mix proportions were designed after DIN 1045 with max. aggregate size 8 mm and grading curve B 8. Portland Cement PC 400 in the amount of 450 kg. m -3 was applied and W/C ratio 0.55. Workability of mixes was measured by Vebe method and regulated by plasticizing admixture Ligoplast Na. Maximum hybrid fibre volume fraction (polypropylene + steel) was 1.0%. Dynamic forces generated in Schenck testing machine with frequency 16 Hz had sinusoidal wave form varying between 0.7 and 0.1 of static mechanical characteristics. The number of cycles in all tests was 10 5 . The residual MOR at static four point bending test and working diagram force-deflection was carried out as well. The impact properties after repeated loading in compression were tested by means of falling weight test. Relationships between composition of fibre composites with different combination of polypropylene (0.2, 0.3, 0.5% by volume) and steel (0.5, 0.7, and 0.8% by volume) fibre content were obtained and technological properties of mixes as well. (author)

  3. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  4. Effects of new motorway infrastructure on active travel in the local population: a retrospective repeat cross-sectional study in Glasgow, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Mitchell, Richard; Ogilvie, David

    2016-07-07

    Promoting active travel is an important part of increasing population physical activity, which has both physical and mental health benefits. A key benefit described by the then Scottish Government of the five-mile M74 motorway extension, which opened during June 2011 in the south of Glasgow, was that the forecast reduction in motor traffic on local streets would make these streets safer for walking and cycling, thus increasing active travel by the local population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of new motorway infrastructure on the proportion of journey stages made actively (cycling or on foot) by individuals travelling in and out of the local area. Data for the periods 2009-10 and 2012-13 were extracted from the Scottish Household Survey (SHS) travel diaries, which record each journey stage made during the previous day by a representative sample of the Scottish population aged 16 and over. Each individual journey stage was assigned to one of the following study areas surrounding existing and new transport infrastructure: (1) an area surrounding the new M74 motorway extension (n = 435 (2009-10), 543 (2012-13)), (2) a comparator area surrounding an existing motorway (n = 477 (2009-10), 560 (2012-13)), and (3) a control area containing no comparable motorway infrastructure (n = 541 (2009-10), 593 (2012-13)). Multivariable, multi-level regression analysis was performed to determine any between-area differences in change in active travel over time, which might indicate an intervention effect. Reference populations were defined using two alternative definitions, (1) Glasgow City and (2) Glasgow and surrounding local authorities. The results showed an increase in the proportion of journey stages using active travel in all study areas compared to both reference populations. However, there were no significant between-area differences to suggest an effect attributable the M74 motorway extension. There was no clear evidence that the M74 motorway

  5. Drug- not carrier-dependent haematological and biochemical changes in a repeated dose study of cyclosporine encapsulated polyester nano- and micro-particles: Size does not matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatpurwar, V.P.; Rhodes, S.; Oien, K.A.; Elliott, M.A.; Tekwe, C.D.; Jørgensen, H.G.; Kumar, M.N.V. Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The particulate delivery allows an increase in dose range without accrual of toxicities. • The altered haematological and biochemical changes are drug, but not particle dependent. • PLGA nano/microparticles are safe on subacute peroral dosing over 28 days. • Nano-toxicology, drug needs to be considered. - Abstract: Biodegradable nanoparticles are being considered more often as drug carriers to address pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic issues, yet nano-product safety has not been systematically proven. In this study, haematological, biochemical and histological parameters were examined on 28 day daily dosing of rats with nano- or micro-particle encapsulated cyclosporine (CsA) to confirm if any changes observed were drug or carrier dependent. CsA encapsulated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) [PLGA] nano- (nCsA) and micro-particles (mCsA) were prepared by emulsion techniques. CsA (15, 30, 45 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats over 28 days. Haematological and biochemical metrics were followed with tissue histology performed on sacrifice. Whether presented as nCsA or mCsA, 45 mg/kg dose caused significant loss of body weight and lowered food consumption compared to untreated control. Across the doses, both nCsA and mCsA produce significant decreases in lymphocyte numbers compared to controls, commensurate with the proprietary product, Neoral ® 15. Dosing with nCsA showed higher serum drug levels than mCsA presumably owing to the smaller particle size facilitating absorption. The treatment had no noticeable effects on inflammatory/oxidative stress markers or antioxidant enzyme levels, except an increase in ceruloplasmin (CP) levels for high dose nCsA/mCsA group. Further, only subtle, sub-lethal changes were observed in histology of nCsA/mCsA treated rat organs. Blank (drug-free) particles did not induce changes in the parameters studied. Therefore, it is extremely important that the encapsulated drug in the nano-products is

  6. Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in Wistar rats with a mixture of five pesticides often found as residues in food: alphacypermethrin, bromopropylate, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos and mancozeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2004-01-01

    Six dose groups of 8 male and female rats respectively received a daily dose equivalent to 0, 0.15, 0.006, 0.03, 0.15 or 0.3 mg/kg b.w./day chlorpyrifos (groups 1-6) and the last four dose groups (groups 3-6) received in addition daily doses equivalent to 18 mg/kg b.w./day alphacypermethrin, 30 mg...... of acetylcholinesterase activity in plasma and brain by chlorpyrifos was not enhanced by coadministration of the other four pesticides. Effects were seen in liver, thyroid, thymus and blood in the combination groups. However, identification of the pesticide(s) responsible for these changes would require further studies...

  7. Does socioeconomic status in adolescence predict low back pain in adulthood? A repeated cross-sectional study of 4,771 Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Korsholm, Lars; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    in youth affect adult health. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study are to explore (1) the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic status (SES) and LBP in adolescence and (2) the longitudinal association between SES in adolescence and LBP in early adulthood. A database containing LBP......Social and economic disadvantage is associated with general poor physical health. This relationship has been recognised for centuries, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic factors have a specific influence on low back pain (LBP). Furthermore, it is unknown how social and economic disadvantages...... years later. Socioeconomic data of the parents (education, income, social class and long-term illness, all for both mother and father) were collected in 1994. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between each parameter of parental SES in adolescence and LBP at baseline...

  8. Study of the effect of the repeated incorporation of millet straw on the availability of nitrogen in a sandy tropical soil using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiraud, G.; Ganry, F.; Llimous, Gisele.

    1980-01-01

    In order to maintain the level of organic materials in the sandy soils of Senegal, compost was injected in these soils over a period of four consecutive years. The effects of this injection were studied by carrying out tests in pots with a nitrogen 15 labelled fertilizer. The use of compost significantly increased the amount of organic matter in the soil and led to higher yields. The nitrogen present is used by the culture, but appears to be insufficient. A proportion of this nitrogen is lost. Fertilizers still enable high yields to be maintained. The use of compost, however, enables an irreversible drop in the potential fertility of these soils over a longer term period to be avoided [fr

  9. The Impact of a Rigorous Multiple Work Shift Schedule and Day Versus Night Shift Work on Reaction Time and Balance Performance in Female Nurses: A Repeated Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Banuelas, Victoria K; Akalonu, Chibuzo C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses. A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period. The work period induced impairments for reaction time, errors on reaction time tasks, and balance performance, independent of shift type. Musculoskeletal symptom prevalence was high in workers of both work shifts. Compressed work shifts caused performance-based fatigue in nurses. Reaction time and balance tests may be sensitive fatigue identification markers in nurses.

  10. An exploratory microdialysis study investigating the effect of repeated application of a diclofenac epolamine medicated plaster on prostaglandin concentrations in skeletal muscle after standardized physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Angela; Frangione, Valeria; Rovati, Stefano; Mautone, Giuseppe; Leuratti, Chiara; Vaccani, Angelo; Crevenna, Richard; Keilani, Mohammad; Burian, Bernhard; Brunner, Martin; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Muscle injuries and extensive exercise are associated with cyclo-oxygenase dependent formation of inflammatory prostaglandins. Since the effect of topical administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on local cyclo-oxygenase is unknown, the present exploratory, open label, non-randomized study set out to measure exercise induced release of prostaglandins before and after epicutaneous administration of diclofenac. Microdialysis was used to determine the local interstitial concentration of PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2α as well as diclofenac concentrations in the vastus lateralis under rest, dynamic exercise and during recovery in 12 healthy subjects at baseline and after a treatment phase applying a total of seven plasters medicated with 180 mg of diclofenac epolamine over 4 days. At baseline PGE2 concentrations were 1169 ± 780 pg ml(-1) at rest and 1287 ± 459 pg ml(-1) during dynamic exercise and increased to 2005 ± 1126 pg ml(-1) during recovery. After treatment average PGE2 concentrations were 997 ± 588 pg ml(-1) at rest and 1339 ± 892 pg ml(-1) during exercise. In contrast with the baseline phase no increase in PGE2 concentrations was recorded during the recovery period after treatment (PGE2 1134 ± 874 pg ml(-1)). 8-iso-PGF2α was neither affected by exercise nor by treatment with diclofenac. Local and systemic concentrations of diclofenac were highly variable but comparable with previous clinical pharmacokinetic studies. We can hypothesize an effect of topical diclofenac epolamine plaster on limiting the increase of local concentrations of the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2 induced in the muscle of healthy human subjects following standardized physical exercise. No effect of diclofenac treatment on 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations was observed, mainly since isoprostane is produced by a free radical-catalyzed lipid peroxidation mechanism independent of cyclo-oxygenases. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 The

  11. Real-World Massage Therapy Produces Meaningful Effectiveness Signal for Primary Care Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of a Repeated Measures Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, William G; Munk, Niki; Love, Margaret M; Bruckner, Geza G; Stewart, Kathryn E; Pearce, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    While efficacy of massage and other nonpharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain is established, stakeholders have called for pragmatic studies of effectiveness in "real-world" primary health care. The Kentucky Pain Research and Outcomes Study evaluated massage impact on pain, disability, and health-related quality of life for primary care patients with chronic low back pain. We report effectiveness and feasibility results, and make comparisons with established minimal clinically important differences. Primary care providers referred eligible patients for 10 massage sessions with community practicing licensed massage therapists. Oswestry Disability Index and SF-36v2 measures obtained at baseline and postintervention at 12 and 24 weeks were analyzed with mixed linear models and Tukey's tests. Additional analyses examined clinically significant improvement and predictive patient characteristics. Of 104 enrolled patients, 85 and 76 completed 12 and 24 weeks of data collection, respectively. Group means improved at 12 weeks for all outcomes and at 24 weeks for SF-36v2's Physical Component Summary and Bodily Pain Domain. Of those with clinically improved disability at 12 weeks, 75% were still clinically improved at 24 weeks ( P  < 0.01). For SF-36v2 Physical and Mental Component Summaries, 55.4% and 43.4%, respectively, showed clinically meaningful improvement at 12 weeks, 46.1% and 30.3% at 24 weeks. For Bodily Pain Domain, 49.4% were clinically improved at 12 weeks, 40% at 24 weeks. Adults older than age 49 years had better pain and disability outcomes than younger adults. Results provide a meaningful signal of massage effect for primary care patients with chronic low back pain and call for further research in practice settings using pragmatic designs with control groups. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Reproducibility and Reliability of Repeated Quantitative Fluorescence Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Knudsen, Kristine Bach Korsholm; Ambrus, Rikard

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When using fluorescence angiography (FA) in perioperative perfusion assessment, repeated measures with re-injections of fluorescent dye (ICG) may be required. However, repeated injections may cause saturation of dye in the tissue, exceeding the limit of fluorescence intensity...... that the camera can detect. As the emission of fluorescence is dependent of the excitatory light intensity, reduction of this may solve the problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and reliability of repeated quantitative FA during a reduction of excitatory light....

  13. Effects of two hospital bed design features on physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation: a repeated measures experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunwook; Barker, Linsey M; Jia, Bochen; Agnew, Michael J; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-03-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are prevalent among healthcare workers worldwide. While existing research has focused on patient-handling techniques during activities which require direct patient contact (e.g., patient transfer), nursing tasks also involve other patient-handling activities, such as engaging bed brakes and transporting patients in beds, which could render healthcare workers at risk of developing WMSDs. Effectiveness of hospital bed design features (brake pedal location and steering-assistance) was evaluated in terms of physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation tasks. Two laboratory-based studies were conducted. In simulated brake engagement tasks, three brake pedal locations (head-end vs. foot-end vs. side of a bed) and two hands conditions (hands-free vs. hands-occupied) were manipulated. Additionally, both in-room and corridor patient transportation tasks were simulated, in which activation of steering-assistance features (5th wheel and/or front wheel caster lock) and two patient masses were manipulated. Nine novice participants were recruited from the local student population and community for each study. During brake engagement, trunk flexion angle, task completion time, and questionnaires were used to quantify postural comfort and usability. For patient transportation, dependent measures were hand forces and questionnaire responses. Brake pedal locations and steering-assistance features in hospital beds had significant effects on physical demands and usability during brake engagement and patient transportation tasks. Specifically, a brake pedal at the head-end of a bed increased trunk flexion by 74-224% and completion time by 53-74%, compared to other pedal locations. Participants reported greater overall perceived difficulty and less postural comfort with the brake pedal at the head-end. During in-room transportation, participants generally reported "Neither Low nor High" physical demands

  14. Prevalence of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS in three regions of England: a repeated cross-sectional study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has been used to name a range of chronic conditions characterized by extreme fatigue and other disabling symptoms. Attempts to estimate the burden of disease have been limited by selection bias, and by lack of diagnostic biomarkers and of agreed reproducible case definitions. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS in three regions in England, and discussed the implications of frequency statistics and the use of different case definitions for health and social care planning and for research. Methods We compared the clinical presentation, prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS based on a sample of 143,000 individuals aged 18 to 64 years, covered by primary care services in three regions of England. Case ascertainment involved: 1 electronic search for chronic fatigue cases; 2 direct questioning of general practitioners (GPs on cases not previously identified by the search; and 3 clinical review of identified cases according to CDC-1994, Canadian and Epidemiological Case (ECD Definitions. This enabled the identification of cases with high validity. Results The estimated minimum prevalence rate of ME/CFS was 0.2% for cases meeting any of the study case definitions, 0.19% for the CDC-1994 definition, 0.11% for the Canadian definition and 0.03% for the ECD. The overall estimated minimal yearly incidence was 0.015%. The highest rates were found in London and the lowest in East Yorkshire. All but one of the cases conforming to the Canadian criteria also met the CDC-1994 criteria, however presented higher prevalence and severity of symptoms. Conclusions ME/CFS is not uncommon in England and represents a significant burden to patients and society. The number of people with chronic fatigue who do not meet specific criteria for ME/CFS is higher still. Both groups have high levels of need for service provision, including health and social

  15. Socio-economic and tobacco mediation of ethnic inequalities in mortality over time: Repeated census-mortality cohort studies, 1981 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Tony; Disney, George; Valeri, Linda; Atkinson, June; Teng, Andrea; Wilson, Nick; Gurrin, Lyle

    2018-04-10

    Racial/ethnic inequalities in mortality may be reducible by addressing socio-economic factors and smoking. To our knowledge, this is the first study to estimate trends over multiple decades in: 1) mediation of racial/ethnic inequalities in mortality (between Māori and Europeans in New Zealand [NZ]) by socio-economic factors, 2) additional mediation through smoking; and 3) inequalities had there never been smoking. We estimated natural (1 and 2 above) and controlled mediation effects (3 above) in census-mortality cohorts for 1981-84 (1.1 million people), 1996-99 (1.5 million) and 2006-11 (1.5 million) for 25-74 year olds in NZ, using a weighting of regression predicted outcomes. Socio-economic factors explained 46% of male inequalities in all three cohorts and made an increasing contribution over time among females from 30.4% (95% CI 18.1% to 42.7%) in 1981-84 to 41.9% (36.0% to 48.0%). Including smoking with socioeconomic factors only modestly altered the percentage mediated for males, but more substantially increased it for females, e.g. 7.7% (5.5% to 10.0%) in 2006-11.A counterfactual scenario of having eradicated tobacco in the past (but unchanged socio-economic distribution) lowered mortality for all sex-by-ethnic groups, and resulted in a 12.2% (2.9% to 20.8%) and 21.2% (11.6% and 31.0%) reduction in the absolute mortality gap between Māori and Europeans in 2006-11, for males and females respectively. Our study predicts that, in this high-income country, reducing socio-economic disparities between ethnic groups would greatly reduce ethnic inequalities in mortality over the long run. Eradicating tobacco would notably reduce ethnic inequalities in absolute but not relative mortality.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used

  16. Repeated granitoid intrusions during the Neoproterozoic along the western boundary of the Saharan metacraton, Eastern Hoggar, Tuareg shield, Algeria: An AMS and U-Pb zircon age study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B.; Liégeois, J. P.; Nouar, O.; Derder, M. E. M.; Bayou, B.; Bruguier, O.; Ouabadi, A.; Belhai, D.; Amenna, M.; Hemmi, A.; Ayache, M.

    2009-09-01

    The N-S oriented Raghane shear zone (8°30') delineates the western boundary of the Saharan metacraton and is, with the 4°50' shear zone, the most important shear zone in the Tuareg shield. It can be followed on 1000 km in the basement from southern Aïr, Niger to NE Hoggar, Algeria. Large subhorizontal movements have occurred during the Pan-African orogeny and several groups of granitoids intruded during the Neoproterozoic. We report U-Pb zircon datings (laser ICP-MS) showing that three magmatic suites of granitoids emplaced close to the Raghane shear zone at c. 790 Ma, c. 590 and c. 550 Ma. A comprehensive and detailed (158 sites, more than 1000 cores) magnetic fabric study was performed on 8 plutons belonging to the three magmatic suites and distributed on 200 km along the Raghane shear zone. The main minerals in all the target plutons do not show visible preferential magmatic orientation except in narrow shear zones. The AMS study shows that all plutons have a magnetic lineation and foliation compatible with the deformed zones that are zones deformed lately in post-solidus conditions. These structures are related to the nearby mega-shear zones, the Raghane shear zone for most of them. The old c. 793 Ma Touffok granite preserved locally its original structures. The magnetic structures of the c. 593 Ma Ohergehem pluton, intruded in the Aouzegueur terrane, are related to thrust structures generated by the Raghane shear zone while it is not the case of the contemporaneous plutons in the Assodé-Issalane terrane whose structures are only related to the subvertical shear zones. Finally, the c. 550 Ma granite group has magnetic structure related to the N-S oriented Raghane shear zone and its associated NNE-SSW structures when close to them, but NW-SE oriented when further. These NW-SE oriented structures appear to be characteristic of the late Neoproterozoic evolution of the Saharan metacraton and are in relation to the convergence with the Murzuq craton. This

  17. Biosynthesis of highly enriched 13C-lycopene for human metabolic studies using repeated batch tomato cell culturing with 13C-glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy E.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lu, Chi-Hua; Conlon, Lauren E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Clinton, Steven K.; Erdman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    While putative disease-preventing lycopene metabolites are found in both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) products and in their consumers, mammalian lycopene metabolism is poorly understood. Advances in tomato cell culturing techniques offer an economical tool for generation of highly-enriched 13C-lycopene for human bioavailability and metabolism studies. To enhance the 13C-enrichment and yields of labeled lycopene from the hp-1 tomato cell line, cultures were first grown in 13C-glucose media for three serial batches and produced increasing proportions of uniformly labeled lycopene (14.3 +/− 1.2 %, 39.6 +/− 0.5 %, and 48.9 +/− 1.5% with consistent yields (from 5.8 to 9 mg/L). An optimized 9-day-long 13C-loading and 18-day-long labeling strategy developed based on glucose utilization and lycopene yields, yielded 13C-lycopene with 93% 13C isotopic purity, and 55% of isotopomers were uniformly labeled. Furthermore, an optimized acetone and hexane extraction led to a four-fold increase in lycopene recovery from cultures compared to a standard extraction. PMID:23561155

  18. How do people with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy sleep? A clinical and video-EEG with EOG and submental EMG for sleep staging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vieira Scarlatelli-Lima

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess subjective and objective sleep parameters in a homogeneous group of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE patients through internationally validated clinical questionnaires, video-electroencephalographic (VEEG and polysomnographic (PSG studies. Fifty-six patients with definite diagnosis of MTLE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery underwent a detailed clinical history, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS, neurological examination, 1.5 T brain magnetic resonance imaging, VEEG and PSG. Sixteen percent of patients reported significant daytime sleepiness as measured by ESS and 27% reported low levels of sleep quality as measured by PSQI. Patients with medically resistant epilepsy by MTLE showed increased wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO with mean ± standard deviation of 17.4 ± 15.6, longer non-rapid eye movement (NREM 1 (7.5 ± 4.6% and NREM3 sleep (26.6 ± 11.8%, abnormal rapid eye movement (REM latency in 30/56 patients, shorter REM sleep (16.7 ± 6.6%, and abnormal alpha delta patterns were observed in 41/56 patients. The analysis of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs evidenced highest spiking rate during NREM3 sleep and higher concordance with imaging data when IEDs were recorded in sleep, mainly during REM sleep. We concluded that patients with MTLE showed disrupted sleep architecture that may result in daytime dysfunction and sleep complaints. Furthermore, NREM sleep activated focal IEDs and them - when recorded during sleep - had higher localizing value.

  19. Contributions by the CAG-repeat Polymorphism of the Androgen Receptor Gene and Circulating Androgens to Muscle Size. Odense Androgen Study - A Population-based Study of 20-29 Year-old Danish Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Leo; Hagen, Claus; Wraae, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    -repeat number correlated inversely with thigh and axial muscle area and with lower and upper extremity lean body mass. Except for upper extremity lean body mass, these findings remained significant in multivariate analyses controlling for circulating androgens, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake......-29 years, who matched the background population as regards body mass index, chronic disease, medication, physical activity, smoking, and sociodemographic parameters. Genotyping was performed in 767 men, whole body DXA in 783 men, and MRI in 406 consecutively included men. Main Outcome Measures: Six......, chronic disease, and age. The CAG-repeat number correlated positively with total body fat mass adjusted for weight, but not with the concentration of any of the circulating androgens. Total testosterone and dihydrotestosterone correlated positively with all outcomes of muscle size. The prevalence of low...

  20. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2015-03-24

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)-the cause of multiple human diseases-have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential.

  1. A 13-week repeated dose study of three 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Mizuta, Yasuko; Yoshida, Midori; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-04-01

    3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a rat renal and testicular carcinogen, has been reported to occur in various foods and food ingredients as free or esterified forms. Since reports about toxicity of 3-MCPD esters are limited, we conducted a 13-week rat subchronic toxicity study of 3-MCPD esters (palmitate diester: CDP, palmitate monoester: CMP, oleate diester: CDO). We administered a carcinogenic dose (3.6 × 10(-4) mol/kg B.W./day) of 3-MCPD or these esters at equimolar concentrations and two 1/4 lower doses by gavage with olive oil as a vehicle five times a week for 13 weeks to F344 male and female rats. As a result, five out of ten 3-MCPD-treated females died from acute renal tubular necrosis, but none of the ester-treated rats. Decreased HGB was observed in all high-dose 3-MCPD fatty acid ester-treated rats, except CDO-treated males. The absolute and relative kidney weights were significantly increased in the ester-treated rats at medium and high doses. Relative liver weights were significantly increased in the esters-treated rat at high dose, except for CMP females. Significant increase in apoptotic epithelial cells in the initial segment of the epididymis of high-dose ester-treated males was also observed. The results suggested that although acute renal toxicity was lower than 3-MCPD, these three 3-MCPD fatty acid esters have the potential to exert subchronic toxicity to the rat kidneys and epididymis, to a similar degree as 3-MCPD under the present conditions. NOAELs (no-observed-adverse-effect levels) of CDP, CMP and CDO were suggested to be 14, 8 and 15 mg/kg B.W./day, respectively.

  2. Has India's national rural health mission reduced inequities in maternal health services? A pre-post repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Gupta, Adyya; Khan, Zaky; Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Ebrahim, Shah; Bowling, Ann; Doyle, Pat

    2017-02-01

    In 2005, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to strengthen the primary healthcare system. NRHM also aims to encourage pregnant women, particularly of low socioeconomic backgrounds, to use institutional maternal healthcare. We evaluated the impacts of NRHM on socioeconomic inequities in the uptake of institutional delivery and antenatal care (ANC) across high-focus (deprived) Indian states. Data from District Level Household and Facility Surveys (DLHS) Rounds 1 (1995-99) and 2 (2000-04) from the pre-NRHM period, and Round 3 (2007-08), Round 4 and Annual Health Survey (2011-12) from post-NRHM period were used. Wealth-related and education-related relative indexes of inequality, and pre-post difference-in-differences models for wealth and education tertiles, adjusted for maternal age, rural-urban, caste, parity and state-level fixed effects, were estimated. Inequities in institutional delivery declined between pre-NRHM Period 1 (1995-99) and pre-NRHM Period 2 (2000-04), but thereafter demonstrated steeper decline in post-NRHM periods. Uptake of institutional delivery increased among all socioeconomic groups, with (1) greater effects among the lowest and middle wealth and education tertiles than highest tertile, and (2) larger equity impacts in the late post-NRHM period 2011-12 than in the early post-NRHM period 2007-08. No positive impact on the uptake of ANC was found in the early post-NRHM period 2007-08; however, there was considerable increase in the uptake of, and decline in inequity, in uptake of ANC in most states in the late post-NRHM period 2011-12. In high-focus states, NRHM resulted in increased uptake of maternal healthcare, and decline in its socioeconomic inequity. Our study suggests that public health programs in developing country settings will have larger equity impacts after its almost full implementation and widest outreach. Targeting deprived populations and designing public health programs by linking maternal and child

  3. Changes in child exposure to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Wales: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holliday Jo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoke-free legislation was introduced in Wales in April 2007. In response to concerns regarding potential displacement of smoking into the home following legislation, this study assessed changes in secondhand smoke (SHS exposure amongst non-smoking children. Methods Approximately 1,750 year 6 (aged 10-11 children from 75 Welsh primary schools were included in cross-sectional surveys immediately pre-legislation and one year later. Participants completed self-report questionnaires and provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Regression analyses assessed the impact of legislation on children's SHS exposure at the population level, and amongst subgroups defined by parental figures who smoke within the home. Results Geometric mean salivary cotinine concentrations were 0.17 ng/ml (95% CI 0.15,0.20 pre-legislation and 0.15 ng/ml (95% CI 0.13,0.17, post-legislation, although this change was not statistically significant. Significant movement was however observed from the middle (0.10-0.50 ng/ml to lower tertile, though not from the higher end (>0.51 ng/ml to the middle. Reported exposure to SHS was greatest within the home. Home-based exposure did not change significantly post-legislation. Reported exposure in cafés or restaurants, buses and trains, and indoor leisure facilities fell significantly. The proportion of children reporting that parent figures smoked in the home declined (P = 0.03, with children with no parent figures who smoke in the home significantly more likely to provide saliva with cotinine concentrations of <0.10 ng/ml post-legislation. Amongst children with no parent figures who smoke in the home, the likelihood of 'not knowing' or 'never' being in a place where people were smoking increased post-legislation. Conclusion Smoke-free legislation in Wales did not increase SHS exposure in homes of children aged 10-11. Reported SHS exposure in public places fell significantly. The home remained the main source of

  4. Trends in resource utilization by children with neurological impairment in the United States inpatient health care system: a repeat cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay G Berry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Care advances in the United States (US have led to improved survival of children with neurological impairment (NI. Children with NI may account for an increasing proportion of hospital resources. However, this assumption has not been tested at a national level.We conducted a study of 25,747,016 US hospitalizations of children recorded in the Kids' Inpatient Database (years 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006. Children with NI were identified with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses resulting in functional and/or intellectual impairment. We assessed trends in inpatient resource utilization for children with NI with a Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test using all 4 y of data combined. Across the 4 y combined, children with NI accounted for 5.2% (1,338,590 of all hospitalizations. Epilepsy (52.2% [n = 538,978] and cerebral palsy (15.9% [n = 164,665] were the most prevalent NI diagnoses. The proportion of hospitalizations attributable to children with NI did not change significantly (p = 0.32 over time. In 2006, children with NI accounted for 5.3% (n = 345,621 of all hospitalizations, 13.9% (n = 3.4 million of bed days, and 21.6% (US$17.7 billion of all hospital charges within all hospitals. Over time, the proportion of hospitalizations attributable to children with NI decreased within non-children's hospitals (3.0% [n = 146,324] in 1997 to 2.5% [n = 113,097] in 2006, p<.001 and increased within children's hospitals (11.7% [n = 179,324] in 1997 to 13.5% [n = 209,708] in 2006, p<0.001. In 2006, children with NI accounted for 24.7% (2.1 million of bed days and 29.0% (US$12.0 billion of hospital charges within children's hospitals.Children with NI account for a substantial proportion of inpatient resources utilized in the US. Their impact is growing within children's hospitals. We must ensure that the current health care system is staffed, educated, and equipped to serve this growing segment of vulnerable children.

  5. Initial study of stability and repeatability of measuring R2' and oxygen extraction fraction values in the healthy brain with gradient-echo sampling of spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Lihong; Zhang Xiaodong; He Chao; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang jue; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the stability and repeatability of gradient-echo sampling of spin- echo (GESSE) sequence in measuring the R 2 ' value in volunteers, by comparison with traditional GRE sequence (T 2 * ]nap and T 2 map). Methods: Eight normal healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study and written informed consents were obtained from all subjects. MR scanning including sequences of GESSE, T 2 map and T 2 * map were performed in these subjects at resting status. The same protocol was repeated one day later. Raw data from GESSE sequence were transferred to PC to conduct postprocessing with the software built in house. R 2 ' map and OEF map were got consequently. To obtain quantitative R 2 ' and OEF values in the brain parenchyma, six ROIs were equally placed in the anterior, middle and posterior part of bilateral hemispheres. Both mean and standard deviation of R 2 ' and OEF were recorded. All images from T 2 * map and T 2 map were transferred to the Workstation for postprocessing. The ROIs were put at the same areas as those for GESSE sequence. R 2 ' is defined as R 2 ' = R 2 * - R 2 , R 2 * = 1/T 2 * . The R 2 ' value of GESSE sequence were compared with that of GRE sequence. Results: The mean R 2 ' values of GESSE at the first and second scan and those of the GRE were (4.21±0.92), (4.45±0.94) Hz and (7.37±1.47), (6.42±2.33) Hz respectively. The mean OEF values of GESSE at the first and second scan is 0.327±0.036 and 0.336± 0.035 respectively. The R 2 ' value and OEF value obtained from GESSE were not significantly different between the first and second scan (t=-0.83, -1.48, P>0.05). The R 2 ' value of first GRE imaging had significantly statistical difference from that of second GRE imaging (t=1.80, P 2 ' value of GESSE sequence was less than that of GRE sequence, and there was significantly statistical difference between them (t=1.71, P<0.05). Conclusion: The GESSE sequence has good stability and repeatability with promising clinical practicability

  6. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  7. Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

    2004-12-01

    Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments).

  8. The effect of repeated testing vs repeated practice on skills learning in undergraduate dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn-Kirchner, S; Goerlich, Y; Kirchner, B; Notbohm, M; Schiekirka, S; Simmenroth, A; Raupach, T

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies in undergraduate medical education have demonstrated the advantage of repeated testing over repeated practice with regard to knowledge and skills retention. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this "testing effect" also applies to skills retention in undergraduate dental education. In this prospective, randomised controlled trial, fourth-year dental students at Göttingen University Medical Centre participated in a training session on surgical suturing in winter term 2014/2015. Following this, they were either assigned to two sessions of additional skills training (group A) or two sessions of skills assessment with feedback (group B). These sessions were spaced over a period of 4 weeks. Skills retention was assessed in a summative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the end of term, that is 6 months after the initial teaching session. A total of 32 students completed the study. With regard to suturing, OSCE performance was significantly better in group B than group A (81.9±13.1% vs 63.0±15.4%; P=0.001; Cohen's d=1.33). There was no significant OSCE performance difference in the two groups with regard to other learning objectives that were addressed in the end-of-term examination. Thus, the group difference was specific to suturing skills. This is the first study to demonstrate that in dental education, repeated testing produces more favourable skills retention than repeated practice. Test-enhanced learning might be a viable concept for skills retention in undergraduate dentistry education. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. One way quantum repeaters with quantum Reed-Solomon codes

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidharan, Sreraman; Zou, Chang-Ling; Li, Linshu; Jiang, Liang

    2018-01-01

    We show that quantum Reed-Solomon codes constructed from classical Reed-Solomon codes can approach the capacity on the quantum erasure channel of $d$-level systems for large dimension $d$. We study the performance of one-way quantum repeaters with these codes and obtain a significant improvement in key generation rate compared to previously investigated encoding schemes with quantum parity codes and quantum polynomial codes. We also compare the three generation of quantum repeaters using quan...

  10. Repeat Assessed Values Model for Housing Price Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Manuela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an innovative methodology, named Repeat Appraised Price Model (RAV, useful for determining the price index numbers for real estate markets and the corresponding index numbers of hedonic prices of main real estate characteristics in the case of a lack of data. The methodological approach proposed in this paper aims to appraise the time series of price index numbers. It integrates the principles of the method of repeat sales with the peculiarities of the Hedonic Price Method, overcoming the problem of an almost total absence of repeat sales for the same property in a given time range; on the other hand, the technique aims to overcome the limitation of the repeat sales technique concerning the inability to take into account the characteristics of individual properties.

  11. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tokuuye, Koichi; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Hata, Masaharu; Kagei, Kenji; Sugahara, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  12. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  13. Repeatability and reproducibility of decisions by latent fingerprint examiners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T Ulery

    Full Text Available The interpretation of forensic fingerprint evidence relies on the expertise of latent print examiners. We tested latent print examiners on the extent to which they reached consistent decisions. This study assessed intra-examiner repeatability by retesting 72 examiners on comparisons of latent and exemplar fingerprints, after an interval of approximately seven months; each examiner was reassigned 25 image pairs for comparison, out of total pool of 744 image pairs. We compare these repeatability results with reproducibility (inter-examiner results derived from our previous study. Examiners repeated 89.1% of their individualization decisions, and 90.1% of their exclusion decisions; most of the changed decisions resulted in inconclusive decisions. Repeatability of comparison decisions (individualization, exclusion, inconclusive was 90.0% for mated pairs, and 85.9% for nonmated pairs. Repeatability and reproducibility were notably lower for comparisons assessed by the examiners as "difficult" than for "easy" or "moderate" comparisons, indicating that examiners' assessments of difficulty may be useful for quality assurance. No false positive errors were repeated (n = 4; 30% of false negative errors were repeated. One percent of latent value decisions were completely reversed (no value even for exclusion vs. of value for individualization. Most of the inter- and intra-examiner variability concerned whether the examiners considered the information available to be sufficient to reach a conclusion; this variability was concentrated on specific image pairs such that repeatability and reproducibility were very high on some comparisons and very low on others. Much of the variability appears to be due to making categorical decisions in borderline cases.

  14. Repeatability of cervical joint flexion and extension within and between days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xu; Lindstroem, René; Plocharski, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate within- and between-day repeatability of free and unrestricted healthy cervical flexion and extension motion when assessing dynamic cervical spine motion. METHODS: Fluoroscopy videos of 2 repeated cervical flexion and 2 repeated extension...

  15. Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with 22 chemicals using young adult rats: summary of the collaborative study by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) - Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Takashima, Rie; Shimada, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Kazumi; Kawakami, Satoru; Uno, Fuyumi; Sui, Hajime; Shimada, Yasushi; Imamura, Tadashi; Matsumura, Shoji; Sanada, Hisakazu; Inoue, Kenji; Muto, Shigeharu; Ogawa, Izumi; Hayashi, Aya; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Ogiwara, Yosuke; Maeda, Akihisa; Okada, Emiko; Terashima, Yukari; Takasawa, Hironao; Narumi, Kazunori; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Sano, Masaki; Ohashi, Nobuyuki; Morita, Takeshi; Kojima, Hajime; Honma, Masamitsu; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect hepatocarcinogens. We conducted a collaborative study to assess the performance of this assay and to evaluate the possibility of integrating it into general toxicological studies. Twenty-four testing laboratories belonging to the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group, a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, participated in this trial. Twenty-two model chemicals, including some hepatocarcinogens, were tested in 14- and/or 28-day RDLMN assays. As a result, 14 out of the 16 hepatocarcinogens were positive, including 9 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, which were reported negative in the bone marrow/peripheral blood micronucleus (MN) assay by a single treatment. These outcomes show the high sensitivity of the RDLMN assay to hepatocarcinogens. Regarding the specificity, 4 out of the 6 non-liver targeted genotoxic carcinogens gave negative responses. This shows the high organ specificity of the RDLMN assay. In addition to the RDLMN assay, we simultaneously conducted gastrointestinal tract MN assays using 6 of the above carcinogens as an optional trial of the collaborative study. The MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first contact site of the test chemical when administered by oral gavage, was able to detect chromosomal aberrations with 3 test chemicals including a stomach-targeted carcinogen. The treatment regime was the 14- and/or 28-day repeated-dose, and the regime is sufficiently promising to incorporate these methods into repeated-dose toxicological studies. The outcomes of our collaborative study indicated that the new techniques to detect chromosomal aberrations in vivo in several tissues worked successfully. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status for Hearing Impaired Individuals (RBANS-H) before and after Cochlear Implantation: A Protocol for a Prospective, Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Annes J; Mertens, Griet; Gilles, Annick; Hofkens-Van den Brandt, Anouk; Fransen, Erik; Van Rompaey, Vincent; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently, an independent relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults is suggested by large prospective studies. In general, cochlear implants improve hearing and the quality of life in severely to profoundly hearing impaired older persons. However, little is known about the effects of cochlear implantation on the cognitive evolution in this population. Aim of the study: The primary goal of this prospective, longitudinal cohort study is to explore the cognitive profile of severely to profoundly postlingually hearing impaired subjects before and after cochlear implantation. In addition, the current study aims to investigate the relationship between the cognitive function, audiometric performances, quality of life, and self-reliance in these patients. Methods: Twenty-five patients aged 55 or older, scheduled for cochlear implantation, will be enrolled in the study. They will be examined prior to implantation, at 6 and 12 months after implantation and annually thereafter. The test battery consists of (1) a cognitive examination, using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status adapted for Hearing impaired persons (RBANS-H), (2) an audiological examination, including unaided and aided pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry in quiet and speech audiometry in noise, (3) the administration of four questionnaires evaluating quality of life and subjective hearing benefit and (4) a semi-structured interview about the self-reliance of the participant. Discussion: Up until now only one study has been conducted on this topic, focusing on the short-term effects of cochlear implantation on cognition in older adults. The present study is the first study to apply a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment adapted for severely to profoundly hearing impaired subjects in order to investigate the cognitive capabilities before and after cochlear implantation. Trial registration: The present protocol is

  17. Huntingtin gene repeat size variations affect risk of lifetime depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Sarah L; van Belzen, Martine J; Boogaard, Merel W; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C; Rozing, Maarten P; van Hemert, Albert M; Smit, Johannes H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Grootheest, Gerard; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Roos, Raymund A C; Comijs, Hannie C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van der Mast, Roos C; Aziz, N Ahmad

    2017-12-11

    Huntington disease (HD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansion in the HTT gene. Although HD is frequently complicated by depression, it is still unknown to what extent common HTT CAG repeat size variations in the normal range could affect depression risk in the general population. Using binary logistic regression, we assessed the association between HTT CAG repeat size and depression risk in two well-characterized Dutch cohorts─the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety and the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons─including 2165 depressed and 1058 non-depressed persons. In both cohorts, separately as well as combined, there was a significant non-linear association between the risk of lifetime depression and HTT CAG repeat size in which both relatively short and relatively large alleles were associated with an increased risk of depression (β = -0.292 and β = 0.006 for the linear and the quadratic term, respectively; both P < 0.01 after adjustment for the effects of sex, age, and education level). The odds of lifetime depression were lowest in persons with a HTT CAG repeat size of 21 (odds ratio: 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 0.98) compared to the average odds in the total cohort. In conclusion, lifetime depression risk was higher with both relatively short and relatively large HTT CAG repeat sizes in the normal range. Our study provides important proof-of-principle that repeat polymorphisms can act as hitherto unappreciated but complex genetic modifiers of depression.

  18. REPEATABILITY OF FRUIT QUALITY TRAITS OF CACTUS PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALTÂNIA XAVIER NUNES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Repeatability analysis has been used to study traits in several crops, assisting in the definition of the minimum number needed to evaluate genotypes more efficiently and with less time and resource consumption. So far, however, no repeatability studies on cactus pear have been found in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of repeatability for cactus pear fruits traits and the minimum number of evaluations (fruit that can provide acceptable accuracy for the prediction of the true value. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Bahia/Campus Guanambi, with 150 fruits collected from three municipalities in the state of Bahia. The coefficients of repeatability were estimated by the methods of analysis of variance, principal components based on the covariance (PCCV and correlation (PCC matrices, and structural analysis based on the correlation matrix (SA. The analysis of variance showed that, except for fruit diameter, the effect of the production site (municipality was significant for all traits evaluated. The PCCV method was proven the most suitable for studying the repeatability of quality traits of cactus pear fruits. Seven fruits were required to determine, with 90% confidence, the traits length, diameter, fruit firmness, skin thickness, number of seeds, fruit mass, bark mass, pulp mass, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/AT ratio, and pulp yield.

  19. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  20. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeat ... Cluster analysis revealed a high genetic similarity among the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines which could reduce the genetic gain in ..... The multiple allele characteristic of SSR com-.

  1. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan; Manolescu, Ioana; Afanasiev, Loredana; Feng, Jieling; Gou, G.; Hadjieleftheriou, Marios; Harizopoulos, Stavros; Kalnis, Panos; Karanasos, Konstantinos; Laurent, Dominique; Lupu, M.; Onose, N.; Ré , C.; Sans, Virginie; Senellart, Pierre; Wu, T.; Shasha, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  2. Persistent seizures following failed surgery - Ictal SPECT and correlation with video EEG and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, S.; Gupta, A.; Kotagal, P.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: A significant proportion (30-70%) of seizure patients (pts) have recurrent seizures post surgically. Up to 40-60% of these pts may benefit from re-evaluation and repeat surgical resections. Follow-up MRI is generally not useful in these patients due to post-surgical changes. Recently, ictal SPECT (IC) has been shown to be useful for the localization of seizure focus. We retrospectively analyzed the utility of IC in patients with unsuccessful surgical resections. Methods: Review of medical charts of all pts with IC from 1995 to 2001 was performed to identify pts with recurrent seizures who had IC studies. A total of 15 pts (male = 6, female 9; mean age = 17.9 yrs., range 6-31 yr.) were identified. All pts received 74-140 MBq of Tc-99m ECD each within 30 sec (range 14-81 sec) of seizure onset and were imaged within 6 hr post injection. For the inter-ictal (INT) scan, they received a similar dose and were imaged within 15 min post-injection on a triple-head gamma camera (Triad Trionix, Twinsburg, Ohio). The reconstructed transverse images were co-registered and normalized to the total counts of the INT. Greater than 10% increase in counts on the IC compared to the INT was considered positive for ictally-enhanced perfusion. The ICs were classified as localizable, lateralizable, or discordant with respect to vEEG. Results: Ictal SPECT and vEEG were concordant and lateralized the seizure focus in 14/15 pts, while both modalities were concordant and localized the foci in 7/15 pts, they were discordant for laterialization in 1 pt, and for localization in 8 pts. The MRI in 13/15 pts prior to the IC, revealed post surgical changes at the resection site, while in two pts MRI showed residual/recurrent tumor. Repeat resections and post-surgical follow-up (30 days to > 2 yrs) were available in 6/15 pts, 5 of these pts with repeat surgical resections of concordantly localized seizure foci by IC and vEEG, had good post-surgical outcome (Engel's I/II), while in the

  3. THICKNESS OF THE MACULA, RETINAL NERVE FIBER LAYER, AND GANGLION CELL-INNER PLEXIFORM LAYER IN THE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: The Repeatability Study of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Il-Hwan; Lee, Woo-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-Joo; Jo, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Yeul

    2018-02-01

    To determine the repeatability of measuring the thickness of the central macula, retinal nerve fiber layer, and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Cirrus HD-OCT) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration. One hundred and thirty-four eyes were included. The measurement repeatability was assessed by an experienced examiner who performed two consecutive measurements using a 512 × 128 macular cube scan and a 200 × 200 optic disk cube scan. To assess changes in macular morphology in patients with age-related macular degeneration, the patients were divided into the following three groups according to the central macular thickness (CMT): A group, CMT 300 μm. Measurement repeatability was assessed using test-retest variability, a coefficient of variation, and an intraclass correlation coefficient. The mean measurement repeatability for the central macular, retinal nerve fiber layer, and GC-IPL thickness was high in the B group. The mean measurement repeatability for both the central macula and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was high in the A and C groups, but was lower for the GC-IPL thickness. The measurement repeatability for GC-IPL thickness was high in the B group, but low in the A group and in the C group. The automated measurement repeatability for GC-IPL thickness was significantly lower in patients with age-related macular degeneration with out of normal CMT range. The effect of changes in macular morphology should be considered when analyzing GC-IPL thicknesses in a variety of ocular diseases.

  4. Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using N-nitrosomorpholine in young adult rats: report on collaborative study by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS)-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study (MMS) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Aya; Kosaka, Mizuki; Kimura, Aoi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hamada, Shuichi

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of a repeated-dose liver micronucleus (LMN) assay in young adult rats as a collaborative study by the Mammalian mutagenicity study (MMS) group. All procedures were performed in accordance with the standard protocols of the MMS Group. Six-week-old male Crl:CD(SD) rats (5 animals/group) received oral doses of the hepatocarcinogen N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) at 0 (control), 5, 10, and 30mg/kg/day (10mL/kg) for 14 days. Control animals received vehicle (water). Hepatocytes were collected from the liver 24h after the last dose, and the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) was determined by microscopy. The number of micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) in the femoral bone marrow was also determined. The liver was examined using histopathologic methods after formalin fixation. The results showed statistically significant and dose-dependent increases in the number of MNHEPs in the liver at doses of 10mg/kg and greater when compared with the vehicle control. However, no significant increase was noted in the number of MNIMEs in the bone marrow at doses of up to 30mg/kg. Histopathology of the liver revealed hypertrophy and single cell necrosis of hepatocytes at doses of 5mg/kg and above. These results showed that the induction of micronuclei by NMOR was detected by the repeated-dose LMN assay, but not by the repeated-dose bone marrow micronucleus assay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  6. Discovery and mapping of a new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat panel for large-scale genetic studies and breeding of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegre, Mathilde; Argout, Xavier; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Roguet, Yolande; Bérard, Aurélie; Thévenin, Jean Marc; Chauveau, Aurélie; Rivallan, Ronan; Clement, Didier; Courtois, Brigitte; Gramacho, Karina; Boland-Augé, Anne; Tahi, Mathias; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Brunel, Dominique; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is an economically important tree of several tropical countries. Its genetic improvement is essential to provide protection against major diseases and improve chocolate quality. We discovered and mapped new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (EST-SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and constructed a high-density genetic map. By screening 149 650 ESTs, 5246 SNPs were detected in silico, of which 1536 corresponded to genes with a putative function, while 851 had a clear polymorphic pattern across a collection of genetic resources. In addition, 409 new SSR markers were detected on the Criollo genome. Lastly, 681 new EST-SNPs and 163 new SSRs were added to the pre-existing 418 co-dominant markers to construct a large consensus genetic map. This high-density map and the set of new genetic markers identified in this study are a milestone in cocoa genomics and for marker-assisted breeding. The data are available at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr. PMID:22210604

  7. The patient safety culture as perceived by staff at two different emergency departments before and after introducing a flow-oriented working model with team triage and lean principles: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Lena; Letterstål, Anna; Engström, Marie-Louise; Berglund, Anders; Enlund, Mats

    2014-07-09

    Patient safety is of the utmost importance in health care. The patient safety culture in an institution has great impact on patient safety. To enhance patient safety and to design strategies to reduce medical injuries, there is a current focus on measuring the patient safety culture. The aim of the present study was to describe the patient safety culture in an ED at two different hospitals before and after a Quality improvement (QI) project that was aimed to enhance patient safety. A repeated cross-sectional design, using the Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture questionnaire before and after a quality improvement project in two emergency departments at a county hospital and a university hospital. The questionnaire was developed to obtain a better understanding of the patient safety culture of an entire hospital or of specific departments. The Swedish version has 51 questions and 15 dimensions. At the county hospital, a difference between baseline and follow-up was observed in three dimensions. For two of these dimensions, Team-work within hospital and Communication openness, a higher score was measured at the follow-up. At the university hospital, a higher score was measured at follow-up for the two dimensions Team-work across hospital units and Team-work within hospital. The result showed changes in the self-estimated patient safety culture, mainly regarding team-work and communication openness. Most of the improvements at follow-up were seen by physicians, and mainly at the county hospital.

  8. Intra-examiner repeatability and agreement in accommodative response measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, B; Sanchez, I; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E

    2009-11-01

    Clinical measurement of the accommodative response (AR) identifies the focusing plane of a subject with respect to the accommodative target. To establish whether a significant change in AR has occurred, it is important to determine the repeatability of this measurement. This study had two aims: First, to determine the intraexaminer repeatability of AR measurements using four clinical methods: Nott retinoscopy, monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy, binocular crossed cylinder test (BCC) and near autorefractometry. Second, to study the level of agreement between AR measurements obtained with the different methods. The AR of the right eye at one accommodative demand of 2.50 D (40 cm) was measured on two separate occasions in 61 visually normal subjects of mean age 19.7 years (range 18-32 years). The intraexaminer repeatability of the tests, and agreement between them, were estimated by the Bland-Altman method. We determined mean differences (MD) and the 95% limits of agreement [coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement (COA)]. Nott retinoscopy and BCC offered the best repeatability, showing the lowest MD and narrowest 95% interval of agreement (Nott: -0.10 +/- 0.66 D, BCC: -0.05 +/- 0.75 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the four techniques were similar (COA = +/- 0.92 to +/-1.00 D) yet clinically significant, according to the expected values of the AR. The two dynamic retinoscopy techniques (Nott and MEM) had a better agreement (COA = +/-0.64 D) although this COA must be interpreted in the context of the low MEM repeatability (COR = +/-0.98 D). The best method of assessing AR was Nott retinoscopy. The BCC technique was also repeatable, and both are recommended as suitable methods for clinical use. Despite better agreement between MEM and Nott, agreement among the remaining methods was poor such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.

  9. RNA FISH for detecting expanded repeats in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Martyna O; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

    2016-04-01

    RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a widely used technique for detecting transcripts in fixed cells and tissues. Many variants of RNA FISH have been proposed to increase signal strength, resolution and target specificity. The current variants of this technique facilitate the detection of the subcellular localization of transcripts at a single molecule level. Among the applications of RNA FISH are studies on nuclear RNA foci in diseases resulting from the expansion of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats present in different single genes. The partial or complete retention of mutant transcripts forming RNA aggregates within the nucleoplasm has been shown in multiple cellular disease models and in the tissues of patients affected with these atypical mutations. Relevant diseases include, among others, myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) with CUG repeats, Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) with CAG repeats, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) with CGG repeats, myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) with CCUG repeats, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD) with GGGGCC repeats and spinocerebellar ataxia type 32 (SCA32) with GGCCUG. In this article, we summarize the results obtained with FISH to examine RNA nuclear inclusions. We provide a detailed protocol for detecting RNAs containing expanded CAG and CUG repeats in different cellular models, including fibroblasts, lymphoblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells and murine and human neuronal progenitors. We also present the results of the first single-molecule FISH application in a cellular model of polyglutamine disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling and evaluating repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; van Wieringen, W.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that currently available methods for the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications are not satisfactory. The paper aims to study whether we can modify a class of models from Item Response Theory, well established for the study of the reliability

  11. Reduction in gesture during the production of repeated references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoetjes, M.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Krahmer, E.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    In dialogue, repeated references contain fewer words (which are also acoustically reduced) and fewer gestures than initial ones. In this paper, we describe three experiments studying to what extent gesture reduction is comparable to other forms of linguistic reduction. Since previous studies showed

  12. Development of analog watch with minute repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigami, Tomio; Aoyama, Shigeru; Osa, Takashi; Igarashi, Kiyotaka; Ikegami, Tomomi

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor with large scale integration was developed for an electronic minute repeater. It is equipped with the synthetic struck sound circuit to generate natural struck sound necessary for the minute repeater. This circuit consists of an envelope curve drawing circuit, frequency mixer, polyphonic mixer, and booster circuit made by using analog circuit technology. This large scale integration is a single chip microcomputer with motor drivers and input ports in addition to the synthetic struck sound circuit, and it is possible to make an electronic system of minute repeater at a very low cost in comparison with the conventional type.

  13. A family of DNA repeats in Aspergillus nidulans has assimilated degenerated retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.L.; Hermansen, T.D.; Aleksenko, Alexei Y.

    2001-01-01

    In the course of a chromosomal walk towards the centromere of chromosome IV of Aspergillus nidulans, several cross- hybridizing genomic cosmid clones were isolated. Restriction mapping of two such clones revealed that their restriction patterns were similar in a region of at least 15 kb, indicati......) phenomenon, first described in Neurospora crassa, may have operated in A. nidulans. The data indicate that this family of repeats has assimilated mobile elements that subsequently degenerated but then underwent further duplications as a part of the host repeats....... the presence of a large repeat. The nature of the repeat was further investigated by sequencing and Southern analysis. The study revealed a family of long dispersed repeats with a high degree of sequence similarity. The number and location of the repeats vary between wild isolates. Two copies of the repeat...

  14. Incremental Dynamic Analysis of Koyna Dam under Repeated Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab Nik Azizan, Nik; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Maity, Damodar; Abdullah, Junaidah

    2018-03-01

    This paper discovers the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of concrete gravity dam under single and repeated earthquake loadings to identify the limit state of the dam. Seven ground motions with horizontal and vertical direction as seismic input considered in the nonlinear dynamic analysis based on the real repeated earthquake in the worldwide. All the ground motions convert to respond spectrum and scaled according to the developed elastic respond spectrum in order to match the characteristic of the ground motion to the soil type. The scaled was depends on the fundamental period, T1 of the dam. The Koyna dam has been selected as a case study for the purpose of the analysis by assuming that no sliding and rigid foundation, has been estimated. IDA curves for Koyna dam developed for single and repeated ground motions and the performance level of the dam identifies. The IDA curve of repeated ground motion shown stiffer rather than single ground motion. The ultimate state displacement for a single event is 45.59mm and decreased to 39.33mm under repeated events which are decreased about 14%. This showed that the performance level of the dam based on seismic loadings depend on ground motion pattern.

  15. Flanking Variation Influences Rates of Stutter in Simple Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August E. Woerner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL. While there are cases where this hypothesis is likely correct, such as the 9.3 allele in the TH01 locus, there can be situations where it may not apply as well. For example, the PAL may capture flanking indel variations while remaining insensitive to polymorphisms in the repeat, and these haplotypic changes may impact the stutter rate. To address this, rates of stutter were contrasted against the LUS as well as the PAL on different flanking haplotypic backgrounds. This study shows that rates of stutter can vary substantially depending on the flanking haplotype, and while there are cases where the LUS is a better predictor of stutter than the PAL, examples to the contrary are apparent in commonly assayed forensic markers. Further, flanking variation that is 7 bp from the repeat region can impact rates of stutter. These findings suggest that non-proximal effects, such as DNA secondary structure, may be impacting the rates of stutter in common forensic short tandem repeat markers.

  16. Electromyographic analysis of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, M P; Connolly, D A; Eston, R G; Gartman, E J; Gleim, G W

    2001-03-01

    The repeated bout effect refers to the protective effect provided by a single bout of eccentric exercise against muscle damage from a similar subsequent bout. The aim of this study was to determine if the repeated bout was associated with an increase in motor unit activation relative to force production, an increased recruitment of slow-twitch motor units or increased motor unit synchronization. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the hamstring muscles during two bouts of submaximal isokinetic (2.6 rad x s(-1)) eccentric (11 men, 9 women) or concentric (6 men, 4 women) contractions separated by 2 weeks. The EMG per unit torque and median frequency were analysed. The initial bout of eccentric exercise resulted in strength loss, pain and muscle tenderness, while the repeated eccentric bout resulted in a slight increase in strength, no pain and no muscle tenderness (bout x time effects, P exercise. The EMG per unit torque and median frequency were not different between the initial and repeated bouts of eccentric exercise. The EMG per unit torque and median frequency increased during both bouts of eccentric exercise (P < 0.01) but did not change during either concentric bout. In conclusion, there was no evidence that the repeated bout effect was due to a neural adaptation.

  17. Repeat dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger in polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing In Vitro fertilization cycles provides a better cycle outcome - a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Deepika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Is a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa trigger to induce final oocyte maturation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol sufficient to provide optimal oocyte maturity? Design: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept study. Setting: This study was carried out at a tertiary care center. Material and Methods: A total of 125 patients diagnosed with PCOS defined as per the ESHRE/ASRM Rotterdam criteria (2003 undergoing IVF in antagonist protocol were randomized into two groups. Group A: single dose of GnRHa 0.2 mg, 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval, and Group B: 0.2 mg GnRHa 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval + repeat dose of 0.1 mg 12 h following the 1st dose. 12 h post-trigger, luteinizing hormone (LH, progesterone (P4, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH values were estimated. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables as proportions where applicable. Independent sample t-test was used for continuous variables which were normally distributed and Mann–Whitney U-test for data not normally distributed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables where appropriate. Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs was calculated. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the post-trigger LH, P4, and FSH values at 12 h as predictors of oocyte maturity. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome: maturity rate of the oocytes. Secondary outcomes: oocyte yield, fertilization rate, availability of good quality embryos on day 3, blastocyst conversion, OHSS rates, post-trigger serum LH (IU/L, FSH (IU/L, and P4 (ng/mL levels implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Results: A higher number of mature (metaphase II oocytes were obtained in Group B compared to Group A (OR of 0.47; CI: 0.38–0

  18. Triage of HR-HPV positive women with minor cytological abnormalities: a comparison of mRNA testing, HPV DNA testing, and repeat cytology using a 4-year follow-up of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Maria; Elfström, K Miriam; Brismar Wendel, Sophia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is necessary for malignant conversion and maintenance in cervical tissue. In order to determine whether HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing more effectively predicts precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer than HR-HPV DNA testing, we aimed to compare triage using HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing by APTIMA HPV Assay (APTIMA) to HPV16 DNA testing, HPV16/18 DNA testing, and repeat cytology. Liquid-based (PreservCyt) cell samples were obtained from HR-HPV-positive women diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) within the framework of the population-based cervical cancer screening program in Stockholm, Sweden. Samples were tested for HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA by APTIMA (Gene-Probe Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Women were followed up for 4 years after the index cytology via medical and laboratory records, and the Stockholm Oncology Center. Nine of 25 (36%) women in the ASCUS group, and 64 of 180 (36%) women in the LSIL group developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse during 4 years of follow-up. 162 (74%) women were APTIMA-positive, and APTIMA had the highest sensitivity to predict CIN2 or worse and CIN3 or worse in the ASCUS (77.8% and 100%) and LSIL (78.1 and 75.8%) groups, although specificity was insufficient (cytology were more specific than APTIMA. The results of this population-based study with comprehensive follow-up support the use of APTIMA as a triage test for women with ASCUS. More focused investigation is required for women with LSIL.

  19. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.

  20. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Ingen, J. van; Vries, G. de; Erkens, C.; Sebek, M.; Mulder, A.; Sloot, R.; Brandt, A.M. van den; Enaimi, M.; Kremer, K.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  1. Comparative study of IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism and variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the Netherlands, based on a 5-year nationwide survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; de Vries, Gerard; Erkens, Connie; Sebek, Maruschka; Mulder, Arnout; Sloot, Rosa; van den Brandt, Anne-Marie; Enaimi, Mimount; Kremer, Kristin; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  2. Absence of bacterial resistance following repeat exposure to photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Lisa A.; Gibbs, Aaron J.; Scott, Robert J.; Street, Cale N.

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria necessitates exploration of alternative approaches to treat hospital and community acquired infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial pathogens develop resistance to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) during repeated sub-lethal challenge. Antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus and antibiotic sensitive E. coli were subjected to repeat PDT treatments using a methylene blue photosensitizer formulation and 670 nm illumination from a non-thermal diode laser. Parameters were adjusted such that kills were antibiotic resistance strains. Furthermore, repeated sub-lethal exposure does not induce resistance to subsequent PDT treatments. The absence of resistance formation represents a significant advantage of PDT over traditional antibiotics.

  3. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, A.; Chettri, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  4. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  5. Construction of a quantum repeater with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Pieter; Williams, Colin P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    We study the mechanism and complexity of an efficient quantum repeater, employing double-photon guns, for long-distance optical quantum communication. The guns create polarization-entangled photon pairs on demand. One such source might be a semiconducter quantum dot, which has the distinct advantage over parametric down-conversion that the probability of creating a photon pair is close to 1, while the probability of creating multiple pairs vanishes. The swapping and purifying components are implemented by polarizing beam splitters and probabilistic optical controlled-NOT gates. We also show that the bottleneck in the efficiency of this repeater is due to detector losses

  6. Relationship between income and repeat criminal victimization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Justus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.

  7. Superfamily of ankyrin repeat proteins in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Qing, Xiaohe; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Shiyang; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-10

    The ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein family plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) due to the limited information on whole genome sequences. In this study, we identified a total of 130 ANK genes in tomato genome (SlANK), and these genes were distributed across all 12 chromosomes at various densities. And chromosomal localizations of SlANK genes indicated 25 SlANK genes were involved in tandem duplications. Based on their domain composition, all of the SlANK proteins were grouped into 13 subgroups. A combined phylogenetic tree was constructed with the aligned SlANK protein sequences. This tree revealed that the SlANK proteins comprise five major groups. An analysis of the expression profiles of SlANK genes in tomato in different tissues and in response to stresses showed that the SlANK proteins play roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the tomato ANK gene family. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and putative functions of SlANK genes in tomato. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watling, C.N.; Akerstedt, T.; Kecklund, L.G.; Anund, A.

    2016-01-01

    Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective

  9. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M.; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard W; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F.; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we

  10. Repeated oral administration of capsaicin increases anxiety-like ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study was conducted to examine the psycho-emotional effects of repeated oral exposure to capsaicin, the principal active component of chili peppers. Each rat received 1 mL of 0.02% capsaicin into its oral cavity daily, and was subjected to behavioural tests following 10 daily administrations of capsaicin. Stereotypy ...

  11. Genetic Analysis of Eight X-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-Chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) typing can complement existing DNA profiling protocols and can also offer useful information in cases of complex kinship analysis. This is the first population study of 8 X-linked STRs in Iraq. The purpose of this work was to provide a basic data of allele and haplotype frequency for ...

  12. X-Chromosome short tandem repeat, advantages and typing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsatellites of the X-chromosome have been increasingly studied in recent years as a useful tool in forensic analysis. This review describes some details of X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Among them are: microsatellites, amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of STRs, PCR product ...

  13. Repeated treatments of drooling with botulinum toxin B in neurology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eigild; Daugaard, Dorthe; Holm, Ole

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy, saliva flow, and composition in repeated BoNT-B treatments of drooling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen neurological patients (median 66 years), referred for treatment of drooling participated in this observational study. Median total doses of 4000 units...

  14. The effectiveness of eye-closure in repeated interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.; Baddeley, A.D.; Hitch, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Closing the eyes during recall can help witnesses remember more about a witnessed event. This study examined the effectiveness of eye-closure in a repeated recall paradigm with immediate free recall followed 1 week later by both free and cued recall. We examined whether eye-closure was more

  15. Comparative effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to compare the effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling was carried out with a total of 65 DNA samples using 12 species of Indian Garcinia. ISSR and RAPD profiling were performed with 19 and 12 primers, respectively. ISSR markers ...

  16. Benefits of Repeated Book Readings in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Ceurremans, Josefa; Horst, Jessica S.

    2018-01-01

    In this pilot study, we ask whether repeated storybook reading is also beneficial for word learning in children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI). We compared 3-year-old German learning children diagnosed with SLI to typically developing children matched on age and socioeconomic status (SES). One week later, children with SLI…

  17. Repeatability of Objective Measurements of Linear Udder and Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimates the repeatability of objective measurements on linear udder and body conformation traits and to evaluate the objectivity of the measurements in Friesian x Bunaji cows. Data from 50 (F1) Frisian X Bunaji cows collected between 2007 and 2008 at the Dairy Research Farm of the ...

  18. Mononucleotide repeats are asymmetrically distributed in fungal genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Systematic analyses of sequence features have resulted in a better characterisation of the organisation of the genome. A previous study in prokaryotes on the distribution of sequence repeats, which are notoriously variable and can disrupt the reading frame in genes, showed that

  19. Increasing Positive Perceptions of Counseling: The Importance of Repeated Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Scott A.; Vogel, David L.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of repeated exposures to a video intervention based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model. The video was designed to increase help-seeking attitudes and perceptions of peer norms and to decrease the stigma associated with seeking counseling. Participants were 290 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to a…

  20. Monitoring selective logging in western Amazonia with repeat lidar flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Andersen; S.E. Reutebuch; R.J. McGaughey; M.V.N. d' Oliveira; M. Keller

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the use of repeat flight, airborne laser scanning data (lidar) for estimating changes associated with low-impact selective logging (approx. 10-15 m3 ha−1 = 5-7% of total standing volume harvested) in natural tropical forests in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, we investigated change in area...

  1. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic variability among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare if simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers could correctly identify peanut genotypes with difference in specific leaf weight (SLW) and relative water content (RWC). Four peanut genotypes and two water regimes (FC and 1/3 available water; 1/3 AW) were arranged in factorial ...

  2. Low-Normal FMR1 CGG Repeat Length: Phenotypic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha eMailick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This population-based study investigates genotype-phenotype correlations of low-normal CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene. FMR1 plays an important role in brain development and function, and encodes FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein, an RNA-binding protein that regulates protein synthesis impacting activity-dependent synaptic development and plasticity. Most past research has focused on CGG premutation expansions (41 to 200 CGG repeats and on fragile X syndrome (200+ CGG repeats, with considerably less attention on the other end of the spectrum of CGG repeats. Using existing data, older adults with 23 or fewer CGG repeats (2 SDs below the mean were compared with age-peers who have normal numbers of CGGs (24-40 with respect to cognition, mental health, cancer, and having children with disabilities. Men (n = 341 with an allele in the low-normal range and women (n = 46 with two low-normal alleles had significantly more difficulty with their memory and ability to solve day to day problems. Women with both FMR1 alleles in the low-normal category had significantly elevated odds of feeling that they need to drink more to get the same effect as in the past. These women also had two and one-half times the odds of having had breast cancer and four times the odds of uterine cancer. Men and women with low-normal CGGs had higher odds of having a child with a disability, either a developmental disability or a mental health condition. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that there is a need for tight neuronal homeostatic control mechanisms for optimal cognitive and behavioral functioning, and more generally that low numbers as well as high numbers of CGG repeats may be problematic for health.

  3. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  4. Immediate Effects of a Single Session of Motor Skill Training on the Lumbar Movement Pattern During a Functional Activity in People With Low Back Pain: A Repeated-Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marich, Andrej V; Lanier, Vanessa M; Salsich, Gretchen B; Lang, Catherine E; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2018-04-06

    People with low back pain (LBP) may display an altered lumbar movement pattern of early lumbar motion compared to people with healthy backs. Modifying this movement pattern during a clinical test decreases pain. It is unknown whether similar effects would be seen during a functional activity. The objective of this study is was to examine the lumbar movement patterns before and after motor skill training, effects on pain, and characteristics that influenced the ability to modify movement patterns. The design consisted of a repeated-measures study examining early-phase lumbar excursion in people with LBP during a functional activity test. Twenty-six people with chronic LBP received motor skill training, and 16 people with healthy backs were recruited as a reference standard. Twenty minutes of motor skill training to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion during the performance of a functional activity were used as a treatment intervention. Early-phase lumbar excursion was measured before and after training. Participants verbally reported increased pain, decreased pain, or no change in pain during performance of the functional activity test movement in relation to their baseline pain. The characteristics of people with LBP that influenced the ability to decrease early-phase lumbar excursion were examined. People with LBP displayed greater early-phase lumbar excursion before training than people with healthy backs (LBP: mean = 11.2°, 95% CI = 9.3°-13.1°; healthy backs: mean = 7.1°, 95% CI = 5.8°-8.4°). Following training, the LBP group showed a decrease in the amount of early-phase lumbar excursion (mean change = 4.1°, 95% CI = 2.4°-5.8°); 91% of people with LBP reported that their pain decreased from baseline following training. The longer the duration of LBP (β = - 0.22) and the more early-phase lumbar excursion before training (β = - 0.82), the greater the change in early-phase lumbar excursion following training. The long

  5. The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Bos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on

  6. The Effects of Repeated Exposure to Graphic Fear Appeals on Cigarette Packages : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Colin, Bos,

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on

  7. Role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kraus, B.; Briegel, H.-J.; Duer, W.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory and (ii) introducing two operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e., without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication

  8. Protective effect of budesonide/formoterol compared with formoterol, salbutamol and placebo on repeated provocations with inhaled AMP in patients with asthma: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Woude Hanneke J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The budesonide/formoterol combination is successfully used for fast relief of asthma symptoms in addition to its use as maintenance therapy. The temporarily increased corticosteroid dose during increasing inhaler use for symptom relief is likely to suppress any temporary increase in airway inflammation and may mitigate or prevent asthma exacerbations. The relative contribution of the budesonide and formoterol components to the improved asthma control is unclear. Methods The acute protective effect of inhaled budesonide was tested in a model of temporarily increased airway inflammation with repeated indirect airway challenges, mimicking an acute asthma exacerbation. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study design was used. Asthmatic patients (n = 17, mean FEV1 95% of predicted who previously demonstrated a ≥30% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 after inhaling adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP, were challenged on four consecutive test days, with the same dose of AMP (at 09:00, 12:00 and 16:00 hours. Within 1 minute of the maximal AMP-induced bronchoconstriction at 09:00 hours, the patients inhaled one dose of either budesonide/formoterol (160/4.5 μg, formoterol (4.5 μg, salbutamol (2 × 100 μg or placebo. The protective effects of the randomised treatments were assessed by serial lung function measurements over the test day. Results In the AMP provocations at 3 and 7 hours after inhalation, the budesonide/formoterol combination provided a greater protective effect against AMP-induced bronchoconstriction compared with formoterol alone, salbutamol and placebo. In addition all three active treatments significantly increased FEV1 within 3 minutes of administration, at a time when inhaled AMP had induced the 30% fall in FEV1. Conclusions A single dose of budesonide/formoterol provided a greater protective effect against inhaled AMP-induced bronchoconstriction than formoterol alone, both at 3 and at 7 hours

  9. Continuous Transversus Abdominis Plane Nerve Blocks: Does Varying Local Anesthetic Delivery Method-Automatic Repeated Bolus Versus Continuous Basal Infusion-Influence the Extent of Sensation to Cold?: A Randomized, Triple-Masked, Crossover Study in Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Bahareh; Said, Engy T; Sztain, Jacklynn F; Monahan, Amanda M; Gabriel, Rodney A; Furnish, Timothy J; Tran, Johnathan T; Donohue, Michael C; Ilfeld, Brian M

    2017-04-01

    It remains unknown whether continuous or scheduled intermittent bolus local anesthetic administration is preferable for transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters. We therefore tested the hypothesis that when using TAP catheters, providing local anesthetic in repeated bolus doses increases the cephalad-caudad cutaneous effects compared with a basal-only infusion. Bilateral TAP catheters (posterior approach) were inserted in 24 healthy volunteers followed by ropivacaine 2 mg/mL administration for a total of 6 hours. The right side was randomly assigned to either a basal infusion (8 mL/h) or bolus doses (24 mL administered every 3 hours for a total of 2 bolus doses) in a double-masked manner. The left side received the alternate treatment. The primary end point was the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller along the axillary line at hour 6 (6 hours after the local anesthetic administration was initiated). Secondary end points included the extent of sensory deficit as measured by cool roller and Von Frey filaments along the axillary line and along a transverse line at the level of the anterior superior iliac spine at hours 0 to 6. Although there were statistically significant differences between treatments within the earlier part of the administration period, by hour 6 the difference in extent of sensory deficit to cold failed to reach statistical significance along the axillary line (mean = 0.9 cm; SD = 6.8; 95% confidence interval -2.0 to 3.8; P = .515) and transverse line (mean = 2.5 cm; SD = 10.1; 95% confidence interval -1.8 to 6.8; P = .244). Although the difference between treatments was statistically significant at various early time points for the horizontal, vertical, and estimated area measurements of both cold and mechanical pressure sensory deficits, no comparison remained statistically significant by hour 6. No evidence was found in this study involving healthy volunteers to support the hypothesis that changing the local anesthetic

  10. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Aysun Şanal; Gürdal, Canan; Köylü, Mehmet Talay

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy). Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198) and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366). Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90). The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  11. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Şanal Doğan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy. Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198 and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366. Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90. Conclusion: The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  12. Repeated speech errors: evidence for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Karin R; Menzies, Heather; Lake, Johanna K

    2010-11-01

    Three experiments elicited phonological speech errors using the SLIP procedure to investigate whether there is a tendency for speech errors on specific words to reoccur, and whether this effect can be attributed to implicit learning of an incorrect mapping from lemma to phonology for that word. In Experiment 1, when speakers made a phonological speech error in the study phase of the experiment (e.g. saying "beg pet" in place of "peg bet") they were over four times as likely to make an error on that same item several minutes later at test. A pseudo-error condition demonstrated that the effect is not simply due to a propensity for speakers to repeat phonological forms, regardless of whether or not they have been made in error. That is, saying "beg pet" correctly at study did not induce speakers to say "beg pet" in error instead of "peg bet" at test. Instead, the effect appeared to be due to learning of the error pathway. Experiment 2 replicated this finding, but also showed that after 48 h, errors made at study were no longer more likely to reoccur. As well as providing constraints on the longevity of the effect, this provides strong evidence that the error reoccurrences observed are not due to item-specific difficulty that leads individual speakers to make habitual mistakes on certain items. Experiment 3 showed that the diminishment of the effect 48 h later is not due to specific extra practice at the task. We discuss how these results fit in with a larger view of language as a dynamic system that is constantly adapting in response to experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of repeat-testing of common chemistry analytes at critical concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyenekwu, Chinelo P; Hudson, Careen L; Zemlin, Annalise E; Erasmus, Rajiv T

    2014-12-01

    Early notification of critical values by the clinical laboratory to the treating physician is a requirement for accreditation and is essential for effective patient management. Many laboratories automatically repeat a critical value before reporting it to prevent possible misdiagnosis. Given today's advanced instrumentation and quality assurance practices, we questioned the validity of this approach. We performed an audit of repeat-testing in our laboratory to assess for significant differences between initial and repeated test results, estimate the delay caused by repeat-testing and to quantify the cost of repeating these assays. A retrospective audit of repeat-tests for sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the first quarter of 2013 at Tygerberg Academic Laboratory was conducted. Data on the initial and repeat-test values and the time that they were performed was extracted from our laboratory information system. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment criteria for allowable error were employed to assess for significant difference between results. A total of 2308 repeated tests were studied. There was no significant difference in 2291 (99.3%) of the samples. The average delay ranged from 35 min for magnesium to 42 min for sodium and calcium. At least 2.9% of laboratory running costs for the analytes was spent on repeating them. The practice of repeating a critical test result appears unnecessary as it yields similar results, delays notification to the treating clinician and increases laboratory running costs.

  14. Perfectionism and negative affect after repeated failure: Anxiety, depression, and anger

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Schneider, Natalia; Hussain, Rimi; Matthews, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Perfectionists have shown increased negative affect after failure compared to nonperfectionists. However, little is known about how perfectionists react to repeated failure. This study investigated the effects of two forms of perfectionism--self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism--on 100 university students’ reactions to repeated failure (versus repeated success) examining three negative emotions: anxiety, depression, and anger. Results showed that socially prescribe...

  15. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver’s cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51–71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction

  16. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubuchon, Adam C.; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Balamucki, Christopher J.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80–90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60–90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  17. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  18. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  19. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author)

  20. Repeating pneumatic pellet injector in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Suzuki, Sadaaki; Miura, Yukitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Oda, Yasushi; Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiichi.

    1992-09-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been developed and constructed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This injector can provide repetitive pellet injection to fuel tokamak plasmas for an extended period of time, aiming at the improvement of plasma performance. The pellets with nearly identical speed and mass can be repeatedly injected with a repetition rate of 2-3.3 Hz and a speed of up to 1.7 km/s by controlling the temperature of the cryogenic system, the piston speed and the pressure of the propellant gas. (author).

  1. Effects of complexity and intensity on sensory specific satiety and food acceptance after repeated consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Zandstra, E.H.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (1) to study the effects of complexity and intensity of foods on sensory specific satiety (SSS) and their acceptance after repeated consumption, and (2) to determine the predictive value of SSS for acceptance over repeated consumption. Two studies were

  2. Ground measured evapotranspiration scaled to stand level using MODIS and Landsat sensors to study Tamarix spp.response to repeated defoliation by the Tamarix leaf beetle at two sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlstein, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; Hultine, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Dolores River in Southern Utah and the Virgin River in Southern Nevada are ecosystems under pressure from increased groundwater withdrawal due to growing populations and introduced riparian species. We studied the impact of the biocontrol Tamarix leaf beetles (Dirohabda carinulata and D. elongata) on the introduced riparian species, Tamarix spp., phenology and water use over multiple cycles of annual defoliation. Heat balance sap flow measurements, leaf area index (LAI), well data, allometry and satellite imagery from Landsat Thematic Mapper 5 and EOS-1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors were used to assess the distribution of beetle defoliation and its effect on evapotranspiration (ET). Study objectives for the Virgin River were to measure pre-beetle arrival ET, while the Dolores River site has had defoliation since 2004 and is a site of long-term beetle effect monitoring. This study focuses on measurements conducted over two seasons, 2010 and 2011. At the Dolores River site, results from 2010 were inconclusive due to sensor malfunctions but plant ET by sap flow in 2011 averaged 1.02 mm/m^2 leaf area/day before beetle arrival, dropping to an average of 0.75 mm/m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival. Stand level estimations from May - December, 2010 by MODIS were about 0.63 mm/ day, results from Landsat were 0.51 mm/day in June and 0.78 in August. For January -September, 2011, MODIS values were about 0.6 mm/day, and Landsat was 0.57 mm/day in June and 0.62 mm/day in August. These values are lower than previously reported ET values for this site meaning that repeated defoliation does diminish stand level water use. The Virgin River site showed plant ET from sap flow averaged about 3.9-4 mm/m^2 leaf area/day from mid-May - September, 2010. In 2011, ET from sap flow averaged 3.83 mm/m^2 leaf area/day during June - July, but dropped to 3.73 mm/ m^2 leaf area/day after beetle arrival in August. The slight drop in plant ET is not significant

  3. Repeating and non-repeating fast radio bursts from binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Totani, Tomonori; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2018-04-01

    Most fast radio bursts (FRB) do not show evidence of repetition, and such non-repeating FRBs may be produced at the time of a merger of binary neutron stars (BNS), provided that the BNS merger rate is close to the high end of the currently possible range. However, the merger environment is polluted by dynamical ejecta, which may prohibit the radio signal from propagating. We examine this by using a general-relativistic simulation of a BNS merger, and show that the ejecta appears about 1 ms after the rotation speed of the merged star becomes the maximum. Therefore there is a time window in which an FRB signal can reach outside, and the short duration of non-repeating FRBs can be explained by screening after ejecta formation. A fraction of BNS mergers may leave a rapidly rotating and stable neutron star, and such objects may be the origin of repeating FRBs like FRB 121102. We show that a merger remnant would appear as a repeating FRB on a time scale of ˜1-10 yr, and expected properties are consistent with the observations of FRB 121102. We construct an FRB rate evolution model that includes these two populations of repeating and non-repeating FRBs from BNS mergers, and show that the detection rate of repeating FRBs relative to non-repeating ones rapidly increases with improving search sensitivity. This may explain why only the repeating FRB 121102 was discovered by the most sensitive FRB search with Arecibo. Several predictions are made, including the appearance of a repeating FRB 1-10 yr after a BNS merger that is localized by gravitational waves and subsequent electromagnetic radiation.

  4. Investigation of a Quadruplex-Forming Repeat Sequence Highly Enriched in Xanthomonas and Nostoc sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Charlotte; Wurmthaler, Lena A; Li, Yuanhao; Frickey, Tancred; Hartig, Jörg S

    2015-01-01

    In prokaryotes simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with unit sizes of 1-5 nucleotides (nt) are causative for phase and antigenic variation. Although an increased abundance of heptameric repeats was noticed in bacteria, reports about SSRs of 6-9 nt are rare. In particular G-rich repeat sequences with the propensity to fold into G-quadruplex (G4) structures have received little attention. In silico analysis of prokaryotic genomes show putative G4 forming sequences to be abundant. This report focuses on a surprisingly enriched G-rich repeat of the type GGGNATC in Xanthomonas and cyanobacteria such as Nostoc. We studied in detail the genomes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913 (Xcc), Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri str. 306 (Xac), and Nostoc sp. strain PCC7120 (Ana). In all three organisms repeats are spread all over the genome with an over-representation in non-coding regions. Extensive variation of the number of repetitive units was observed with repeat numbers ranging from two up to 26 units. However a clear preference for four units was detected. The strong bias for four units coincides with the requirement of four consecutive G-tracts for G4 formation. Evidence for G4 formation of the consensus repeat sequences was found in biophysical studies utilizing CD spectroscopy. The G-rich repeats are preferably located between aligned open reading frames (ORFs) and are under-represented in coding regions or between divergent ORFs. The G-rich repeats are preferentially located within a distance of 50 bp upstream of an ORF on the anti-sense strand or within 50 bp from the stop codon on the sense strand. Analysis of whole transcriptome sequence data showed that the majority of repeat sequences are transcribed. The genetic loci in the vicinity of repeat regions show increased genomic stability. In conclusion, we introduce and characterize a special class of highly abundant and wide-spread quadruplex-forming repeat sequences in bacteria.

  5. Ecological Panel Inference from Repeated Cross Sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelzer, Ben; Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents a Markov chain model for the estimation of individual-level binary transitions from a time series of independent repeated cross-sectional (RCS) samples. Although RCS samples lack direct information on individual turnover, it is demonstrated here that it is possible with these

  6. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  7. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  8. On Solving Intransitivities in Repeated Pairwise Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Maas (Arne); Th.G.G. Bezembinder (Thom); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAn operational method is presented for deriving a linear ranking of alternatives from repeated paired comparisons of the alternatives. Intransitivities in the observed preferences are cleared away by the introduction of decision errors of varying importance. An observed preference

  9. FRB 121102: A Starquake-induced Repeater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyang; Luo, Rui; Yue, Han; Chen, Xuelei; Lee, Kejia; Xu, Renxin

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial discovery, the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 121102 has been found to be repeating with millisecond-duration pulses. Very recently, 14 new bursts were detected by the Green Bank Telescope during its continuous monitoring observations. In this paper, we show that the burst energy distribution has a power-law form which is very similar to the Gutenberg–Richter law of earthquakes. In addition, the distribution of burst waiting time can be described as a Poissonian or Gaussian distribution, which is consistent with earthquakes, while the aftershock sequence exhibits some local correlations. These findings suggest that the repeating FRB pulses may originate from the starquakes of a pulsar. Noting that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) also exhibit such distributions, the FRB could be powered by some starquake mechanisms associated with the SGRs, including the crustal activity of a magnetar or solidification-induced stress of a newborn strangeon star. These conjectures could be tested with more repeating samples.

  10. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  11. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  12. The repeatability of an intraoral dental colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Francis F; Goldstein, Gary R; Jang, Sungkoo; Hittelman, Eugene

    2002-12-01

    Characterizing and reproducing color remain one of the most challenging aspects of dentistry. A relatively new intraoral colorimeter measures the color of natural teeth and metal-ceramic restorations and prints out a color recipe for the Vintage Halo Porcelain System. The reliability of the colorimeter is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a contact dental colorimeter and to correlate the shade registered by the colorimeter with the shade selected by experienced clinicians. In part I of the study, 2 examiners (A and B) took 2 colorimeter measurements from the maxillary right central incisors of 11 subjects. The examiners were blinded to their own data and those of other investigators. The readings were repeated 3 weeks later with the same protocol. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was used to analyze the collected data. In part II of the study, 2 experienced clinicians (examiners D and E) selected a shade from the classic Vita Lumin Vacuum shade guide for the maxillary right central incisors of the same 11 subjects. The clinicians were blinded to each other's selections and the colorimeter readings. It should be noted that the manufacturer of the colorimeter uses the terms shade, value, and hue to represent chroma, value, and hue, respectively, as defined in the Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms (J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:39-110). The reliability analysis results for each of the combined trials for shade, value, and hue were all >.94. The interexaminer reliability alpha values were >.9 for shade and value and.64 to.74 for hue. The interexaminer alpha represented the value range of each of 4 measurements. The intraexaminer reliability alpha values for shade, value, and hue were.99,.95, and.96 for examiner A and.99,.93, and.97 for examiner B, respectively. In part II of the study, the colorimeter agreed with itself 82% of the time, whereas clinicians agreed with each other on the selected shade 73% of the time. Selections made

  13. The impact of the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene on muscle and adipose tissues in 20-29-year-old Danish men: Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Leo; Hagen, Claus; Wraae, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    .m. and visceral) were measured in 393 men by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) were measured in all men by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The absolute areas acquired by MRI were the main outcomes. The absolute DEXA measurements and relative assessments...... not correlate with any circulating androgen. Conclusions: The CAG repeat polymorphism affects body composition in young men: absolute musclethigh and absolute musclelower trunk increase as CAGn decreases. Expressed relatively, muscle areas and LBM increase, while SAT and FM decrease as CAGn decreases...

  14. Repeat workers' compensation claims: risk factors, costs and work disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of our study was to describe factors associated with repeat workers' compensation claims and to compare the work disability arising in workers with single and multiple compensation claims. Methods All initial injury claims lodged by persons of working age during a five year period (1996 to 2000) and any repeat claims were extracted from workers' compensation administrative data in the state of Victoria, Australia. Groups of workers with single and multiple claims were identified. Descriptive analysis of claims by affliction, bodily location, industry segment, occupation, employer and workplace was undertaken. Survival analysis determined the impact of these variables on the time between the claims. The economic impact and duration of work incapacity associated with initial and repeat claims was compared between groups. Results 37% of persons with an initial claim lodged a second claim. This group contained a significantly greater proportion of males, were younger and more likely to be employed in manual occupations and high-risk industries than those with single claims. 78% of repeat claims were for a second injury. Duration between the claims was shortest when the working conditions had not changed. The initial claims of repeat claimants resulted in significantly (p claims. Conclusions A substantial proportion of injured workers experience a second occupational injury or disease. These workers pose a greater economic burden than those with single claims, and also experience a substantially greater cumulative period of work disability. There is potential to reduce the social, health and economic burden of workplace injury by enacting prevention programs targeted at these workers. PMID:21696637

  15. Optimization of sequence alignment for simple sequence repeat regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Francis C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs, are tandemly repeated DNA sequences, including tandem copies of specific sequences no longer than six bases, that are distributed in the genome. SSR has been used as a molecular marker because it is easy to detect and is used in a range of applications, including genetic diversity, genome mapping, and marker assisted selection. It is also very mutable because of slipping in the DNA polymerase during DNA replication. This unique mutation increases the insertion/deletion (INDELs mutation frequency to a high ratio - more than other types of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs. SNPs are more frequent than INDELs. Therefore, all designed algorithms for sequence alignment fit the vast majority of the genomic sequence without considering microsatellite regions, as unique sequences that require special consideration. The old algorithm is limited in its application because there are many overlaps between different repeat units which result in false evolutionary relationships. Findings To overcome the limitation of the aligning algorithm when dealing with SSR loci, a new algorithm was developed using PERL script with a Tk graphical interface. This program is based on aligning sequences after determining the repeated units first, and the last SSR nucleotides positions. This results in a shifting process according to the inserted repeated unit type. When studying the phylogenic relations before and after applying the new algorithm, many differences in the trees were obtained by increasing the SSR length and complexity. However, less distance between different linage had been observed after applying the new algorithm. Conclusions The new algorithm produces better estimates for aligning SSR loci because it reflects more reliable evolutionary relations between different linages. It reduces overlapping during SSR alignment, which results in a more realistic

  16. The Effects of Teacher Collective Responsibility on the Mathematics Achievement of Students Who Repeat Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Chicas, Jessica; Agger, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors use the national High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) dataset to explore (a) if repeating algebra in the eighth grade was associated with overall mathematics grades and course-taking patterns by twelfth grade, (b) if repeating algebra in the eighth grade was associated with students' final grade in algebra,…

  17. Repeatability of Bolus Kinetics Ultrasound Perfusion Imaging for the Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, Elisabeth J.; Eyding, Jens; de Korte, Chris L.; Slump, Cornelis H.; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W.E.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound perfusion imaging (UPI) can be used for the quantification of cerebral perfusion. In a neuro-intensive care setting, repeated measurements are required to evaluate changes in cerebral perfusion and monitor therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of UPI in

  18. Are routine repeat chest x-rays before leaving the trauma room useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, M.; Saltzherr, T. P.; Beenen, L. F. M.; Ponsen, K. J.; Goslings, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Several guidelines advocate multiple chest x-rays during primary resuscitation of trauma patients. Some local hospital protocols include a repeat x-ray before leaving the trauma resuscitation room (TR). The purpose of this study was to determine the value of routine repeat x-rays. One-year data of

  19. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  20. Children's Conceptions of Bullying and Repeated Conventional Transgressions: Moral, Conventional, Structuring and Personal-Choice Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Thornberg, Ulrika Birberg; Alamaa, Rebecca; Daud, Noor

    2016-01-01

    This study examined 307 elementary school children's judgements and reasoning about bullying and other repeated transgressions when school rules regulating these transgressions have been removed in hypothetical school situations. As expected, children judged bullying (repeated moral transgressions) as wrong independently of rules and as more wrong…

  1. CAG repeat length variation in the polymerase gamma (POLG) gene: effect on semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, G. H.; Kaaij-Visser, L.; Tanck, M.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.

    2008-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated the effect of CAG repeat length variation in the POLG gene on male fertility and semen quality. Some described an association between the homozygous not10 CAG-repeat genotype and male subfertility and/or reduced semen quality, whereas others did not.

  2. Annually repeated influenza vaccination improves humoral responses to several influenza virus strains in healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. de Bruijn (Iris); E.J. Remarque (Edmond); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); S. le Cessie (Saskia); N. Masurel (Nic); G.L. Ligthart (Gerard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of annually repeated influenza vaccination on antibody formation is still under debate. In this study the effect of annually repeated influenza vaccination on haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody formation in the elderly is investigated. Between 1990 and 1993 healthy

  3. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  4. Deception and Retribution in Repeated Ultimatum Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles; Croson; Murnighan

    2000-11-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Anonymous dyads exchanged messages and offers in a series of four ultimatum bargaining games that had prospects for relatively large monetary outcomes. Variations in each party's knowledge of the other's resources and alternatives created opportunities for deception. Revelation of prior unknowns exposed deceptions and created opportunities for retribution in subsequent interactions. Results showed that although proposers and responders chose deceptive strategies almost equally, proposers told more outright lies. Both were more deceptive when their private information was never revealed, and proposers were most deceptive when their potential profits were largest. Revelation of proposers' lies had little effect on their subsequent behavior even though responders rejected their offers more than similar offers from truthful proposers or proposers whose prior deceit was never revealed. The discussion and conclusions address the dynamics of deception and retribution in repeated bargaining interactions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  6. Governing conditions of repeatable Barkhausen noise response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, O.; Pal'a, J.; Takagi, T.; Uchimoto, T.

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the establishment of experimental conditions, which ensure the repeatability of magnetic Barkhausen noise testing in practice. For this task, the measurements were performed on open flat samples using different experimental configurations, including: different magnetization frequencies, sampling rates, and filter cut-off frequencies; using a sample-wrapped coil and using attached pick-up coils of various dimensions, with different lift-offs of a single yoke magnet and of the attached coil. The sample magnetization was controlled by a vertical array of three Hall sensors; their readings were extrapolated to the sample surface to precisely define its field. After analysis of the results, a scheme for an optimized sensor with a controlled field waveform was suggested to improve the measurement repeatability. The important issues of signal processing and parameter applicability were also discussed in detail.

  7. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  8. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  9. Toxicological characteristics of petroleum products repeated exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Rubin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The ability of petroleum products to initiate cumulative effects was assessed in experimental intragastric admission to male albino rats for one month. The analysis of skin-resorptive effects was performed using "test-tube" method on the skin of rats’ tails. It has been established that petroleum products can penetrate the intact skin and, with repeated admission, cause a general toxic effect. There were reductions bodyweights, the negative effect on the function of the kidneys and liver, changes of hematological parameters, as well as activation of the antioksidatnoy system. Repeated intragastric administration does not lead to the death of the animals testifying to the lack of accumulation capacity for petroleum products at the level of functional mortal effects, the cumulation coefficient being > 5.1. Negative impact on urinary function and hepatobiliary system, changes in hematological parameters and activation of the «lipid peroxidation – antioksidant defense» were observed.

  10. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  11. Electrochemical detection of DNA triplet repeat expansion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Havran, Luděk; Vojtíšková, Marie; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 21 (2004), s. 6532-6533 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004402; GA AV ČR IBS5004355; GA AV ČR KJB4004302; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : DNA triplet repeat expansion * PCR amplification * neurodegenerative diseases Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.903, year: 2004

  12. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  13. The relationship of social support concept and repeat mammography among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadifar, Fariba; Taymoori, Parvaneh; Bahrami, Mitra; Zarea, Shamsy

    2015-10-24

    Breast cancer ranks as the first most common cancer among the Iranian women. The regular repeat of mammography with 1-2 year intervals leads to the increased efficiency of early detection of breast cancer. The present study examined the predictors of repeat mammography. It was hypothesized that higher social support is connected with mammography repeat. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 400 women 50 years and older in Sanandaj, Iran. Data was collected by the questionnaire including information on socio demographical variables and measuring social support level. Data was analyzed by SPSS16 software. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictive power of demographic variables and dimensions of social support for repeat mammography. Women aged 50-55 years had three times odds of repeat mammography compared to women aged 56-60 years) OR, 3.02). Married women had greater odds of repeat mammography compared to single women (P women with higher social support was 0.93 times greater than the women with lower social support (OR, 0.93; 95 % CI, 0.91-0.95; P women are less likely repeat mammography than other Asian women. Identifying the associations between perceived social support and repeat mammography may offer detailed information to allow for future study and guide the development of interventions not only for Iranian women but also for similar cultural that received pay too little attention to date in the breast cancer literature.

  14. Seasonal variation in objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old Danish children: a repeated-measures study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Michaelsen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding fluctuations in lifestyle indicators is important to identify relevant time periods to intervene in order to promote a healthy lifestyle; however, objective assessment of multiple lifestyle indicators has never been done using a repeated-measures design. The primary aim...... was, therefore, to examine between-season and within-week variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour, cardio-respiratory fitness and sleep duration among 8–11 year-old children. METHODS: A total of 1021 children from nine Danish schools were invited to participate and 834 accepted. Due...... to missing data, 730 children were included in the current analytical sample. An accelerometer was worn for 7 days and 8 nights during autumn, winter and spring, from which physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration were measured. Cardio-respiratory fitness was assessed using a 10-min intermittent...

  15. Clostridium difficile Recombinant Toxin A Repeating Units as a Carrier Protein for Conjugate Vaccines: Studies of Pneumococcal Type 14, Escherichia coli K1, and Shigella flexneri Type 2a Polysaccharides in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavliakova, Danka; Moncrief, J. Scott; Lyerly, David M.; Schiffman, Gerald; Bryla, Dolores A.; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Unlike the native protein, a nontoxic peptide (repeating unit of the native toxin designated rARU) from Clostridium difficile toxin A (CDTA) afforded an antigen that could be bound covalently to the surface polysaccharides of pneumococcus type 14, Shigella flexneri type 2a, and Escherichia coli K1. The yields of these polysaccharide-protein conjugates were significantly increased by prior treatment of rARU with succinic anhydride. Conjugates, prepared with rARU or succinylated (rARUsucc), were administered to mice by a clinically relevant dosage and immunization scheme. All conjugates elicited high levels of serum immunoglobulin G both to the polysaccharides and to CDTA. Conjugate-induced anti-CDTA had neutralizing activity in vitro and protected mice challenged with CDTA, similar to the rARU alone. Conjugates prepared with succinylated rARU, therefore, have potential for serving both as effective carrier proteins for polysaccharides and for preventing enteric disease caused by C. difficile. PMID:10722615

  16. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  17. Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay M.Ch.; Flannery, Thomas J.; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for acoustic neuromas, we assessed tumor control, clinical outcomes, and the risk of adverse radiation effects in patients whose tumors progressed after initial management. Methods and Materials: During a 21-year experience at our center, 1,352 patients underwent SRS as management for their acoustic neuromas. We retrospectively identified 6 patients who underwent SRS twice for the same tumor. The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-71 years). All patients had imaging evidence of tumor progression despite initial SRS. One patient also had incomplete surgical resection after initial SRS. All patients were deaf at the time of the second SRS. The median radiosurgery target volume at the time of the initial SRS was 0.5 cc and was 2.1 cc at the time of the second SRS. The median margin dose at the time of the initial SRS was 13 Gy and was 11 Gy at the time of the second SRS. The median interval between initial SRS and repeat SRS was 63 months (range, 25-169 months). Results: At a median follow-up of 29 months after the second SRS (range, 13-71 months), tumor control or regression was achieved in all 6 patients. No patient developed symptomatic adverse radiation effects or new neurological symptoms after the second SRS. Conclusions: With this limited experience, we found that repeat SRS for a persistently enlarging acoustic neuroma can be performed safely and effectively.

  18. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  19. SGR-like behaviour of the repeating FRB 121102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.Y.; Yu, H., E-mail: fayinwang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yuhai@smail.nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, 210093 China (China)

    2017-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals occurring at cosmological distances. However the physical model of FRBs is mystery, many models have been proposed. Here we study the frequency distributions of peak flux, fluence, duration and waiting time for the repeating FRB 121102. The cumulative distributions of peak flux, fluence and duration show power-law forms. The waiting time distribution also shows power-law distribution, and is consistent with a non-stationary Poisson process. These distributions are similar as those of soft gamma repeaters (SGRs). We also use the statistical results to test the proposed models for FRBs. These distributions are consistent with the predictions from avalanche models of slowly driven nonlinear dissipative systems.

  20. Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K

    2017-01-01

    is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression.......Objective To study whether cognitive behavioural therapy decreases suicide attempts in people with previous suicide attempts. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Randomised trials that compare cognitive behavioural therapy with treatment as usual. Participants Patients who had...... engaged in any type of suicide attempt in the six months prior to trial entry resulting in presentation to clinical services. Main outcome measure Suicide attempt. Results We included ten trials, eight from Cochrane reviews and two from our updated searches (1241 patients, 219 of whom had at least one new...

  1. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-01-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  2. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Manjari, E-mail: manjari@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc-HBNI), 4th Cross Road, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  3. Distribution and Evolution of Yersinia Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueming; Huang, He; Hui, Xinjie; Cheng, Xi; White, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are widely distributed in bacteria, playing important roles in various protein-protein interaction processes. In Yersinia, the well-characterized type III secreted effector YopM also belongs to the LRR protein family and is encoded by virulence plasmids. However, little has been known about other LRR members encoded by Yersinia genomes or their evolution. In this study, the Yersinia LRR proteins were comprehensively screened, categorized, and compared. The LRR proteins encoded by chromosomes (LRR1 proteins) appeared to be more similar to each other and different from those encoded by plasmids (LRR2 proteins) with regard to repeat-unit length, amino acid composition profile, and gene expression regulation circuits. LRR1 proteins were also different from LRR2 proteins in that the LRR1 proteins contained an E3 ligase domain (NEL domain) in the C-terminal region or an NEL domain-encoding nucleotide relic in flanking genomic sequences. The LRR1 protein-encoding genes (LRR1 genes) varied dramatically and were categorized into 4 subgroups (a to d), with the LRR1a to -c genes evolving from the same ancestor and LRR1d genes evolving from another ancestor. The consensus and ancestor repeat-unit sequences were inferred for different LRR1 protein subgroups by use of a maximum parsimony modeling strategy. Structural modeling disclosed very similar repeat-unit structures between LRR1 and LRR2 proteins despite the different unit lengths and amino acid compositions. Structural constraints may serve as the driving force to explain the observed mutations in the LRR regions. This study suggests that there may be functional variation and lays the foundation for future experiments investigating the functions of the chromosomally encoded LRR proteins of Yersinia. PMID:27217422

  4. 网络零售中的新客户与老客户购买行为差异基于淘宝网的实证对比研究%The Initial Buyers and Repeat Buyers in Online Retailing: an Empirical Study based on TaoBao. com

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦二娃; 卢向华

    2012-01-01

    traditional markets in terms of shopping environment, transaction process, consumer decision making process et al. It is rea sonable to doubt if we can simply copy the method of traditional market to manage the initial buyers and repeat buy ers to online. As the best of our knowledge, there is very few research differentiates the initial buyer and repeat buyers in the online retailing customer relationship management. With the rapid development and maturing of the online retailing market in China, it is necessary to study the differenceservice requirements between initial buyers and repeat buyers in the online retailing context. In the prior researches, many researchers studied online service quality focused on the perceptions of all cus tomers. Furthermore, some researchers focused on the different needs of the online retailers' service quality between the loyal customers and information searchers from Internet users' perceptions. Unfortunately, the role of customers experience is always not been taken seriously in online retailing. In this paper, we focus on the perspective of on line retailers to investigate the influence of customers' direct experience in online purchase intention, which is help ful for online retailers to promote differently when they try to retain repeat customers or attract initial customers. Based on the theoretical framework of "anchoring and adjustment", this paper analyzes the different services re quirements between initial buyers and repeat buyer by combining the characteristics of online shopping. The serv ices we examined in this paper include information retrieval services, product comparison services, reputation sys tems services and postpurchase services obtained according to buyers' purchase process. Four pairs of hypothesis are put forward based on the theoretical analysis and comprehensive literature review. Our empirical test is followed with the data from Taobao. com. We collect 2384 online retailers' information from Nov

  5. Interstitial telomere-like repeats in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2002-02-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomal ends are protected by telomeres, which are thought to play an important role in ensuring the complete replication of chromosomes. On the other hand, non-functional telomere-like repeats in the interchromosomal regions (interstitial telomeric repeats; ITRs) have been reported in several eukaryotes. In this study, we identified eight ITRs in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, each consisting of complete and degenerate 300- to 1200-bp sequences. The ITRs were grouped into three classes (class IA-B, class II, and class IIIA-E) based on the degeneracy of the telomeric repeats in ITRs. The telomeric repeats of the two ITRs in class I were conserved for the most part, whereas the single ITR in class II, and the five ITRs in class III were relatively degenerated. In addition, degenerate ITRs were surrounded by common sequences that shared 70-100% homology to each other; these are named ITR-adjacent sequences (IAS). Although the genomic regions around ITRs in class I lacked IAS, those around ITRs in class II contained IAS (IASa), and those around five ITRs in class III had nine types of IAS (IASb, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, and j). Ten IAS types in classes II and III showed no significant homology to each other. The chromosomal locations of ITRs and IAS were not category-related, but most of them were adjacent to, or part of, a centromere. These results show that the A. thaliana genome has undergone chromosomal rearrangements, such as end-fusions and segmental duplications.

  6. Thermal, cardiac and adrenergic responses to repeated local cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janský, L; Matousková, E; Vávra, V; Vybíral, S; Janský, P; Jandová, D; Knízková, I; Kunc, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether repeated local cooling induces the same or different adaptational responses as repeated whole body cooling. Repeated cooling of the legs (immersion into 12 degrees C water up to the knees for 30 min, 20 times during 4 weeks = local cold adaptation - LCA) attenuated the initial increase in heart rate and blood pressure currently observed in control subjects immersed in cold water up to the knees. After LCA the initial skin temperature decrease tended to be lower, indicating reduced vasoconstriction. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure appeared to be generally lower during rest and during the time course of cooling in LCA humans, when compared to controls. All these changes seem to indicate attenuation of the sympathetic tone. In contrast, the sustained skin temperature in different areas of the body (finger, palm, forearm, thigh, chest) appeared to be generally lower in LCA subjects than in controls (except for temperatures on the forehead). Plasma levels of catecholamines (measured 20 and 40 min after the onset of cooling) were also not influenced by local cold adaptation. Locally cold adapted subjects, when exposed to whole body cold water immersion test, showed no change in the threshold temperature for induction of cold thermogenesis. This indicates that the hypothermic type of cold adaptation, typically occurring after systemic cold adaptation, does not appear after local cold adaptation of the intensity used. It is concluded that in humans the cold adaptation due to repeated local cooling of legs induces different physiological changes than systemic cold adaptation.

  7. Solution properties of the archaeal CRISPR DNA repeat-binding homeodomain protein Cbp2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenchappa, Chandra; Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri; Kragelund, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) form the basis of diverse adaptive immune systems directed primarily against invading genetic elements of archaea and bacteria. Cbp1 of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophilic order Sulfolobales, carrying three imperfect repeats, binds...... specifically to CRISPR DNA repeats and has been implicated in facilitating production of long transcripts from CRISPR loci. Here, a second related class of CRISPR DNA repeat-binding protein, denoted Cbp2, is characterized that contains two imperfect repeats and is found amongst members of the crenarchaeal...... in facilitating high affinity DNA binding of Cbp2 by tethering the two domains. Structural studies on mutant proteins provide support for Cys(7) and Cys(28) enhancing high thermal stability of Cbp2(Hb) through disulphide bridge formation. Consistent with their proposed CRISPR transcriptional regulatory role, Cbp2...

  8. A review of repeat prostate biopsies and the influence of technique on cancer detection: our experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, M R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Follow-up of patients with an initial negative prostate biopsy, but surrounding whom a suspicion of prostate cancer persists, is difficult. In addition, debate exists as to the optimal technique for repeat prostate biopsy. AIMS: To assess the cancer detection rate on repeat prostate biopsy. METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent prostate biopsy in our department in 2005 who had >or=1 previous biopsy within the preceding 5 years. Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy and the influence of the number of biopsy cores were recorded. RESULTS: Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy was 15.4%, with approximately 60% detected on the first repeat biopsy, but approximately 10% not confirmed until the fourth repeat biopsy. Gleason score was similar regardless of the time of diagnosis (6.1-6.5). Mean interval between first biopsy and cancer diagnosis (range 18-55 months) depended on the number of repeat procedures. There was an association between the number of biopsy cores and cancer detection. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the practice of increasing the number of cores taken on initial and first repeat biopsy to maximise prostate cancer detection and reduce the overall number of biopsies needed.

  9. The effect of repeated applanation on subsequent IOP measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMubrad, Turki M; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2008-11-01

    In studies aimed at assessing the accuracy and repeatability of non-contact tonometers, the order in which these tonometers and the Goldmann tonometer are used is usually randomised despite studies in the literature that demonstrate an ocular massage effect that occurs post-applanation but not after non-contact tonometry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated corneal applanation on subsequent assessments of IOP. Data were obtained from 65 left eyes of 65 young, oculovisual normals. Three sets of IOP measurements were obtained, one set with the Goldmann applanation tonometer and two with the Topcon CT80 non-contact tonometer (one set each before and after applanation with the Goldmann tonometer), in each one of two separate measurement sessions, one week apart. The average (and SD) IOP measured with the Goldmann tonometer in the first session (14.8+/-2.9 mmHg) did not vary significantly from the IOP measured with the non-contact tonometer (pre-applanation) in both sessions or with the average Goldmann IOP in the second session. The bias (mean difference +/- SD) between methods was 0.3+/-1.4 mmHg and 0.4+/-1.4 mmHg, respectively, for the first and second sessions, with the CT80 (pre-applanation) recording the higher IOP in both sessions. The within-session repeatability coefficients were +/-2.3 mmHg, +/-2.6 mmHg, +/-2.1 mmHg and +/-2.0 mmHg for the CT80 (pre-applanation) in the first and second sessions, and the Goldmann tonometer in the first and second sessions, respectively. Test-retest repeatability coefficients were +/-2.8 mmHg and +/-2.5 mmHg for the CT80 (pre-applanation) and the Goldmann tonometer respectively. Post-applanation with the Goldmann tonometer, there was a statistically significant (pcontact tonometer in both sessions. These results suggest that repeated corneal applanation leads to a statistically significant reduction in IOP on subsequent measurements.

  10. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...... to sphericity assumptions, use of F tests and the Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt adjustments to compensate for deviations from sphericity. During a recent implementation of such methods in the R language, the general structure of such transformations was reconsidered, leading to a flexible specification...

  11. Repeat Sequence Proteins as Matrices for Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummy, L.; Koerner, H; Phillips, D; McAuliffe, J; Kumar, M; Farmer, B; Vaia, R; Naik, R

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant protein-inorganic nanocomposites comprised of exfoliated Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) in a recombinant protein matrix based on silk-like and elastin-like amino acid motifs (silk elastin-like protein (SELP)) were formed via a solution blending process. Charged residues along the protein backbone are shown to dominate long-range interactions, whereas the SELP repeat sequence leads to local protein/MMT compatibility. Up to a 50% increase in room temperature modulus and a comparable decrease in high temperature coefficient of thermal expansion occur for cast films containing 2-10 wt.% MMT.

  12. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  13. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s{sup -1}, chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s{sup -1}, as planned. (author).

  14. Development of repeating pneumatic pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Shimomura, T.

    1990-01-01

    A repeating pneumatic pellet injector has been constructed to experiment with the technique of continuous injection for fueling fusion reactors. This device is composed of a cryogenic extruder and a gun assembly in (among others) a high-vacuum vessel, diagnostic vessels, LHe, fuel-gas and propellant-gas supply systems, control and data acquisition systems, etc. The performance tests, using hydrogen, have proved that the device provides the function of extruding frozen hydrogen ribbons at the speed of 6 mm s -1 , chambering pellet at the rate of 5 Hz, and injecting pellet at the speed of 900 m s -1 , as planned. (author)

  15. Structure of thrombospondin type 3 repeats in bacterial outer membrane protein A reveals its intra-repeat disulfide bond-dependent calcium-binding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shuyan; Sun, Cancan; Tan, Kemin; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang

    2017-09-01

    Eukaryotic thrombospondin type 3 repeat (TT3R) is an efficient calcium ion (Ca2+) binding motif only found in mammalian thrombospondin family. TT3R has also been found in prokaryotic cellulase Cel5G, which was thought to forfeit the Ca2+-binding capability due to the formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, instead of the inter-repeat ones possessed by eukaryotic TT3Rs. In this study, we have identified an enormous number of prokaryotic TT3R-containing proteins belonging to several different protein families, including outer membrane protein A (OmpA), an important structural protein connecting the outer membrane and the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer in gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic region of OmpA from Capnocytophaga gingivalis, which contains a linker region comprising five consecutive TT3Rs. The structure of OmpA-TT3R exhibits a well-ordered architecture organized around two tightly-coordinated Ca2+ and confirms the presence of abnormal intra-repeat disulfide bonds. Further mutagenesis studies showed that the Ca2+-binding capability of OmpA-TT3R is indeed dependent on the proper formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, which help to fix a conserved glycine residue at its proper position for Ca2+ coordination. Additionally, despite lacking inter repeat disulfide bonds, the interfaces between adjacent OmpA-TT3Rs are enhanced by both hydrophobic and conserved aromatic-proline interactions.

  16. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  17. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  18. Fatores associados à recorrência da gravidez na adolescência em uma maternidade escola: estudo caso-controle Factores asociados con la recurrencia de embarazos de adolescentes en una maternidad escuela: estudio de casos y controles A case-control study of factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy based on a sample from a university maternity hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Katz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recorrência da gravidez na adolescência é uma situação frequente, sendo considerada como um fator agravante tanto para o aumento da morbidade materna e fetal quanto para aumento de problemas sociais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar fatores associados à recorrência de gravidez em adolescentes. Realizou-se estudo caso-controle com puérperas, incluindo 90 adolescentes com mais de uma gravidez (caso e 90 adultas, mulheres que tiveram uma gestação na adolescência, mas que não recorreram (controle. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se regressão logística hierarquizada, com nível de significância de 5%. Os fatores que permaneceram associados à recorrência da gravidez na adolescência foram: coitarca La recurrencia del embarazo en la adolescencia es una situación frecuente, siendo considerada como un factor agravante, tanto para el aumento de la morbilidad materna y fetal, como para el aumento de problemas sociales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar factores asociados a la recurrencia de embarazo en adolescentes. Se realizó un estudio de caso-control con puérperas, incluyendo 90 adolescentes con más de un embarazo (caso y 90 adultas, mujeres que tuvieron una gestación en la adolescencia, pero que no recurrieron (control. Para el análisis estadístico, se utilizó la regresión logística jerarquizada, con un nivel de significancia de un 5%. Los factores que permanecieron asociados a la recurrencia de embarazo en la adolescencia fueron: coitarca Repeat teen pregnancy is a frequent issue and is considered an aggravating factor for increased maternal and fetal morbidity and social problems. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted in 90 postpartum adolescents with more than one pregnancy (cases and 90 adult women with a history of only one pregnancy during adolescence (controls. Statistical analysis used hierarchical logistic

  19. Characterization of the repeat expansion size in C9orf72 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols-Icardo, Oriol; García-Redondo, Alberto; Rojas-García, Ricard; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Noguera, Aina; Gómez-Tortosa, Estrella; Pastor, Pau; Hernández, Isabel; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; Suárez-Calvet, Marc; Antón-Aguirre, Sofía; Amer, Guillermo; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Blesa, Rafael; Fortea, Juan; Alcolea, Daniel; Capdevila, Aura; Antonell, Anna; Lladó, Albert; Muñoz-Blanco, José Luís; Mora, Jesús S; Galán-Dávila, Lucía; Rodríguez De Rivera, Francisco Javier; Lleó, Alberto; Clarimón, Jordi

    2014-02-01

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansions within the C9orf72 gene are the most important genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The difficulty of developing a precise method to determine the expansion size has hampered the study of possible correlations between the hexanucleotide repeat number and clinical phenotype. Here we characterize, through a new non-radioactive Southern blot protocol, the expansion size range in a series of 38 ALS and 22 FTD heterozygous carriers of >30 copies of the repeat. Maximum, median and modal hexanucleotide repeat number were higher in ALS patients than in FTD patients (P< 0.05 in all comparisons). A higher median number of repeats correlated with a bigger range of repeat sizes (Spearman's ρ = 0.743, P = 1.05 × 10(-11)). We did not find any correlation between age of onset or disease duration with the repeat size in neither ALS nor FTD mutation carriers. Clinical presentation (bulbar or spinal) in ALS patients did not correlate either with the repeat length. We finally analyzed two families with affected and unaffected repeat expansion carriers, compared the size of the repeat expansion between two monozygotic (MZ) twins (one affected of ALS and the other unaffected), and examined the expansion size in two different tissues (cerebellum and peripheral blood) belonging to the same FTD patient. The results suggested that the length of the C9orf72 repeat varies between family members, including MZ twins, and among different tissues from the same individual.

  20. Investment in epilepsy monitoring units improves epilepsy care—experience in a regional neuroscience centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, RN

    2017-08-01

    An evaluation of the clinical yield of inpatient long-term video-EEG (vEEG) in a new epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) was undertaken, with findings compared to the centre’s prior method of bedside vEEG recording in a standard neurology ward, as reported in 2004. A retrospective analysis of neurophysiology reports for all adults who underwent elective vEEG monitoring in the EMU at Cork University Hospital between January 2015 and July 2016 was conducted. Of 115 vEEG studies in the EMU, 100 (87.0%) were deemed diagnostically conclusive, 14 (12.2%) failed to catch any clinical events and showed normal EEG throughout, and one (0.9%) captured spells of unclear clinical significance—the corresponding figures reported in 2004 for bedside vEEGs were 21.3%, 77% and 1.6%, respectively. The EMU offers a more effective method of recording inpatient vEEG, which aids decision-making and improves clinical outcomes. Some evidence-based measures which could further enhance diagnostic yield are discussed.